Alvis Brazma

Alvis Brazma

Senior Team Leader, Functional Genomics

PhD in Computer Science, Moscow State University, 1987. Postdoctoral research at New Mexico State University, USA. At EMBL-EBI since 1997.

Dr Alvis Brazma oversees the development and services for several major resources, including ArrayExpress, the Gene Expression Atlas and the BioStudies Database. His main research interests concern integrative data analysis to reveal patterns of gene and protein expression in normal and diseased state. He has over 100 scientific publications and is a Principal Investigator on several large collaborative genomics and biomedical projects, including the kidney cancer project of the International Cancer Genome Consortium. Dr Brazma studied mathematics at the University of Latvia, Riga, before obtaining his PhD in computer science from the Moscow State University. He was a lecturer at the University of Latvia and a visiting Researcher at Helsinki University before joining EMBL-EBI in 1997. Dr Brazma was among the first scientists to use microarray data to study gene regulation. In 1999 he founded the Microarray Gene Expression Data society was instrumental in starting ArrayExpress, one of the major international repositories for functional genomics data.

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5988-7409

Tel:+44 (0)1223 494 658 / Fax:+44 (0)1223 494 468 (personal homepage)


Find out about research activity in the Brazma research group

Brazma team

Led by Dr Alvis Brazma, the Functional Genomics team focuses on providing bioinformatics services and conducting research in gene expression and high-throughput sequencing applications to functional genomics. The team participates in software development related to biomedical informatics and systems microscopy, and is responsible for the Gene Expression Atlas, which encompasses transcriptomics and proteomics. Together with the Sarkans and Petryszak teams, the Functional Genomics team works on the ArrayExpress Archive of Functional Genomics Data, Expression Atlas and the BioStudies Database. Students in the team focus on data analysis and developing new methods and algorithms, integration of data across multiple platforms and types of data. The team is a major contributor to EMBL-EBI's training in transcriptomics and the use of EMBL-EBI tools.



Expression Atlas update-an integrated database of gene and protein expression in humans, animals and plants.
Petryszak R, Keays M, Tang YA, Fonseca NA, Barrera E, Burdett T, Füllgrabe A, Fuentes AM, Jupp S, Koskinen S, Mannion O, Huerta L, Megy K, Snow C, Williams E, Barzine M, Hastings E, Weisser H, Wright J, Jaiswal P, Huber W, Choudhary J, Parkinson HE, Brazma A.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 44 (2016) p.d746-52
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkv1045


Regulatory Divergence of Transcript Isoforms in a Mammalian Model System.
Leigh-Brown S, Goncalves A, Thybert D, Stefflova K, Watt S, Flicek P, Brazma A, Marioni JC, Odom DT.
PLoS One Volume 10 (2015) p.e0137367
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137367

A novel atlas of gene expression in human skeletal muscle reveals molecular changes associated with aging.
Su J, Ekman C, Oskolkov N, Lahti L, Ström K, Brazma A, Groop L, Rung J, Hansson O.
Skelet Muscle Volume 5 (2015) p.35
DOI: 10.1186/s13395-015-0059-1

The BioStudies database.
McEntyre J, Sarkans U, Brazma A.
Mol Syst Biol Volume 11 (2015) p.847
DOI: 10.15252/msb.20156658

Comparison of GENCODE and RefSeq gene annotation and the impact of reference geneset on variant effect prediction.
Frankish A, Uszczynska B, Ritchie GR, Gonzalez JM, Pervouchine D, Petryszak R, Mudge JM, Fonseca N, Brazma A, Guigo R, Harrow J.
BMC Genomics Volume 16 Suppl 8 (2015) p.s2
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-16-s8-s2

Human genomics. Effect of predicted protein-truncating genetic variants on the human transcriptome.
Rivas MA, Pirinen M, Conrad DF, Lek M, Tsang EK, Karczewski KJ, Maller JB, Kukurba KR, DeLuca DS, Fromer M, Ferreira PG, Smith KS, Zhang R, Zhao F, Banks E, Poplin R, Ruderfer DM, Purcell SM, Tukiainen T, Minikel EV, Stenson PD, Cooper DN, Huang KH, Sullivan TJ, Nedzel J, GTEx Consortium, Geuvadis Consortium, Bustamante CD, Li JB, Daly MJ, Guigo R, Donnelly P, Ardlie K, Sammeth M, Dermitzakis ET, McCarthy MI, Montgomery SB, Lappalainen T, MacArthur DG.
Science Volume 348 (2015) p.666-669
DOI: 10.1126/science.1261877

Cellular phenotype database: a repository for systems microscopy data.
Kirsanova C, Brazma A, Rustici G, Sarkans U.
Bioinformatics Volume 31 (2015) p.2736-2740
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btv199

ArrayExpress update--simplifying data submissions.
Kolesnikov N, Hastings E, Keays M, Melnichuk O, Tang YA, Williams E, Dylag M, Kurbatova N, Brandizi M, Burdett T, Megy K, Pilicheva E, Rustici G, Tikhonov A, Parkinson H, Petryszak R, Sarkans U, Brazma A.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 43 (2015) p.d1113-6
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gku1057


Expression Atlas update--a database of gene and transcript expression from microarray- and sequencing-based functional genomics experiments.
Petryszak R, Burdett T, Fiorelli B, Fonseca NA, Gonzalez-Porta M, Hastings E, Huber W, Jupp S, Keays M, Kryvych N, McMurry J, Marioni JC, Malone J, Megy K, Rustici G, Tang AY, Taubert J, Williams E, Mannion O, Parkinson HE, Brazma A.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 42 (2014) p.d926-32
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkt1270

Updates to BioSamples database at European Bioinformatics Institute.
Faulconbridge A, Burdett T, Brandizi M, Gostev M, Pereira R, Vasant D, Sarkans U, Brazma A, Parkinson H.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 42 (2014) p.d50-2
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkt1081

Tandem RNA chimeras contribute to transcriptome diversity in human population and are associated with intronic genetic variants.
Greger L, Su J, Rung J, Ferreira PG, Geuvadis consortium, Lappalainen T, Dermitzakis ET, Brazma A.
PLoS One Volume 9 (2014) p.e104567
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104567

