PDBsum entry 3nse

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protein ligands metals Protein-protein interface(s) links
Complex (oxidoreductase/peptide) PDB id
Protein chains
416 a.a. *
ACT ×4
CAC ×2
HEM ×2
ITU ×2
GOL ×3
Waters ×336
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Complex (oxidoreductase/peptide)
Title: Bovine enos, h4b-free, seitu complex
Structure: Nitric oxide synthase. Chain: a, b. Fragment: heme domain. Engineered: yes
Source: Bos taurus. Cattle. Organism_taxid: 9913. Cell: endothelial. Expressed in: escherichia coli bl21. Expression_system_taxid: 511693.
Biol. unit: Dimer (from PDB file)
2.10Å     R-factor:   0.197     R-free:   0.252
Authors: C.S.Raman,H.Li,P.Martasek,V.Kral,B.S.S.Masters,T.L.Poulos
Key ref:
C.S.Raman et al. (1998). Crystal structure of constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase: a paradigm for pterin function involving a novel metal center. Cell, 95, 939-950. PubMed id: 9875848 DOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81718-3
23-Sep-98     Release date:   18-May-99    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P29473  (NOS3_BOVIN) -  Nitric oxide synthase, endothelial
1205 a.a.
416 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 1 residue position (black cross)

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Nitric-oxide synthase (Nadph dependent).
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: 2 L-arginine + 3 NADPH + 4 O2 = 2 L-citrulline + 2 nitric oxide + 3 NADP+ + 4 H2O
2 × L-arginine
Bound ligand (Het Group name = ARG)
corresponds exactly
+ 3 × NADPH
+ 4 × O(2)
= 2 × L-citrulline
+ 2 × nitric oxide
+ 3 × NADP(+)
+ 4 × H(2)O
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     oxidation-reduction process   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     calmodulin binding     7 terms  


DOI no: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81718-3 Cell 95:939-950 (1998)
PubMed id: 9875848  
Crystal structure of constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase: a paradigm for pterin function involving a novel metal center.
C.S.Raman, H.Li, P.Martásek, V.Král, B.S.Masters, T.L.Poulos.
Nitric oxide, a key signaling molecule, is produced by a family of enzymes collectively called nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Here, we report the crystal structure of the heme domain of endothelial NOS in tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B)-free and -bound forms at 1.95 A and 1.9 A resolution, respectively. In both structures a zinc ion is tetrahedrally coordinated to pairs of symmetry-related cysteine residues at the dimer interface. The phylogenetically conserved Cys-(X)4-Cys motif and its strategic location establish a structural role for the metal center in maintaining the integrity of the H4B-binding site. The unexpected recognition of the substrate, L-arginine, at the H4B site indicates that this site is poised to stabilize a positively charged pterin ring and suggests a model involving a cationic pterin radical in the catalytic cycle.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 5.
Figure 5. Cooperativity and Molecular Mimicry in eNOS(A) Cross talk between H[4]B and L-Arg mediated by the heme propionate (Se-edge data). The guanidinium and amino groups of L-Arg are held in place by H-bonding with the conserved Glu-363. The amino group also H-bonds with a heme propionate. H[4]B H-bonds directly with the heme propionate, while the pteridine ring is sandwiched between Phe-462 in one monomer and Trp-449 in another, respectively.(B) L-Arg is a structural mimic of H[4]B at the pterin-binding site when SEITU is bound at the active site (-H[4]B, +SEITU data). L-Arg binds to the pterin site and exquisitely mimics the H[4]B interaction with eNOS ([A] and Figure 4). The specific interaction of the potent inhibitor, SEITU, at the active site is mediated by a pair of bifurcated H-bonds to Glu-363. Two water molecules bridge between the inhibitor and heme propionate. The ethyl group of the inhibitor forms nonbonded contacts with Val-338 and Phe-355. The ureido sulfur is positioned 3.5 Å and 4.0 Å above heme pyrrole B-ring nitrogen and the heme iron, respectively.
Figure 7.
Figure 7. Proposed Mechanism for Pterin in NO BiosynthesisThe uniqueness of the H[4]B–eNOS interaction (Figure 4) and the ability to bind L-Arg at the pterin site present a strong case for the involvement of a pterin radical in NOS catalysis and rule out the possibility of H[4]B ↔ qH[2]B cycling during NO biosynthesis. R represents the dihydroxypropyl side chain at the C6 position on the pterin ring.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Cell Press: Cell (1998, 95, 939-950) copyright 1998.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21172428 J.F.Gielis, J.Y.Lin, K.Wingler, P.E.Van Schil, H.H.Schmidt, and A.L.Moens (2011).
Pathogenetic role of eNOS uncoupling in cardiopulmonary disorders.
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21204594 L.Björndahl, and U.Kvist (2011).
A model for the importance of zinc in the dynamics of human sperm chromatin stabilization after ejaculation in relation to sperm DNA vulnerability.
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21482467 R.J.Young, W.Alderton, A.D.Angell, P.J.Beswick, D.Brown, C.L.Chambers, M.C.Crowe, J.Dawson, C.C.Hamlett, S.T.Hodgson, S.Kleanthous, R.G.Knowles, L.J.Russell, R.Stocker, and J.M.Woolven (2011).
Heteroalicyclic carboxamidines as inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase; the identification of (2R)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamidine as a potent and selective haem-co-ordinating inhibitor.
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20350698 A.A.Doshi, M.T.Ziolo, H.Wang, E.Burke, A.Lesinski, and P.Binkley (2010).
A promoter polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene is associated with reduced mRNA and protein expression in failing human myocardium.
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20840589 A.Maréchal, T.A.Mattioli, D.J.Stuehr, and J.Santolini (2010).
NO synthase isoforms specifically modify peroxynitrite reactivity.
