PDBsum entry 2hpd

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Oxidoreductase(oxygenase) PDB id
Protein chains
457 a.a. *
HEM ×2
Waters ×455
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Oxidoreductase(oxygenase)
Title: Crystal structure of hemoprotein domain of p450bm-3, a prototype for microsomal p450's
Structure: Cytochrome p450 bm-3. Chain: a, b. Engineered: yes
Source: Bacillus megaterium. Organism_taxid: 1404.
2.00Å     R-factor:   0.167    
Authors: K.G.Ravichandran,S.S.Boddupalli,C.A.Hasemann,J.A.Peterson, J.Deisenhofer
Key ref: K.G.Ravichandran et al. (1993). Crystal structure of hemoprotein domain of P450BM-3, a prototype for microsomal P450's. Science, 261, 731-736. PubMed id: 8342039 DOI: 10.1126/science.8342039
16-Sep-93     Release date:   31-Oct-93    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P14779  (CPXB_BACME) -  Bifunctional P-450/NADPH-P450 reductase
1049 a.a.
457 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class 2: E.C.  - Unspecific monooxygenase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: RH + reduced flavoprotein + O2 = ROH + oxidized flavoprotein + H2O
+ reduced flavoprotein
+ O(2)
+ oxidized flavoprotein
+ H(2)O
      Cofactor: Heme-thiolate
   Enzyme class 3: E.C.  - NADPH--hemoprotein reductase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: NADPH + n oxidized hemoprotein = NADP+ + n reduced hemoprotein
+ n oxidized hemoprotein
= NADP(+)
+ n reduced hemoprotein
      Cofactor: FAD; FMN
Note, where more than one E.C. class is given (as above), each may correspond to a different protein domain or, in the case of polyprotein precursors, to a different mature protein.
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     oxidation-reduction process   1 term 
  Biochemical function     oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen     3 terms  


DOI no: 10.1126/science.8342039 Science 261:731-736 (1993)
PubMed id: 8342039  
Crystal structure of hemoprotein domain of P450BM-3, a prototype for microsomal P450's.
K.G.Ravichandran, S.S.Boddupalli, C.A.Hasermann, J.A.Peterson, J.Deisenhofer.
Cytochrome P450BM-3, a bacterial fatty acid monoxygenase, resembles the eukaryotic microsomal P450's and their flavoprotein reductase in primary structure and function. The three-dimensional structure of the hemoprotein domain of P450BM-3 was determined by x-ray diffraction and refined to an R factor of 16.9 percent at 2.0 angstrom resolution. The structure consists of an alph and a beta domain. The active site heme is accessible through a long hydrophobic channel formed primarily by the beta domain and the B' and F helices of the alpha domain. The two molecules in the asymmetric unit differ in conformation around the substrate binding pocket. Substantial differences between P450BM-3 and P450cam, the only other P450 structure available, are observed around the substrate binding pocket and the regions important for redox partner binding. A general mechanism for proton transfer in P450's is also proposed.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21395496 D.R.Davydov (2011).
Microsomal monooxygenase as a multienzyme system: the role of P450-P450 interactions.
  Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol, 7, 543-558.  
21154803 M.Ma, S.G.Bell, W.Yang, Y.Hao, N.H.Rees, M.Bartlam, W.Zhou, L.L.Wong, and Z.Rao (2011).
Structural Analysis of CYP101C1 from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM12444.
  Chembiochem, 12, 88-99.
PDB codes: 3oft 3ofu
21161210 R.K.Gudiminchi, and M.S.Smit (2011).
Identification and characterization of 4-hexylbenzoic acid and 4-nonyloxybenzoic acid as substrates of CYP102A1.
  Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 90, 117-126.  
21431175 T.N.Waltham, H.M.Girvan, C.F.Butler, S.R.Rigby, A.J.Dunford, R.A.Holt, and A.W.Munro (2011).
Analysis of the oxidation of short chain alkynes by flavocytochrome P450 BM3.
  Metallomics, 3, 369-378.  
21240430 W.C.Huang, P.M.Cullis, E.L.Raven, and G.C.Roberts (2011).
Control of the stereo-selectivity of styrene epoxidation by cytochrome P450 BM3 using structure-based mutagenesis.
  Metallomics, 3, 410-416.  
21110374 C.J.Whitehouse, W.Yang, J.A.Yorke, B.C.Rowlatt, A.J.Strong, C.F.Blanford, S.G.Bell, M.Bartlam, L.L.Wong, and Z.Rao (2010).
Structural basis for the properties of two single-site proline mutants of CYP102A1 (P450BM3).
  Chembiochem, 11, 2549-2556.
PDB code: 3m4v
19808095 D.Ghosh, J.Griswold, M.Erman, and W.Pangborn (2010).
X-ray structure of human aromatase reveals an androgen-specific active site.
  J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 118, 197-202.  
20180779 H.M.Girvan, C.W.Levy, P.Williams, K.Fisher, M.R.Cheesman, S.E.Rigby, D.Leys, and A.W.Munro (2010).
Glutamate-haem ester bond formation is disfavoured in flavocytochrome P450 BM3: characterization of glutamate substitution mutants at the haem site of P450 BM3.
  Biochem J, 427, 455-466.
PDB codes: 3kx3 3kx4 3kx5
  21048857 I.Axarli, A.Prigipaki, and N.E.Labrou (2010).
Cytochrome P450 102A2 Catalyzes Efficient Oxidation of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate: A Molecular Tool for Remediation.
  Enzyme Res, 2010, 125429.  
20566567 K.Schlangen, S.Miosic, J.Thill, and H.Halbwirth (2010).
Cloning, functional expression, and characterization of a chalcone 3-hydroxylase from Cosmos sulphureus.
  J Exp Bot, 61, 3451-3459.  
20669042 L.E.Thornton, S.G.Rupasinghe, H.Peng, M.A.Schuler, and M.M.Neff (2010).
Arabidopsis CYP72C1 is an atypical cytochrome P450 that inactivates brassinosteroids.
  Plant Mol Biol, 74, 167-181.  
20190737 M.G.Shapiro, G.G.Westmeyer, P.A.Romero, J.O.Szablowski, B.Küster, A.Shah, C.R.Otey, R.Langer, F.H.Arnold, and A.Jasanoff (2010).