Variation in genomic landscape of clear cell renal cell carcinoma across Europe.
Scelo G, Riazalhosseini Y, Greger L, Letourneau L, Gonzàlez-Porta M, Wozniak MB, Bourgey M, Harnden P, Egevad L, Jackson SM, Karimzadeh M, Arseneault M, Lepage P, How-Kit A, Daunay A, Renault V, Blanché H, Tubacher E, Sehmoun J, Viksna J, Celms E, Opmanis M, Zarins A, Vasudev NS, Seywright M, Abedi-Ardekani B, Carreira C, Selby PJ, Cartledge JJ, Byrnes G, Zavadil J, Su J, Holcatova I, Brisuda A, Zaridze D, Moukeria A, Foretova L, Navratilova M, Mates D, Jinga V, Artemov A, Nedoluzhko A, Mazur A, Rastorguev S, Boulygina E, Heath S, Gut M, Bihoreau MT, Lechner D, Foglio M, Gut IG, Skryabin K, Prokhortchouk E, Cambon-Thomsen A, Rung J, Bourque G, Brennan P, Tost J, Banks RE, Brazma A, Lathrop GM.
Nat Commun Volume 5 (2014) p.5135
DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6135

RNA-Seq gene profiling--a systematic empirical comparison.
Fonseca NA, Marioni J, Brazma A.
PLoS One Volume 9 (2014) p.e107026
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107026

Distinct developmental profile of lower-body adipose tissue defines resistance against obesity-associated metabolic complications.
Pinnick KE, Nicholson G, Manolopoulos KN, McQuaid SE, Valet P, Frayn KN, Denton N, Min JL, Zondervan KT, Fleckner J, MolPAGE Consortium, McCarthy MI, Holmes CC, Karpe F.
Diabetes Volume 63 (2014) p.3785-3797
DOI: 10.2337/db14-0385

Contributions of transcription and mRNA decay to gene expression dynamics of fission yeast in response to oxidative stress.
Marguerat S, Lawler K, Brazma A, Bähler J.
RNA Biol Volume 11 (2014) p.702-714
DOI: 10.4161/rna.29196


Reproducibility of high-throughput mRNA and small RNA sequencing across laboratories.
't Hoen PA, Friedländer MR, Almlöf J, Sammeth M, Pulyakhina I, Anvar SY, Laros JF, Buermans HP, Karlberg O, Brännvall M, GEUVADIS Consortium, den Dunnen JT, van Ommen GJ, Gut IG, Guigó R, Estivill X, Syvänen AC, Dermitzakis ET, Lappalainen T.
Nat Biotechnol Volume 31 (2013) p.1015-1022
DOI: 10.1038/nbt.2702

Cooperativity and rapid evolution of cobound transcription factors in closely related mammals.
Stefflova K, Thybert D, Wilson MD, Streeter I, Aleksic J, Karagianni P, Brazma A, Adams DJ, Talianidis I, Marioni JC, Flicek P, Odom DT.
Cell Volume 154 (2013) p.530-540
DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.07.007

Identification of recurrent FGFR3 fusion genes in lung cancer through kinome-centred RNA sequencing.
Majewski IJ, Mittempergher L, Davidson NM, Bosma A, Willems SM, Horlings HM, de Rink I, Greger L, Hooijer GK, Peters D, Nederlof PM, Hofland I, de Jong J, Wesseling J, Kluin RJ, Brugman W, Kerkhoven R, Nieboer F, Roepman P, Broeks A, Muley TR, Jassem J, Niklinski J, van Zandwijk N, Brazma A, Oshlack A, van den Heuvel M, Bernards R.
J Pathol Volume 230 (2013) p.270-276
DOI: 10.1002/path.4209

A fully scalable online pre-processing algorithm for short oligonucleotide microarray atlases.
Lahti L, Torrente A, Elo LL, Brazma A, Rung J.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 41 (2013) p.e110
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkt229

HSM - a hybrid system based approach for modelling intracellular networks.
Brazma A, Cerans K, Ruklisa D, Schlitt T, Viksna J.
Gene Volume 518 (2013) p.70-77
DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2012.11.084

ArrayExpress update--trends in database growth and links to data analysis tools.
Rustici G, Kolesnikov N, Brandizi M, Burdett T, Dylag M, Emam I, Farne A, Hastings E, Ison J, Keays M, Kurbatova N, Malone J, Mani R, Mupo A, Pedro Pereira R, Pilicheva E, Rung J, Sharma A, Tang YA, Ternent T, Tikhonov A, Welter D, Williams E, Brazma A, Parkinson H, Sarkans U.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 41 (2013) p.d987-90
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gks1174

Transcriptome and genome sequencing uncovers functional variation in humans.
Lappalainen T, Sammeth M, Friedländer MR, 't Hoen PA, Monlong J, Rivas MA, Gonzàlez-Porta M, Kurbatova N, Griebel T, Ferreira PG, Barann M, Wieland T, Greger L, van Iterson M, Almlöf J, Ribeca P, Pulyakhina I, Esser D, Giger T, Tikhonov A, Sultan M, Bertier G, MacArthur DG, Lek M, Lizano E, Buermans HP, Padioleau I, Schwarzmayr T, Karlberg O, Ongen H, Kilpinen H, Beltran S, Gut M, Kahlem K, Amstislavskiy V, Stegle O, Pirinen M, Montgomery SB, Donnelly P, McCarthy MI, Flicek P, Strom TM, Geuvadis Consortium, Lehrach H, Schreiber S, Sudbrak R, Carracedo A, Antonarakis SE, Häsler R, Syvänen AC, van Ommen GJ, Brazma A, Meitinger T, Rosenstiel P, Guigó R, Gut IG, Estivill X, Dermitzakis ET.
Nature Volume 501 (2013) p.506-511
DOI: 10.1038/nature12531

Reuse of public genome-wide gene expression data.
Rung J, Brazma A.
Nat Rev Genet Volume 14 (2013) p.89-99
DOI: 10.1038/nrg3394

