PDBsum entry 1q90

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protein ligands Protein-protein interface(s) links
Photosynthesis PDB id
Protein chains
292 a.a. *
212 a.a. *
126 a.a. *
156 a.a. *
39 a.a. *
30 a.a. *
32 a.a. *
34 a.a. *
31 a.a. *
HEM ×4
LMG ×2
Waters ×2
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Photosynthesis
Title: Structure of the cytochrome b6f (plastohydroquinone : plasto oxidoreductase) from chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Structure: Apocytochrome f. Chain: a. Fragment: residues 1-292. Engineered: yes. Mutation: yes. Cytochrome b6. Chain: b. Fragment: residues 4-215. Engineered: yes.
Source: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Organism_taxid: 3055. Strain: h6f5. Atcc: chloroplast gene. Collection: chloroplast gene. Organelle: chloroplast. Gene: peta. Expressed in: chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Expression_system_taxid: 3055.
Biol. unit: 36mer (from PDB file)
3.10Å     R-factor:   0.222     R-free:   0.261
Authors: D.Stroebel,Y.Choquet,J.-L.Popot,D.Picot
Key ref:
D.Stroebel et al. (2003). An atypical haem in the cytochrome b(6)f complex. Nature, 426, 413-418. PubMed id: 14647374 DOI: 10.1038/nature02155
22-Aug-03     Release date:   09-Dec-03    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P23577  (CYF_CHLRE) -  Apocytochrome f
317 a.a.
292 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q00471  (CYB6_CHLRE) -  Cytochrome b6
215 a.a.
212 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P49728  (UCRIA_CHLRE) -  Cytochrome b6-f complex iron-sulfur subunit, chloroplastic
206 a.a.
126 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P23230  (PETD_CHLRE) -  Cytochrome b6-f complex subunit 4
160 a.a.
156 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P49728  (UCRIA_CHLRE) -  Cytochrome b6-f complex iron-sulfur subunit, chloroplastic
206 a.a.
39 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q08362  (PETG_CHLRE) -  Cytochrome b6-f complex subunit 5
37 a.a.
30 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P50369  (PETL_CHLRE) -  Cytochrome b6-f complex subunit 6
43 a.a.
32 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q42496  (PETM_CHLRE) -  Cytochrome b6-f complex subunit 7, chloroplastic
99 a.a.
34 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P0C1D4  (PETN_CHLRE) -  Cytochrome b6-f complex subunit 8, chloroplastic
35 a.a.
31 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: Chains C, R: E.C.  - Plastoquinol--plastocyanin reductase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: Plastoquinol + 2 oxidized plastocyanin + 2 H+(Side 1) = plastoquinone + 2 reduced plastocyanin + 4 H+(Side 2)
Bound ligand (Het Group name = TDS)
matches with 40.62% similarity
+ 2 × oxidized plastocyanin
+ 2 × H(+)(Side 1)
= plastoquinone
+ 2 × reduced plastocyanin
+ 4 × H(+)(Side 2)
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     membrane   9 terms 
  Biological process     oxidation-reduction process   6 terms 
  Biochemical function     electron carrier activity     11 terms  


    Added reference    
DOI no: 10.1038/nature02155 Nature 426:413-418 (2003)
PubMed id: 14647374  
An atypical haem in the cytochrome b(6)f complex.
D.Stroebel, Y.Choquet, J.L.Popot, D.Picot.
Photosystems I and II (PSI and II) are reaction centres that capture light energy in order to drive oxygenic photosynthesis; however, they can only do so by interacting with the multisubunit cytochrome b(6)f complex. This complex receives electrons from PSII and passes them to PSI, pumping protons across the membrane and powering the Q-cycle. Unlike the mitochondrial and bacterial homologue cytochrome bc(1), cytochrome b(6)f can switch to a cyclic mode of electron transfer around PSI using an unknown pathway. Here we present the X-ray structure at 3.1 A of cytochrome b(6)f from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The structure bears similarities to cytochrome bc(1) but also exhibits some unique features, such as binding chlorophyll, beta-carotene and an unexpected haem sharing a quinone site. This haem is atypical as it is covalently bound by one thioether linkage and has no axial amino acid ligand. This haem may be the missing link in oxygenic photosynthesis.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 3.
