PDBsum entry 1tag

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Gtp-binding protein PDB id
Jmol PyMol
Protein chain
314 a.a. *
Waters ×340
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Gtp-binding protein
Title: Structural determinants for activation of the alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric g protein
Structure: Transducin-alpha. Chain: a. Engineered: yes
Source: Bos taurus. Cattle. Organism_taxid: 9913. Organ: eye retina. Tissue: retina cell:
1.80Å     R-factor:   0.187     R-free:   0.211
Authors: D.G.Lambright,J.P.Noel,H.E.Hamm,P.B.Sigler
Key ref: D.G.Lambright et al. (1994). Structural determinants for activation of the alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein. Nature, 369, 621-628. PubMed id: 8208289
23-Nov-94     Release date:   07-Feb-95    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P04695  (GNAT1_BOVIN) -  Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-1
350 a.a.
314 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     photoreceptor inner segment   6 terms 
  Biological process     response to stimulus   17 terms 
  Biochemical function     acyl binding     11 terms  


Nature 369:621-628 (1994)
PubMed id: 8208289  
Structural determinants for activation of the alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein.
D.G.Lambright, J.P.Noel, H.E.Hamm, P.B.Sigler.
The 1.8 A crystal structure of transducin alpha.GDP, when compared to that of the activated complex with GTP-gamma S, reveals the nature of the conformational changes that occur on activation of a heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunit. Structural changes initiated by direct contacts with the terminal phosphate of GTP propagate to regions that have been implicated in effector activation. The changes are distinct from those observed in other members of the GTPase superfamily.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
20639466 A.Nishimura, K.Kitano, J.Takasaki, M.Taniguchi, N.Mizuno, K.Tago, T.Hakoshima, and H.Itoh (2010).
Structural basis for the specific inhibition of heterotrimeric Gq protein by a small molecule.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 13666-13671.
PDB code: 3ah8
20139237 F.D.Ivey, F.X.Taglia, F.Yang, M.M.Lander, D.A.Kelly, and C.S.Hoffman (2010).
Activated alleles of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe gpa2+ Galpha gene identify residues involved in GDP-GTP exchange.
  Eukaryot Cell, 9, 626-633.  
20351284 N.A.Lambert, C.A.Johnston, S.D.Cappell, S.Kuravi, A.J.Kimple, F.S.Willard, and D.P.Siderovski (2010).
Regulators of G-protein signaling accelerate GPCR signaling kinetics and govern sensitivity solely by accelerating GTPase activity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 7066-7071.  
19222191 A.M.Preininger, M.A.Funk, W.M.Oldham, S.M.Meier, C.A.Johnston, S.Adhikary, A.J.Kimple, D.P.Siderovski, H.E.Hamm, and T.M.Iverson (2009).
Helix dipole movement and conformational variability contribute to allosteric GDP release in Galphai subunits.
  Biochemistry, 48, 2630-2642.
PDB code: 3d7m
19760664 H.E.Hamm, S.M.Meier, G.Liao, and A.M.Preininger (2009).
Trp fluorescence reveals an activation-dependent cation-pi interaction in the Switch II region of Galphai proteins.
  Protein Sci, 18, 2326-2335.  
19212142 W.E.McIntire (2009).
Structural determinants involved in the formation and activation of G protein betagamma dimers.
  Neurosignals, 17, 82-99.  
18975915 A.Goc, T.E.Angel, B.Jastrzebska, B.Wang, P.L.Wintrode, and K.Palczewski (2008).
Different properties of the native and reconstituted heterotrimeric G protein transducin.
  Biochemistry, 47, 12409-12419.  
18258741 A.R.Zurita, and L.Birnbaumer (2008).
The same mutation in Gsalpha and transducin alpha reveals behavioral differences between these highly homologous G protein alpha-subunits.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 2363-2368.  
18488142 A.V.Smrcka (2008).
G protein betagamma subunits: central mediators of G protein-coupled receptor signaling.
  Cell Mol Life Sci, 65, 2191-2214.  
18373982 B.T.Layden, W.Saengsawang, R.J.Donati, S.Yang, D.C.Mulhearn, M.E.Johnson, and M.M.Rasenick (2008).
Structural model of a complex between the heterotrimeric G protein, Gsalpha, and tubulin.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1783, 964-973.  
18356833 C.T.De Souza, M.Pereira-da-Silva, E.P.Araujo, J.Morari, F.Alvarez-Rojas, S.Bordin, D.C.Moreira-Filho, J.B.Carvalheira, M.J.Saad, and L.A.Velloso (2008).
Distinct subsets of hypothalamic genes are modulated by two different thermogenesis-inducing stimuli.
  Obesity (Silver Spring), 16, 1239-1247.  
18454845 K.Sayar, O.U─čur, T.Liu, V.J.Hilser, and O.Onaran (2008).
Exploring allosteric coupling in the alpha-subunit of Heterotrimeric G proteins using evolutionary and ensemble-based approaches.
  BMC Struct Biol, 8, 23.  
18782760 M.Kosloff, E.Alexov, V.Y.Arshavsky, and B.Honig (2008).
Electrostatic and Lipid Anchor Contributions to the Interaction of Transducin with Membranes: MECHANISTIC IMPLICATIONS FOR ACTIVATION AND TRANSLOCATION.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 31197-31207.  
18033822 M.R.Whorton, B.Jastrzebska, P.S.Park, D.Fotiadis, A.Engel, K.Palczewski, and R.K.Sunahara (2008).
Efficient coupling of transducin to monomeric rhodopsin in a phospholipid bilayer.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 4387-4394.  
  19025606 M.Y.Yu, M.K.Ho, A.M.Liu, and Y.H.Wong (2008).
Mutations on the Switch III region and the alpha3 helix of Galpha16 differentially affect receptor coupling and regulation of downstream effectors.
  J Mol Signal, 3, 17.  
18043707 W.M.Oldham, and H.E.Hamm (2008).
Heterotrimeric G protein activation by G-protein-coupled receptors.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 9, 60-71.  
17639598 B.Barren, and N.O.Artemyev (2007).
Mechanisms of dominant negative G-protein alpha subunits.
