E-GEOD-13395 - Transcription profiling of human primary human macrophages over the course of HIV-1 infection reveals HIV-1 activates macrophages independent of Toll-like receptors
Submitted on 29 October 2008, released on 15 January 2009, last updated on 27 March 2012
Macrophages provide an interface between innate and adaptive immunity and are important long-lived reservoirs for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1). Multiple genetic networks involved in regulating signal transduction cascades and immune responses in macrophages are coordinately modulated by HIV-1 infection. To evaluate complex interrelated processes and to assemble an integrated view of activated signaling networks, a systems biology strategy was applied to genomic and proteomic responses by primary human macrophages over the course of HIV-1 infection. Macrophage responses, including cell cycle, calcium, apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and cytokines/chemokines, to HIV-1 were temporally regulated, in the absence of cell proliferation. In contrast, Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways remained unaltered by HIV-1, although TLRs 3, 4, 7, and 8 were expressed and responded to ligand stimulation in macrophages. HIV-1 failed to activate phosphorylation of IRAK-1 or IRF-3, modulate intracellular protein levels of Mx1, an interferon-stimulated gene, or stimulate secretion of TNF, IL-1b, or IL-6. Activation of pathways other than TLR was inadequate to stimulate, via cross-talk mechanisms through molecular hubs, the production of proinflammatory cytokines typical of a TLR response. HIV-1 sensitized macrophage responses to TLR ligands, and the magnitude of viral priming was related to virus replication. HIV-1 induced a primed, proinflammatory state, M1HIV, which increased the responsiveness of macrophages to TLR ligands. HIV-1 might passively evade pattern recognition, actively inhibit or suppress recognition and signaling, or require dynamic interactions between macrophages and other cells, such as lymphocytes or endothelial cells. HIV-1 evasion of TLR recognition and simultaneous priming of macrophages may represent a strategy for viral survival, contribute to immune pathogenesis, and provide important targets for therapeutic approaches. Affymetrix arrays were used to identify genomic macrophage response to HIV during viral spread in culture. Experiment Overall Design: An HIV-1 spreading infection was established in primary human macrophages. RNA was extracted from both viral- and mock-infected macrophages cultures over 7 days and hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 GeneChips for analysis.
transcription profiling by array, unknown experiment type
HIV-1 activates macrophages independent of Toll-like receptors. Joseph N Brown, James J Kohler, Carter R Coberley, John W Sleasman, Maureen M Goodenow.