Genomic clustering and co-regulation of transcriptional networks in the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum.
Lawler K, Hammond-Kosack K, Brazma A, Coulson RM.
BMC Syst Biol Volume 7 (2013) p.52
DOI: 10.1186/1752-0509-7-52

Transcriptome analysis of human tissues and cell lines reveals one dominant transcript per gene.
Gonzàlez-Porta M, Frankish A, Rung J, Harrow J, Brazma A.
Genome Biol Volume 14 (2013) p.r70
DOI: 10.1186/gb-2013-14-7-r70


Gene Expression Atlas update--a value-added database of microarray and sequencing-based functional genomics experiments.
Kapushesky M, Adamusiak T, Burdett T, Culhane A, Farne A, Filippov A, Holloway E, Klebanov A, Kryvych N, Kurbatova N, Kurnosov P, Malone J, Melnichuk O, Petryszak R, Pultsin N, Rustici G, Tikhonov A, Travillian RS, Williams E, Zorin A, Parkinson H, Brazma A.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 40 (2012) p.d1077-81
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkr913

Data-driven information retrieval in heterogeneous collections of transcriptomics data links SIM2s to malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Caldas J, Gehlenborg N, Kettunen E, Faisal A, Rönty M, Nicholson AG, Knuutila S, Brazma A, Kaski S.
Bioinformatics Volume 28 (2012) p.246-253
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btr634

MageComet--web application for harmonizing existing large-scale experiment descriptions.
Xue V, Burdett T, Lukk M, Taylor J, Brazma A, Parkinson H.
Bioinformatics Volume 28 (2012) p.1402-1403
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts148

The BioSample Database (BioSD) at the European Bioinformatics Institute.
Gostev M, Faulconbridge A, Brandizi M, Fernandez-Banet J, Sarkans U, Brazma A, Parkinson H.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 40 (2012) p.d64-70
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkr937

Tools for mapping high-throughput sequencing data.
Fonseca NA, Rung J, Brazma A, Marioni JC.
Bioinformatics Volume 28 (2012) p.3169-3177
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts605

An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome.
ENCODE Project Consortium.
Nature Volume 489 (2012) p.57-74
DOI: 10.1038/nature11247

Extensive compensatory cis-trans regulation in the evolution of mouse gene expression.
Goncalves A, Leigh-Brown S, Thybert D, Stefflova K, Turro E, Flicek P, Brazma A, Odom DT, Marioni JC.
Genome Res Volume 22 (2012) p.2376-2384
DOI: 10.1101/gr.142281.112


SAIL--a software system for sample and phenotype availability across biobanks and cohorts.
Gostev M, Fernandez-Banet J, Rung J, Dietrich J, Prokopenko I, Ripatti S, McCarthy MI, Brazma A, Krestyaninova M.
Bioinformatics Volume 27 (2011) p.589-591
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btq693

A pipeline for RNA-seq data processing and quality assessment.
Goncalves A, Tikhonov A, Brazma A, Kapushesky M.
Bioinformatics Volume 27 (2011) p.867-869
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btr012

Pol III binding in six mammals shows conservation among amino acid isotypes despite divergence among tRNA genes.
Kutter C, Brown GD, Gonçalves A, Wilson MD, Watt S, Brazma A, White RJ, Odom DT.
Nat Genet Volume 43 (2011) p.948-955
DOI: 10.1038/ng.906

A user's guide to the encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE).
ENCODE Project Consortium.
PLoS Biol Volume 9 (2011) p.e1001046
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001046

Contributions of the EMERALD project to assessing and improving microarray data quality.
Beisvåg V, Kauffmann A, Malone J, Foy C, Salit M, Schimmel H, Bongcam-Rudloff E, Landegren U, Parkinson H, Huber W, Brazma A, Sandvik AK, Kuiper M.
Biotechniques Volume 50 (2011) p.27-31
DOI: 10.2144/000113591

ArrayExpress update--an archive of microarray and high-throughput sequencing-based functional genomics experiments.
Parkinson H, Sarkans U, Kolesnikov N, Abeygunawardena N, Burdett T, Dylag M, Emam I, Farne A, Hastings E, Holloway E, Kurbatova N, Lukk M, Malone J, Mani R, Pilicheva E, Rustici G, Sharma A, Williams E, Adamusiak T, Brandizi M, Sklyar N, Brazma A.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 39 (2011) p.d1002-4
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkq1040

A genome-wide metabolic QTL analysis in Europeans implicates two loci shaped by recent positive selection.
Nicholson G, Rantalainen M, Li JV, Maher AD, Malmodin D, Ahmadi KR, Faber JH, Barrett A, Min JL, Rayner NW, Toft H, Krestyaninova M, Viksna J, Neogi SG, Dumas ME, Sarkans U, MolPAGE Consortium, Donnelly P, Illig T, Adamski J, Suhre K, Allen M, Zondervan KT, Spector TD, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC, Baunsgaard D, Holmes E, McCarthy MI, Holmes CC.
PLoS Genet Volume 7 (2011) p.e1002270
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270


Large scale comparison of global gene expression patterns in human and mouse.
Zheng-Bradley X, Rung J, Parkinson H, Brazma A.
Genome Biol Volume 11 (2010) p.r124
DOI: 10.1186/gb-2010-11-12-r124

A global map of human gene expression.
Lukk M, Kapushesky M, Nikkilä J, Parkinson H, Goncalves A, Huber W, Ukkonen E, Brazma A.
Nat Biotechnol Volume 28 (2010) p.322-324
DOI: 10.1038/nbt0410-322

Gene expression atlas at the European bioinformatics institute.
Kapushesky M, Emam I, Holloway E, Kurnosov P, Zorin A, Malone J, Rustici G, Williams E, Parkinson H, Brazma A.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 38 (2010) p.d690-8
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkp936