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20718865 A.Welland, and S.Daff (2010).
Conformation-dependent hydride transfer in neuronal nitric oxide synthase reductase domain.
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20370423 B.R.Crane, J.Sudhamsu, and B.A.Patel (2010).
Bacterial nitric oxide synthases.
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20184449 F.V.Fonseca, K.Ravi, D.Wiseman, M.Tummala, C.Harmon, V.Ryzhov, J.R.Fineman, and S.M.Black (2010).
Mass spectroscopy and molecular modeling predict endothelial nitric oxide synthase dimer collapse by hydrogen peroxide through zinc tetrathiolate metal-binding site disruption.
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19933313 L.Björndahl, and U.Kvist (2010).
Human sperm chromatin stabilization: a proposed model including zinc bridges.
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20544970 L.J.Smith, A.Kahraman, and J.M.Thornton (2010).
Heme proteins--diversity in structural characteristics, function, and folding.
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20306272 U.Förstermann (2010).
Nitric oxide and oxidative stress in vascular disease.
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20184376 W.Chen, L.J.Druhan, C.A.Chen, C.Hemann, Y.R.Chen, V.Berka, A.L.Tsai, and J.L.Zweier (2010).
Peroxynitrite induces destruction of the tetrahydrobiopterin and heme in endothelial nitric oxide synthase: transition from reversible to irreversible enzyme inhibition.
  Biochemistry, 49, 3129-3137.  
21152397 Y.Manevich, D.M.Townsend, S.Hutchens, and K.D.Tew (2010).
Diazeniumdiolate mediated nitrosative stress alters nitric oxide homeostasis through intracellular calcium and S-glutathionylation of nitric oxide synthetase.
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19398561 B.S.Masters, and B.S.Masters (2009).
A professional and personal odyssey.
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19690675 C.Feng, and G.Tollin (2009).
Regulation of interdomain electron transfer in the NOS output state for NO production.
  Dalton Trans, (), 6692-6700.  
19737939 C.Xia, I.Misra, T.Iyanagi, and J.J.Kim (2009).
Regulation of interdomain interactions by calmodulin in inducible nitric-oxide synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 30708-30717.  
19583767 D.J.Stuehr, J.Tejero, and M.M.Haque (2009).
Structural and mechanistic aspects of flavoproteins: electron transfer through the nitric oxide synthase flavoprotein domain.
  FEBS J, 276, 3959-3974.  
19125620 H.Ji, H.Li, P.Martásek, L.J.Roman, T.L.Poulos, and R.B.Silverman (2009).
Discovery of highly potent and selective inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase by fragment hopping.
  J Med Chem, 52, 779-797.  
19007315 K.Watschinger, M.A.Keller, A.Hermetter, G.Golderer, G.Werner-Felmayer, and E.R.Werner (2009).
Glyceryl ether monooxygenase resembles aromatic amino acid hydroxylases in metal ion and tetrahydrobiopterin dependence.
  Biol Chem, 390, 3.  
19358819 P.F.Chen, and K.K.Wu (2009).
Two synthetic peptides corresponding to the proximal heme-binding domain and CD1 domain of human endothelial nitric-oxide synthase inhibit the oxygenase activity by interacting with CaM.
  Arch Biochem Biophys, 486, 132-140.  
19154146 R.B.Silverman (2009).
Design of selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
  Acc Chem Res, 42, 439-451.  
19046139 S.Messner, S.Leitner, C.Bommassar, G.Golderer, P.Gröbner, E.R.Werner, and G.Werner-Felmayer (2009).
Physarum nitric oxide synthases: genomic structures and enzymology of recombinant proteins.
  Biochem J, 418, 691-700.  
19805284 T.Agapie, S.Suseno, J.J.Woodward, S.Stoll, R.D.Britt, and M.A.Marletta (2009).
NO formation by a catalytically self-sufficient bacterial nitric oxide synthase from Sorangium cellulosum.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 16221-16226.  
19104007 T.E.Peterson, L.V.d'Uscio, S.Cao, X.L.Wang, and Z.S.Katusic (2009).
Guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I expression and enzymatic activity are present in caveolae of endothelial cells.
  Hypertension, 53, 189-195.  
19286667 T.Sugiyama, B.D.Levy, and T.Michel (2009).
Tetrahydrobiopterin Recycling, a Key Determinant of Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase-dependent Signaling Pathways in Cultured Vascular Endothelial Cells.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 12691-12700.  
18941783 W.Bakker, E.C.Eringa, P.Sipkema, and V.W.van Hinsbergh (2009).
Endothelial dysfunction and diabetes: roles of hyperglycemia, impaired insulin signaling and obesity.
  Cell Tissue Res, 335, 165-189.  
19632105 W.C.Koh, E.S.Choe, D.K.Lee, S.C.Chang, and Y.B.Shim (2009).
Monitoring the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in brain tissue and cells with a potentiometric immunosensor.
  Biosens Bioelectron, 25, 211-217.  
18056997 C.Metcalfe, I.K.Macdonald, E.J.Murphy, K.A.Brown, E.L.Raven, and P.C.Moody (2008).
The tuberculosis prodrug isoniazid bound to activating peroxidases.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 6193-6200.
PDB codes: 2v23 2v2e 2vcf 2vcn 2vcs
  18085539 E.C.Glazer, Y.H.Nguyen, H.B.Gray, and D.B.Goodin (2008).
Probing inducible nitric oxide synthase with a pterin-ruthenium(II) sensitizer wire.
  Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 47, 898-901.  
18849972 E.D.Garcin, A.S.Arvai, R.J.Rosenfeld, M.D.Kroeger, B.R.Crane, G.Andersson, G.Andrews, P.J.Hamley, P.R.Mallinder, D.J.Nicholls, S.A.St-Gallay, A.C.Tinker, N.P.Gensmantel, A.Mete, D.R.Cheshire, S.Connolly, D.J.Stuehr, A.Aberg, A.V.Wallace, J.A.Tainer, and E.D.Getzoff (2008).