  J Neurosci Res, 85, 3505-3514.  
17240454 J.B.Blumer, A.V.Smrcka, and S.M.Lanier (2007).
Mechanistic pathways and biological roles for receptor-independent activators of G-protein signaling.
  Pharmacol Ther, 113, 488-506.  
17588669 L.S.Weinstein, T.Xie, Q.H.Zhang, and M.Chen (2007).
Studies of the regulation and function of the Gs alpha gene Gnas using gene targeting technology.
  Pharmacol Ther, 115, 271-291.  
17295319 M.D.Daily, and J.J.Gray (2007).
Local motions in a benchmark of allosteric proteins.
  Proteins, 67, 385-399.  
17253127 M.Jaffé, and J.Bubis (2007).
Use of 5'-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl] guanosine as an affinity probe for the guanine nucleotide-binding site of transducin.
  Protein J, 26, 125-133.  
17109408 P.S.Crozier, M.J.Stevens, and T.B.Woolf (2007).
How a small change in retinal leads to G-protein activation: initial events suggested by molecular dynamics calculations.
  Proteins, 66, 559-574.  
17584745 T.Niranjan, X.Guo, J.Victor, A.Lu, and J.P.Hirsch (2007).
Kelch repeat protein interacts with the yeast Galpha subunit Gpa2p at a site that couples receptor binding to guanine nucleotide exchange.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 24231-24238.  
17200862 T.Wieland (2007).
Interaction of nucleoside diphosphate kinase B with heterotrimeric G protein betagamma dimers: consequences on G protein activation and stability.
  Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 374, 373-383.  
17463080 W.M.Oldham, N.Van Eps, A.M.Preininger, W.L.Hubbell, and H.E.Hamm (2007).
Mapping allosteric connections from the receptor to the nucleotide-binding pocket of heterotrimeric G proteins.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 7927-7932.  
16388592 B.Kreutz, D.M.Yau, M.R.Nance, S.Tanabe, J.J.Tesmer, and T.Kozasa (2006).
A new approach to producing functional G alpha subunits yields the activated and deactivated structures of G alpha(12/13) proteins.
  Biochemistry, 45, 167-174.
PDB codes: 1zca 1zcb
16698293 C.Hill, A.Goddard, J.Davey, and G.Ladds (2006).
Investigating RGS proteins in yeast.
  Semin Cell Dev Biol, 17, 352-362.  
16407202 C.L.Piscitelli, T.E.Angel, B.W.Bailey, P.Hargrave, E.A.Dratz, and C.M.Lawrence (2006).
Equilibrium between metarhodopsin-I and metarhodopsin-II is dependent on the conformation of the third cytoplasmic loop.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 6813-6825.
PDB code: 1xgy
16704413 E.H.Wu, B.H.Tam, and Y.H.Wong (2006).
Constitutively active alpha subunits of G(q/11) and G(12/13) families inhibit activation of the pro-survival Akt signaling cascade.
  FEBS J, 273, 2388-2398.  
16957986 H.J.Hippe, and T.Wieland (2006).
High energy phosphate transfer by NDPK B/Gbetagammacomplexes--an alternative signaling pathway involved in the regulation of basal cAMP production.
  J Bioenerg Biomembr, 38, 197-203.  
16407225 K.D.Ridge, N.G.Abdulaev, C.Zhang, T.Ngo, D.M.Brabazon, and J.P.Marino (2006).
Conformational changes associated with receptor-stimulated guanine nucleotide exchange in a heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunit: NMR analysis of GTPgammaS-bound states.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 7635-7648.  
17177891 M.A.Anderson, B.Ogbay, O.G.Kisselev, D.P.Cistola, and G.R.Marshall (2006).
Alternate binding mode of C-terminal phenethylamine analogs of G(t)alpha(340-350) to photoactivated rhodopsin.
  Chem Biol Drug Des, 68, 295-307.  
17053066 N.Van Eps, W.M.Oldham, H.E.Hamm, and W.L.Hubbell (2006).
Structural and dynamical changes in an alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein along the activation pathway.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 16194-16199.  
16469737 S.Majumdar, S.Ramachandran, and R.A.Cerione (2006).
New insights into the role of conserved, essential residues in the GTP binding/GTP hydrolytic cycle of large G proteins.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 9219-9226.  
16955094 S.Ramachandran, and R.A.Cerione (2006).
How GPCRs hit the switch.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 13, 756-757.  
16460808 V.V.Gurevich, and E.V.Gurevich (2006).
The structural basis of arrestin-mediated regulation of G-protein-coupled receptors.
  Pharmacol Ther, 110, 465-502.  
15747061 C.R.McCudden, M.D.Hains, R.J.Kimple, D.P.Siderovski, and F.S.Willard (2005).
G-protein signaling: back to the future.
  Cell Mol Life Sci, 62, 551-577.  
15983037 L.L.Anderson, G.R.Marshall, E.Crocker, S.O.Smith, and T.J.Baranski (2005).
Motion of carboxyl terminus of Galpha is restricted upon G protein activation. A solution NMR study using semisynthetic Galpha subunits.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 31019-31026.  
16041481 N.G.Abdulaev, C.Zhang, A.Dinh, T.Ngo, P.N.Bryan, D.M.Brabazon, J.P.Marino, and K.D.Ridge (2005).
Bacterial expression and one-step purification of an isotope-labeled heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunit.
  J Biomol NMR, 32, 31-40.  
16129667 N.G.Abdulaev, T.Ngo, C.Zhang, A.Dinh, D.M.Brabazon, K.D.Ridge, and J.P.Marino (2005).
Heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunit adopts a "preactivated" conformation when associated with betagamma-subunits.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 38071-38080.  
16103122 R.Pereira, and R.A.Cerione (2005).
A switch 3 point mutation in the alpha subunit of transducin yields a unique dominant-negative inhibitor.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 35696-35703.  
15898053 S.Albrizio, G.Caliendo, G.D'Errico, E.Novellino, P.Rovero, and A.M.D'Ursi (2005).
Galphas protein C-terminal alpha-helix at the interface: does the plasma membrane play a critical role in the Galphas protein functionality?