Use of genome-wide expression data to mine the "Gray Zone" of GWA studies leads to novel candidate obesity genes.
Naukkarinen J, Surakka I, Pietiläinen KH, Rissanen A, Salomaa V, Ripatti S, Yki-Järvinen H, van Duijn CM, Wichmann HE, Kaprio J, Taskinen MR, Peltonen L, ENGAGE Consortium.
PLoS Genet Volume 6 (2010) p.e1000976
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000976

A CD8+ T cell transcription signature predicts prognosis in autoimmune disease.
McKinney EF, Lyons PA, Carr EJ, Hollis JL, Jayne DR, Willcocks LC, Koukoulaki M, Brazma A, Jovanovic V, Kemeny DM, Pollard AJ, Macary PA, Chaudhry AN, Smith KG.
Nat Med Volume 16 (2010) p.586-91, 1p following 591
DOI: 10.1038/nm.2130

International network of cancer genome projects.
International Cancer Genome Consortium, Hudson TJ, Anderson W, Artez A, Barker AD, Bell C, Bernabé RR, Bhan MK, Calvo F, Eerola I, Gerhard DS, Guttmacher A, Guyer M, Hemsley FM, Jennings JL, Kerr D, Klatt P, Kolar P, Kusada J, Lane DP, Laplace F, Youyong L, Nettekoven G, Ozenberger B, Peterson J, Rao TS, Remacle J, Schafer AJ, Shibata T, Stratton MR, Vockley JG, Watanabe K, Yang H, Yuen MM, Knoppers BM, Bobrow M, Cambon-Thomsen A, Dressler LG, Dyke SO, Joly Y, Kato K, Kennedy KL, Nicolás P, Parker MJ, Rial-Sebbag E, Romeo-Casabona CM, Shaw KM, Wallace S, Wiesner GL, Zeps N, Lichter P, Biankin AV, Chabannon C, Chin L, Clément B, de Alava E, Degos F, Ferguson ML, Geary P, Hayes DN, Hudson TJ, Johns AL, Kasprzyk A, Nakagawa H, Penny R, Piris MA, Sarin R, Scarpa A, Shibata T, van de Vijver M, Futreal PA, Aburatani H, Bayés M, Botwell DD, Campbell PJ, Estivill X, Gerhard DS, Grimmond SM, Gut I, Hirst M, López-Otín C, Majumder P, Marra M, McPherson JD, Nakagawa H, Ning Z, Puente XS, Ruan Y, Shibata T, Stratton MR, Stunnenberg HG, Swerdlow H, Velculescu VE, Wilson RK, Xue HH, Yang L, Spellman PT, Bader GD, Boutros PC, Campbell PJ, Flicek P, Getz G, Guigó R, Guo G, Haussler D, Heath S, Hubbard TJ, Jiang T, Jones SM, Li Q, López-Bigas N, Luo R, Muthuswamy L, Ouellette BF, Pearson JV, Puente XS, Quesada V, Raphael BJ, Sander C, Shibata T, Speed TP, Stein LD, Stuart JM, Teague JW, Totoki Y, Tsunoda T, Valencia A, Wheeler DA, Wu H, Zhao S, Zhou G, Stein LD, Guigó R, Hubbard TJ, Joly Y, Jones SM, Kasprzyk A, Lathrop M, López-Bigas N, Ouellette BF, Spellman PT, Teague JW, Thomas G, Valencia A, Yoshida T, Kennedy KL, Axton M, Dyke SO, Futreal PA, Gerhard DS, Gunter C, Guyer M, Hudson TJ, McPherson JD, Miller LJ, Ozenberger B, Shaw KM, Kasprzyk A, Stein LD, Zhang J, Haider SA, Wang J, Yung CK, Cros A, Liang Y, Gnaneshan S, Guberman J, Hsu J, Bobrow M, Chalmers DR, Hasel KW, Joly Y, Kaan TS, Kennedy KL, Knoppers BM, Lowrance WW, Masui T, Nicolás P, Rial-Sebbag E, Rodriguez LL, Vergely C, Yoshida T, Grimmond SM, Biankin AV, Bowtell DD, Cloonan N, deFazio A, Eshleman JR, Etemadmoghadam D, Gardiner BB, Kench JG, Scarpa A, Sutherland RL, Tempero MA, Waddell NJ, Wilson PJ, McPherson JD, Gallinger S, Tsao MS, Shaw PA, Petersen GM, Mukhopadhyay D, Chin L, DePinho RA, Thayer S, Muthuswamy L, Shazand K, Beck T, Sam M, Timms L, Ballin V, Lu Y, Ji J, Zhang X, Chen F, Hu X, Zhou G, Yang Q, Tian G, Zhang L, Xing X, Li X, Zhu Z, Yu Y, Yu J, Yang H, Lathrop M, Tost J, Brennan P, Holcatova I, Zaridze D, Brazma A, Egevard L, Prokhortchouk E, Banks RE, Uhlén M, Cambon-Thomsen A, Viksna J, Ponten F, Skryabin K, Stratton MR, Futreal PA, Birney E, Borg A, Børresen-Dale AL, Caldas C, Foekens JA, Martin S, Reis-Filho JS, Richardson AL, Sotiriou C, Stunnenberg HG, Thoms G, van de Vijver M, van't Veer L, Calvo F, Birnbaum D, Blanche H, Boucher P, Boyault S, Chabannon C, Gut I, Masson-Jacquemier JD, Lathrop M, Pauporté I, Pivot X, Vincent-Salomon A, Tabone E, Theillet C, Thomas G, Tost J, Treilleux I, Calvo F, Bioulac-Sage P, Clément B, Decaens T, Degos F, Franco D, Gut I, Gut M, Heath S, Lathrop M, Samuel D, Thomas G, Zucman-Rossi J, Lichter P, Eils R, Brors B, Korbel JO, Korshunov A, Landgraf P, Lehrach H, Pfister S, Radlwimmer B, Reifenberger G, Taylor MD, von Kalle C, Majumder PP, Sarin R, Rao TS, Bhan MK, Scarpa A, Pederzoli P, Lawlor RA, Delledonne M, Bardelli A, Biankin AV, Grimmond SM, Gress T, Klimstra D, Zamboni G, Shibata T, Nakamura Y, Nakagawa H, Kusada J, Tsunoda T, Miyano S, Aburatani H, Kato K, Fujimoto A, Yoshida T, Campo E, López-Otín C, Estivill X, Guigó R, de Sanjosé S, Piris MA, Montserrat E, González-Díaz M, Puente XS, Jares P, Valencia A, Himmelbauer H, Quesada V, Bea S, Stratton MR, Futreal PA, Campbell PJ, Vincent-Salomon A, Richardson AL, Reis-Filho JS, van de Vijver M, Thomas G, Masson-Jacquemier JD, Aparicio S, Borg A, Børresen-Dale AL, Caldas C, Foekens JA, Stunnenberg HG, van't Veer L, Easton DF, Spellman PT, Martin S, Barker AD, Chin L, Collins FS, Compton CC, Ferguson ML, Gerhard DS, Getz G, Gunter C, Guttmacher A, Guyer M, Hayes DN, Lander ES, Ozenberger B, Penny R, Peterson J, Sander C, Shaw KM, Speed TP, Spellman PT, Vockley JG, Wheeler DA, Wilson RK, Hudson TJ, Chin L, Knoppers BM, Lander ES, Lichter P, Stein LD, Stratton MR, Anderson W, Barker AD, Bell C, Bobrow M, Burke W, Collins FS, Compton CC, DePinho RA, Easton DF, Futreal PA, Gerhard DS, Green AR, Guyer M, Hamilton SR, Hubbard TJ, Kallioniemi OP, Kennedy KL, Ley TJ, Liu ET, Lu Y, Majumder P, Marra M, Ozenberger B, Peterson J, Schafer AJ, Spellman PT, Stunnenberg HG, Wainwright BJ, Wilson RK, Yang H.
Nature Volume 464 (2010) p.993-998
DOI: 10.1038/nature08987

