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|Annotation||The process of attaching additional information to biological entities. Annotation can be structural (i.e. identification of the elements from a sequence, such as protein coding regions or the location of regulatory motifs) or functional (i.e. adding biological information to the identified elements, such as the biological function of a protein domain or an entire protein, or the molecular interactions or regulatory role of a nucleotide sequence). Annotation can either be applied automatically or can be manually added (in a process called 'curation') from various sources, such as the scientific literature. At EMBL-EBI, we use a combination of automatic and manual annotation to enrich our databases. Annotation can either be applied automatically or it can be curated (manually) from the scientific literature. At EMBL-EBI, we use a combination of automatic and manual annotation to enrich our databases. |
|Ensembl||Ensembl is a joint project between the EMBL-EBI and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute that aims to develop a system that maintains automatic annotation of large eukaryotic genomes. All the software and data are free to access without any constraints. The project is primarily funded by the Wellcome Trust. It is a comprehensive source of stable annotation with confirmed gene predictions that have been integrated from external data sources. Ensembl annotates known genes and predicts new ones, with functional annotation from InterPro, OMIM, SAGE and gene families. |
|Synteny||The term synteny was originally defined to mean that two gene loci share the same chromosome. In a genomic context we refer to syntenic regions if both sequence and gene order is conserved between two (closely related) species. |
|chordate||A member of the phylum Chordata. Has a notochord (a flexible, rod-like structure that acts as the main support for the body) at some stage of development. For vertebrates, this notochord becomes the vertebral spine.
|gene||A molecular unit of heredity of a living organism. Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism's cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. All organisms have many genes corresponding to various biological traits, some of which are immediately visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some of which are not, such as blood type or increased risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that comprise life. |
|oligo probe||In a microarray experiment, we use many short oligonucleotide molecules, known as oligo probes, to hybridise to DNA or RNA samples. Each spot on the microarray contains a single species of oligo probe: their sequence and their location on the genome is known and is used to analyse the data. Plots of oligo probes on genome browsers can be used for data analysis, or for the selection of microarray chips. |
|single nucleotide polymorphism||A single base pair of DNA that is polymorphic (has alternate alleles) with respect to a population. |