  J Pept Sci, 11, 617-626.  
15084592 B.Ahvazi, K.M.Boeshans, and P.M.Steinert (2004).
Crystal structure of transglutaminase 3 in complex with GMP: structural basis for nucleotide specificity.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 26716-26725.
PDB code: 1sgx
14645372 B.Ahvazi, K.M.Boeshans, W.Idler, U.Baxa, P.M.Steinert, and F.Rastinejad (2004).
Structural basis for the coordinated regulation of transglutaminase 3 by guanine nucleotides and calcium/magnesium.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 7180-7192.
PDB codes: 1rle 1rll 1vjj
15128951 C.J.Thomas, X.Du, P.Li, Y.Wang, E.M.Ross, and S.R.Sprang (2004).
Uncoupling conformational change from GTP hydrolysis in a heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunit.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 7560-7565.
PDB codes: 1svk 1svs
15189163 F.S.Willard, R.J.Kimple, and D.P.Siderovski (2004).
Return of the GDI: the GoLoco motif in cell division.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 73, 925-951.  
15271992 S.Majumdar, S.Ramachandran, and R.A.Cerione (2004).
Perturbing the linker regions of the alpha-subunit of transducin: a new class of constitutively active GTP-binding proteins.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 40137-40145.  
15009535 Y.Jin, H.Zhong, J.R.Omnaas, R.R.Neubig, and H.I.Mosberg (2004).
Structure-based design, synthesis, and pharmacologic evaluation of peptide RGS4 inhibitors.
  J Pept Res, 63, 141-146.  
12399457 J.M.Manganello, J.S.Huang, T.Kozasa, T.A.Voyno-Yasenetskaya, and G.C.Le Breton (2003).
Protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of the Galpha13 switch I region alters the Galphabetagamma13-G protein-coupled receptor complex and inhibits Rho activation.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 124-130.  
13678959 K.D.Ridge, N.G.Abdulaev, M.Sousa, and K.Palczewski (2003).
Phototransduction: crystal clear.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 28, 479-487.  
14622106 M.Natochin, and N.O.Artemyev (2003).
A point mutation uncouples transducin-alpha from the photoreceptor RGS and effector proteins.
  J Neurochem, 87, 1262-1271.  
12773813 M.S.Hossain, T.Koba, and K.Harada (2003).
Cloning and characterization of two full-length cDNAs, TaGA1 and TaGA2, encoding G-protein alpha subunits expressed differentially in wheat genome.
  Genes Genet Syst, 78, 127-138.  
12665529 S.L.Chinault, and K.J.Blumer (2003).
The C-terminal tail preceding the CAAX box of a yeast G protein gamma subunit is dispensable for receptor-mediated G protein activation in vivo.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 20638-20644.  
12212810 A.M.Dursi, S.Albrizio, G.Greco, S.Mazzeo, M.R.Mazzoni, E.Novellino, and P.Rovero (2002).
Conformational analysis of the Galpha(s) protein C-terminal region.
  J Pept Sci, 8, 476-488.  
12146960 M.Medkova, A.M.Preininger, N.J.Yu, W.L.Hubbell, and H.E.Hamm (2002).
Conformational changes in the amino-terminal helix of the G protein alpha(i1) following dissociation from Gbetagamma subunit and activation.
  Biochemistry, 41, 9962-9972.  
11772024 M.Natochin, K.G.Gasimov, and N.O.Artemyev (2002).
A GPR-protein interaction surface of Gi(alpha): implications for the mechanism of GDP-release inhibition.
  Biochemistry, 41, 258-265.  
11867708 S.Liu, R.A.Cerione, and J.Clardy (2002).
Structural basis for the guanine nucleotide-binding activity of tissue transglutaminase and its regulation of transamidation activity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 2743-2747.
PDB code: 1kv3
11988478 T.P.Sakmar, S.T.Menon, E.P.Marin, and E.S.Awad (2002).
Rhodopsin: insights from recent structural studies.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 31, 443-484.  
12105390 T.Vetter, and M.J.Lohse (2002).
Magnesium and the parathyroid.
  Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens, 11, 403-410.  
11575773 H.Sigel, E.M.Bianchi, N.A.Corfù, Y.Kinjo, R.Tribolet, and R.B.Martin (2001).
Stabilities and isomeric equilibria in solutions of monomeric metal-ion complexes of guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP4-) and inosine 5'-triphosphate (ITP4-) in comparison with those of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP4-).
  Chemistry, 7, 3729-3737.  
11331068 J.Sondek, and D.P.Siderovski (2001).
Ggamma-like (GGL) domains: new frontiers in G-protein signaling and beta-propeller scaffolding.
  Biochem Pharmacol, 61, 1329-1337.  
11320237 K.Cai, Y.Itoh, and H.G.Khorana (2001).
Mapping of contact sites in complex formation between transducin and light-activated rhodopsin by covalent crosslinking: use of a photoactivatable reagent.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 4877-4882.  
11596917 M.J.Marino, T.G.Sherman, and D.C.Wood (2001).
Partial cloning of putative G-proteins modulating mechanotransduction in the ciliate stentor.
  J Eukaryot Microbiol, 48, 527-536.  
  11598203 N.Zhang, Y.Long, and P.N.Devreotes (2001).
Ggamma in dictyostelium: its role in localization of gbetagamma to the membrane is required for chemotaxis in shallow gradients.
  Mol Biol Cell, 12, 3204-3213.  
11598136 R.Vaiskunaite, T.Kozasa, and T.A.Voyno-Yasenetskaya (2001).
Interaction between the G alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G(12) protein and Hsp90 is required for G alpha(12) signaling.
  J Biol Chem, 276, 46088-46093.  
11070368 T.Ebrey, and Y.Koutalos (2001).
Vertebrate photoreceptors.
  Prog Retin Eye Res, 20, 49-94.  
11579096 Y.Chen, B.Yoo, J.B.Lee, G.Weng, and R.Iyengar (2001).
The signal transfer regions of G alpha(s).