Annotare--a tool for annotating high-throughput biomedical investigations and resulting data.
Shankar R, Parkinson H, Burdett T, Hastings E, Liu J, Miller M, Srinivasa R, White J, Brazma A, Sherlock G, Stoeckert CJ Jr, Ball CA.
Bioinformatics Volume 26 (2010) p.2470-2471
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btq462

Modeling sample variables with an Experimental Factor Ontology.
Malone J, Holloway E, Adamusiak T, Kapushesky M, Zheng J, Kolesnikov N, Zhukova A, Brazma A, Parkinson H.
Bioinformatics Volume 26 (2010) p.1112-1118
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btq099

The IronChip evaluation package: a package of perl modules for robust analysis of custom microarrays.
Vainshtein Y, Sanchez M, Brazma A, Hentze MW, Dandekar T, Muckenthaler MU.
BMC Bioinformatics Volume 11 (2010) p.112
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-11-112


ArrayExpress update--from an archive of functional genomics experiments to the atlas of gene expression.
Parkinson H, Kapushesky M, Kolesnikov N, Rustici G, Shojatalab M, Abeygunawardena N, Berube H, Dylag M, Emam I, Farne A, Holloway E, Lukk M, Malone J, Mani R, Pilicheva E, Rayner TF, Rezwan F, Sharma A, Williams E, Bradley XZ, Adamusiak T, Brandizi M, Burdett T, Coulson R, Krestyaninova M, Kurnosov P, Maguire E, Neogi SG, Rocca-Serra P, Sansone SA, Sklyar N, Zhao M, Sarkans U, Brazma A.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 37 (2009) p.d868-72
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkn889

Integrating sequence, evolution and functional genomics in regulatory genomics.
Vingron M, Brazma A, Coulson R, van Helden J, Manke T, Palin K, Sand O, Ukkonen E.
Genome Biol Volume 10 (2009) p.202
DOI: 10.1186/gb-2009-10-1-202

Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME)--successes, failures, challenges.
Brazma A.
ScientificWorldJournal Volume 9 (2009) p.420-423
DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2009.57

The fission yeast homeodomain protein Yox1p binds to MBF and confines MBF-dependent cell-cycle transcription to G1-S via negative feedback.
Aligianni S, Lackner DH, Klier S, Rustici G, Wilhelm BT, Marguerat S, Codlin S, Brazma A, de Bruin RA, Bähler J.
PLoS Genet Volume 5 (2009) p.e1000626
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000626

Importing ArrayExpress datasets into R/Bioconductor.
Kauffmann A, Rayner TF, Parkinson H, Kapushesky M, Lukk M, Brazma A, Huber W.
Bioinformatics Volume 25 (2009) p.2092-2094
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp354

A System for Information Management in BioMedical Studies--SIMBioMS.
Krestyaninova M, Zarins A, Viksna J, Kurbatova N, Rucevskis P, Neogi SG, Gostev M, Perheentupa T, Knuuttila J, Barrett A, Lappalainen I, Rung J, Podnieks K, Sarkans U, McCarthy MI, Brazma A.
Bioinformatics Volume 25 (2009) p.2768-2769
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp420

Report on EU-USA workshop: how systems biology can advance cancer research (27 October 2008).
Aebersold R, Auffray C, Baney E, Barillot E, Brazma A, Brett C, Brunak S, Butte A, Califano A, Celis J, Cufer T, Ferrell J, Galas D, Gallahan D, Gatenby R, Goldbeter A, Hace N, Henney A, Hood L, Iyengar R, Jackson V, Kallioniemi O, Klingmüller U, Kolar P, Kolch W, Kyriakopoulou C, Laplace F, Lehrach H, Marcus F, Matrisian L, Nolan G, Pelkmans L, Potti A, Sander C, Seljak M, Singer D, Sorger P, Stunnenberg H, Superti-Furga G, Uhlen M, Vidal M, Weinstein J, Wigle D, Williams M, Wolkenhauer O, Zhivotovsky B, Zinovyev A, Zupan B.
Mol Oncol Volume 3 (2009) p.9-17
DOI: 10.1016/j.molonc.2008.11.003

