PDBsum entry 2axt

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protein ligands metals Protein-protein interface(s) links
Electron transport PDB id
Protein chains
335 a.a. *
488 a.a. *
447 a.a. *
340 a.a. *
82 a.a. *
35 a.a. *
64 a.a. *
35 a.a. *
34 a.a. *
37 a.a. *
37 a.a. *
36 a.a. *
242 a.a. *
30 a.a. *
98 a.a. *
137 a.a. *
104 a.a. *
62 a.a. *
BCT ×2
UNK ×34
CLA ×70
PHO ×4
HEM ×4
PQ9 ×4
OEC ×2
BCR ×22
MGE ×12
DGD ×8
LHG ×2
LMT ×6
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Electron transport
Title: Crystal structure of photosystem ii from thermosynechococcus
Structure: Photosystem q(b) protein. Chain: a, a. Fragment: residues 1-344. Synonym: reaction centre subunit d1, 32 kda thylakoid membr protein, photosystem ii protein d1. Cp47 protein. Chain: b, b. Synonym: antenna subunit cp47. Photosystem ii cp43 protein.
Source: Thermosynechococcus elongatus. Organism_taxid: 146786. Organism_taxid: 197221. Strain: bp-1. Organism_taxid: 146786
Biol. unit: 36mer (from PQS)
3.00Å     R-factor:   0.234     R-free:   0.286
Authors: B.Loll,J.Kern,W.Saenger,A.Zouni,J.Biesiadka
Key ref:
B.Loll et al. (2005). Towards complete cofactor arrangement in the 3.0 A resolution structure of photosystem II. Nature, 438, 1040-1044. PubMed id: 16355230 DOI: 10.1038/nature04224
06-Sep-05     Release date:   27-Dec-05    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P0A444  (PSBA1_THEEB) -  Photosystem Q(B) protein 1
360 a.a.
335 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q9F1M3  (Q9F1M3_9CHRO) -  CP47 protein
510 a.a.
488 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q8DIF8  (Q8DIF8_THEEB) -  Photosystem II CP43 protein
461 a.a.
447 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q8CM25  (PSBD_THEEB) -  Photosystem II D2 protein
352 a.a.
340 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q8DIP0  (PSBE_THEEB) -  Cytochrome b559 subunit alpha
84 a.a.
82 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q8DIN9  (PSBF_THEEB) -  Cytochrome b559 subunit beta
45 a.a.
35 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q8DJ43  (PSBH_THEEB) -  Photosystem II reaction center protein H
66 a.a.
64 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q8DJZ6  (PSBI_THEEB) -  Photosystem II reaction center protein I
38 a.a.
35 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P59087  (PSBJ_THEEB) -  Photosystem II reaction center protein J
40 a.a.
34 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q9F1K9  (PSBK_THEEB) -  Photosystem II reaction center protein K
46 a.a.
37 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q8DIN8  (PSBL_THEEB) -  Photosystem II reaction center protein L
37 a.a.
37 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q8DHA7  (PSBM_THEEB) -  Photosystem II reaction center protein M
36 a.a.
36 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P0A431  (PSBO_THEEB) -  Photosystem II manganese-stabilizing polypeptide
272 a.a.
242 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q8DIQ0  (PSBT_THEEB) -  Photosystem II reaction center protein T
32 a.a.
30 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q9F1L5  (PSBU_THEEB) -  Photosystem II 12 kDa extrinsic protein
134 a.a.
98 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P0A386  (CY550_THEEB) -  Cytochrome c-550
163 a.a.
137 a.a.
Protein chains
No UniProt id for this chain
Struc: 104 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q8DHJ2  (PSBZ_THEEB) -  Photosystem II reaction center protein Z
62 a.a.
62 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: Chains A, D, a, d: E.C.  - Photosystem Ii.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: 2 H2O + 2 plastoquinone + 4 light = O2 + 2 plastoquinol
2 × H(2)O
+ 2 × plastoquinone
+ 4 × light
= O(2)
+ 2 × plastoquinol
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     membrane   12 terms 
  Biological process     oxidation-reduction process   10 terms 
  Biochemical function     electron carrier activity     10 terms  


DOI no: 10.1038/nature04224 Nature 438:1040-1044 (2005)
PubMed id: 16355230  
Towards complete cofactor arrangement in the 3.0 A resolution structure of photosystem II.
B.Loll, J.Kern, W.Saenger, A.Zouni, J.Biesiadka.