  J Biol Chem, 276, 45751-45754.  
10760577 C.Kaydamov, A.Tewes, K.Adler, and R.Manteuffel (2000).
Molecular characterization of cDNAs encoding G protein alpha and beta subunits and study of their temporal and spatial expression patterns in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1491, 143-160.  
10966476 E.M.Ross, and T.M.Wilkie (2000).
GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 69, 795-827.  
10702259 K.G.Muradov, and N.O.Artemyev (2000).
Loss of the effector function in a transducin-alpha mutant associated with Nougaret night blindness.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 6969-6974.  
10747781 K.G.Muradov, and N.O.Artemyev (2000).
Coupling between the N- and C-terminal domains influences transducin-alpha intrinsic GDP/GTP exchange.
  Biochemistry, 39, 3937-3942.  
10933780 T.M.Glennon, J.Villà, and A.Warshel (2000).
How does GAP catalyze the GTPase reaction of Ras? A computer simulation study.
  Biochemistry, 39, 9641-9651.  
10819995 T.Shimizu, K.S.Thorn, A.Ruby, and R.D.Vale (2000).
ATPase kinetic characterization and single molecule behavior of mutant human kinesin motors defective in microtubule-based motility.
  Biochemistry, 39, 5265-5273.  
10037756 A.Gilchrist, M.Bünemann, A.Li, M.M.Hosey, and H.E.Hamm (1999).
A dominant-negative strategy for studying roles of G proteins in vivo.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 6610-6616.  
10690405 A.Rattner, H.Sun, and J.Nathans (1999).
Molecular genetics of human retinal disease.
  Annu Rev Genet, 33, 89.  
9891006 C.S.Yang, N.P.Skiba, M.R.Mazzoni, and H.E.Hamm (1999).
Conformational changes at the carboxyl terminus of Galpha occur during G protein activation.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 2379-2385.  
10200251 D.R.Warner, and L.S.Weinstein (1999).
A mutation in the heterotrimeric stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha-subunit with impaired receptor-mediated activation because of elevated GTPase activity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 4268-4272.  
9988742 D.R.Warner, R.Romanowski, S.Yu, and L.S.Weinstein (1999).
Mutagenesis of the conserved residue Glu259 of Gsalpha demonstrates the importance of interactions between switches 2 and 3 for activation.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 4977-4984.  
10371466 H.LeVine (1999).
Structural features of heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled receptors and their modulatory proteins.
  Mol Neurobiol, 19, 111-149.  
10387038 H.R.Seitz, M.Heck, K.P.Hofmann, T.Alt, J.Pellaud, and A.Seelig (1999).
Molecular determinants of the reversible membrane anchorage of the G-protein transducin.
  Biochemistry, 38, 7950-7960.  
10542252 H.Wang, and C.C.Malbon (1999).
G(s)alpha repression of adipogenesis via Syk.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 32159-32166.  
10476071 J.F.Marsh, and L.S.Kaufman (1999).
Cloning and characterisation of PGA1 and PGA2: two G protein alpha-subunits from pea that promote growth in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  Plant J, 19, 237-247.  
10593970 J.Meng, J.L.Glick, P.Polakis, and P.J.Casey (1999).
Functional interaction between Galpha(z) and Rap1GAP suggests a novel form of cellular cross-talk.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 36663-36669.  
10595873 J.S.Lott, J.I.Wilde, A.Carne, N.Evans, and J.B.Findlay (1999).
The ordered visual transduction complex of the squid photoreceptor membrane.
  Mol Neurobiol, 20, 61-80.  
10714367 M.A.Levine (1999).
Clinical implications of genetic defects in G proteins: oncogenic mutations in G alpha s as the molecular basis for the McCune-Albright syndrome.
  Arch Med Res, 30, 522-531.  
10535933 M.Gangal, T.Clifford, J.Deich, X.Cheng, S.S.Taylor, and D.A.Johnson (1999).
Mobilization of the A-kinase N-myristate through an isoform-specific intermolecular switch.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 12394-12399.  
10075679 M.Natochin, A.E.Granovsky, K.G.Muradov, and N.O.Artemyev (1999).
Roles of the transducin alpha-subunit alpha4-helix/alpha4-beta6 loop in the receptor and effector interactions.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 7865-7869.  
10085118 N.P.Skiba, C.S.Yang, T.Huang, H.Bae, and H.E.Hamm (1999).
The alpha-helical domain of Galphat determines specific interaction with regulator of G protein signaling 9.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 8770-8778.  
10403517 P.Chidiac, V.S.Markin, and E.M.Ross (1999).
Kinetic control of guanine nucleotide binding to soluble Galpha(q).
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10026210 S.Fukuhara, C.Murga, M.Zohar, T.Igishi, and J.S.Gutkind (1999).
A novel PDZ domain containing guanine nucleotide exchange factor links heterotrimeric G proteins to Rho.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 5868-5879.  
10231357 S.Sack, F.J.Kull, and E.Mandelkow (1999).
Motor proteins of the kinesin family. Structures, variations, and nucleotide binding sites.
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Calf spleen purine nucleoside phosphorylase complexed with substrates and substrate analogues.
  Biochemistry, 37, 7135-7146.
PDB codes: 1a9o 1a9p 1a9q 1a9r 1a9s 1a9t 1pbn
9727495 C.U.Lenzen, D.Steinmann, S.W.Whiteheart, and W.I.Weis (1998).
Crystal structure of the hexamerization domain of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein.
  Cell, 94, 525-536.
PDB code: 1d2n
9772163 D.E.Coleman, and S.R.Sprang (1998).
Crystal structures of the G protein Gi alpha 1 complexed with GDP and Mg2+: a crystallographic titration experiment.
  Biochemistry, 37, 14376-14385.
PDB code: 1bof
9786851 D.M.Apanovitch, T.Iiri, T.Karasawa, H.R.Bourne, and H.G.Dohlman (1998).
Second site suppressor mutations of a GTPase-deficient G-protein alpha-subunit. Selective inhibition of Gbeta gamma-mediated signaling.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 28597-28602.  