Figure 3: Cofactors in the dimer. Cytochrome b[6]f's haems (red, haem c[i] in yellow), Fe[2]S[2] (red) and chlorophyll (green) are represented as viewed along the membrane plane. On the right, the cofactors of cytochrome bc[1] (blue) are superimposed (PDB entry 1KB9; ref. 22). Distances between metal centres (in ) are indicated for cytochrome b[6]f and are in parentheses for cytochrome bc[1]. The angle between the planes of haem c[i] and b[H] is 74; the iron of haem c[i] is 3.9 closer to the stroma than that of b[H].
Figure 4.
Figure 4: Q[o] site with inhibitor. TDS is shown with a (F[o] - F[c])-annealed omit map contoured at 5 . Residue His 155 of the Rieske protein is within hydrogen-bonding distance of the carbonyl of TDS. To the right of TDS is the region around the lobe proximal to haem b[L], with the beginning of the low-potential chain and a possible channel for the second released proton. Charged residues are indicated (they are not hydrogen-bound; the distance between two neighbouring groups is about 5 -6 , suggesting intervening water molecules). The conformation of cytochrome b[6] Tyr 136 differs from that in cytochrome bc[1]. Su IV, subunit IV.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature (2003, 426, 413-418) copyright 2003.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
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Photosynthetic growth despite a broken Q-cycle.
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A class of mild surfactants that keep integral membrane proteins water-soluble for functional studies and crystallization.
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20831593 J.Nickelsen, B.Rengstl, A.Stengel, M.Schottkowski, J.Soll, and E.Ankele (2011).
Biogenesis of the cyanobacterial thylakoid membrane system--an update.
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21438681 M.F.Hohmann-Marriott, and R.E.Blankenship (2011).
Evolution of photosynthesis.
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21114674 R.Szymańska, J.Dłużewska, I.Slesak, and J.Kruk (2011).
Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase bound to cytochrome b₆f complex is active in plastoquinone reduction: implications for cyclic electron transport.
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20050916 A.D.Goddard, J.M.Stevens, A.Rondelet, E.Nomerotskaia, J.W.Allen, and S.J.Ferguson (2010).
Comparing the substrate specificities of cytochrome c biogenesis Systems I and II: bioenergetics.
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20237831 C.Dreher, R.Hielscher, A.Prodöhl, P.Hellwig, and D.Schneider (2010).
Characterization of two cytochrome b6 proteins from the cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421.
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21068108 C.Miyake (2010).
Alternative electron flows (water-water cycle and cyclic electron flow around PSI) in photosynthesis: molecular mechanisms and physiological functions.
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20091229 F.Baymann, and W.Nitschke (2010).
Heliobacterial Rieske/cytb complex.
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20214494 G.Bonnard, V.Corvest, E.H.Meyer, and P.P.Hamel (2010).
Redox processes controlling the biogenesis of c-type cytochromes.
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20607407 G.Peltier, D.Tolleter, E.Billon, and L.Cournac (2010).
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19826804 K.McLuskey, A.W.Roszak, Y.Zhu, and N.W.Isaacs (2010).
Crystal structures of all-alpha type membrane proteins.
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20667175 K.R.Vinothkumar, and R.Henderson (2010).
Structures of membrane proteins.
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20003074 K.Sugimoto, M.Tsuzuki, and N.Sato (2010).
Regulation of synthesis and degradation of a sulfolipid under sulfur-starved conditions and its physiological significance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
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20544970 L.J.Smith, A.Kahraman, and J.M.Thornton (2010).
Heme proteins--diversity in structural characteristics, function, and folding.
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Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF04016 (DUF364) reveals enolase and Rossmann-like folds that combine to form a unique active site with a possible role in heavy-metal chelation.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 66, 1167-1173.
PDB code: 3l5o
20231245 O.Sozer, J.Komenda, B.Ughy, I.Domonkos, H.Laczkó-Dobos, P.Malec, Z.Gombos, and M.Kis (2010).
Involvement of carotenoids in the synthesis and assembly of protein subunits of photosynthetic reaction centers of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.
  Plant Cell Physiol, 51, 823-835.  