Anchored plasticity opens doors for selective inhibitor design in nitric oxide synthase.
  Nat Chem Biol, 4, 700-707.
PDB codes: 3e65 3e67 3e68 3e6l 3e6n 3e6o 3e6t 3e7g 3e7i 3e7m 3e7s 3e7t 3eah 3eai 3ebd 3ebf 3ej8
18842118 J.A.Winger, E.R.Derbyshire, M.H.Lamers, M.A.Marletta, and J.Kuriyan (2008).
The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of a eukaryotic guanylate cyclase.
  BMC Struct Biol, 8, 42.
PDB code: 3et6
18815130 J.Tejero, A.Biswas, Z.Q.Wang, R.C.Page, M.M.Haque, C.Hemann, J.L.Zweier, S.Misra, and D.J.Stuehr (2008).
Stabilization and characterization of a heme-oxy reaction intermediate in inducible nitric-oxide synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 33498-33507.
PDB code: 3dwj
18519842 L.V.d'Uscio, and Z.S.Katusic (2008).
Erythropoietin increases endothelial biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin by activation of protein kinase B alpha/Akt1.
  Hypertension, 52, 93-99.  
19045177 P.K.Biswas, and V.Gogonea (2008).
A polarizable force-field model for quantum-mechanical-molecular-mechanical Hamiltonian using expansion of point charges into orbitals.
  J Chem Phys, 129, 154108.  
18707220 S.R.Thomas, P.K.Witting, and G.R.Drummond (2008).
Redox control of endothelial function and dysfunction: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities.
  Antioxid Redox Signal, 10, 1713-1765.  
18331440 U.V.Bhandary, W.Tse, B.Yang, M.R.Knowles, and A.G.Demaine (2008).
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms are associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease in renal transplantation.
  Nephrology (Carlton), 13, 348-355.  
17369257 A.Maréchal, T.A.Mattioli, D.J.Stuehr, and J.Santolini (2007).
Activation of peroxynitrite by inducible nitric-oxide synthase: a direct source of nitrative stress.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 14101-14112.  
17534532 A.W.Munro, H.M.Girvan, and K.J.McLean (2007).
Variations on a (t)heme--novel mechanisms, redox partners and catalytic functions in the cytochrome P450 superfamily.
  Nat Prod Rep, 24, 585-609.  
18836533 C.Wheatley (2007).
The return of the Scarlet Pimpernel: cobalamin in inflammation II - cobalamins can both selectively promote all three nitric oxide synthases (NOS), particularly iNOS and eNOS, and, as needed, selectively inhibit iNOS and nNOS.
  J Nutr Environ Med, 16, 181-211.  
18923642 C.Wheatley (2007).
Cobalamin in inflammation III - glutathionylcobalamin and methylcobalamin/adenosylcobalamin coenzymes: the sword in the stone? How cobalamin may directly regulate the nitric oxide synthases.
  J Nutr Environ Med, 16, 212-226.  
17174478 J.J.Perry, L.Fan, and J.A.Tainer (2007).
Developing master keys to brain pathology, cancer and aging from the structural biology of proteins controlling reactive oxygen species and DNA repair.
  Neuroscience, 145, 1280-1299.  
17425297 J.Seo, J.Igarashi, H.Li, P.Martasek, L.J.Roman, T.L.Poulos, and R.B.Silverman (2007).
Structure-based design and synthesis of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine-containing peptidomimetics as selective inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Displacement of the heme structural water.
  J Med Chem, 50, 2089-2099.
PDB codes: 2hx2 2hx3 2hx4
17534526 T.L.Poulos (2007).
The Janus nature of heme.
  Nat Prod Rep, 24, 504-510.  
17229730 Y.T.Gao, S.P.Panda, L.J.Roman, P.Martásek, Y.Ishimura, and B.S.Masters (2007).
Oxygen metabolism by neuronal nitric-oxide synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 7921-7929.  
  17142896 C.R.Garen, M.M.Cherney, E.M.Bergmann, and M.N.James (2006).
The molecular structure of Rv1873, a conserved hypothetical protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, at 1.38 A resolution.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 62, 1201-1205.
PDB code: 2jek
16461329 D.K.Ghosh, M.A.Holliday, C.Thomas, J.B.Weinberg, S.M.Smith, and J.C.Salerno (2006).
Nitric-oxide synthase output state. Design and properties of nitric-oxide synthase oxygenase/FMN domain constructs.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 14173-14183.  
16421101 D.Li, E.Y.Hayden, K.Panda, D.J.Stuehr, H.Deng, D.L.Rousseau, and S.R.Yeh (2006).
Regulation of the monomer-dimer equilibrium in inducible nitric-oxide synthase by nitric oxide.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 8197-8204.  
17034131 H.Ji, J.A.Gómez-Vidal, P.Martasek, L.J.Roman, and R.B.Silverman (2006).
Conformationally restricted dipeptide amides as potent and selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.
  J Med Chem, 49, 6254-6263.  
16804678 H.Li, J.Igarashi, J.Jamal, W.Yang, and T.L.Poulos (2006).
Structural studies of constitutive nitric oxide synthases with diatomic ligands bound.
  J Biol Inorg Chem, 11, 753-768.
PDB codes: 2g6h 2g6i 2g6j 2g6k 2g6l 2g6m 2g6n 2g6o
16195740 M.Tesauro, W.C.Thompson, and J.Moss (2006).
Effect of staurosporine-induced apoptosis on endothelial nitric oxide synthase in transfected COS-7 cells and primary endothelial cells.