9727013 D.R.Warner, G.Weng, S.Yu, R.Matalon, and L.S.Weinstein (1998).
A novel mutation in the switch 3 region of Gsalpha in a patient with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy impairs GDP binding and receptor activation.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 23976-23983.  
9628483 E.Nogales, K.H.Downing, L.A.Amos, and J.Löwe (1998).
Tubulin and FtsZ form a distinct family of GTPases.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 451-458.  
9614114 G.Grishina, and C.H.Berlot (1998).
Mutations at the domain interface of GSalpha impair receptor-mediated activation by altering receptor and guanine nucleotide binding.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 15053-15060.  
9422713 H.E.Hamm (1998).
The many faces of G protein signaling.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 669-672.  
9786872 J.Cavallius, and W.C.Merrick (1998).
Site-directed mutagenesis of yeast eEF1A. Viable mutants with altered nucleotide specificity.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 28752-28758.  
9767386 J.Garzón, M.Castro, and P.Sánchez-Blázquez (1998).
Influence of Gz and Gi2 transducer proteins in the affinity of opioid agonists to mu receptors.
  Eur J Neurosci, 10, 2557-2564.  
9545299 K.Ihara, S.Muraguchi, M.Kato, T.Shimizu, M.Shirakawa, S.Kuroda, K.Kaibuchi, and T.Hakoshima (1998).
Crystal structure of human RhoA in a dominantly active form complexed with a GTP analogue.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 9656-9666.
PDB code: 1a2b
9582306 K.L.Lan, N.A.Sarvazyan, R.Taussig, R.G.Mackenzie, P.R.DiBello, H.G.Dohlman, and R.R.Neubig (1998).
A point mutation in Galphao and Galphai1 blocks interaction with regulator of G protein signaling proteins.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 12794-12797.  
9485466 L.V.Mello, D.M.van Aalten, and J.B.Findlay (1998).
Dynamic properties of the guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha subunit and comparison of its guanosine triphosphate hydrolase domain with that of ras p21.
  Biochemistry, 37, 3137-3142.  
9705319 M.Natochin, A.E.Granovsky, and N.O.Artemyev (1998).
Identification of effector residues on photoreceptor G protein, transducin.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 21808-21815.  
9461067 N.P.Skiba, and H.E.Hamm (1998).
How Gsalpha activates adenylyl cyclase.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 88-92.  
9446556 N.Vitale, J.Moss, and M.Vaughan (1998).
Molecular characterization of the GTPase-activating domain of ADP-ribosylation factor domain protein 1 (ARD1).
  J Biol Chem, 273, 2553-2560.  
9539726 O.G.Kisselev, J.Kao, J.W.Ponder, Y.C.Fann, N.Gautam, and G.R.Marshall (1998).
Light-activated rhodopsin induces structural binding motif in G protein alpha subunit.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 4270-4275.
PDB code: 1aqg
9488712 P.R.DiBello, T.R.Garrison, D.M.Apanovitch, G.Hoffman, D.J.Shuey, K.Mason, M.I.Cockett, and H.G.Dohlman (1998).
Selective uncoupling of RGS action by a single point mutation in the G protein alpha-subunit.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 5780-5784.  
9631293 S.J.Gamblin, and S.J.Smerdon (1998).
GTPase-activating proteins and their complexes.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 8, 195-201.  
  9541392 S.Korolev, N.Yao, T.M.Lohman, P.C.Weber, and G.Waksman (1998).
Comparisons between the structures of HCV and Rep helicases reveal structural similarities between SF1 and SF2 super-families of helicases.
  Protein Sci, 7, 605-610.  
9843387 S.Nishimura, H.Kandori, and A.Maeda (1998).
Interaction between photoactivated rhodopsin and the C-terminal peptide of transducin alpha-subunit studied by FTIR spectroscopy.
  Biochemistry, 37, 15816-15824.  
9452438 T.Tanaka, T.Kohno, S.Kinoshita, H.Mukai, H.Itoh, M.Ohya, T.Miyazawa, T.Higashijima, and K.Wakamatsu (1998).
Alpha helix content of G protein alpha subunit is decreased upon activation by receptor mimetics.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 3247-3252.  
9789008 W.Liu, and J.K.Northup (1998).
The helical domain of a G protein alpha subunit is a regulator of its effector.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 12878-12883.  
9852093 W.Liu, W.A.Clark, P.Sharma, and J.K.Northup (1998).
Mechanism of allosteric regulation of the rod cGMP phosphodiesterase activity by the helical domain of transducin alpha subunit.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 34284-34292.  
9675167 W.Wriggers, and K.Schulten (1998).
Nucleotide-dependent movements of the kinesin motor domain predicted by simulated annealing.
  Biophys J, 75, 646-661.  
9565589 X.Liu, C.C.Malbon, and H.Y.Wang (1998).
Identification of amino acid residues of Gsalpha critical to repression of adipogenesis.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 11685-11694.  
9265729 A.Bohm, R.Gaudet, and P.B.Sigler (1997).
Structural aspects of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 8, 480-487.  
9218429 B.Yu, V.Z.Slepak, and M.I.Simon (1997).
Characterization of a Goalpha mutant that binds xanthine nucleotides.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 18015-18019.  
9351810 C.Mao, W.J.Cook, M.Zhou, G.W.Koszalka, T.A.Krenitsky, and S.E.Ealick (1997).
The crystal structure of Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase: a comparison with the human enzyme reveals a conserved topology.
  Structure, 5, 1373-1383.
PDB code: 1ecp
9131251 D.E.Clapham, and E.J.Neer (1997).
G protein beta gamma subunits.
  Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 37, 167-203.  
9252377 G.Grishina, and C.H.Berlot (1997).
Identification of common and distinct residues involved in the interaction of alphai2 and alphas with adenylyl cyclase.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 20619-20626.  
9535175 G.R.Marshall (1997).
Therapeutic approaches to human immunodeficiency virus: structural studies on G-protein-coupled receptors.
  Pharmacol Ther, 76, 135-139.  