21037590 P.S.Chae, S.G.Rasmussen, R.R.Rana, K.Gotfryd, R.Chandra, M.A.Goren, A.C.Kruse, S.Nurva, C.J.Loland, Y.Pierre, D.Drew, J.L.Popot, D.Picot, B.G.Fox, L.Guan, U.Gether, B.Byrne, B.Kobilka, and S.H.Gellman (2010).
Maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphiles for solubilization, stabilization and crystallization of membrane proteins.
  Nat Methods, 7, 1003-1008.  
20217232 S.Lemeille, and J.D.Rochaix (2010).
State transitions at the crossroad of thylakoid signalling pathways.
  Photosynth Res, 106, 33-46.  
20547590 T.Takami, M.Shibata, Y.Kobayashi, and T.Shikanai (2010).
De novo biosynthesis of fatty acids plays critical roles in the response of the photosynthetic machinery to low temperature in Arabidopsis.
  Plant Cell Physiol, 51, 1265-1275.  
20130997 W.Nitschke, R.van Lis, B.Schoepp-Cothenet, and F.Baymann (2010).
The "green" phylogenetic clade of Rieske/cytb complexes.
  Photosynth Res, 104, 347-355.  
19219048 A.Guskov, J.Kern, A.Gabdulkhakov, M.Broser, A.Zouni, and W.Saenger (2009).
Cyanobacterial photosystem II at 2.9-A resolution and the role of quinones, lipids, channels and chloride.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 16, 334-342.
PDB codes: 3bz1 3bz2
19689132 A.I.Twigg, D.Baniulis, W.A.Cramer, and M.P.Hendrich (2009).
EPR detection of an O(2) surrogate bound to heme c(n) of the cytochrome b(6)f complex.
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19478086 Lacroix de Lavalette, L.Barucq, J.Alric, F.Rappaport, and F.Zito (2009).
Is the redox state of the ci heme of the cytochrome b6f complex dependent on the occupation and structure of the Qi site and vice versa?
  J Biol Chem, 284, 20822-20829.  
19686655 C.Breyton, F.Gabel, M.Abla, Y.Pierre, F.Lebaupain, G.Durand, J.L.Popot, C.Ebel, and B.Pucci (2009).
Micellar and biochemical properties of (hemi)fluorinated surfactants are controlled by the size of the polar head.
  Biophys J, 97, 1077-1086.  
19189962 D.Baniulis, E.Yamashita, J.P.Whitelegge, A.I.Zatsman, M.P.Hendrich, S.S.Hasan, C.M.Ryan, and W.A.Cramer (2009).
Structure-Function, Stability, and Chemical Modification of the Cyanobacterial Cytochrome b6f Complex from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 9861-9869.
PDB code: 2zt9
19564403 D.Saint-Marcoux, F.A.Wollman, and Vitry (2009).
Biogenesis of cytochrome b6 in photosynthetic membranes.
  J Cell Biol, 185, 1195-1207.  
19333778 F.Ma, X.B.Chen, M.Sang, P.Wang, J.P.Zhang, L.B.Li, and T.Y.Kuang (2009).
Singlet oxygen formation and chlorophyll a triplet excited state deactivation in the cytochrome b (6) f complex from Bryopsis corticulans.
  Photosynth Res, 100, 19-28.  
19415898 M.Sarewicz, M.Dutka, W.Froncisz, and A.Osyczka (2009).
Magnetic interactions sense changes in distance between heme b(L) and the iron-sulfur cluster in cytochrome bc(1).
  Biochemistry, 48, 5708-5720.  
19468713 N.Mizusawa, S.Sakata, I.Sakurai, N.Sato, and H.Wada (2009).
Involvement of digalactosyldiacylglycerol in cellular thermotolerance in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.
  Arch Microbiol, 191, 595-601.  
19696744 S.Caffarri, R.Kouril, S.Kereïche, E.J.Boekema, and R.Croce (2009).
Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes.
  EMBO J, 28, 3052-3063.  
19260761 S.Lemeille, A.Willig, N.Depège-Fargeix, C.Delessert, R.Bassi, and J.D.Rochaix (2009).
Analysis of the chloroplast protein kinase Stt7 during state transitions.
  PLoS Biol, 7, e45.  