Probabilistic retrieval and visualization of biologically relevant microarray experiments.
Caldas J, Gehlenborg N, Faisal A, Brazma A, Kaski S.
Bioinformatics Volume 25 (2009) p.i145-53
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp215


4DXpress: a database for cross-species expression pattern comparisons.
Haudry Y, Berube H, Letunic I, Weeber PD, Gagneur J, Girardot C, Kapushesky M, Arendt D, Bork P, Brazma A, Furlong EE, Wittbrodt J, Henrich T.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 36 (2008) p.d847-53
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkm797

The first RSBI (ISA-TAB) workshop: "can a simple format work for complex studies?".
Sansone SA, Rocca-Serra P, Brandizi M, Brazma A, Field D, Fostel J, Garrow AG, Gilbert J, Goodsaid F, Hardy N, Jones P, Lister A, Miller M, Morrison N, Rayner T, Sklyar N, Taylor C, Tong W, Warner G, Wiemann S, Members of the RSBI Working Group.
OMICS Volume 12 (2008) p.143-149
DOI: 10.1089/omi.2008.0019

Minimum information specification for in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry experiments (MISFISHIE).
Deutsch EW, Ball CA, Berman JJ, Bova GS, Brazma A, Bumgarner RE, Campbell D, Causton HC, Christiansen JH, Daian F, Dauga D, Davidson DR, Gimenez G, Goo YA, Grimmond S, Henrich T, Herrmann BG, Johnson MH, Korb M, Mills JC, Oudes AJ, Parkinson HE, Pascal LE, Pollet N, Quackenbush J, Ramialison M, Ringwald M, Salgado D, Sansone SA, Sherlock G, Stoeckert CJ Jr, Swedlow J, Taylor RC, Walashek L, Warford A, Wilkinson DG, Zhou Y, Zon LI, Liu AY, True LD.
Nat Biotechnol Volume 26 (2008) p.305-312
DOI: 10.1038/nbt1391

Promoting coherent minimum reporting guidelines for biological and biomedical investigations: the MIBBI project.
Taylor CF, Field D, Sansone SA, Aerts J, Apweiler R, Ashburner M, Ball CA, Binz PA, Bogue M, Booth T, Brazma A, Brinkman RR, Michael Clark A, Deutsch EW, Fiehn O, Fostel J, Ghazal P, Gibson F, Gray T, Grimes G, Hancock JM, Hardy NW, Hermjakob H, Julian RK Jr, Kane M, Kettner C, Kinsinger C, Kolker E, Kuiper M, Le Novère N, Leebens-Mack J, Lewis SE, Lord P, Mallon AM, Marthandan N, Masuya H, McNally R, Mehrle A, Morrison N, Orchard S, Quackenbush J, Reecy JM, Robertson DG, Rocca-Serra P, Rodriguez H, Rosenfelder H, Santoyo-Lopez J, Scheuermann RH, Schober D, Smith B, Snape J, Stoeckert CJ Jr, Tipton K, Sterk P, Untergasser A, Vandesompele J, Wiemann S.
Nat Biotechnol Volume 26 (2008) p.889-896
DOI: 10.1038/nbt.1411

Data storage and analysis in ArrayExpress and Expression Profiler.
Rustici G, Kapushesky M, Kolesnikov N, Parkinson H, Sarkans U, Brazma A.
Curr Protoc Bioinformatics Volume Chapter 7 (2008) p.unit 7.13
DOI: 10.1002/0471250953.bi0713s23

The BREW workshop series: a stimulating experience in PhD education.
Giegerich R, Brazma A, Jonassen I, Ukkonen E, Vingron M.
Brief Bioinform Volume 9 (2008) p.250-253
DOI: 10.1093/bib/bbn002


The Functional Genomics Experiment model (FuGE): an extensible framework for standards in functional genomics.
Jones AR, Miller M, Aebersold R, Apweiler R, Ball CA, Brazma A, Degreef J, Hardy N, Hermjakob H, Hubbard SJ, Hussey P, Igra M, Jenkins H, Julian RK Jr, Laursen K, Oliver SG, Paton NW, Sansone SA, Sarkans U, Stoeckert CJ Jr, Taylor CF, Whetzel PL, White JA, Spellman P, Pizarro A.
Nat Biotechnol Volume 25 (2007) p.1127-1133
DOI: 10.1038/nbt1347

Prediction of gene expression in embryonic structures of Drosophila melanogaster.
Samsonova AA, Niranjan M, Russell S, Brazma A.
PLoS Comput Biol Volume 3 (2007) p.e144
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030144

PASSIM--an open source software system for managing information in biomedical studies.
Viksna J, Celms E, Opmanis M, Podnieks K, Rucevskis P, Zarins A, Barrett A, Neogi SG, Krestyaninova M, McCarthy MI, Brazma A, Sarkans U.
BMC Bioinformatics Volume 8 (2007) p.52
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-8-52

Global transcriptional responses of fission and budding yeast to changes in copper and iron levels: a comparative study.
Rustici G, van Bakel H, Lackner DH, Holstege FC, Wijmenga C, Bähler J, Brazma A.
Genome Biol Volume 8 (2007) p.r73
DOI: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-5-r73

Current approaches to gene regulatory network modelling.
Schlitt T, Brazma A.
BMC Bioinformatics Volume 8 Suppl 6 (2007) p.s9
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-8-s6-s9


MGED standards: work in progress.
Ball CA, Brazma A.
OMICS Volume 10 (2006) p.138-144
DOI: 10.1089/omi.2006.10.138

Top-down standards will not serve systems biology.
Quackenbush J, Stoeckert C, Ball C, Brazma A, Gentleman R, Huber W, Irizarry R, Salit M, Sherlock G, Spellman P, Winegarden N.
Nature Volume 440 (2006) p.24
DOI: 10.1038/440024a

ChroCoLoc: an application for calculating the probability of co-localization of microarray gene expression.
Blake J, Schwager C, Kapushesky M, Brazma A.
Bioinformatics Volume 22 (2006) p.765-767
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btk022

Modelling in molecular biology: describing transcription regulatory networks at different scales.
Schlitt T, Brazma A.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci Volume 361 (2006) p.483-494
DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2005.1806