9405403 H.Bae, K.Anderson, L.A.Flood, N.P.Skiba, H.E.Hamm, and S.G.Graber (1997).
Molecular determinants of selectivity in 5-hydroxytryptamine1B receptor-G protein interactions.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 32071-32077.  
9038141 H.Sun, Z.Chen, H.Poppleton, K.Scholich, J.Mullenix, G.J.Weipz, D.L.Fulgham, P.J.Bertics, and T.B.Patel (1997).
The juxtamembrane, cytosolic region of the epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in association with alpha-subunit of Gs.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 5413-5420.  
9325305 J.A.Kelley, and K.L.Knight (1997).
Allosteric regulation of RecA protein function is mediated by Gln194.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 25778-25782.  
9061031 J.Cavallius, A.P.Popkie, and W.C.Merrick (1997).
Site-directed mutants of post-translationally modified sites of yeast eEF1A using a shuttle vector containing a chromogenic switch.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1350, 345-358.  
9312017 J.Cherfils, J.Ménétrey, G.Le Bras, I.Janoueix-Lerosey, Gunzburg, J.R.Garel, and I.Auzat (1997).
Crystal structures of the small G protein Rap2A in complex with its substrate GTP, with GDP and with GTPgammaS.
  EMBO J, 16, 5582-5591.
PDB codes: 1kao 2rap
8995254 J.E.Hirschman, G.S.De Zutter, W.F.Simonds, and D.D.Jenness (1997).
The G beta gamma complex of the yeast pheromone response pathway. Subcellular fractionation and protein-protein interactions.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 240-248.  
9030716 J.H.Exton (1997).
Cell signalling through guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) and phospholipases.
  Eur J Biochem, 243, 10-20.  
  9111362 L.Kallal, and J.Kurjan (1997).
Analysis of the receptor binding domain of Gpa1p, the G(alpha) subunit involved in the yeast pheromone response pathway.
  Mol Cell Biol, 17, 2897-2907.  
9309223 M.Eriksson, U.Uhlin, S.Ramaswamy, M.Ekberg, K.Regnström, B.M.Sjöberg, and H.Eklund (1997).
Binding of allosteric effectors to ribonucleotide reductase protein R1: reduction of active-site cysteines promotes substrate binding.
  Structure, 5, 1077-1092.
PDB codes: 1r1r 2r1r 3r1r 4r1r
9109662 M.R.Ahmadian, U.Hoffmann, R.S.Goody, and A.Wittinghofer (1997).
Individual rate constants for the interaction of Ras proteins with GTPase-activating proteins determined by fluorescence spectroscopy.
  Biochemistry, 36, 4535-4541.  
9100013 N.O.Artemyev (1997).
Binding of transducin to light-activated rhodopsin prevents transducin interaction with the rod cGMP phosphodiesterase gamma-subunit.
  Biochemistry, 36, 4188-4193.  
9312116 N.Vitale, J.Moss, and M.Vaughan (1997).
Characterization of a GDP dissociation inhibitory region of ADP-ribosylation factor domain protein ARD1.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 25077-25082.  
9268292 Q.Li, and R.A.Cerione (1997).
Communication between switch II and switch III of the transducin alpha subunit is essential for target activation.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 21673-21676.  
9213227 R.E.Gundersen (1997).
Phosphorylation of the G protein alpha-subunit, G alpha 2, of Dictyostelium discoideum requires a functional and activated G alpha 2.
  J Cell Biochem, 66, 268-276.  
9405353 R.Medici, E.Bianchi, G.Di Segni, and G.P.Tocchini-Valentini (1997).
Efficient signal transduction by a chimeric yeast-mammalian G protein alpha subunit Gpa1-Gsalpha covalently fused to the yeast receptor Ste2.
  EMBO J, 16, 7241-7249.  
9242920 S.R.Sprang (1997).
G protein mechanisms: insights from structural analysis.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 66, 639-678.  
9434906 S.R.Sprang (1997).
G proteins, effectors and GAPs: structure and mechanism.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 849-856.  
9369490 S.Tachibanaki, H.Imai, T.Mizukami, T.Okada, Y.Imamoto, T.Matsuda, Y.Fukada, A.Terakita, and Y.Shichida (1997).
Presence of two rhodopsin intermediates responsible for transducin activation.
  Biochemistry, 36, 14173-14180.  
9056720 T.Gudermann, T.Schöneberg, and G.Schultz (1997).
Functional and structural complexity of signal transduction via G-protein-coupled receptors.
  Annu Rev Neurosci, 20, 399-427.  
9159128 T.Iiri, Z.Farfel, and H.R.Bourne (1997).
Conditional activation defect of a human Gsalpha mutant.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 5656-5661.  
9150458 T.Sugimori, D.L.Griffith, and M.A.Arnaout (1997).
Emerging paradigms of integrin ligand binding and activation.
  Kidney Int, 51, 1454-1462.  
9363787 T.Zor, M.Bar-Yaacov, S.Elgavish, B.Shaanan, and Z.Selinger (1997).
Rescue of a mutant G-protein by substrate-assisted catalysis.
  Eur J Biochem, 249, 330-336.  
9253415 Y.Wang, Y.Jiang, M.Meyering-Voss, M.Sprinzl, and P.B.Sigler (1997).
Crystal structure of the EF-Tu.EF-Ts complex from Thermus thermophilus.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 650-656.
PDB code: 1aip
9302995 Y.Wei, Y.Zhang, U.Derewenda, X.Liu, W.Minor, R.K.Nakamoto, A.V.Somlyo, A.P.Somlyo, and Z.S.Derewenda (1997).
Crystal structure of RhoA-GDP and its functional implications.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 699-703.
PDB code: 1ftn
8939752 A.M.Berghuis, E.Lee, A.S.Raw, A.G.Gilman, and S.R.Sprang (1996).
Structure of the GDP-Pi complex of Gly203-->Ala gialpha1: a mimic of the ternary product complex of galpha-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis.
  Structure, 4, 1277-1290.
PDB code: 1git
8740357 A.Wittinghofer (1996).
Deciphering the alphabet of G proteins: the structure of the alpha, beta, gamma heterotrimer.
  Structure, 4, 357-361.  