Oxygenic photosynthesis in plants, algae and cyanobacteria is initiated at photosystem II, a homodimeric multisubunit protein-cofactor complex embedded in the thylakoid membrane. Photosystem II captures sunlight and powers the unique photo-induced oxidation of water to atmospheric oxygen. Crystallographic investigations of cyanobacterial photosystem II have provided several medium-resolution structures (3.8 to 3.2 A) that explain the general arrangement of the protein matrix and cofactors, but do not give a full picture of the complex. Here we describe the most complete cyanobacterial photosystem II structure obtained so far, showing locations of and interactions between 20 protein subunits and 77 cofactors per monomer. Assignment of 11 beta-carotenes yields insights into electron and energy transfer and photo-protection mechanisms in the reaction centre and antenna subunits. The high number of 14 integrally bound lipids reflects the structural and functional importance of these molecules for flexibility within and assembly of photosystem II. A lipophilic pathway is proposed for the diffusion of secondary plastoquinone that transfers redox equivalents from photosystem II to the photosynthetic chain. The structure provides information about the Mn4Ca cluster, where oxidation of water takes place. Our study uncovers near-atomic details necessary to understand the processes that convert light to chemical energy.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 3.
Figure 3: Redox-active cofactors and electron transfer chain. a, View along the membrane plane. The cofactors of the electron transfer chain (P[D1]/P[D2], Chl[D1]/Chl[D2], Pheo[D1]/Pheo[D2], Q[A]/Q[B]) are related by the pseudo-C2 axis (arrow). Fe^2+ (blue), Mn (red) and Ca^2+ (yellow) ions are shown as spheres. b, Schematic representation of the view in a. Selected distances (in angstroms) are drawn between cofactor centres (black lines) and edges of systems (red dotted lines).
Figure 4.
Figure 4: Oxygen-evolving centre. a, Electron density of the Mn[4]Ca cluster, viewed similarly to Fig. 3a. Surrounding amino acids of D1 (yellow) and CP43 (magenta) are indicated; Mn is red and Ca^2+ is orange. The 2F[o] - F[c] map is contoured at the 1.2 level. b, Schematic view of the Mn[4]Ca cluster. Distances between Mn (red) and Ca^2+ (orange) are indicated by the connecting lines (grey, 2.7 ; blue, 3.3 , green, 3.4 ). Amino acids of the first coordination sphere are black; those of the second sphere are grey; distances are given in angstroms. c, Superposition of the current Mn[4]Ca structure (coloured as in a) with that of ref. 5 (D1 in green, CP43 in orange, Mn in violet and Ca^2+ in yellow, respectively).
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature (2005, 438, 1040-1044) copyright 2005.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
  21469224 A.R.Jaszewski, S.Petrie, R.J.Pace, and R.Stranger (2011).
Toward the Assignment of the Manganese Oxidation Pattern in the Water-Oxidizing Complex of Photosystem II: A Time-Dependent DFT Study of XANES Energies.
  Chemistry, 17, 5699-5713.  
20512415 A.Williamson, B.Conlan, W.Hillier, and T.Wydrzynski (2011).
The evolution of Photosystem II: insights into the past and future.
  Photosynth Res, 107, 71-86.  
20963747 C.M.Liu, D.Q.Zhang, and D.B.Zhu (2011).
Ring like octadecanuclear mixed-valence manganese cluster with a spin ground state of 20.
  Chem Asian J, 6, 74-77.  
21487931 C.Pagliano, F.Chimirri, G.Saracco, F.Marsano, and J.Barber (2011).
One-step isolation and biochemical characterization of a highly active plant PSII monomeric core.
  Photosynth Res, 108, 33-46.  
21145779 E.R.Moellering, and C.Benning (2011).
Galactoglycerolipid metabolism under stress: a time for remodeling.
  Trends Plant Sci, 16, 98.  
21336416 E.Romero, I.H.van Stokkum, J.P.Dekker, and R.van Grondelle (2011).
Ultrafast carotenoid band shifts correlated with ChlZ excited states in the photosystem II reaction center: are the carotenoids involved in energy transfer?
  Phys Chem Chem Phys, 13, 5573-5575.  
21249156 G.Rea, M.Lambreva, F.Polticelli, I.Bertalan, A.Antonacci, S.Pastorelli, M.Damasso, U.Johanningmeier, and M.T.Giardi (2011).
Directed evolution and in silico analysis of reaction centre proteins reveal molecular signatures of photosynthesis adaptation to radiation pressure.