Directed evolution of a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent for noninvasive imaging of dopamine.
  Nat Biotechnol, 28, 264-270.  
20446763 T.C.Pochapsky, S.Kazanis, and M.Dang (2010).
Conformational plasticity and structure/function relationships in cytochromes P450.
  Antioxid Redox Signal, 13, 1273-1296.  
20950270 W.Yang, S.G.Bell, H.Wang, W.Zhou, M.Bartlam, L.L.Wong, and Z.Rao (2010).
The structure of CYP101D2 unveils a potential path for substrate entry into the active site.
  Biochem J, 433, 85-93.
PDB codes: 3nv5 3nv6
18710464 C.D.Holloway, S.M.MacKenzie, R.Fraser, S.Miller, M.Barr, D.Wilkinson, G.H.Forbes, E.Friel, J.M.Connell, and E.Davies (2009).
Effects of genetic variation in the aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene on enzyme function.
  Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 70, 363-371.  
19625248 C.Savino, L.C.Montemiglio, G.Sciara, A.E.Miele, S.G.Kendrew, P.Jemth, S.Gianni, and B.Vallone (2009).
Investigating the structural plasticity of a cytochrome P450: three-dimensional structures of P450 EryK and binding to its physiological substrate.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 29170-29179.
PDB codes: 2jjn 2jjo 2wio
19470512 C.Sheng, Z.Miao, H.Ji, J.Yao, W.Wang, X.Che, G.Dong, J.Lü, W.Guo, and W.Zhang (2009).
Three-dimensional model of lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase from Cryptococcus neoformans: active-site characterization and insights into azole binding.
  Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 53, 3487-3495.  
19575586 J.Kirby, and J.D.Keasling (2009).
Biosynthesis of plant isoprenoids: perspectives for microbial engineering.
  Annu Rev Plant Biol, 60, 335-355.  
17964298 B.L.Hilker, H.Fukushige, C.Hou, and D.Hildebrand (2008).
Comparison of Bacillus monooxygenase genes for unique fatty acid production.
  Prog Lipid Res, 47, 1.  
17957765 E.Stjernschantz, B.M.van Vugt-Lussenburg, A.Bonifacio, Beer, G.van der Zwan, C.Gooijer, J.N.Commandeur, N.P.Vermeulen, and C.Oostenbrink (2008).
Structural rationalization of novel drug metabolizing mutants of cytochrome P450 BM3.
  Proteins, 71, 336-352.  
18615618 G.Niu, Z.Wen, S.G.Rupasinghe, R.S.Zeng, M.R.Berenbaum, and M.A.Schuler (2008).
Aflatoxin B1 detoxification by CYP321A1 in Helicoverpa zea.
  Arch Insect Biochem Physiol, 69, 32-45.  
18026129 J.D.Maréchal, C.A.Kemp, G.C.Roberts, M.J.Paine, C.R.Wolf, and M.J.Sutcliffe (2008).
Insights into drug metabolism by cytochromes P450 from modelling studies of CYP2D6-drug interactions.
  Br J Pharmacol, 153, S82-S89.  
18787124 L.Li, Z.Chang, Z.Pan, Z.Q.Fu, and X.Wang (2008).
Modes of heme binding and substrate access for cytochrome P450 CYP74A revealed by crystal structures of allene oxide synthase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 13883-13888.
PDB codes: 3dam 3dan 3dbm
18661760 L.Q.Zhao, S.Han, and H.M.Tian (2008).
Progress in molecular-genetic studies on congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency.
  World J Pediatr, 4, 85-90.  
18483737 M.Dietrich, S.Eiben, C.Asta, T.A.Do, J.Pleiss, and V.B.Urlacher (2008).
Cloning, expression and characterisation of CYP102A7, a self-sufficient P450 monooxygenase from Bacillus licheniformis.
  Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 79, 931-940.  
18838690 M.J.Cryle, and I.Schlichting (2008).
Structural insights from a P450 Carrier Protein complex reveal how specificity is achieved in the P450(BioI) ACP complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 15696-15701.
PDB codes: 3ejb 3ejd 3eje
18473391 R.J.Branco, A.Seifert, M.Budde, V.B.Urlacher, M.J.Ramos, and J.Pleiss (2008).
Anchoring effects in a wide binding pocket: the molecular basis of regioselectivity in engineered cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from B. megaterium.
  Proteins, 73, 597-607.  
18270198 Y.T.Meharenna, K.E.Slessor, S.M.Cavaignac, T.L.Poulos, and J.J.De Voss (2008).
The critical role of substrate-protein hydrogen bonding in the control of regioselective hydroxylation in p450cin.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 10804-10812.
PDB codes: 3bdz 3be0
17534532 A.W.Munro, H.M.Girvan, and K.J.McLean (2007).
Variations on a (t)heme--novel mechanisms, redox partners and catalytic functions in the cytochrome P450 superfamily.
  Nat Prod Rep, 24, 585-609.  
17532492 C.H.Yun, K.H.Kim, D.H.Kim, H.C.Jung, and J.G.Pan (2007).
The bacterial P450 BM3: a prototype for a biocatalyst with human P450 activities.
  Trends Biotechnol, 25, 289-298.  
17235582 G.Di Nardo, A.Fantuzzi, A.Sideri, P.Panicco, C.Sassone, C.Giunta, and G.Gilardi (2007).
Wild-type CYP102A1 as a biocatalyst: turnover of drugs usually metabolised by human liver enzymes.
  J Biol Inorg Chem, 12, 313-323.  
17322527 K.A.Feenstra, E.B.Starikov, V.B.Urlacher, J.N.Commandeur, and N.P.Vermeulen (2007).
Combining substrate dynamics, binding statistics, and energy barriers to rationalize regioselective hydroxylation of octane and lauric acid by CYP102A1 and mutants.
  Protein Sci, 16, 420-431.  
17273868 L.Li, H.Cheng, J.Gai, and D.Yu (2007).
Genome-wide identification and characterization of putative cytochrome P450 genes in the model legume Medicago truncatula.
  Planta, 226, 109-123.  