8785318 C.A.Smith, and I.Rayment (1996).
Active site comparisons highlight structural similarities between myosin and other P-loop proteins.
  Biophys J, 70, 1590-1602.  
8901571 C.E.Alvarez, K.Robison, and W.Gilbert (1996).
Novel Gq alpha isoform is a candidate transducer of rhodopsin signaling in a Drosophila testes-autonomous pacemaker.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 12278-12282.  
9002626 C.Gotor, E.Lam, F.J.Cejudo, and L.C.Romero (1996).
Isolation and analysis of the soybean SGA2 gene (cDNA), encoding a new member of the plant G-protein family of signal transducers.
  Plant Mol Biol, 32, 1227-1234.  
8851656 D.E.Coleman, and S.R.Sprang (1996).
How G proteins work: a continuing story.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 21, 41-44.  
8550587 E.L.Martin, S.Rens-Domiano, P.J.Schatz, and H.E.Hamm (1996).
Potent peptide analogues of a G protein receptor-binding region obtained with a combinatorial library.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 361-366.  
8662741 E.M.Zera, D.P.Molloy, J.K.Angleson, J.B.Lamture, T.G.Wensel, and J.A.Malinski (1996).
Low affinity interactions of GDPbetaS and ribose- or phosphoryl-substituted GTP analogues with the heterotrimeric G protein, transducin.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 12925-12931.  
8617784 G.Venkatakrishnan, and J.H.Exton (1996).
Identification of determinants in the alpha-subunit of Gq required for phospholipase C activation.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 5066-5072.  
8791425 H.E.Hamm, and A.Gilchrist (1996).
Heterotrimeric G proteins.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 8, 189-196.  
  8887662 H.F.Stratton, J.Zhou, S.I.Reed, and D.E.Stone (1996).
The mating-specific G(alpha) protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae downregulates the mating signal by a mechanism that is dependent on pheromone and independent of G(beta)(gamma) sequestration.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 6325-6337.  
8951093 H.Noji, T.Amano, and M.Yoshida (1996).
Molecular switch of F0F1-ATP synthase, G-protein, and other ATP-driven enzymes.
  J Bioenerg Biomembr, 28, 451-457.  
8703008 H.Wang, G.L.Johnson, X.Liu, and C.C.Malbon (1996).
Repression of adipogenesis by adenylyl cyclase stimulatory G-protein alpha subunit is expressed within region 146-220.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 22022-22029.  
8736548 I.Rayment (1996).
Kinesin and myosin: molecular motors with similar engines.
  Structure, 4, 501-504.  
8576119 J.Y.Pan, J.C.Sanford, and M.Wessling-Resnick (1996).
Influence of Mg2+ on the structure and function of Rab5.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 1322-1328.  
8710841 K.A.Maegley, S.J.Admiraal, and D.Herschlag (1996).
Ras-catalyzed hydrolysis of GTP: a new perspective from model studies.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 8160-8166.  
8699958 M.D.Ringel, W.F.Schwindinger, and M.A.Levine (1996).
Clinical implications of genetic defects in G proteins. The molecular basis of McCune-Albright syndrome and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy.
  Medicine (Baltimore), 75, 171-184.  
8664266 M.J.Ryle, and L.C.Seefeldt (1996).
Elucidation of a MgATP signal transduction pathway in the nitrogenase iron protein: formation of a conformation resembling the MgATP-bound state by protein engineering.
  Biochemistry, 35, 4766-4775.  
9140202 M.Pellegrini, M.Royo, M.Chorev, and D.F.Mierke (1996).
Conformational characterization of a peptide mimetic of the third cytoplasmic loop of the G-protein coupled parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone related protein receptor.
  Biopolymers, 40, 653-666.  
8755504 O.Lichtarge, H.R.Bourne, and F.E.Cohen (1996).
Evolutionarily conserved Galphabetagamma binding surfaces support a model of the G protein-receptor complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 7507-7511.  
8702777 O.Wiborg, C.Andersen, C.R.Knudsen, B.F.Clark, and J.Nyborg (1996).
Mapping Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu residues involved in binding of aminoacyl-tRNA.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 20406-20411.  
8896589 R.D.Vale (1996).
Switches, latches, and amplifiers: common themes of G proteins and molecular motors.
  J Cell Biol, 135, 291-302.  
8898209 R.Gaudet, A.Bohm, and P.B.Sigler (1996).
Crystal structure at 2.4 angstroms resolution of the complex of transducin betagamma and its regulator, phosducin.
  Cell, 87, 577-588.
PDB code: 2trc
8798740 R.Medina, G.Grishina, E.G.Meloni, T.R.Muth, and C.H.Berlot (1996).
Localization of the effector-specifying regions of Gi2alpha and Gqalpha.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 24720-24727.  
8873590 S.Nishimura, J.Sasaki, H.Kandori, T.Matsuda, Y.Fukada, and A.Maeda (1996).
Structural changes in the peptide backbone in complex formation between activated rhodopsin and transducin studied by FTIR spectroscopy.
  Biochemistry, 35, 13267-13271.  
8736554, A.Aevarsson, M.Garber, J.Zheltonosova, and A.Liljas (1996).
The structure of elongation factor G in complex with GDP: conformational flexibility and nucleotide exchange.
  Structure, 4, 555-565.
PDB code: 1dar
8673138 T.P.Dryja, L.B.Hahn, T.Reboul, and B.Arnaud (1996).
Missense mutation in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of rod transducin in the Nougaret form of congenital stationary night blindness.
  Nat Genet, 13, 358-360.  
8702665 Z.Farfel, T.Iiri, H.Shapira, A.Roitman, M.Mouallem, and H.R.Bourne (1996).
Pseudohypoparathyroidism, a novel mutation in the betagamma-contact region of Gsalpha impairs receptor stimulation.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 19653-19655.  
7579036 A.G.Gilman (1995).
Nobel Lecture. G proteins and regulation of adenylyl cyclase.
  Biosci Rep, 15, 65-97.  
7648317 E.A.Merritt, and W.G.Hol (1995).
AB5 toxins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 165-171.  