  Cell Death Differ, 13, 597-606.  
16286475 P.A.Erwin, D.A.Mitchell, J.Sartoretto, M.A.Marletta, and T.Michel (2006).
Subcellular targeting and differential S-nitrosylation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 151-157.  
16411020 R.Sengupta, R.Sahoo, S.S.Ray, T.Dutta, A.Dasgupta, and S.Ghosh (2006).
Dissociation and unfolding of inducible nitric oxide synthase oxygenase domain identifies structural role of tetrahydrobiopterin in modulating the heme environment.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 284, 117-126.  
16966328 S.P.Panda, Y.T.Gao, L.J.Roman, P.Martásek, J.C.Salerno, and B.S.Masters (2006).
The role of a conserved serine residue within hydrogen bonding distance of FAD in redox properties and the modulation of catalysis by Ca2+/calmodulin of constitutive nitric-oxide synthases.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 34246-34257.  
17132097 U.Förstermann (2006).
Janus-faced role of endothelial NO synthase in vascular disease: uncoupling of oxygen reduction from NO synthesis and its pharmacological reversal.
  Biol Chem, 387, 1521-1533.  
17092038 V.Gogonea, J.M.Shy, and P.K.Biswas (2006).
Electronic structure, ionization potential, and electron affinity of the enzyme cofactor (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin in the gas phase, solution, and protein environments.
  J Phys Chem B, 110, 22861-22871.  
15574418 A.J.Cardounel, Y.Xia, and J.L.Zweier (2005).
Endogenous methylarginines modulate superoxide as well as nitric oxide generation from neuronal nitric-oxide synthase: differences in the effects of monomethyl- and dimethylarginines in the presence and absence of tetrahydrobiopterin.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 7540-7549.  
15632185 C.C.Wei, Z.Q.Wang, D.Durra, C.Hemann, R.Hille, E.D.Garcin, E.D.Getzoff, and D.J.Stuehr (2005).
The three nitric-oxide synthases differ in their kinetics of tetrahydrobiopterin radical formation, heme-dioxy reduction, and arginine hydroxylation.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 8929-8935.  
16234921 D.J.Stuehr, C.C.Wei, Z.Wang, and R.Hille (2005).
Exploring the redox reactions between heme and tetrahydrobiopterin in the nitric oxide synthases.
  Dalton Trans, (), 3427-3435.  
15955074 D.Lefèvre-Groboillot, J.L.Boucher, D.J.Stuehr, and D.Mansuy (2005).
Relationship between the structure of guanidines and N-hydroxyguanidines, their binding to inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and their iNOS-catalysed oxidation to NO.
  FEBS J, 272, 3172-3183.  
15613384 J.R.Bradford, and D.R.Westhead (2005).
Improved prediction of protein-protein binding sites using a support vector machines approach.
  Bioinformatics, 21, 1487-1494.  
16249336 M.Jáchymová, P.Martásek, S.Panda, L.J.Roman, M.Panda, T.M.Shea, Y.Ishimura, J.J.Kim, and B.S.Masters (2005).
Recruitment of governing elements for electron transfer in the nitric oxide synthase family.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 15833-15838.  
15774480 P.A.Erwin, A.J.Lin, D.E.Golan, and T.Michel (2005).
Receptor-regulated dynamic S-nitrosylation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase in vascular endothelial cells.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 19888-19894.  
15637154 P.N.Bernatchez, P.M.Bauer, J.Yu, J.S.Prendergast, P.He, and W.C.Sessa (2005).
Dissecting the molecular control of endothelial NO synthase by caveolin-1 using cell-permeable peptides.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 761-766.  
15651036 S.B.Kirton, C.W.Murray, M.L.Verdonk, and R.D.Taylor (2005).
Prediction of binding modes for ligands in the cytochromes P450 and other heme-containing proteins.
  Proteins, 58, 836-844.  
16034613 S.Cai, J.Khoo, S.Mussa, N.J.Alp, and K.M.Channon (2005).
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase dysfunction in diabetic mice: importance of tetrahydrobiopterin in eNOS dimerisation.
  Diabetologia, 48, 1933-1940.  
15701046 S.Y.Proskuryakov, A.G.Konoplyannikov, V.G.Skvortsov, A.A.Mandrugin, and V.M.Fedoseev (2005).
Structure and activity of NO synthase inhibitors specific to the L-arginine binding site.
  Biochemistry (Mosc), 70, 8.  
15507439 T.W.Ost, and S.Daff (2005).
Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of the nitrosyl, carbonyl, and dioxy heme complexes of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase. The roles of substrate and tetrahydrobiopterin in oxygen activation.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 965-973.  
16056230 T.Yamamoto, J.Kajikuri, Y.Watanabe, Y.Suzuki, K.Suzumori, and T.Itoh (2005).
Chronic nitroglycerine administration reduces endothelial nitric oxide production in rabbit mesenteric resistance artery.
  Br J Pharmacol, 146, 534-542.  
16158224 Y.Song, J.Wang, X.K.Li, and L.Cai (2005).
Zinc and the diabetic heart.
  Biometals, 18, 325-332.  
14594819 C.Gautier, M.Négrerie, Z.Q.Wang, J.C.Lambry, D.J.Stuehr, F.Collin, J.L.Martin, and A.Slama-Schwok (2004).
Dynamic regulation of the inducible nitric-oxide synthase by NO: comparison with the endothelial isoform.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 4358-4365.  
15066989 D.Li, D.J.Stuehr, S.R.Yeh, and D.L.Rousseau (2004).
Heme distortion modulated by ligand-protein interactions in inducible nitric-oxide synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 26489-26499.  
15451052 D.Mansuy, and J.L.Boucher (2004).
Alternative nitric oxide-producing substrates for NO synthases.
  Free Radic Biol Med, 37, 1105-1121.  