19351885 T.Takahashi, N.Inoue-Kashino, S.Ozawa, Y.Takahashi, Y.Kashino, and K.Satoh (2009).
Photosystem II complex in vivo is a monomer.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 15598-15606.  
18701458 B.Gurung, L.Yu, and C.A.Yu (2008).
Stigmatellin Induces Reduction of Iron-Sulfur Protein in the Oxidized Cytochrome bc1 Complex.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 28087-28094.  
18418633 E.A.Berry, and F.A.Walker (2008).
Bis-histidine-coordinated hemes in four-helix bundles: how the geometry of the bundle controls the axial imidazole plane orientations in transmembrane cytochromes of mitochondrial complexes II and III and related proteins.
  J Biol Inorg Chem, 13, 481-498.  
18243102 G.DalCorso, P.Pesaresi, S.Masiero, E.Aseeva, D.Schünemann, G.Finazzi, P.Joliot, R.Barbato, and D.Leister (2008).
A complex containing PGRL1 and PGR5 is involved in the switch between linear and cyclic electron flow in Arabidopsis.
  Cell, 132, 273-285.  
  19704503 H.Aronsson (2008).
The galactolipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) contributes to photosynthesis-related processes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  Plant Signal Behav, 3, 1093-1095.  
18513324 H.Sumimoto (2008).
Structure, regulation and evolution of Nox-family NADPH oxidases that produce reactive oxygen species.
  FEBS J, 275, 3249-3277.  
18318833 J.Kargul, and J.Barber (2008).
Photosynthetic acclimation: structural reorganisation of light harvesting antenna--role of redox-dependent phosphorylation of major and minor chlorophyll a/b binding proteins.
  FEBS J, 275, 1056-1068.  
18393999 J.W.Allen, A.P.Jackson, D.J.Rigden, A.C.Willis, S.J.Ferguson, and M.L.Ginger (2008).
Order within a mosaic distribution of mitochondrial c-type cytochrome biogenesis systems?
  FEBS J, 275, 2385-2402.  
18039651 L.Esser, M.Elberry, F.Zhou, C.A.Yu, L.Yu, and D.Xia (2008).
Inhibitor-complexed Structures of the Cytochrome bc1 from the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 2846-2857.
PDB codes: 2qjk 2qjp 2qjy
18593701 L.Lezhneva, R.Kuras, G.Ephritikhine, and Vitry (2008).
A Novel Pathway of Cytochrome c Biogenesis Is Involved in the Assembly of the Cytochrome b6f Complex in Arabidopsis Chloroplasts.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 24608-24616.  
18618287 P.Mulo, S.Sirpiö, M.Suorsa, and E.M.Aro (2008).
Auxiliary proteins involved in the assembly and sustenance of photosystem II.
  Photosynth Res, 98, 489-501.  
19030605 S.E.Bowman, and K.L.Bren (2008).
The chemistry and biochemistry of heme c: functional bases for covalent attachment.
  Nat Prod Rep, 25, 1118-1130.  
18983262 S.Eberhard, G.Finazzi, and F.A.Wollman (2008).
The dynamics of photosynthesis.
  Annu Rev Genet, 42, 463-515.  
18221490 V.Reisinger, A.P.Hertle, M.Plöscher, and L.A.Eichacker (2008).
Cytochrome b6f is a dimeric protochlorophyll a binding complex in etioplasts.
  FEBS J, 275, 1018-1024.  
17476261 A.Amunts, O.Drory, and N.Nelson (2007).
The structure of a plant photosystem I supercomplex at 3.4 A resolution.
  Nature, 447, 58-63.
PDB code: 2o01
17404756 C.Böttcher, and E.W.Weiler (2007).
cyclo-Oxylipin-galactolipids in plants: occurrence and dynamics.
  Planta, 226, 629-637.  
17971335 D.Lyska, S.Paradies, K.Meierhoff, and P.Westhoff (2007).
HCF208, a homolog of Chlamydomonas CCB2, is required for accumulation of native cytochrome b6 in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  Plant Cell Physiol, 48, 1737-1746.  
17457691 D.Xia, L.Esser, L.Yu, and C.A.Yu (2007).
Structural basis for the mechanism of electron bifurcation at the quinol oxidation site of the cytochrome bc1 complex.