Development of the Minimum Information Specification for In Situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry Experiments (MISFISHIE).
Deutsch EW, Ball CA, Bova GS, Brazma A, Bumgarner RE, Campbell D, Causton HC, Christiansen J, Davidson D, Eichner LJ, Goo YA, Grimmond S, Henrich T, Johnson MH, Korb M, Mills JC, Oudes A, Parkinson HE, Pascal LE, Quackenbush J, Ramialison M, Ringwald M, Sansone SA, Sherlock G, Stoeckert CJ Jr, Swedlow J, Taylor RC, Walashek L, Zhou Y, Liu AY, True LD.
OMICS Volume 10 (2006) p.205-208
DOI: 10.1089/omi.2006.10.205

Wrestling with SUMO and bio-ontologies.
Stoeckert C, Ball C, Brazma A, Brinkman R, Causton H, Fan L, Fostel J, Fragoso G, Heiskanen M, Holstege F, Morrison N, Parkinson H, Quackenbush J, Rocca-Serra P, Sansone SA, Sarkans U, Sherlock G, Stevens R, Taylor C, Taylor R, Whetzel P, White J.
Nat Biotechnol Volume 24 (2006) p.21-2; author reply 23
DOI: 10.1038/nbt0106-21a

Standards for systems biology.
Brazma A, Krestyaninova M, Sarkans U.
Nat Rev Genet Volume 7 (2006) p.593-605
DOI: 10.1038/nrg1922

A simple spreadsheet-based, MIAME-supportive format for microarray data: MAGE-TAB.
Rayner TF, Rocca-Serra P, Spellman PT, Causton HC, Farne A, Holloway E, Irizarry RA, Liu J, Maier DS, Miller M, Petersen K, Quackenbush J, Sherlock G, Stoeckert CJ Jr, White J, Whetzel PL, Wymore F, Parkinson H, Sarkans U, Ball CA, Brazma A.
BMC Bioinformatics Volume 7 (2006) p.489
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-7-489

Data storage and analysis in ArrayExpress.
Brazma A, Kapushesky M, Parkinson H, Sarkans U, Shojatalab M.
Methods Enzymol Volume 411 (2006) p.370-386
DOI: 10.1016/s0076-6879(06)11020-4

ArrayExpress service for reviewers/editors of DNA microarray papers.
Brazma A, Parkinson H, ArrayExpress team, EMBL-EBI.
Nat Biotechnol Volume 24 (2006) p.1321-1322
DOI: 10.1038/nbt1106-1321


The ArrayExpress gene expression database: a software engineering and implementation perspective.
Sarkans U, Parkinson H, Lara GG, Oezcimen A, Sharma A, Abeygunawardena N, Contrino S, Holloway E, Rocca-Serra P, Mukherjee G, Shojatalab M, Kapushesky M, Sansone SA, Farne A, Rayner T, Brazma A.
Bioinformatics Volume 21 (2005) p.1495-1501
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti157

Fusing microarray experiments with multivariate regression.
Gilks WR, Tom BD, Brazma A.
Bioinformatics Volume 21 Suppl 2 (2005) p.ii137-43
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti1123

A new algorithm for comparing and visualizing relationships between hierarchical and flat gene expression data clusterings.
Torrente A, Kapushesky M, Brazma A.
Bioinformatics Volume 21 (2005) p.3993-3999
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti644

Modelling gene networks at different organisational levels.
Schlitt T, Brazma A.
FEBS Lett Volume 579 (2005) p.1859-1866
DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2005.01.073

Plant-based microarray data at the European Bioinformatics Institute. Introducing AtMIAMExpress, a submission tool for Arabidopsis gene expression data to ArrayExpress.
Mukherjee G, Abeygunawardena N, Parkinson H, Contrino S, Durinck S, Farne A, Holloway E, Lilja P, Moreau Y, Oezcimen A, Rayner T, Sharma A, Brazma A, Sarkans U, Shojatalab M.
Plant Physiol Volume 139 (2005) p.632-636
DOI: 10.1104/pp.105.063156

BioMart and Bioconductor: a powerful link between biological databases and microarray data analysis.
Durinck S, Moreau Y, Kasprzyk A, Davis S, De Moor B, Brazma A, Huber W.
Bioinformatics Volume 21 (2005) p.3439-3440
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti525

Reconstruction of gene regulatory networks under the finite state linear model.
Ruklisa D, Brazma A, Viksna J.
Genome Inform Volume 16 (2005) p.225-236


Periodic gene expression program of the fission yeast cell cycle.
Rustici G, Mata J, Kivinen K, Lió P, Penkett CJ, Burns G, Hayles J, Brazma A, Nurse P, Bähler J.
Nat Genet Volume 36 (2004) p.809-817
DOI: 10.1038/ng1377

Expression Profiler: next generation--an online platform for analysis of microarray data.
Kapushesky M, Kemmeren P, Culhane AC, Durinck S, Ihmels J, Körner C, Kull M, Torrente A, Sarkans U, Vilo J, Brazma A.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 32 (2004) p.w465-70
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkh470

Submission of microarray data to public repositories.
Ball CA, Brazma A, Causton H, Chervitz S, Edgar R, Hingamp P, Matese JC, Parkinson H, Quackenbush J, Ringwald M, Sansone SA, Sherlock G, Spellman P, Stoeckert C, Tateno Y, Taylor R, White J, Winegarden N.
PLoS Biol Volume 2 (2004) p.e317
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020317

An open letter on microarray data from the MGED Society.
Ball C, Brazma A, Causton H, Chervitz S, Edgar R, Hingamp P, Matese JC, Icahn C, Parkinson H, Quackenbush J, Ringwald M, Sansone SA, Sherlock G, Spellman P, Stoeckert C, Tateno Y, Taylor R, White J, Winegarden N, Microarray Gene Expression Data (MGED) Society.
Microbiology Volume 150 (2004) p.3522-3524

Funding high-throughput data sharing.
Ball CA, Sherlock G, Brazma A.
Nat Biotechnol Volume 22 (2004) p.1179-1183
DOI: 10.1038/nbt0904-1179