17427946 S.G.Rupasinghe, H.Duan, and M.A.Schuler (2007).
Molecular definitions of fatty acid hydroxylases in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  Proteins, 68, 279-293.  
17119906 T.Robins, C.Bellanne-Chantelot, M.Barbaro, S.Cabrol, A.Wedell, and S.Lajic (2007).
Characterization of novel missense mutations in CYP21 causing congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  J Mol Med, 85, 247-255.  
17651237 W.Mao, M.A.Schuler, and M.R.Berenbaum (2007).
Cytochrome P450s in Papilio multicaudatus and the transition from oligophagy to polyphagy in the Papilionidae.
  Insect Mol Biol, 16, 481-490.  
16395678 A.D.Favia, A.Cavalli, M.Masetti, A.Carotti, and M.Recanatini (2006).
Three-dimensional model of the human aromatase enzyme and density functional parameterization of the iron-containing protoporphyrin IX for a molecular dynamics study of heme-cysteinato cytochromes.
  Proteins, 62, 1074-1087.
PDB code: 1tqa
16594730 C.R.Otey, M.Landwehr, J.B.Endelman, K.Hiraga, J.D.Bloom, and F.H.Arnold (2006).
Structure-guided recombination creates an artificial family of cytochromes P450.
  PLoS Biol, 4, e112.  
16500955 D.E.Prosser, Y.Guo, Z.Jia, and G.Jones (2006).
Structural motif-based homology modeling of CYP27A1 and site-directed mutational analyses affecting vitamin D hydroxylation.
  Biophys J, 90, 3389-3409.  
16825192 D.H.Sherman, S.Li, L.V.Yermalitskaya, Y.Kim, J.A.Smith, M.R.Waterman, and L.M.Podust (2006).
The structural basis for substrate anchoring, active site selectivity, and product formation by P450 PikC from Streptomyces venezuelae.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 26289-26297.
PDB codes: 2bvj 2c6h 2c7x 2cd8
16793528 Groot (2006).
Designing better drugs: predicting cytochrome P450 metabolism.
  Drug Discov Today, 11, 601-606.  
16001257 V.B.Urlacher, A.Makhsumkhanov, and R.D.Schmid (2006).
Biotransformation of beta-ionone by engineered cytochrome P450 BM-3.
  Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 70, 53-59.  
16640727 W.Mao, S.Rupasinghe, A.R.Zangerl, M.A.Schuler, and M.R.Berenbaum (2006).
Remarkable substrate-specificity of CYP6AB3 in Depressaria pastinacella, a highly specialized caterpillar.
  Insect Mol Biol, 15, 169-179.  
15880388 D.Roccatano, T.S.Wong, U.Schwaneberg, and M.Zacharias (2005).
Structural and dynamic properties of cytochrome P450 BM-3 in pure water and in a dimethylsulfoxide/water mixture.
  Biopolymers, 78, 259-267.  
16075201 D.Schleheck, and A.M.Cook (2005).
Omega-oxygenation of the alkyl sidechain of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) surfactant in Parvibaculum lavamentivorans(T).
  Arch Microbiol, 183, 369-377.  
16234920 H.E.Seward, H.M.Girvan, and A.W.Munro (2005).
Cytochrome P450s: creating novel ligand sets.
  Dalton Trans, (), 3419-3426.  
15770070 H.Yasui, S.Hayashi, and H.Sakurai (2005).
Possible involvement of singlet oxygen species as multiple oxidants in p450 catalytic reactions.
  Drug Metab Pharmacokinet, 20, 1.  
15857787 I.Axarli, A.Prigipaki, and N.E.Labrou (2005).
Engineering the substrate specificity of cytochrome P450 CYP102A2 by directed evolution: production of an efficient enzyme for bioconversion of fine chemicals.
  Biomol Eng, 22, 81-88.  
16028060 J.Bojunga, C.Welsch, I.Antes, M.Albrecht, T.Lengauer, and S.Zeuzem (2005).
Structural and functional analysis of a novel mutation of CYP21B in a heterozygote carrier of 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  Hum Genet, 117, 558-564.  
15617063 J.Mestres (2005).
Structure conservation in cytochromes P450.
  Proteins, 58, 596-609.  
16080215 P.Meinhold, M.W.Peters, M.M.Chen, K.Takahashi, and F.H.Arnold (2005).
Direct conversion of ethane to ethanol by engineered cytochrome P450 BM3.
  Chembiochem, 6, 1765-1768.  
15832445 W.M.Atkins (2005).
Non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics in cytochrome P450-catalyzed reactions.
  Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 45, 291-310.  
15030474 M.Amichot, S.Tarès, A.Brun-Barale, L.Arthaud, J.M.Bride, and J.B.Bergé (2004).
Point mutations associated with insecticide resistance in the Drosophila cytochrome P450 Cyp6a2 enable DDT metabolism.
  Eur J Biochem, 271, 1250-1257.  
15375636 M.Budde, S.C.Maurer, R.D.Schmid, and V.B.Urlacher (2004).
Cloning, expression and characterisation of CYP102A2, a self-sufficient P450 monooxygenase from Bacillus subtilis.
  Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 66, 180-186.  
15189165 O.Pylypenko, and I.Schlichting (2004).
Structural aspects of ligand binding to and electron transfer in bacterial and fungal P450s.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 73, 991.  
15606809 W.Li, A.R.Zangerl, M.A.Schuler, and M.R.Berenbaum (2004).
Characterization and evolution of furanocoumarin-inducible cytochrome P450s in the parsnip webworm, Depressaria pastinacella.
  Insect Mol Biol, 13, 603-613.  
12524265 A.Gorokhov, M.Negishi, E.F.Johnson, L.C.Pedersen, L.Perera, T.A.Darden, and L.G.Pedersen (2003).
Explicit water near the catalytic I helix Thr in the predicted solution structure of CYP2A4.
  Biophys J, 84, 57-68.  
14519119 B.D.Fleming, Y.Tian, S.G.Bell, L.L.Wong, V.Urlacher, and H.A.Hill (2003).
Redox properties of cytochrome p450BM3 measured by direct methods.
  Eur J Biochem, 270, 4082-4088.  
12831319 D.F.Lewis (2003).
P450 structures and oxidative metabolism of xenobiotics.