  PLoS One, 6, e16216.  
21382038 I.Ohad, A.Berg, S.M.Berkowicz, A.Kaplan, and N.Keren (2011).
Photoinactivation of photosystem II: is there more than one way to skin a cat?
  Physiol Plant, 142, 79-86.  
21288250 I.Vass (2011).
Role of charge recombination processes in photodamage and photoprotection of the photosystem II complex.
  Physiol Plant, 142, 6.  
21265891 J.G.García-Cerdán, L.Kovács, T.Tóth, S.Kereïche, E.Aseeva, E.J.Boekema, F.Mamedov, C.Funk, and W.P.Schröder (2011).
The PsbW protein stabilizes the supramolecular organization of photosystem II in higher plants.
  Plant J, 65, 368-381.  
20831593 J.Nickelsen, B.Rengstl, A.Stengel, M.Schottkowski, J.Soll, and E.Ankele (2011).
Biogenesis of the cyanobacterial thylakoid membrane system--an update.
  FEMS Microbiol Lett, 315, 1-5.  
20449659 J.P.Allen, and J.C.Williams (2011).
The evolutionary pathway from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis examined by comparison of the properties of photosystem II and bacterial reaction centers.
  Photosynth Res, 107, 59-69.  
20938980 K.Illergård, A.Kauko, and A.Elofsson (2011).
Why are polar residues within the membrane core evolutionary conserved?
  Proteins, 79, 79-91.  
21283862 M.Yagi, S.Tajima, M.Komi, and H.Yamazaki (2011).
Highly active and tunable catalysts for O2 evolution from water based on mononuclear ruthenium(II) monoaquo complexes.
  Dalton Trans, 40, 3802-3804.  
21394376 R.K.Seidler-Egdal, A.Nielsen, A.D.Bond, M.J.Bjerrum, and C.J.McKenzie (2011).
High turnover catalysis of water oxidation by Mn(II) complexes of monoanionic pentadentate ligands.
  Dalton Trans, 40, 3849-3858.  
21243136 S.Banerjee, M.Nandy, S.Sen, S.Mandal, G.M.Rosair, A.M.Slawin, C.J.Gómez García, J.M.Clemente-Juan, E.Zangrando, N.Guidolin, and S.Mitra (2011).
Isolation of four new CoII/CoIII and NiII complexes with a pentadentate Schiff base ligand: syntheses, structural descriptions and magnetic studies.
  Dalton Trans, 40, 1652-1661.  
21322104 V.I.Novoderezhkin, E.Romero, J.P.Dekker, and R.van Grondelle (2011).
Multiple Charge-Separation Pathways in Photosystem II: Modeling of Transient Absorption Kinetics.
  Chemphyschem, 12, 681-688.  
21394369 W.M.Sameera, C.J.McKenzie, and J.E.McGrady (2011).
On the mechanism of water oxidation by a bimetallic manganese catalyst: a density functional study.
  Dalton Trans, 40, 3859-3870.  
21058299 Y.Yang, T.A.Ramelot, J.R.Cort, D.Wang, C.Ciccosanti, K.Hamilton, R.Nair, B.Rost, T.B.Acton, R.Xiao, J.K.Everett, G.T.Montelione, and M.A.Kennedy (2011).
Solution NMR structure of photosystem II reaction center protein Psb28 from Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803.
  Proteins, 79, 340-344.
PDB code: 2kvo
21455629 Z.Gardian, J.Tichý, and F.Vácha (2011).
Structure of PSI, PSII and antennae complexes from yellow-green alga Xanthonema debile.
  Photosynth Res, 108, 25-32.  
19923216 A.Amunts, H.Toporik, A.Borovikova, and N.Nelson (2010).
Structure determination and improved model of plant photosystem I.
  J Biol Chem, 285, 3478-3486.
PDB codes: 2wsc 2wse 2wsf 3lw5
20553414 A.Gauthier, D.Joly, S.Boisvert, and R.Carpentier (2010).
Period-four modulation of photosystem II primary quinone acceptor (Q(A)) reduction/oxidation kinetics in thylakoid membranes.
  Photochem Photobiol, 86, 1064-1070.  
20352642 A.Guskov, A.Gabdulkhakov, M.Broser, C.Glöckner, J.Hellmich, J.Kern, J.Frank, F.Müh, W.Saenger, and A.Zouni (2010).
Recent progress in the crystallographic studies of photosystem II.