The HUPO PSI's molecular interaction format--a community standard for the representation of protein interaction data.
Hermjakob H, Montecchi-Palazzi L, Bader G, Wojcik J, Salwinski L, Ceol A, Moore S, Orchard S, Sarkans U, von Mering C, Roechert B, Poux S, Jung E, Mersch H, Kersey P, Lappe M, Li Y, Zeng R, Rana D, Nikolski M, Husi H, Brun C, Shanker K, Grant SG, Sander C, Bork P, Zhu W, Pandey A, Brazma A, Jacq B, Vidal M, Sherman D, Legrain P, Cesareni G, Xenarios I, Eisenberg D, Steipe B, Hogue C, Apweiler R.
Nat Biotechnol Volume 22 (2004) p.177-183
DOI: 10.1038/nbt926

Standards for microarray data: an open letter.
Ball C, Brazma A, Causton H, Chervitz S, Edgar R, Hingamp P, Matese JC, Parkinson H, Quackenbush J, Ringwald M, Sansone SA, Sherlock G, Spellman P, Stoeckert C, Tateno Y, Taylor R, White J, Winegarden N, MGED Society.
Environ Health Perspect Volume 112 (2004) p.a666-7


Global transcriptional responses of fission yeast to environmental stress.
Chen D, Toone WM, Mata J, Lyne R, Burns G, Kivinen K, Brazma A, Jones N, Bähler J.
Mol Biol Cell Volume 14 (2003) p.214-229
DOI: 10.1091/mbc.e02-08-0499

From gene networks to gene function.
Schlitt T, Palin K, Rung J, Dietmann S, Lappe M, Ukkonen E, Brazma A.
Genome Res Volume 13 (2003) p.2568-2576
DOI: 10.1101/gr.1111403

ArrayExpress--a public repository for microarray gene expression data at the EBI.
Brazma A, Parkinson H, Sarkans U, Shojatalab M, Vilo J, Abeygunawardena N, Holloway E, Kapushesky M, Kemmeren P, Lara GG, Oezcimen A, Rocca-Serra P, Sansone SA.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 31 (2003) p.68-71
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkg091

Standardization of microarray experiment data].
Brazma A, Ikeo K, Tateno Y.
Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso Volume 48 (2003) p.280-285

The European Bioinformatics Institute's data resources.
Brooksbank C, Camon E, Harris MA, Magrane M, Martin MJ, Mulder N, O'Donovan C, Parkinson H, Tuli MA, Apweiler R, Birney E, Brazma A, Henrick K, Lopez R, Stoesser G, Stoehr P, Cameron G.
Nucleic Acids Res Volume 31 (2003) p.43-50
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkg066

Towards reconstruction of gene networks from expression data by supervised learning.
Soinov LA, Krestyaninova MA, Brazma A.
Genome Biol Volume 4 (2003) p.r6
DOI: 10.1186/gb-2003-4-1-r6

ArrayExpress: a public database of gene expression data at EBI.
Rocca-Serra P, Brazma A, Parkinson H, Sarkans U, Shojatalab M, Contrino S, Vilo J, Abeygunawardena N, Mukherjee G, Holloway E, Kapushesky M, Kemmeren P, Lara GG, Oezcimen A, Sansone SA.
C R Biol Volume 326 (2003) p.1075-1078
DOI: 10.1016/j.crvi.2003.09.026


Protein interaction verification and functional annotation by integrated analysis of genome-scale data.
Kemmeren P, van Berkum NL, Vilo J, Bijma T, Donders R, Brazma A, Holstege FC.
Mol Cell Volume 9 (2002) p.1133-1143
DOI: 10.1016/s1097-2765(02)00531-2

Correlating gene promoters and expression in gene disruption experiments.
Palin K, Ukkonen E, Brazma A, Vilo J.
Bioinformatics Volume 18 Suppl 2 (2002) p.s172-80

Learning about gene regulatory networks from gene deletion experiments.
Schlitt T, Brazma A.
Comp Funct Genomics Volume 3 (2002) p.499-503
DOI: 10.1002/cfg.220

Design and implementation of microarray gene expression markup language (MAGE-ML).
Spellman PT, Miller M, Stewart J, Troup C, Sarkans U, Chervitz S, Bernhart D, Sherlock G, Ball C, Lepage M, Swiatek M, Marks WL, Goncalves J, Markel S, Iordan D, Shojatalab M, Pizarro A, White J, Hubley R, Deutsch E, Senger M, Aronow BJ, Robinson A, Bassett D, Stoeckert CJ Jr, Brazma A.
Genome Biol Volume 3 (2002) p.research0046
DOI: 10.1186/gb-2002-3-9-research0046

The underlying principles of scientific publication.
Ball CA, Sherlock G, Parkinson H, Rocca-Sera P, Brooksbank C, Causton HC, Cavalieri D, Gaasterland T, Hingamp P, Holstege F, Ringwald M, Spellman P, Stoeckert CJ Jr, Stewart JE, Taylor R, Brazma A, Quackenbush J, Microarray Gene Expression Data.
Bioinformatics Volume 18 (2002) p.1409
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/18.11.1409

Microarray data representation, annotation and storage.
Brazma A, Sarkans U, Robinson A, Vilo J, Vingron M, Hoheisel J, Fellenberg K.
Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol Volume 77 (2002) p.113-139

Standards for microarray data.
Ball CA, Sherlock G, Parkinson H, Rocca-Sera P, Brooksbank C, Causton HC, Cavalieri D, Gaasterland T, Hingamp P, Holstege F, Ringwald M, Spellman P, Stoeckert CJ Jr, Stewart JE, Taylor R, Brazma A, Quackenbush J, Microarray Gene Expression Data (MGED) Society.
Science Volume 298 (2002) p.539
DOI: 10.1126/science.298.5593.539b


Inductive synthesis of dot expressions
Brāzma A.
Lect Notes Comput Sci Volume 502 (1991) p.156-212
DOI: 10.1007/bfb0019359