  Pharmacogenomics, 4, 387-395.  
14503006 M.A.Schuler, and D.Werck-Reichhart (2003).
Functional genomics of P450s.
  Annu Rev Plant Biol, 54, 629-667.  
12964165 O.Salazar, P.C.Cirino, and F.H.Arnold (2003).
Thermostabilization of a cytochrome p450 peroxygenase.
  Chembiochem, 4, 891-893.  
14661979 S.Izumi, H.Kaneko, T.Yamazaki, T.Hirata, and S.Kominami (2003).
Membrane topology of guinea pig cytochrome P450 17 alpha revealed by a combination of chemical modifications and mass spectrometry.
  Biochemistry, 42, 14663-14669.  
14648772 S.J.Smith, A.W.Munro, and W.E.Smith (2003).
Resonance Raman scattering of cytochrome P450 BM3 and effect of imidazole inhibitors.
  Biopolymers, 70, 620-627.  
14597705 T.L.Poulos (2003).
Cytochrome P450 flexibility.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 13121-13122.  
12968082 W.Li, M.A.Schuler, and M.R.Berenbaum (2003).
Diversification of furanocoumarin-metabolizing cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in two papilionids: Specificity and substrate encounter rate.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 14593-14598.  
12076537 A.W.Munro, D.G.Leys, K.J.McLean, K.R.Marshall, T.W.Ost, S.Daff, C.S.Miles, S.K.Chapman, D.A.Lysek, C.C.Moser, C.C.Page, and P.L.Dutton (2002).
P450 BM3: the very model of a modern flavocytochrome.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 27, 250-257.  
12047885 D.Butina, M.D.Segall, and K.Frankcombe (2002).
Predicting ADME properties in silico: methods and models.
  Drug Discov Today, 7, S83-S88.  
11826265 E.R.Simpson, C.Clyne, G.Rubin, W.C.Boon, K.Robertson, K.Britt, C.Speed, and M.Jones (2002).
Aromatase--a brief overview.
  Annu Rev Physiol, 64, 93.  
12452431 F.P.Guengerich (2002).
Rate-limiting steps in cytochrome P450 catalysis.
  Biol Chem, 383, 1553-1564.  
11933021 M.Recanatini, A.Cavalli, and P.Valenti (2002).
Nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors: recent advances.
  Med Res Rev, 22, 282-304.  
15618664 N.Murayama, T.Nakamura, M.Saeki, A.Soyama, Y.Saito, K.Sai, S.Ishida, O.Nakajima, M.Itoda, Y.Ohno, S.Ozawa, and J.Sawada (2002).
CYP3A4 gene polymorphisms influence testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation.
  Drug Metab Pharmacokinet, 17, 150-156.  
11874453 P.Auvray, C.Nativelle, R.Bureau, P.Dallemagne, G.E.Séralini, and P.Sourdaine (2002).
Study of substrate specificity of human aromatase by site directed mutagenesis.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 1393-1405.  
11959989 P.J.Winn, S.K.Lüdemann, R.Gauges, V.Lounnas, and R.C.Wade (2002).
Comparison of the dynamics of substrate access channels in three cytochrome P450s reveals different opening mechanisms and a novel functional role for a buried arginine.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 5361-5366.  
12081479 S.A.Usanov, S.E.Graham, G.I.Lepesheva, T.N.Azeva, N.V.Strushkevich, A.A.Gilep, R.W.Estabrook, and J.A.Peterson (2002).
Probing the interaction of bovine cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) with adrenodoxin: evaluating site-directed mutations by molecular modeling.
  Biochemistry, 41, 8310-8320.  
11922954 S.B.Kirton, C.A.Baxter, and M.J.Sutcliffe (2002).
Comparative modelling of cytochromes P450.
  Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 54, 385-406.  
12211002 S.B.Kirton, C.A.Kemp, N.P.Tomkinson, S.St-Gallay, and M.J.Sutcliffe (2002).
Impact of incorporating the 2C5 crystal structure into comparative models of cytochrome P450 2D6.
  Proteins, 49, 216-231.  
11997441 T.H.Bayburt, and S.G.Sligar (2002).
Single-molecule height measurements on microsomal cytochrome P450 in nanometer-scale phospholipid bilayer disks.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 6725-6730.  
12207646 Y.Sawada, K.Kinoshita, T.Akashi, T.Aoki, and S.Ayabe (2002).
Key amino acid residues required for aryl migration catalysed by the cytochrome P450 2-hydroxyisoflavanone synthase.
  Plant J, 31, 555-564.  
11358532 A.B.Carmichael, and L.L.Wong (2001).
Protein engineering of Bacillus megaterium CYP102.The oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
  Eur J Biochem, 268, 3117-3125.  
11606730 A.R.Dunn, I.J.Dmochowski, A.M.Bilwes, H.B.Gray, and B.R.Crane (2001).
Probing the open state of cytochrome P450cam with ruthenium-linker substrates.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 12420-12425.
PDB code: 1k2o
11329262 A.W.Munro, M.A.Noble, L.Robledo, S.N.Daff, and S.K.Chapman (2001).
Determination of the redox properties of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.
  Biochemistry, 40, 1956-1963.  
11258878 D.S.Lee, S.Y.Park, K.Yamane, E.Obayashi, H.Hori, and Y.Shiro (2001).
Structural characterization of n-butyl-isocyanide complexes of cytochromes P450nor and P450cam.
  Biochemistry, 40, 2669-2677.
PDB codes: 1gei 1gej 1gek 1gem
11692080 D.Tsuzuki, C.Takemi, S.Yamamoto, K.Tamagake, S.Imaoka, Y.Funae, H.Kataoka, S.Shinoda, and S.Narimatsu (2001).
Functional evaluation of cytochrome P450 2D6 with Gly42Arg substitution expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  Pharmacogenetics, 11, 709-718.  
11350928 H.K.Anandatheerthavarada, G.Amuthan, G.Biswas, M.A.Robin, R.Murali, M.R.Waterman, and N.G.Avadhani (2001).
Evolutionarily divergent electron donor proteins interact with P450MT2 through the same helical domain but different contact points.
  EMBO J, 20, 2394-2403.  