  Chemphyschem, 11, 1160-1171.  
19843012 A.M.Zbierzak, M.Kanwischer, C.Wille, P.A.Vidi, P.Giavalisco, A.Lohmann, I.Briesen, S.Porfirova, C.Bréhélin, F.Kessler, and P.Dörmann (2010).
Intersection of the tocopherol and plastoquinol metabolic pathways at the plastoglobule.
  Biochem J, 425, 389-399.  
20197046 B.van Oort, M.Alberts, Bianchi, L.Dall'Osto, R.Bassi, G.Trinkunas, R.Croce, and H.van Amerongen (2010).
Effect of antenna-depletion in Photosystem II on excitation energy transfer in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  Biophys J, 98, 922-931.  
20625575 C.Costentin, M.Robert, and J.M.Savéant (2010).
Concerted proton-electron transfers in the oxidation of phenols.
  Phys Chem Chem Phys, 12, 11179-11190.  
20689874 C.Costentin, M.Robert, and J.M.Savéant (2010).
Reorganization energies and pre-exponential factors in the one-electron electrochemical and homogeneous oxidation of phenols coupled with an intramolecular amine-driven proton transfer.
  Phys Chem Chem Phys, 12, 13061-13069.  
20007972 C.H.Hung, H.J.Hwang, Y.H.Chen, Y.F.Chiu, S.C.Ke, R.L.Burnap, and H.A.Chu (2010).
Spectroscopic and functional characterizations of cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 mutants on and near the heme axial ligand of cytochrome b559 in photosystem II.
  J Biol Chem, 285, 5653-5663.  
20680216 C.Kozoni, E.Manolopoulou, M.Siczek, T.Lis, E.K.Brechin, and C.J.Milios (2010).
Polynuclear manganese amino acid complexes.
  Dalton Trans, 39, 7943-7950.  
21063907 D.Piano, S.El Alaoui, H.J.Korza, R.Filipek, I.Sabala, P.Haniewicz, C.Buechel, D.De Sanctis, and M.Bochtler (2010).
Crystallization of the photosystem II core complex and its chlorophyll binding subunit CP43 from transplastomic plants of Nicotiana tabacum.
  Photosynth Res, 106, 221-226.  
20861897 F.M.Toma, A.Sartorel, M.Iurlo, M.Carraro, P.Parisse, C.Maccato, S.Rapino, B.R.Gonzalez, H.Amenitsch, T.Da Ros, L.Casalis, A.Goldoni, M.Marcaccio, G.Scorrano, G.Scoles, F.Paolucci, M.Prato, and M.Bonchio (2010).
Efficient water oxidation at carbon nanotube-polyoxometalate electrocatalytic interfaces.
  Nat Chem, 2, 826-831.  
20666926 H.J.Hou (2010).
Structural and mechanistic aspects of Mn-oxo and co-based compounds in water oxidation catalysis and potential applications in solar fuel production.
  J Integr Plant Biol, 52, 704-711.  
20521115 H.N.Su, B.B.Xie, X.Y.Zhang, B.C.Zhou, and Y.Z.Zhang (2010).
The supramolecular architecture, function, and regulation of thylakoid membranes in red algae: an overview.
  Photosynth Res, 106, 73-87.  
20442929 I.S.Zulfugarov, A.Tovuu, B.Dogsom, C.Y.Lee, and C.H.Lee (2010).
PsbS-specific zeaxanthin-independent changes in fluorescence emission spectrum as a signature of energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching in higher plants.
  Photochem Photobiol Sci, 9, 697-703.  
20582313 J.L.Klassen (2010).
Phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns in microbial carotenoid biosynthesis are revealed by comparative genomics.
  PLoS One, 5, e11257.  
20829481 J.S.Park, E.Karnas, K.Ohkubo, P.Chen, K.M.Kadish, S.Fukuzumi, C.W.Bielawski, T.W.Hudnall, V.M.Lynch, and J.L.Sessler (2010).
Ion-mediated electron transfer in a supramolecular donor-acceptor ensemble.
  Science, 329, 1324-1327.  
20729888 K.D.Karlin (2010).
Bioinorganic chemistry: Redox control of oxoiron(IV).
  Nat Chem, 2, 711-712.  
20667175 K.R.Vinothkumar, and R.Henderson (2010).
Structures of membrane proteins.
  Q Rev Biophys, 43, 65.  