  Photosynth Res, 92, 17-34.  
17972160 E.L.Gross (2007).
A Brownian Dynamics computational study of the interaction of spinach plastocyanin with turnip cytochrome f: the importance of plastocyanin conformational changes.
  Photosynth Res, 94, 411-422.  
17498743 E.Yamashita, H.Zhang, and W.A.Cramer (2007).
Structure of the cytochrome b6f complex: quinone analogue inhibitors as ligands of heme cn.
  J Mol Biol, 370, 39-52.
PDB codes: 2e74 2e75 2e76
17202266 F.Baymann, F.Giusti, D.Picot, and W.Nitschke (2007).
The ci/bH moiety in the b6f complex studied by EPR: a pair of strongly interacting hemes.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 519-524.  
17634751 H.Wada, and N.Murata (2007).
The essential role of phosphatidylglycerol in photosynthesis.
  Photosynth Res, 92, 205-215.  
17481903 J.J.Lacapère, E.Pebay-Peyroula, J.M.Neumann, and C.Etchebest (2007).
Determining membrane protein structures: still a challenge!
  Trends Biochem Sci, 32, 259-270.  
17470780 J.L.Cape, M.K.Bowman, and D.M.Kramer (2007).
A semiquinone intermediate generated at the Qo site of the cytochrome bc1 complex: importance for the Q-cycle and superoxide production.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 7887-7892.  
17901903 L.Gudynaite-Savitch, C.Loiselay, L.V.Savitch, J.Simmonds, S.E.Kohalmi, Y.Choquet, and N.P.Hüner (2007).
The small domain of cytochrome f from the psychrophile Chlamydomonas raudensis UWO 241 modulates the apparent molecular mass and decreases the accumulation of cytochrome f in the mesophile Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
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17114182 M.A.Schöttler, C.Flügel, W.Thiele, and R.Bock (2007).
Knock-out of the plastid-encoded PetL subunit results in reduced stability and accelerated leaf age-dependent loss of the cytochrome b6f complex.
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16963124 M.R.Jones (2007).
Lipids in photosynthetic reaction centres: structural roles and functional holes.
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17661750 N.R.Baker, J.Harbinson, and D.M.Kramer (2007).
Determining the limitations and regulation of photosynthetic energy transduction in leaves.
  Plant Cell Environ, 30, 1107-1125.  
17535914 R.Kuras, D.Saint-Marcoux, F.A.Wollman, and Vitry (2007).
A specific c-type cytochrome maturation system is required for oxygenic photosynthesis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 9906-9910.  
17888006 R.M.Martinez-Espinosa, E.J.Dridge, M.J.Bonete, J.N.Butt, C.S.Butler, F.Sargent, and D.J.Richardson (2007).
Look on the positive side! The orientation, identification and bioenergetics of 'Archaeal' membrane-bound nitrate reductases.
  FEMS Microbiol Lett, 276, 129-139.  
17201689 T.Shikanai (2007).
Cyclic electron transport around photosystem I: genetic approaches.
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17653672 X.Chen, X.Zhao, J.Zhang, L.Li, and T.Kuang (2007).
The effects of detergents DDM and beta-OG on the singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a in cytochrome b6f complex from spinach chloroplasts.
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17534481 X.Liang, D.J.Campopiano, and P.J.Sadler (2007).
Metals in membranes.
  Chem Soc Rev, 36, 968-992.  
17913767 Y.Okegawa, T.A.Long, M.Iwano, S.Takayama, Y.Kobayashi, S.F.Covert, and T.Shikanai (2007).
A balanced PGR5 level is required for chloroplast development and optimum operation of cyclic electron transport around photosystem I.
  Plant Cell Physiol, 48, 1462-1471.  
17076484 A.I.Zatsman, H.Zhang, W.A.Gunderson, W.A.Cramer, and M.P.Hendrich (2006).
Heme-heme interactions in the cytochrome b6f complex: EPR spectroscopy and correlation with structure.
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16688490 B.X.Li, P.Zuo, X.B.Chen, L.B.Li, J.P.Zhang, J.P.Zhang, and T.Y.Kuang (2006).
Study on energy transfer between carotenoid and chlorophyll a in cytochrome b6f complex from Bryopsis corticulans.