11456500 K.R.Henne, M.B.Fisher, K.R.Iyer, D.H.Lang, W.F.Trager, and A.E.Rettie (2001).
Active site characteristics of CYP4B1 probed with aromatic ligands.
  Biochemistry, 40, 8597-8605.  
11248033 L.M.Podust, T.L.Poulos, and M.R.Waterman (2001).
Crystal structure of cytochrome P450 14alpha -sterol demethylase (CYP51) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in complex with azole inhibitors.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 3068-3073.
PDB codes: 1e9x 1ea1
11828481 M.A.Noordermeer, G.A.Veldink, and J.F.Vliegenthart (2001).
Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase: a plant cytochrome p450 enzyme involved in wound healing and pest resistance.
  Chembiochem, 2, 494-504.  
11737215 N.Sawada, T.Sakaki, S.Kitanaka, S.Kato, and K.Inouye (2001).
Structure-function analysis of CYP27B1 and CYP27A1. Studies on mutants from patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type I (VDDR-I) and cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX).
  Eur J Biochem, 268, 6607-6615.  
10819987 C.Helvig, and J.H.Capdevila (2000).
Biochemical characterization of rat P450 2C11 fused to rat or bacterial NADPH-P450 reductase domains.
  Biochemistry, 39, 5196-5205.  
11150615 C.S.Miles, T.W.Ost, M.A.Noble, A.W.Munro, and S.K.Chapman (2000).
Protein engineering of cytochromes P-450.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1543, 383-407.  
11106776 D.F.Lewis, and P.Hlavica (2000).
Interactions between redox partners in various cytochrome P450 systems: functional and structural aspects.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1460, 353-374.  
  11178272 D.Werck-Reichhart, and R.Feyereisen (2000).
Cytochromes P450: a success story.
  Genome Biol, 1, REVIEWS3003.  
10806389 E.Anzenbacherová, N.Bec, P.Anzenbacher, J.Hudecek, P.Soucek, C.Jung, A.W.Munro, and R.Lange (2000).
Flexibility and stability of the structure of cytochromes P450 3A4 and BM-3.
  Eur J Biochem, 267, 2916-2920.  
10651645 J.D.Pikus, K.H.Mitchell, J.M.Studts, K.McClay, R.J.Steffan, and B.G.Fox (2000).
Threonine 201 in the diiron enzyme toluene 4-monooxygenase is not required for catalysis.
  Biochemistry, 39, 791-799.  
10757976 L.K.Lightning, J.P.Jones, T.Friedberg, M.P.Pritchard, M.Shou, T.H.Rushmore, and W.F.Trager (2000).
Mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by L-754,394.
  Biochemistry, 39, 4276-4287.  
11050228 M.Schalk, and R.Croteau (2000).
A single amino acid substitution (F363I) converts the regiochemistry of the spearmint (-)-limonene hydroxylase from a C6- to a C3-hydroxylase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 11948-11953.  
10678174 P.A.Williams, J.Cosme, V.Sridhar, E.F.Johnson, and D.E.McRee (2000).
Mammalian microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenase: structural adaptations for membrane binding and functional diversity.
  Mol Cell, 5, 121-131.
PDB code: 1dt6
10801323 S.V.Smith, A.P.Koley, R.Dai, R.C.Robinson, H.Leong, A.Markowitz, and F.K.Friedman (2000).
Conformational modulation of human cytochrome P450 2E1 by ethanol and other substrates: a CO flash photolysis study.
  Biochemistry, 39, 5731-5737.  
10953079 T.Iida, T.Sumita, A.Ohta, and M.Takagi (2000).
The cytochrome P450ALK multigene family of an n-alkane-assimilating yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica: cloning and characterization of genes coding for new CYP52 family members.
  Yeast, 16, 1077-1087.  
10704198 Y.T.Chang, and G.Loew (2000).
Homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, and analysis of CYP119, a P450 enzyme from extreme acidothermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.
  Biochemistry, 39, 2484-2498.  
10320659 D.J.Stuehr (1999).
Mammalian nitric oxide synthases.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1411, 217-230.  
9888815 D.R.Davydov, G.Hui Bon Hoa, and J.A.Peterson (1999).
Dynamics of protein-bound water in the heme domain of P450BM3 studied by high-pressure spectroscopy: comparison with P450cam and P450 2B4.
  Biochemistry, 38, 751-761.  
10570242 H.Li, and T.L.Poulos (1999).
Fatty acid metabolism, conformational change, and electron transfer in cytochrome P-450(BM-3).
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1441, 141-149.  
10051560 I.F.Sevrioukova, H.Li, H.Zhang, J.A.Peterson, and T.L.Poulos (1999).
Structure of a cytochrome P450-redox partner electron-transfer complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 1863-1868.
PDB codes: 1bu7 1bvy
10320335 M.Schalk, S.Nedelkina, G.Schoch, Y.Batard, and D.Werck-Reichhart (1999).
Role of unusual amino acid residues in the proximal and distal heme regions of a plant P450, CYP73A1.
  Biochemistry, 38, 6093-6103.  
10413523 M.Yamada, Y.Ohta, T.Sakaki, Y.Yabusaki, H.Ohkawa, and S.Kawato (1999).
Dynamic mobility of genetically expressed fusion protein between cytochrome P4501A1 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in yeast microsomes.
  Biochemistry, 38, 9465-9470.  
  10048323 Q.Zhao, S.Modi, G.Smith, M.Paine, P.D.McDonagh, C.R.Wolf, D.Tew, L.Y.Lian, G.C.Roberts, and H.P.Driessen (1999).
Crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human cytochrome P450 reductase at 1.93 A resolution.
  Protein Sci, 8, 298-306.
PDB code: 1b1c
10329788 S.Ito, T.Matsuoka, I.Watanabe, T.Kagasaki, N.Serizawa, and T.Hata (1999).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of cytochrome P450sca-2 from Streptomyces carbophilus involved in production of pravastatin sodium, a tissue-selective inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 55, 1209-1211.  
10584064 V.A.Payne, Y.T.Chang, and G.H.Loew (1999).
Homology modeling and substrate binding study of human CYP2C9 enzyme.
  Proteins, 37, 176-190.  
10584066 V.A.Payne, Y.T.Chang, and G.H.Loew (1999).
Homology modeling and substrate binding study of human CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 enzymes.