15208315 E.D.Garcin, C.M.Bruns, S.J.Lloyd, D.J.Hosfield, M.Tiso, R.Gachhui, D.J.Stuehr, J.A.Tainer, and E.D.Getzoff (2004).
Structural basis for isozyme-specific regulation of electron transfer in nitric-oxide synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 37918-37927.
PDB code: 1tll
15224385 H.Matter, and P.Kotsonis (2004).
Biology and chemistry of the inhibition of nitric oxide synthases by pteridine-derivatives as therapeutic agents.
  Med Res Rev, 24, 662-684.  
14754987 J.H.Eastberg, J.Pelletier, and B.L.Stoddard (2004).
Recognition of DNA substrates by T4 bacteriophage polynucleotide kinase.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 32, 653-660.
PDB codes: 1rc8 1rpz 1rrc
14983058 K.Ravi, L.A.Brennan, S.Levic, P.A.Ross, and S.M.Black (2004).
S-nitrosylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase is associated with monomerization and decreased enzyme activity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 2619-2624.  
14718923 M.L.Flinspach, H.Li, J.Jamal, W.Yang, H.Huang, J.M.Hah, J.A.Gómez-Vidal, E.A.Litzinger, R.B.Silverman, and T.L.Poulos (2004).
Structural basis for dipeptide amide isoform-selective inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 11, 54-59.
PDB codes: 1p6h 1p6i 1p6j 1p6k 1p6l 1p6m 1p6n 1q2o
15189165 O.Pylypenko, and I.Schlichting (2004).
Structural aspects of ligand binding to and electron transfer in bacterial and fungal P450s.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 73, 991.  
15071192 R.Fedorov, R.Vasan, D.K.Ghosh, and I.Schlichting (2004).
Structures of nitric oxide synthase isoforms complexed with the inhibitor AR-R17477 suggest a rational basis for specificity and inhibitor design.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 5892-5897.
PDB codes: 1vaf 1vag
15004019 S.Marchal, A.C.Gorren, M.Sørlie, K.K.Andersson, B.Mayer, and R.Lange (2004).
Evidence of two distinct oxygen complexes of reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 19824-19831.  
15109571 S.Valent, and M.Tóth (2004).
Spectrophotometric analysis of the protective effect of ascorbate against spontaneous oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin in aqueous solution: kinetic characteristics and potentiation by catalase of ascorbate action.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 36, 1266-1280.  
14717702 T.Suzuki, H.Kurita, and H.Ichinose (2004).
GTP cyclohydrolase I utilizes metal-free GTP as its substrate.
  Eur J Biochem, 271, 349-355.  
15256486 Y.Stasiv, B.Kuzin, M.Regulski, T.Tully, and G.Enikolopov (2004).
Regulation of multimers via truncated isoforms: a novel mechanism to control nitric-oxide signaling.
  Genes Dev, 18, 1812-1823.  
12474221 E.W.Albrecht, C.A.Stegeman, P.Heeringa, R.H.Henning, and H.van Goor (2003).
Protective role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.
  J Pathol, 199, 8.  
12805387 G.M.Knudsen, C.R.Nishida, S.D.Mooney, and P.R.Ortiz de Montellano (2003).
Nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) reductase domain models suggest a new control element in endothelial NOS that attenuates calmodulin-dependent activity.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 31814-31824.  
12847099 K.Panda, S.Adak, K.S.Aulak, J.Santolini, J.F.McDonald, and D.J.Stuehr (2003).
Distinct influence of N-terminal elements on neuronal nitric-oxide synthase structure and catalysis.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 37122-37131.  
12730215 L.J.Roman, J.McLain, and B.S.Masters (2003).
Chimeric enzymes of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and neuronal nitric-oxide synthase reductase domain reveal structural and functional differences.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 25700-25707.  
14514694 M.Sorlie, A.C.Gorren, S.Marchal, T.Shimizu, R.Lange, K.K.Andersson, and B.Mayer (2003).
Single-turnover of nitric-oxide synthase in the presence of 4-amino-tetrahydrobiopterin: proposed role for tetrahydrobiopterin as a proton donor.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 48602-48610.  
12842040 N.K.Vyas, M.N.Vyas, and F.A.Quiocho (2003).
Crystal structure of M tuberculosis ABC phosphate transport receptor: specificity and charge compensation dominated by ion-dipole interactions.
  Structure, 11, 765-774.
PDB code: 1pc3
12692136 N.Kuzkaya, N.Weissmann, D.G.Harrison, and S.Dikalov (2003).
Interactions of peroxynitrite, tetrahydrobiopterin, ascorbic acid, and thiols: implications for uncoupling endothelial nitric-oxide synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 22546-22554.  
14561757 P.F.Chen, and K.K.Wu (2003).
Structural elements contribute to the calcium/calmodulin dependence on enzyme activation in human endothelial nitric-oxide synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 52392-52400.  
14614131 P.J.Kolodziejski, M.B.Rashid, and N.T.Eissa (2003).
Intracellular formation of "undisruptable" dimers of inducible nitric oxide synthase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 14263-14268.  
12954642 R.Fedorov, E.Hartmann, D.K.Ghosh, and I.Schlichting (2003).
Structural basis for the specificity of the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitors W1400 and Nomega-propyl-L-Arg for the inducible and neuronal isoforms.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 45818-45825.
PDB codes: 1qw4 1qw5 1qw6 1qwc
14510776 W.Zhang, T.Kuncewicz, Z.Y.Yu, L.Zou, X.Xu, and B.C.Kone (2003).
Protein-protein interactions involving inducible nitric oxide synthase.
  Acta Physiol Scand, 179, 137-142.  