20003074 K.Sugimoto, M.Tsuzuki, and N.Sato (2010).
Regulation of synthesis and degradation of a sulfolipid under sulfur-starved conditions and its physiological significance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
  New Phytol, 185, 676-686.  
20194360 M.Iwai, T.Suzuki, A.Kamiyama, I.Sakurai, N.Dohmae, Y.Inoue, and M.Ikeuchi (2010).
The PsbK subunit is required for the stable assembly and stability of other small subunits in the PSII complex in the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1.
  Plant Cell Physiol, 51, 554-560.  
20200751 M.Katsuda, E.Hishikawa, M.Mitani, and Y.Yoshioka (2010).
Theoretical study of electronic structures of [(H2O)3(O-)Mn(mu-oxo)2Mn(OH2)4]q+ (q = 2 or 3) with Mn-O bond.
  Phys Chem Chem Phys, 12, 2730-2739.  
20449307 M.Miyachi, Y.Yamanoi, Y.Shibata, H.Matsumoto, K.Nakazato, M.Konno, K.Ito, Y.Inoue, and H.Nishihara (2010).
A photosensing system composed of photosystem I, molecular wire, gold nanoparticle, and double surfactants in water.
  Chem Commun (Camb), 46, 2557-2559.  
20231245 O.Sozer, J.Komenda, B.Ughy, I.Domonkos, H.Laczkó-Dobos, P.Malec, Z.Gombos, and M.Kis (2010).
Involvement of carotenoids in the synthesis and assembly of protein subunits of photosynthetic reaction centers of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.
  Plant Cell Physiol, 51, 823-835.  
20338950 P.J.Nixon, F.Michoux, J.Yu, M.Boehm, and J.Komenda (2010).
Recent advances in understanding the assembly and repair of photosystem II.
  Ann Bot, 106, 1.  
20391456 P.Liebisch, and H.Dau (2010).
Linear dichroism in the XANES of partially oriented samples: theory and application to the photosynthetic manganese complex.
  Chemphyschem, 11, 1236-1247.  
20607375 R.K.Sinha, A.Tiwari, and P.Pospísil (2010).
Water-splitting manganese complex controls light-induced redox changes of cytochrome b559 in photosystem II.
  J Bioenerg Biomembr, 42, 337-344.  
20645128 S.B.Krumova, S.P.Laptenok, L.Kovács, T.Tóth, A.van Hoek, G.Garab, and H.van Amerongen (2010).
Digalactosyl-diacylglycerol-deficiency lowers the thermal stability of thylakoid membranes.
  Photosynth Res, 105, 229-242.  
20729896 S.Fukuzumi, Y.Morimoto, H.Kotani, P.Naumov, Y.M.Lee, and W.Nam (2010).
Crystal structure of a metal ion-bound oxoiron(IV) complex and implications for biological electron transfer.
  Nat Chem, 2, 756-759.  
20457933 S.Larom, F.Salama, G.Schuster, and N.Adir (2010).
Engineering of an alternative electron transfer path in photosystem II.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 9650-9655.  
20967896 S.Petrie, R.Stranger, and R.J.Pace (2010).
Hydration preferences for Mn4Ca cluster models of photosystem II: location of potential substrate-water binding sites.
  Chemistry, 16, 14026-14042.  
20645339 S.Schinzel, J.Schraut, A.V.Arbuznikov, P.E.Siegbahn, and M.Kaupp (2010).
Density functional calculations of (55)Mn, (14)N and (13)C electron paramagnetic resonance parameters support an energetically feasible model system for the S(2) state of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II.
  Chemistry, 16, 10424-10438.  
20164644 S.Westenhoff, E.Nazarenko, E.Malmerberg, J.Davidsson, G.Katona, and R.Neutze (2010).
Time-resolved structural studies of protein reaction dynamics: a smorgasbord of X-ray approaches.
  Acta Crystallogr A, 66, 207-219.  
20394099 T.Renger, and E.Schlodder (2010).
Primary photophysical processes in photosystem II: bridging the gap between crystal structure and optical spectra.
  Chemphyschem, 11, 1141-1153.  
18800362 A.Gauthier, and R.Carpentier (2009).
Disorganization of the Mn4Ca complex of photosystem II by ruthenium red: a thermoluminescence study.
  Luminescence, 24, 108-114.  
19219048 A.Guskov, J.Kern, A.Gabdulkhakov, M.Broser, A.Zouni, and W.Saenger (2009).
Cyanobacterial photosystem II at 2.9-A resolution and the role of quinones, lipids, channels and chloride.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 16, 334-342.