  Proteins, 37, 204-217.  
10024026 Y.T.Chang, and G.H.Loew (1999).
Homology modeling and substrate binding study of human CYP4A11 enzyme.
  Proteins, 34, 403-415.  
9520404 A.D.Vaz, D.F.McGinnity, and M.J.Coon (1998).
Epoxidation of olefins by cytochrome P450: evidence from site-specific mutagenesis for hydroperoxo-iron as an electrophilic oxidant.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 3555-3560.  
  9726253 C.Beaudoin, B.Lavallée, Y.Tremblay, D.W.Hum, R.Breton, Launoit, and A.Bélanger (1998).
Modulation of 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase activity of guinea pig cytochrome P450c17 by site-directed mutagenesis.
  DNA Cell Biol, 17, 707-715.  
  9797291 C.Denis-Larose, H.Bergeron, D.Labbé, C.W.Greer, J.Hawari, M.J.Grossman, B.M.Sankey, and P.C.Lau (1998).
Characterization of the basic replicon of Rhodococcus plasmid pSOX and development of a Rhodococcus-Escherichia coli shuttle vector.
  Appl Environ Microbiol, 64, 4363-4367.  
9630657 D.F.Lewis, E.Watson, and B.G.Lake (1998).
Evolution of the cytochrome P450 superfamily: sequence alignments and pharmacogenetics.
  Mutat Res, 410, 245-270.  
9851289 D.F.Lewis, P.J.Eddershaw, M.Dickins, M.H.Tarbit, and P.S.Goldfarb (1998).
Structural determinants of cytochrome P450 substrate specificity, binding affinity and catalytic rate.
  Chem Biol Interact, 115, 175-199.  
9485309 E.A.Dierks, S.C.Davis, and P.R.Ortiz de Montellano (1998).
Glu-320 and Asp-323 are determinants of the CYP4A1 hydroxylation regiospecificity and resistance to inactivation by 1-aminobenzotriazole.
  Biochemistry, 37, 1839-1847.  
9819219 F.Jung, K.J.Griffin, W.Song, T.H.Richardson, M.Yang, and E.F.Johnson (1998).
Identification of amino acid substitutions that confer a high affinity for sulfaphenazole binding and a high catalytic efficiency for warfarin metabolism to P450 2C19.
  Biochemistry, 37, 16270-16279.  
9828361 F.Valetti, S.J.Sadeghi, Y.T.Meharenna, S.R.Leliveld, and G.Gilardi (1998).
Engineering multi-domain redox proteins containing flavodoxin as bio-transformer: preparatory studies by rational design.
  Biosens Bioelectron, 13, 675-685.  
  9717384 H.Vanden Bossche, and L.Koymans (1998).
Cytochromes P450 in fungi.
  Mycoses, 41, 32-38.  
9635777 I.D.Macdonald, A.W.Munro, and W.E.Smith (1998).
Fatty acid-induced alteration of the porphyrin macrocycle of cytochrome P450 BM3.
  Biophys J, 74, 3241-3249.  
9497261 I.Stoilov, A.N.Akarsu, I.Alozie, A.Child, M.Barsoum-Homsy, M.E.Turacli, M.Or, R.A.Lewis, N.Ozdemir, G.Brice, S.G.Aktan, L.Chevrette, M.Coca-Prados, and M.Sarfarazi (1998).
Sequence analysis and homology modeling suggest that primary congenital glaucoma on 2p21 results from mutations disrupting either the hinge region or the conserved core structures of cytochrome P4501B1.
  Am J Hum Genet, 62, 573-584.  
9753700 J.A.Peterson, and S.E.Graham (1998).
A close family resemblance: the importance of structure in understanding cytochromes P450.
  Structure, 6, 1079-1085.  
9837822 J.T.Wang, C.J.Lin, S.M.Burridge, G.K.Fu, M.Labuda, A.A.Portale, and W.L.Miller (1998).
Genetics of vitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase deficiency in 17 families.
  Am J Hum Genet, 63, 1694-1702.  
9843385 M.A.Noble, L.Quaroni, G.D.Chumanov, K.L.Turner, S.K.Chapman, R.P.Hanzlik, and A.W.Munro (1998).
Imidazolyl carboxylic acids as mechanistic probes of flavocytochrome P-450 BM3.
  Biochemistry, 37, 15799-15807.  
9625333 M.Peter, K.Bünger, J.Sólyom, and W.G.Sippell (1998).
Mutation THR-185 ILE is associated with corticosterone methyl oxidase deficiency type II.
  Eur J Pediatr, 157, 378-381.  
9636025 M.Shimoji, H.Yin, L.Higgins, and J.P.Jones (1998).
Design of a novel P450: a functional bacterial-human cytochrome P450 chimera.
  Biochemistry, 37, 8848-8852.  
9649301 M.Vidakovic, S.G.Sligar, H.Li, and T.L.Poulos (1998).
Understanding the role of the essential Asp251 in cytochrome p450cam using site-directed mutagenesis, crystallography, and kinetic solvent isotope effect.
  Biochemistry, 37, 9211-9219.
PDB codes: 5cp4 6cp4
  9484813 N.Harada, and O.Hatano (1998).
Inhibitors of aromatase prevent degradation of the enzyme in cultured human tumour cells.
  Br J Cancer, 77, 567-572.  
9636024 N.Okamoto, Y.Imai, H.Shoun, and Y.Shiro (1998).
Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved threonine (Thr243) of the distal helix of fungal cytochrome P450nor.
  Biochemistry, 37, 8839-8847.  
17029727 O.Zakharieva, M.Grodzicki, A.X.Trautwein, C.Veeger, and I.M.Rietjens (1998).
Molecular orbital study of porphyrin-substrate interactions in cytochrome P450 catalysed aromatic hydroxylation of substituted anilines.
  Biophys Chem, 73, 189-203.  
9853678 R.Dai, S.Zhai, X.Wei, M.R.Pincus, R.E.Vestal, and F.K.Friedman (1998).
Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 1A2 by flavones: a molecular modeling study.
  J Protein Chem, 17, 643-650.  