12777376 Z.W.Guan, D.Kamatani, S.Kimura, and T.Iyanagi (2003).
Mechanistic studies on the intramolecular one-electron transfer between the two flavins in the human neuronal nitric-oxide synthase and inducible nitric-oxide synthase flavin domains.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 30859-30868.  
12056914 A.C.Gorren, K.Schmidt, and B.Mayer (2002).
Binding of L-arginine and imidazole suggests heterogeneity of rat brain neuronal nitric oxide synthase.
  Biochemistry, 41, 7819-7829.  
11876653 A.R.Hurshman, and M.A.Marletta (2002).
Reactions catalyzed by the heme domain of inducible nitric oxide synthase: evidence for the involvement of tetrahydrobiopterin in electron transfer.
  Biochemistry, 41, 3439-3456.  
11719512 A.Slama-Schwok, M.Négrerie, V.Berka, J.C.Lambry, A.L.Tsai, M.H.Vos, and J.L.Martin (2002).
Nitric oxide (NO) traffic in endothelial NO synthase. Evidence for a new NO binding site dependent on tetrahydrobiopterin?
  J Biol Chem, 277, 7581-7586.  
12089147 D.H.Craig, S.K.Chapman, and S.Daff (2002).
Calmodulin activates electron transfer through neuronal nitric-oxide synthase reductase domain by releasing an NADPH-dependent conformational lock.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 33987-33994.  
12183447 G.M.Rosen, P.Tsai, J.Weaver, S.Porasuphatana, L.J.Roman, A.A.Starkov, G.Fiskum, and S.Pou (2002).
The role of tetrahydrobiopterin in the regulation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase-generated superoxide.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 40275-40280.  
11784303 J.Doyle, L.E.Llewellyn, C.S.Brinkworth, J.H.Bowie, K.L.Wegener, T.Rozek, P.A.Wabnitz, J.C.Wallace, and M.J.Tyler (2002).
Amphibian peptides that inhibit neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Isolation of lesuerin from the skin secretion of the Australian Stony Creek frog Litoria lesueuri.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 100-109.  
11980473 J.P.Schelvis, V.Berka, G.T.Babcock, and A.L.Tsai (2002).
Resonance Raman detection of the Fe-S bond in endothelial nitric oxide synthase.
  Biochemistry, 41, 5695-5701.  
  12076969 K.K.Wu (2002).
Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and gene expression.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 962, 122-130.  
12048205 K.Panda, R.J.Rosenfeld, S.Ghosh, A.L.Meade, E.D.Getzoff, and D.J.Stuehr (2002).
Distinct dimer interaction and regulation in nitric-oxide synthase types I, II, and III.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 31020-31030.  
12220171 K.Pant, A.M.Bilwes, S.Adak, D.J.Stuehr, and B.R.Crane (2002).
Structure of a nitric oxide synthase heme protein from Bacillus subtilis.
  Biochemistry, 41, 11071-11079.
PDB codes: 1m7v 1m7z
  11901190 M.H.Zou, C.Shi, and R.A.Cohen (2002).
Oxidation of the zinc-thiolate complex and uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by peroxynitrite.
  J Clin Invest, 109, 817-826.  
12050171 R.Kou, D.Greif, and T.Michel (2002).
Dephosphorylation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase by vascular endothelial growth factor. Implications for the vascular responses to cyclosporin A.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 29669-29673.  
11756668 S.Adak, A.M.Bilwes, K.Panda, D.Hosfield, K.S.Aulak, J.F.McDonald, J.A.Tainer, E.D.Getzoff, B.R.Crane, and D.J.Stuehr (2002).
Cloning, expression, and characterization of a nitric oxide synthase protein from Deinococcus radiodurans.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 107-112.  
12359874 S.Adak, M.Sharma, A.L.Meade, and D.J.Stuehr (2002).
A conserved flavin-shielding residue regulates NO synthase electron transfer and nicotinamide coenzyme specificity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 13516-13521.  
12167658 T.Iwasaki, A.Kounosu, M.Aoshima, D.Ohmori, T.Imai, A.Urushiyama, N.J.Cosper, and R.A.Scott (2002).
Novel [2Fe-2S]-type redox center C in SdhC of archaeal respiratory complex II from Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 39642-39648.  
12081486 W.J.Ingledew, S.M.Smith, J.C.Salerno, and P.R.Rich (2002).
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase ligand and protein vibrations at the substrate binding site. A study by FTIR.
  Biochemistry, 41, 8377-8384.  
11275480 A.Reif, L.Zecca, P.Riederer, M.Feelisch, and H.H.Schmidt (2001).
Nitroxyl oxidizes NADPH in a superoxide dismutase inhibitable manner.
  Free Radic Biol Med, 30, 803-808.  
11358872 G.Golderer, E.R.Werner, S.Leitner, P.Gröbner, and G.Werner-Felmayer (2001).
Nitric oxide synthase is induced in sporulation of Physarum polycephalum.
  Genes Dev, 15, 1299-1309.  
11331003 H.Li, C.S.Raman, P.Martásek, B.S.Masters, and T.L.Poulos (2001).
Crystallographic studies on endothelial nitric oxide synthase complexed with nitric oxide and mechanism-based inhibitors.
  Biochemistry, 40, 5399-5406.
PDB codes: 1ed6 1foi 1fol 1foo 1fop
11212498 M.David-Dufilho, C.Privat, A.Brunet, M.J.Richard, J.Devynck, and M.A.Devynck (2001).
[Transition metals and nitric oxide production in human endothelial cells].
  C R Acad Sci III, 324, 13-21.  
11696684 U.Landmesser, and D.G.Harrison (2001).
Oxidative stress and vascular damage in hypertension.
  Coron Artery Dis, 12, 455-461.  
10995244 A.C.Gorren, N.Bec, A.Schrammel, E.R.Werner, R.Lange, and B.Mayer (2000).
Low-temperature optical absorption spectra suggest a redox role for tetrahydrobiopterin in both steps of nitric oxide synthase catalysis.
