|Amide||Is an organic compound that contains the functional group consisting of a carbonyl group (R-C=O) linked to a nitrogen atom (N). |
|Amino acid||Amino Acids are the chemical units or "building blocks" of the body that make up proteins.
You can find out more about amino acids on the Wikipedia page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid |
|Annotation||The process of attaching additional information to biological entities. Annotation can be structural (i.e. identification of the elements from a sequence, such as protein coding regions or the location of regulatory motifs) or functional (i.e. adding biological information to the identified elements, such as the biological function of a protein domain or an entire protein, or the molecular interactions or regulatory role of a nucleotide sequence). Annotation can either be applied automatically or can be manually added (in a process called 'curation') from various sources, such as the scientific literature. At EMBL-EBI, we use a combination of automatic and manual annotation to enrich our databases. Annotation can either be applied automatically or it can be curated (manually) from the scientific literature. At EMBL-EBI, we use a combination of automatic and manual annotation to enrich our databases. |
|Base pair||A base pair is two chemical bases (A, T, C or G) bonded to one another via hydrogen bonds.
You can find out more about base pairs on the Wikipedia page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Base_pair
|Biomacromolecules||Large biological polymers, such as proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates that are made up of linked monomers |
|Coenzyme||Is a loosely-bound cofactor. |
|Cofactor||Non-protein chemical compound bound to a protein, required for the protein's biological activity. Cofactors can be organic, for example vitamins, or inorganic like metal ions. |
|Conformer|| Inter-convertible isomers obtained by rotations about single bonds. |
|Domain||Independently stable tertiary structures of proteins. They are distinct functional and/or structural units and can evolve, exist and function independently. |
|EMDB||The Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) is a public repository for electron microscopy density maps of macromolecular complexes and subcellular structures. It covers a variety of techniques, including single-particle analysis, electron tomography, and electron (2D) crystallography. |
|Electron microscopy||Electron microscopy uses a beam of electrons to produce a magnified image of a biological specimen. As the wavelength of of an electron is 100,000 times shorter than visible light photons, an electron microscope has a much higher resolution than a light microscope. |
|Intron||A segment (nucleotide sequence) of a DNA or RNA molecule that does not code for proteins. It is removed to generate the final mature RNA product of a gene. |
|Ligand||A ligand (or het group) is a substance that specifically and reversibly binds to a biomacromolecule to form a larger complex and alters its activity or fuction. |
|Lipid||Lipids are a broad group of hydrophobic small molecules. They function as the energy storage and are structural components of cell membranes. Lipids are also important signaling molecules (e.g. steroid hormones). |
|Methylation||Methylation is the addition of a methyl group to a substrate or the substitution of an atom, or group, by a methyl group.
You can find out more about methylation on the Wikipedia page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methylation |
|Motif||Short segments of protein 3D structure, which are spatially close but not necessarily adjacent in the sequence |
|Nuclear magnetic resonance||Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a type of spectroscopy whereby nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation. It has many applications throughout the physical sciences and industry and is commonly used to study the structure of organic compounds. |
|PDB||The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is an archive of experimentally determined biological macromolecular structures. It can be accessed using the following url: www.pdbe.org.
You can find out more about PDB on the WikiPedia page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_Data_Bank |
|PDBe||The European resource for the collection, organisation and dissemination of data on biological macromolecular structures (www.pdbe.org). |
|Polymer||Macromolecule composed of large number of repeating structural subunits connected by covalent bonds. It can be natural or synthetic. Naturally occurring polymers are for example: proteins, starches, cellulose, and latex. Synthetic polymers are produced commercially, for example plastics. |
|Prosthetic group||Is a tightly-bound cofactor. |
|Secondary structure||The general 3D form of local segments of biopolymers including proteins and nucleic acids |
|Side chain||In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.
You can find out more about side chains on the Wikipedia page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Side_chain |
|Small molecules||Low molecular weight organic compounds which are not polymers. |
|Structural Genomics||The determination of the three dimensional structure of all proteins of a given organism in a high-throughput manner. |
|Translation||In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the third stage of protein synthesis. In translation, RNA and ribosomes work together to produce proteins.
For more information on protein translation visit the Wikipedia page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translation_(biology) |
|UTR||Untranslated Region. The 5' UTR is the portion of an mRNA from the 5' end to the position of the first codon used in translation. The 3' UTR is the portion of an mRNA from the position of the last codon that is used in translation to the 3' end. |
|Uracil||Uracil is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA and is represented by the letter U.
You can learn more about Uracil on the Wikipedia page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uracil |
|X-ray crystallography||An experimental technique that diffracts X-rays in crystals to determine the 3D structure of molecules. |
|curator||A professional scientist who collects, annotates, and validates information that is disseminated by biological and model organism databases. The role of a biocurator encompasses quality control of primary biological research data intended for publication, extracting and organizing data from original scientific literature, and describing the data with standard annotation protocols and vocabularies that enable powerful queries and biological database inter-operability. Curators communicate with researchers to ensure the accuracy of curated information and to foster data exchanges with research laboratories. |
|gene expression||The process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional product. Gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype. The genetic code stored in DNA is "interpreted" by gene expression, and the properties of the expression give rise to the organism's phenotype.
|gene regulation||Includes the processes that cells and viruses use to regulate the way that the information in genes is turned into gene products.
Gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism.
|rRNA||Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, the enzyme that is the site of protein synthesis in all living cells.
For more information about rRNA, please visit the Wikiedia page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RRNA |
|site||A site refers to a particular nucleotide or protein sequence residue, often including the evolutionary equivalent or orthologous position in sequences from other species |
|tRNA||tRNA (transfer RNA) is an RNA molecule and is involved in the translation of the nucleic acid message into the amino acids of proteins.
You can find out more about tRNA on the Wikipedia page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trna |