  9435150 Y.C.Kao, C.Zhou, M.Sherman, C.A.Laughton, and S.Chen (1998).
Molecular basis of the inhibition of human aromatase (estrogen synthetase) by flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens: A site-directed mutagenesis study.
  Environ Health Perspect, 106, 85-92.  
9518732 Y.F.Xiao, L.Huang, and J.P.Morgan (1998).
Cytochrome P450: a novel system modulating Ca2+ channels and contraction in mammalian heart cells.
  J Physiol, 508, 777-792.  
8993324 C.Di Primo, E.Deprez, S.G.Sligar, and G.Hui Bon Hoa (1997).
Origin of the photoacoustic signal in cytochrome P-450cam: role of the Arg186-Asp251-Lys178 bifurcated salt bridge.
  Biochemistry, 36, 112-118.  
9048540 C.F.Oliver, S.Modi, M.J.Sutcliffe, W.U.Primrose, L.Y.Lian, and G.C.Roberts (1997).
A single mutation in cytochrome P450 BM3 changes substrate orientation in a catalytic intermediate and the regiospecificity of hydroxylation.
  Biochemistry, 36, 1567-1572.  
9206006 D.G.Kellner, S.A.Maves, and S.G.Sligar (1997).
Engineering cytochrome P450s for bioremediation.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 8, 274-278.  
9326943 D.H.Geller, R.J.Auchus, B.B.Mendonça, and W.L.Miller (1997).
The genetic and functional basis of isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency.
  Nat Genet, 17, 201-205.  
  8982010 G.C.Shaw, C.C.Sung, C.H.Liu, and H.S.Kao (1997).
A 53-base-pair inverted repeat negatively regulates expression of the adjacent and divergently oriented cytochrome P450(BM-1) gene and its regulatory gene, bm1P1, in Bacillus megaterium.
  J Bacteriol, 179, 280-283.  
9284282 G.E.Arnold, and R.L.Ornstein (1997).
Molecular dynamics study of time-correlated protein domain motions and molecular flexibility: cytochrome P450BM-3.
  Biophys J, 73, 1147-1159.  
9033595 H.Li, and T.L.Poulos (1997).
The structure of the cytochrome p450BM-3 haem domain complexed with the fatty acid substrate, palmitoleic acid.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 140-146.
PDB code: 1fag
9302260 K.Joehrer, S.Geley, E.M.Strasser-Wozak, R.Azziz, H.A.Wollmann, K.Schmitt, R.Kofler, and P.C.White (1997).
CYP11B1 mutations causing non-classic adrenal hyperplasia due to 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency.
  Hum Mol Genet, 6, 1829-1834.  
9119001 K.K.Khan, S.Mazumdar, S.Modi, M.Sutcliffe, G.C.Roberts, and S.Mitra (1997).
Steady-state and picosecond-time-resolved fluorescence studies on the recombinant heme domain of Bacillus megaterium cytochrome P-450.
  Eur J Biochem, 244, 361-370.  
8989319 K.M.Curnow, P.Mulatero, N.Emeric-Blanchouin, B.Aupetit-Faisant, P.Corvol, and L.Pascoe (1997).
The amino acid substitutions Ser288Gly and Val320Ala convert the cortisol producing enzyme, CYP11B1, into an aldosterone producing enzyme.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 32-35.  
9204888 M.B.Murataliev, M.Klein, A.Fulco, and R.Feyereisen (1997).
Functional interactions in cytochrome P450BM3: flavin semiquinone intermediates, role of NADP(H), and mechanism of electron transfer by the flavoprotein domain.
  Biochemistry, 36, 8401-8412.  
9223185 P.Jean, J.Pothier, P.M.Dansette, D.Mansuy, and A.Viari (1997).
Automated multiple analysis of protein structures: application to homology modeling of cytochromes P450.
  Proteins, 28, 388-404.  
9109653 S.Modi, D.E.Gilham, M.J.Sutcliffe, L.Y.Lian, W.U.Primrose, C.R.Wolf, and G.C.Roberts (1997).
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine as a substrate of cytochrome P450 2D6: allosteric effects of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.
  Biochemistry, 36, 4461-4470.  
9335524 S.Poli-Scaife, R.Attias, P.M.Dansette, and D.Mansuy (1997).
The substrate binding site of human liver cytochrome P450 2C9: an NMR study.
  Biochemistry, 36, 12672-12682.  
9334748 S.Y.Park, H.Shimizu, S.Adachi, A.Nakagawa, I.Tanaka, K.Nakahara, H.Shoun, E.Obayashi, H.Nakamura, T.Iizuka, and Y.Shiro (1997).
Crystal structure of nitric oxide reductase from denitrifying fungus Fusarium oxysporum.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 827-832.
PDB codes: 1rom 2rom
9122160 T.I.Oprea, G.Hummer, and A.E.Garcia (1997).
Identification of a functional water channel in cytochrome P450 enzymes.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 2133-2138.  
9154922 V.Lounnas, and R.C.Wade (1997).
Exceptionally stable salt bridges in cytochrome P450cam have functional roles.
  Biochemistry, 36, 5402-5417.  
9094743 V.Maiorov, and R.Abagyan (1997).
A new method for modeling large-scale rearrangements of protein domains.
  Proteins, 27, 410-424.  
8809764 A.W.Munro, and J.G.Lindsay (1996).
Bacterial cytochromes P-450.
  Mol Microbiol, 20, 1115-1125.  
8706747 A.W.Munro, S.Daff, J.R.Coggins, J.G.Lindsay, and S.K.Chapman (1996).
Probing electron transfer in flavocytochrome P-450 BM3 and its component domains.
  Eur J Biochem, 239, 403-409.  
9010604 E.F.Kolesanova, J.G.Kiselar, C.Jung, S.A.Kozin, G.Hui Bon Hoa, and A.I.Archakov (1996).
Antigenic mapping of bacterial and animal cytochromes P-450.
  Biochimie, 78, 752-762.  
8898299 E.H.Oliw, J.Bylund, and C.Herman (1996).
Bisallylic hydroxylation and epoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by cytochrome P450.
  Lipids, 31, 1003-1021.  
8897475 G.C.Roberts (1996).
The other kind of biological NMR--studies of enzyme-substrate interactions.