  Biochemistry, 39, 11763-11770.  
10975456 A.W.Munro, P.Taylor, and M.D.Walkinshaw (2000).
Structures of redox enzymes.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 11, 369-376.  
10769116 B.R.Crane, A.S.Arvai, S.Ghosh, E.D.Getzoff, D.J.Stuehr, and J.A.Tainer (2000).
Structures of the N(omega)-hydroxy-L-arginine complex of inducible nitric oxide synthase oxygenase dimer with active and inactive pterins.
  Biochemistry, 39, 4608-4621.
PDB codes: 1dwv 1dww 1dwx
10956005 C.Jung, D.J.Stuehr, and D.K.Ghosh (2000).
FT-Infrared spectroscopic studies of the iron ligand CO stretch mode of iNOS oxygenase domain: effect of arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin.
  Biochemistry, 39, 10163-10171.  
10889028 C.Moali, M.Brollo, J.Custot, M.A.Sari, J.L.Boucher, D.J.Stuehr, and D.Mansuy (2000).
Recognition of alpha-amino acids bearing various C=NOH functions by nitric oxide synthase and arginase involves very different structural determinants.
  Biochemistry, 39, 8208-8218.  
10927171 D.W.Reif, D.J.McCarthy, E.Cregan, and J.E.Macdonald (2000).
Discovery and development of neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.
  Free Radic Biol Med, 28, 1470-1477.  
10671564 E.Butt, M.Bernhardt, A.Smolenski, P.Kotsonis, L.G.Fröhlich, A.Sickmann, H.E.Meyer, S.M.Lohmann, and H.H.Schmidt (2000).
Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (type III) is activated and becomes calcium independent upon phosphorylation by cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 5179-5187.  
10858284 E.H.Bursey, and T.L.Poulos (2000).
Two substrate binding sites in ascorbate peroxidase: the role of arginine 172.
  Biochemistry, 39, 7374-7379.  
10722697 J.Hirst, and D.B.Goodin (2000).
Unusual oxidative chemistry of N(omega)-hydroxyarginine and N-hydroxyguanidine catalyzed at an engineered cavity in a heme peroxidase.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 8582-8591.
PDB codes: 1dj1 1dj5
10799481 J.M.Perry, Y.Zhao, and M.A.Marletta (2000).
Cu2+ and Zn2+ inhibit nitric-oxide synthase through an interaction with the reductase domain.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 14070-14076.  
10677491 K.McMillan, M.Adler, D.S.Auld, J.J.Baldwin, E.Blasko, L.J.Browne, D.Chelsky, D.Davey, R.E.Dolle, K.A.Eagen, S.Erickson, R.I.Feldman, C.B.Glaser, C.Mallari, M.M.Morrissey, M.H.Ohlmeyer, G.Pan, J.F.Parkinson, G.B.Phillips, M.A.Polokoff, N.H.Sigal, R.Vergona, M.Whitlow, T.A.Young, and J.J.Devlin (2000).
Allosteric inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase dimerization discovered via combinatorial chemistry.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 1506-1511.
PDB code: 1dd7
10652305 M.Couture, D.J.Stuehr, and D.L.Rousseau (2000).
The ferrous dioxygen complex of the oxygenase domain of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 3201-3205.  
10671563 M.Rafie-Kolpin, P.J.Chefalo, Z.Hussain, J.Hahn, S.Uma, R.L.Matts, and J.J.Chen (2000).
Two heme-binding domains of heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha kinase. N terminus and kinase insertion.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 5171-5178.  
10717002 M.Tesauro, W.C.Thompson, P.Rogliani, L.Qi, P.P.Chaudhary, and J.Moss (2000).
Intracellular processing of endothelial nitric oxide synthase isoforms associated with differences in severity of cardiopulmonary diseases: cleavage of proteins with aspartate vs. glutamate at position 298.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 2832-2835.  
10777622 P.F.Chen, and K.K.Wu (2000).
Characterization of the roles of the 594-645 region in human endothelial nitric-oxide synthase in regulating calmodulin binding and electron transfer.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 13155-13163.  
10691780 P.Lane, and S.S.Gross (2000).
The autoinhibitory control element and calmodulin conspire to provide physiological modulation of endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity.
  Acta Physiol Scand, 168, 53-63.  
10844666 R.K.Poole, and M.N.Hughes (2000).
New functions for the ancient globin family: bacterial responses to nitric oxide and nitrosative stress.
  Mol Microbiol, 36, 775-783.  
10694400 S.Boggs, L.Huang, and D.J.Stuehr (2000).
Formation and reactions of the heme-dioxygen intermediate in the first and second steps of nitric oxide synthesis as studied by stopped-flow spectroscopy under single-turnover conditions.
  Biochemistry, 39, 2332-2339.  
10651627 S.G.Hymowitz, M.P.O'Connell, M.H.Ultsch, A.Hurst, K.Totpal, A.Ashkenazi, Vos, and R.F.Kelley (2000).
A unique zinc-binding site revealed by a high-resolution X-ray structure of homotrimeric Apo2L/TRAIL.
  Biochemistry, 39, 633-640.
PDB code: 1dg6
10608822 A.Leber, B.Hemmens, B.Klösch, W.Goessler, G.Raber, B.Mayer, and K.Schmidt (1999).
Characterization of recombinant human endothelial nitric-oxide synthase purified from the yeast Pichia pastoris.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 37658-37664.  
10387045 A.P.Ledbetter, K.McMillan, L.J.Roman, B.S.Masters, J.H.Dawson, and M.Sono (1999).
Low-temperature stabilization and spectroscopic characterization of the dioxygen complex of the ferrous neuronal nitric oxide synthase oxygenase domain.