  Photosynth Res, 88, 43-50.  
16239335 E.J.Haddadian, and E.L.Gross (2006).
A Brownian dynamics study of the effects of cytochrome f structure and deletion of its small domain in interactions with cytochrome c6 and plastocyanin in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
  Biophys J, 90, 566-577.  
16844750 E.J.Haddadian, and E.L.Gross (2006).
A Brownian dynamics study of the interactions of the luminal domains of the cytochrome b6f complex with plastocyanin and cytochrome c6: the effects of the Rieske FeS protein on the interactions.
  Biophys J, 91, 2589-2600.  
16352458 J.L.Cape, M.K.Bowman, and D.M.Kramer (2006).
Understanding the cytochrome bc complexes by what they don't do. The Q-cycle at 30.
  Trends Plant Sci, 11, 46-55.  
16373344 J.M.Stevens, T.Uchida, O.Daltrop, T.Kitagawa, and S.J.Ferguson (2006).
Dynamic ligation properties of the Escherichia coli heme chaperone CcmE to non-covalently bound heme.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 6144-6151.  
17181473 J.Whitelegge, F.Halgand, P.Souda, and V.Zabrouskov (2006).
Top-down mass spectrometry of integral membrane proteins.
  Expert Rev Proteomics, 3, 585-596.  
16371475 J.Yan, G.Kurisu, and W.A.Cramer (2006).
Intraprotein transfer of the quinone analogue inhibitor 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone in the cytochrome b6f complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 69-74.
PDB code: 2d2c
16367957 K.Lennartz, S.Bossmann, P.Westhoff, N.Bechtold, and K.Meierhoff (2006).
HCF153, a novel nuclear-encoded factor necessary during a post-translational step in biogenesis of the cytochrome bf complex.
  Plant J, 45, 101-112.  
16792816 L.Adamian, and J.Liang (2006).
Prediction of transmembrane helix orientation in polytopic membrane proteins.
  BMC Struct Biol, 6, 13.  
16419070 L.Adamian, and J.Liang (2006).
Prediction of buried helices in multispan alpha helical membrane proteins.
  Proteins, 63, 1-5.  
16783544 L.Marboutin, A.Boussac, and C.Berthomieu (2006).
Redox infrared markers of the heme and axial ligands in microperoxidase: Bases for the analysis of c-type cytochromes.
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16669773 N.Nelson, and C.F.Yocum (2006).
Structure and function of photosystems I and II.
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16565047 P.Zuo, B.X.Li, X.H.Zhao, Y.S.Wu, X.C.Ai, J.P.Zhang, L.B.Li, and T.Y.Kuang (2006).
Ultrafast carotenoid-to-chlorophyll singlet energy transfer in the cytochrome b6f complex from Bryopsis corticulans.
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Evolution and unique bioenergetic mechanisms in oxygenic photosynthesis.
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16433558 T.Teschner, L.Yatsunyk, V.Schünemann, H.Paulsen, H.Winkler, C.Hu, W.R.Scheidt, F.A.Walker, and A.X.Trautwein (2006).
Models of the membrane-bound cytochromes: mössbauer spectra of crystalline low-spin ferriheme complexes having axial ligand plane dihedral angles ranging from 0 degree to 90 degrees.
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16756511 W.A.Cramer, H.Zhang, J.Yan, G.Kurisu, and J.L.Smith (2006).
Transmembrane traffic in the cytochrome b6f complex.
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17235492 X.B.Chen, X.H.Zhao, Y.Zhu, Y.D.Gong, L.B.Li, J.P.Zhang, and T.Y.Kuang (2006).
Hydrogen peroxide-induced chlorophyll a bleaching in the cytochrome b6f complex: a simple and effective assay for stability of the complex in detergent solutions.
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16172928 A.J.Watson, A.V.Hughes, P.K.Fyfe, M.C.Wakeham, K.Holden-Dye, P.Heathcote, and M.R.Jones (2005).
On the role of basic residues in adapting the reaction centre-LH1 complex for growth at elevated temperatures in purple bacteria.
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15817393 A.Osyczka, C.C.Moser, and P.L.Dutton (2005).
Fixing the Q cycle.