7834744 E.J.Neer (1995).
Heterotrimeric G proteins: organizers of transmembrane signals.
  Cell, 80, 249-257.  
7883002 I.V.Kjaersgård, C.R.Knudsen, and O.Wiborg (1995).
Mutation of the conserved Gly83 and Gly94 in Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu. Indication of structural pivots.
  Eur J Biochem, 228, 184-190.  
7642531 J.C.Knol, A.R.van der Slik, E.R.van Kesteren, R.J.Planta, H.van Herikhuizen, and E.Vreugdenhil (1995).
A novel G protein alpha subunit containing atypical guanine nucleotide-binding domains is differentially expressed in a molluscan nervous system.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 18804-18808.  
7844142 J.D.Miller, S.Tajima, L.Lauffer, and P.Walter (1995).
The beta subunit of the signal recognition particle receptor is a transmembrane GTPase that anchors the alpha subunit, a peripheral membrane GTPase, to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.
  J Cell Biol, 128, 273-282.  
7629104 J.M.Justice, J.J.Murtagh, J.Moss, and M.Vaughan (1995).
Hydrophobicity and subunit interactions of rod outer segment proteins investigated using Triton X-114 phase partitioning.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 17970-17976.  
7534763 J.M.Justice, M.M.Bliziotes, L.A.Stevens, J.Moss, and M.Vaughan (1995).
Involvement of N-myristoylation in monoclonal antibody recognition sites on chimeric G protein alpha subunits.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 6436-6439.  
7730301 J.M.Zhong, M.C.Chen-Hwang, and Y.W.Hwang (1995).
Switching nucleotide specificity of Ha-Ras p21 by a single amino acid substitution at aspartate 119.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 10002-10007.  
8747460 J.O.Lee, L.A.Bankston, M.A.Arnaout, and R.C.Liddington (1995).
Two conformations of the integrin A-domain (I-domain): a pathway for activation?
  Structure, 3, 1333-1340.
PDB code: 1jlm
  7790064 J.Wu, M.I.Cho, and H.K.Kuramitsu (1995).
Expression, purification, and characterization of a novel G protein, SGP, from Streptococcus mutans.
  Infect Immun, 63, 2516-2521.  
7592625 J.Y.Pan, J.C.Sanford, and M.Wessling-Resnick (1995).
Effect of guanine nucleotide binding on the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence properties of Rab5.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 24204-24208.  
8521505 M.A.Wall, D.E.Coleman, E.Lee, J.A.Iñiguez-Lluhi, B.A.Posner, A.G.Gilman, and S.R.Sprang (1995).
The structure of the G protein heterotrimer Gi alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2.
  Cell, 83, 1047-1058.
PDB codes: 1gg2 1gp2
7583640 M.Saraste, and M.Hyvönen (1995).
Pleckstrin homology domains: a fact file.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 403-408.  
7539430 M.Schwemmle, M.F.Richter, C.Herrmann, N.Nassar, and P.Staeheli (1995).
Unexpected structural requirements for GTPase activity of the interferon-induced MxA protein.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 13518-13523.  
  7768919 N.P.Skiba, N.O.Artemyev, and H.E.Hamm (1995).
The carboxyl terminus of the gamma-subunit of rod cGMP phosphodiesterase contains distinct sites of interaction with the enzyme catalytic subunits and the alpha-subunit of transducin.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 13210-13215.  
7568081 O.Kisselev, A.Pronin, M.Ermolaeva, and N.Gautam (1995).
Receptor-G protein coupling is established by a potential conformational switch in the beta gamma complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 9102-9106.  
7737995 O.P.Ernst, K.P.Hofmann, and T.P.Sakmar (1995).
Characterization of rhodopsin mutants that bind transducin but fail to induce GTP nucleotide uptake. Classification of mutant pigments by fluorescence, nucleotide release, and flash-induced light-scattering assays.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 10580-10586.  
  7556089 P.D.Garcia, R.Onrust, S.M.Bell, T.P.Sakmar, and H.R.Bourne (1995).
Transducin-alpha C-terminal mutations prevent activation by rhodopsin: a new assay using recombinant proteins expressed in cultured cells.
  EMBO J, 14, 4460-4469.  
7719851 R.Hilgenfeld (1995).
How do the GTPases really work?
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 3-6.  
8749370 R.Hilgenfeld (1995).
Regulatory GTPases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 810-817.  
7552752 S.E.Greasley, H.Jhoti, C.Teahan, R.Solari, A.Fensome, G.M.Thomas, S.Cockcroft, and B.Bax (1995).
The structure of rat ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF-1) complexed to GDP determined from two different crystal forms.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 797-806.
PDB codes: 1rrf 1rrg
8529632 S.Nock, N.Grillenbeck, M.R.Ahmadian, S.Ribeiro, R.Kreutzer, and M.Sprinzl (1995).
Properties of isolated domains of the elongation factor Tu from Thermus thermophilus HB8.
  Eur J Biochem, 234, 132-139.  
  8528083 T.P.Hopp (1995).
Evidence from sequence information that the interleukin-1 receptor is a transmembrane GTPase.
  Protein Sci, 4, 1851-1859.  
7876152 V.Z.Slepak, A.Katz, and M.I.Simon (1995).
Functional analysis of a dominant negative mutant of G alpha i2.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 4037-4041.  
7758452 W.Zeidler, C.Egle, S.Ribeiro, A.Wagner, V.Katunin, R.Kreutzer, M.Rodnina, W.Wintermeyer, and M.Sprinzl (1995).
Site-directed mutagenesis of Thermus thermophilus elongation factor Tu. Replacement of His85, Asp81 and Arg300.
  Eur J Biochem, 229, 596-604.  
7634081 N.O.Artemyev, and H.E.Hamm (1994).
Probing G-protein function.
  Nat Struct Biol, 1, 752-754.  
7634087 N.Spickofsky, A.Robichon, W.Danho, D.Fry, D.Greeley, B.Graves, V.Madison, and R.F.Margolskee (1994).
Biochemical analysis of the transducin-phosphodiesterase interaction.
  Nat Struct Biol, 1, 771-781.  
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