  Biochemistry, 38, 8014-8021.  
10625434 A.R.Hurshman, C.Krebs, D.E.Edmondson, B.H.Huynh, and M.A.Marletta (1999).
Formation of a pterin radical in the reaction of the heme domain of inducible nitric oxide synthase with oxygen.
  Biochemistry, 38, 15689-15696.  
10455167 A.Reif, L.G.Fröhlich, P.Kotsonis, A.Frey, H.M.Bömmel, D.A.Wink, W.Pfleiderer, and H.H.Schmidt (1999).
Tetrahydrobiopterin inhibits monomerization and is consumed during catalysis in neuronal NO synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 24921-24929.  
10514497 B.Gallis, G.L.Corthals, D.R.Goodlett, H.Ueba, F.Kim, S.R.Presnell, D.Figeys, D.G.Harrison, B.C.Berk, R.Aebersold, and M.A.Corson (1999).
Identification of flow-dependent endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation sites by mass spectrometry and regulation of phosphorylation and nitric oxide production by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 30101-30108.  
10464242 B.R.Babu, C.Frey, and O.W.Griffith (1999).
L-arginine binding to nitric-oxide synthase. The role of H-bonds to the nonreactive guanidinium nitrogens.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 25218-25226.  
10562539 B.R.Crane, R.J.Rosenfeld, A.S.Arvai, D.K.Ghosh, S.Ghosh, J.A.Tainer, D.J.Stuehr, and E.D.Getzoff (1999).
N-terminal domain swapping and metal ion binding in nitric oxide synthase dimerization.
  EMBO J, 18, 6271-6281.
PDB codes: 1df1 1qom
10514451 C.F.Witteveen, J.Giovanelli, and S.Kaufman (1999).
Reactivity of tetrahydrobiopterin bound to nitric-oxide synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 29755-29762.  
10562538 D.K.Ghosh, B.R.Crane, S.Ghosh, D.Wolan, R.Gachhui, C.Crooks, A.Presta, J.A.Tainer, E.D.Getzoff, and D.J.Stuehr (1999).
Inducible nitric oxide synthase: role of the N-terminal beta-hairpin hook and pterin-binding segment in dimerization and tetrahydrobiopterin interaction.
  EMBO J, 18, 6260-6270.
PDB codes: 1dwv 1dww 1dwx
10409685 H.Li, C.S.Raman, C.B.Glaser, E.Blasko, T.A.Young, J.F.Parkinson, M.Whitlow, and T.L.Poulos (1999).
Crystal structures of zinc-free and -bound heme domain of human inducible nitric-oxide synthase. Implications for dimer stability and comparison with endothelial nitric-oxide synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 21276-21284.
PDB codes: 1nsi 2nsi
10419469 I.Rodríguez-Crespo, C.R.Nishida, G.M.Knudsen, and Montellano (1999).
Mutation of the five conserved histidines in the endothelial nitric-oxide synthase hemoprotein domain. No evidence for a non-heme metal requirement for catalysis.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 21617-21624.  
10563817 J.Moore, J.M.Wood, and K.U.Schallreuter (1999).
Evidence for specific complex formation between alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and 6(R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin using near infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy.
  Biochemistry, 38, 15317-15324.  
10224063 J.S.Scheele, E.Bruner, V.G.Kharitonov, P.Martásek, L.J.Roman, B.S.Masters, V.S.Sharma, and D.Magde (1999).
Kinetics of NO ligation with nitric-oxide synthase by flash photolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 13105-13110.  
10480877 J.Vásquez-Vivar, N.Hogg, P.Martásek, H.Karoui, K.A.Pritchard, and B.Kalyanaraman (1999).
Tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent inhibition of superoxide generation from neuronal nitric oxide synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 26736-26742.  
10488080 K.S.Christopherson, B.J.Hillier, W.A.Lim, and D.S.Bredt (1999).
PSD-95 assembles a ternary complex with the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor and a bivalent neuronal NO synthase PDZ domain.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 27467-27473.  
10455137 M.Négrerie, V.Berka, M.H.Vos, U.Liebl, J.C.Lambry, A.L.Tsai, and J.L.Martin (1999).
Geminate recombination of nitric oxide to endothelial nitric-oxide synthase and mechanistic implications.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 24694-24702.  
10625450 M.Sono, A.P.Ledbetter, K.McMillan, L.J.Roman, T.M.Shea, B.S.Masters, and J.H.Dawson (1999).
Essential thiol requirement to restore pterin- or substrate-binding capability and to regenerate native enzyme-type high-spin heme spectra in the Escherichia coli-expressed tetrahydrobiopterin-free oxygenase domain of neuronal nitric oxide synthase.
  Biochemistry, 38, 15853-15862.  
10329642 R.T.Miller, P.Martásek, C.S.Raman, and B.S.Masters (1999).
Zinc content of Escherichia coli-expressed constitutive isoforms of nitric-oxide synthase. Enzymatic activity and effect of pterin.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 14537-14540.  
10480900 S.Adak, C.Crooks, Q.Wang, B.R.Crane, J.A.Tainer, E.D.Getzoff, and D.J.Stuehr (1999).
Tryptophan 409 controls the activity of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by regulating nitric oxide feedback inhibition.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 26907-26911.  
10446182 S.Ghosh, D.Wolan, S.Adak, B.R.Crane, N.S.Kwon, J.A.Tainer, E.D.Getzoff, and D.J.Stuehr (1999).
Mutational analysis of the tetrahydrobiopterin-binding site in inducible nitric-oxide synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 24100-24112.  
10348620 T.L.Poulos, H.Li, and C.S.Raman (1999).
Heme-mediated oxygen activation in biology: cytochrome c oxidase and nitric oxide synthase.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 3, 131-137.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.