  Neurochem Res, 21, 1117-1124.  
9010597 H.Li, and T.L.Poulos (1996).
Conformational dynamics in cytochrome P450-substrate interactions.
  Biochimie, 78, 695-699.  
8718868 J.P.Hosler, J.P.Shapleigh, D.M.Mitchell, Y.Kim, M.A.Pressler, C.Georgiou, G.T.Babcock, J.O.Alben, S.Ferguson-Miller, and R.B.Gennis (1996).
Polar residues in helix VIII of subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase influence the activity and the structure of the active site.
  Biochemistry, 35, 10776-10783.  
8673608 J.R.Cupp-Vickery, O.Han, C.R.Hutchinson, and T.L.Poulos (1996).
Substrate-assisted catalysis in cytochrome P450eryF.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 632-637.  
9010605 K.Wakasugi, K.Ishimori, and I.Morishima (1996).
NMR studies of recombinant cytochrome P450cam mutants.
  Biochimie, 78, 763-770.  
8942669 M.B.Murataliev, and R.Feyereisen (1996).
Functional interactions in cytochrome P450BM3. Fatty acid substrate binding alters electron-transfer properties of the flavoprotein domain.
  Biochemistry, 35, 15029-15037.  
8605204 S.Modi, M.J.Paine, M.J.Sutcliffe, L.Y.Lian, W.U.Primrose, C.R.Wolf, and G.C.Roberts (1996).
A model for human cytochrome P450 2D6 based on homology modeling and NMR studies of substrate binding.
  Biochemistry, 35, 4540-4550.  
8612070 S.Modi, M.J.Sutcliffe, W.U.Primrose, L.Y.Lian, and G.C.Roberts (1996).
The catalytic mechanism of cytochrome P450 BM3 involves a 6 A movement of the bound substrate on reduction.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 414-417.  
9010609 T.Kudo, D.Tomura, D.L.Liu, X.Q.Dai, and H.Shoun (1996).
Two isozymes of P450nor of Cylindrocarpon tonkinense: molecular cloning of the cDNAs and genes, expressions in the yeast, and the putative NAD(P)H-binding site.
  Biochimie, 78, 792-799.  
8612066 T.L.Poulos (1996).
Ligands and electrons and haem proteins.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 401-403.  
8710874 Z.Y.Zhu, and S.Karlin (1996).
Clusters of charged residues in protein three-dimensional structures.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 8350-8355.  
7578214 A.W.Munro, J.G.Lindsay, J.R.Coggins, S.M.Kelly, and N.C.Price (1995).
NADPH oxidase activity of cytochrome P-450 BM3 and its constituent reductase domain.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1231, 255-264.  
7743131 C.A.Hasemann, R.G.Kurumbail, S.S.Boddupalli, J.A.Peterson, and J.Deisenhofer (1995).
Structure and function of cytochromes P450: a comparative analysis of three crystal structures.
  Structure, 3, 41-62.  
7483659 D.F.Lewis, and B.G.Lake (1995).
Molecular modelling of members of the P4502A subfamily: application to studies of enzyme specificity.
  Xenobiotica, 25, 585-598.  
  7645302 D.F.Lewis (1995).
Three-dimensional models of human and other mammalian microsomal P450s constructed from an alignment with P450102 (P450bm3).
  Xenobiotica, 25, 333-366.  
  8719910 D.F.Lewis, B.G.Lake, and D.V.Parke (1995).
Molecular orbital-generated QSARs in a homologous series of alkoxyresorufins and studies of their interactive docking with P450s.
  Xenobiotica, 25, 1355-1369.  
7548239 E.O.Ayalogu, J.Snelling, D.F.Lewis, S.Talwar, M.N.Clifford, and C.Ioannides (1995).
Induction of hepatic CYP1A2 by the oral administration of caffeine to rats: lack of association with the Ah locus.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1272, 89-94.  
  7485152 G.Zhang, H.Rodriguez, C.E.Fardella, D.A.Harris, and W.L.Miller (1995).
Mutation T318M in the CYP11B2 gene encoding P450c11AS (aldosterone synthase) causes corticosterone methyl oxidase II deficiency.
  Am J Hum Genet, 57, 1037-1043.  
7749919 J.R.Cupp-Vickery, and T.L.Poulos (1995).
Structure of cytochrome P450eryF involved in erythromycin biosynthesis.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 144-153.
PDB code: 1oxa
7784427 M.D.Paulsen, and R.L.Ornstein (1995).
Dramatic differences in the motions of the mouth of open and closed cytochrome P450BM-3 by molecular dynamics simulations.
  Proteins, 21, 237-243.  
8747463 M.Sundaramoorthy, J.Terner, and T.L.Poulos (1995).
The crystal structure of chloroperoxidase: a heme peroxidase--cytochrome P450 functional hybrid.
  Structure, 3, 1367-1377.
PDB codes: 1cpo 2cpo
  7549871 S.Graham-Lorence, B.Amarneh, R.E.White, J.A.Peterson, and E.R.Simpson (1995).
A three-dimensional model of aromatase cytochrome P450.
  Protein Sci, 4, 1065-1080.  
8749364 T.L.Poulos (1995).
Cytochrome P450.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 767-774.  
7957192 A.Bellamine, J.C.Gautier, P.Urban, and D.Pompon (1994).
Chimeras of the human cytochrome P450 1A family produced in yeast. Accumulation in microsomal membranes, enzyme kinetics and stability.
  Eur J Biochem, 225, 1005-1013.  
7765007 D.B.Janssen, and J.P.Schanstra (1994).
Engineering proteins for environmental applications.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 5, 253-259.  
7922023 H.Li, and T.L.Poulos (1994).
Structural variation in heme enzymes: a comparative analysis of peroxidase and P450 crystal structures.
  Structure, 2, 461-464.  
7846029 J.R.Cupp-Vickery, H.Li, and T.L.Poulos (1994).
Preliminary crystallographic analysis of an enzyme involved in erythromycin biosynthesis: cytochrome P450eryF.
  Proteins, 20, 197-201.  
8081391 P.C.White, M.T.Tusie-Luna, M.I.New, and P.W.Speiser (1994).
Mutations in steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21).
  Hum Mutat, 3, 373-378.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.