PDB codes: 3bz1 3bz2
19584254 C.Costentin, M.Robert, J.M.Savéant, and A.L.Teillout (2009).
Concerted proton-coupled electron transfers in aquo/hydroxo/oxo metal complexes: electrochemistry of [OsII(bpy)2py(OH2)]2+ in water.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 11829-11836.  
19333505 C.J.Milios, R.Inglis, L.F.Jones, A.Prescimone, S.Parsons, W.Wernsdorfer, and E.K.Brechin (2009).
Constructing clusters with enhanced magnetic properties by assembling and distorting Mn3 building blocks.
  Dalton Trans, (), 2812-2822.  
19639145 C.Teutloff, S.Pudollek, S.Keßen, M.Broser, A.Zouni, and R.Bittl (2009).
Electronic structure of the tyrosine D radical and the water-splitting complex from pulsed ENDOR spectroscopy on photosystem II single crystals.
  Phys Chem Chem Phys, 11, 6715-6726.  
19326375 D.A.Pantazis, M.Orio, T.Petrenko, S.Zein, E.Bill, W.Lubitz, J.Messinger, and F.Neese (2009).
A new quantum chemical approach to the magnetic properties of oligonuclear transition-metal complexes: application to a model for the tetranuclear manganese cluster of photosystem II.
  Chemistry, 15, 5108-5123.  
19639153 D.A.Pantazis, M.Orio, T.Petrenko, S.Zein, W.Lubitz, J.Messinger, and F.Neese (2009).
Structure of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II: information on the S(2) state through quantum chemical calculation of its magnetic properties.
  Phys Chem Chem Phys, 11, 6788-6798.  
19598157 D.Cecconi, S.Orzetti, E.Vandelle, S.Rinalducci, L.Zolla, and M.Delledonne (2009).
Protein nitration during defense response in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  Electrophoresis, 30, 2460-2468.  
19586025 D.L.Jenson, and B.A.Barry (2009).
Proton-coupled electron transfer in photosystem II: proton inventory of a redox active tyrosine.
  J Am Chem Soc, 131, 10567-10573.  
19916558 E.C.Minnihan, M.R.Seyedsayamdost, and J.Stubbe (2009).
Use of 3-aminotyrosine to examine the pathway dependence of radical propagation in Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase.
  Biochemistry, 48, 12125-12132.  
19633920 E.M.Sproviero, M.B.Newcomer, J.A.Gascón, E.R.Batista, G.W.Brudvig, and V.S.Batista (2009).
The MoD-QM/MM methodology for structural refinement of photosystem II and other biological macromolecules.
  Photosynth Res, 102, 455-470.  
19526323 E.Schlodder (2009).
Introduction to optical methods in photosynthesis.
  Photosynth Res, 101, 93.  
19265377 F.Rappaport, A.Boussac, D.A.Force, J.Peloquin, M.Brynda, M.Sugiura, S.Un, R.D.Britt, and B.A.Diner (2009).
Probing the coupling between proton and electron transfer in photosystem II core complexes containing a 3-fluorotyrosine.
  J Am Chem Soc, 131, 4425-4433.  
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16788069 H.Ishikita, W.Saenger, J.Biesiadka, B.Loll, and E.W.Knapp (2006).
How photosynthetic reaction centers control oxidation power in chlorophyll pairs P680, P700, and P870.
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New techniques for membrane protein crystallization tested on photosystem II core complex of Pisum sativum.
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17082458 J.Yano, J.Kern, K.Sauer, M.J.Latimer, Y.Pushkar, J.Biesiadka, B.Loll, W.Saenger, J.Messinger, A.Zouni, and V.K.Yachandra (2006).
Where water is oxidized to dioxygen: structure of the photosynthetic Mn4Ca cluster.
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Excitation energy transfer and charge separation in photosystem II membranes revisited.
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No evidence from FTIR difference spectroscopy that glutamate-189 of the D1 polypeptide ligates a Mn ion that undergoes oxidation during the S0 to S1, S1 to S2, or S2 to S3 transitions in photosystem II.
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Voltage changes involving photosystem II quinone-iron complex turnover.
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Tetranuclear polybipyridyl complexes of Ru(II) and Mn(II), their electro- and photo-induced transformation into di-mu-oxo Mn(III)Mn(IV) hexanuclear complexes.
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Microorganisms and clean energy.
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A time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy glimpse into the oxygen-evolving complex of photosynthesis.
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