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15878858 B.Gurung, L.Yu, D.Xia, and C.A.Yu (2005).
The iron-sulfur cluster of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein functions as a proton-exiting gate in the cytochrome bc(1) complex.
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16143919 B.Li, D.Mao, Y.Liu, L.Li, and T.Kuang (2005).
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16355230 B.Loll, J.Kern, W.Saenger, A.Zouni, and J.Biesiadka (2005).
Towards complete cofactor arrangement in the 3.0 A resolution structure of photosystem II.
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PDB code: 2axt
16319876 D.M.Engelman (2005).
Membranes are more mosaic than fluid.
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15626695 E.J.Haddadian, and E.L.Gross (2005).
Brownian dynamics study of cytochrome f interactions with cytochrome c6 and plastocyanin in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plastocyanin, and cytochrome c6 mutants.
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16307125 E.Kanervo, M.Suorsa, and E.M.Aro (2005).
Functional flexibility and acclimation of the thylakoid membrane.
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15691836 F.Musiani, A.Dikiy, A.Y.Semenov, and S.Ciurli (2005).
Structure of the intermolecular complex between plastocyanin and cytochrome f from spinach.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 18833-18841.
PDB code: 1ylb
16055550 H.Kim, N.Dashdorj, H.Zhang, J.Yan, W.A.Cramer, and S.Savikhin (2005).
An anomalous distance dependence of intraprotein chlorophyll-carotenoid triplet energy transfer.
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16211522 H.Zhang, and W.A.Cramer (2005).
Problems in obtaining diffraction-quality crystals of hetero-oligomeric integral membrane proteins.
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Structure of the complex between plastocyanin and cytochrome f from the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7119 as determined by paramagnetic NMR. The balance between electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions within the transient complex determines the relative orientation of the two proteins.
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PDB code: 1tu2
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Spectral and redox characterization of the heme ci of the cytochrome b6f complex.
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Photosynthesis: the processing of redox signals in chloroplasts.
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15632120 M.E.Nelson, G.Finazzi, Q.J.Wang, K.A.Middleton-Zarka, J.Whitmarsh, and T.Kallas (2005).
Cytochrome b6 arginine 214 of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, a key residue for quinone-reductase site function and turnover of the cytochrome bf complex.
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The single chlorophyll a molecule in the cytochrome b6f complex: unusual optical properties protect the complex against singlet oxygen.
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The structure of photosystem I and evolution of photosynthesis.
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15781857 P.Joliot, and A.Joliot (2005).
Quantification of cyclic and linear flows in plants.
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Proteins, chlorophylls and lipids: X-ray analysis of a three-way relationship.
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Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the landscape of pigments.
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The chloroplast Rieske iron-sulfur protein. At the crossroad of electron transport and signal transduction.
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Dynamic flexibility in the light reactions of photosynthesis governed by both electron and proton transfer reactions.
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PetC1 is the major Rieske iron-sulfur protein in the cytochrome b6f complex of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.
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Mitochondrial cytochrome c1 is a collapsed di-heme cytochrome.
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Metabolic Flexibility of the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as Revealed by the Link between State Transitions and Cyclic Electron Flow.
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Cytochrome b6f: structure for signalling and vectorial metabolism.
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15313237 J.L.Smith, H.Zhang, J.Yan, G.Kurisu, and W.A.Cramer (2004).
Cytochrome bc complexes: a common core of structure and function surrounded by diversity in the outlying provinces.
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15159384 M.L.Page, P.P.Hamel, S.T.Gabilly, H.Zegzouti, J.V.Perea, J.M.Alonso, J.R.Ecker, S.M.Theg, S.K.Christensen, and S.Merchant (2004).
A homolog of prokaryotic thiol disulfide transporter CcdA is required for the assembly of the cytochrome b6f complex in Arabidopsis chloroplasts.
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Photosynthesis: a new step in oxygen evolution.
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The complex architecture of oxygenic photosynthesis.
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15313239 S.Iwata, and J.Barber (2004).
Structure of photosystem II and molecular architecture of the oxygen-evolving centre.
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15457213 S.Scheuring, J.L.Rigaud, and J.N.Sturgis (2004).
Variable LH2 stoichiometry and core clustering in native membranes of Rhodospirillum photometricum.
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