PDBsum entry 1jk8

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Immune system PDB id
Jmol PyMol
Protein chains
181 a.a. *
190 a.a. *
14 a.a. *
Waters ×70
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Immune system
Title: Crystal structure of a human insulin peptide-hla-dq8 complex
Structure: Mhc class ii hla-dq8. Chain: a. Fragment: alpha chain (dqa1 0301). Engineered: yes. Mhc class ii hla-dq8. Chain: b. Fragment: beta chain (dqb1 0302). Engineered: yes. Insulin b peptide.
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Expressed in: spodoptera frugiperda. Expression_system_taxid: 7108. Synthetic: yes. Other_details: this peptide was chemically synthesized. The of this peptide occurs naturally in humans (homo sapiens).
Biol. unit: Trimer (from PQS)
2.40Å     R-factor:   0.224     R-free:   0.258
Authors: K.H.Lee,K.W.Wucherpfennig,D.C.Wiley
Key ref:
K.H.Lee et al. (2001). Structure of a human insulin peptide-HLA-DQ8 complex and susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Nat Immunol, 2, 501-507. PubMed id: 11376336 DOI: 10.1038/88694
11-Jul-01     Release date:   22-Aug-01    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01909  (DQA1_HUMAN) -  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ alpha 1 chain
254 a.a.
181 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01920  (DQB1_HUMAN) -  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 1 chain
261 a.a.
190 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01308  (INS_HUMAN) -  Insulin
110 a.a.
14 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 23 residue positions (black crosses)

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     membrane   2 terms 
  Biological process     immune response   2 terms 


DOI no: 10.1038/88694 Nat Immunol 2:501-507 (2001)
PubMed id: 11376336  
Structure of a human insulin peptide-HLA-DQ8 complex and susceptibility to type 1 diabetes.
K.H.Lee, K.W.Wucherpfennig, D.C.Wiley.
The class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) glycoproteins HLA-DQ8 and HLA-DQ2 in humans and I-A(g7) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice are the major risk factors for increased susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Using X-ray crystallography, we have determined the three-dimensional structure of DQ8 complexed with an immunodominant peptide from insulin. The similarity of the DQ8, DQ2 and I-A(g7) peptide-binding pockets suggests that diabetes is caused by the same antigen-presentation event(s) in humans and NOD mice. Correlating type 1 diabetes epidemiology and MHC sequences with the DQ8 structure suggests that other structural features of the P9 pocket in addition to position 57 contribute to susceptibility to type 1 diabetes.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 1.
Figure 1. InsulinB bound to human HLA-DQ8 and pocket P9. (a) The surface of DQ8 with bound insulinB (yellow), viewed as seen by a T cell. Peptide side chains P1 glutamic acid, P4 tyrosine and P9 glutamic acid were buried in deep pockets, whereas P6 valine and P7 cysteine lay on shelf-like surfaces. The P4 pocket of DQ8 was nonpolar (white), whereas the P9 pocket was positively charged (blue). (Red surfaces were electrostatically negative.) (b) DQ8 P9 pocket with insulinB P9 glutamic acid (green) hydrogen-bonded to Arg76 , with Ala^57 replacing the common Asp57 . View was from the COOH-terminal end of the bound peptide (right end of a). DQ8 differed from I-A^g7 at chain residues 55 -57 proline-proline-alanine versus arginine-histidine-serine in I-A^g7. Hydrogen bonds are dashed red lines. (c) DR1 P9 pocket with Asp57 hydrogen-bonded to Arg76 and the hemagglutinin peptide P9 leucine (blue) in the electrostatically neutral pocket. (d) I-A^g7 P9 pocket with Ser57 and the GAD65 peptide P9 glutamic acid (purple) hydrogen-bonded to Arg76 and Ser57 (ref. 18). The chain helix (56 -57) in DQ8 was positioned closer to the P9 glutamic acid side chain and Arg76 than in I-A^g7. There is not enough space in the structure of DQ8 to replace Ala^57 with the larger side chain of a serine as in I-A^g7. (b -d) The chain helix residues 55 -57 shown on the left.
Figure 3.
Figure 3. Hydrogen bonding network in the DQ8-insulinB P1 pocket and a hypothetical network if insulinB bound to I-A^g7. (a) InsulinB P1 glutamic acid (green) formed hydrogen bonds (dashed red lines) with Arg52 via a water molecule bound with His24 . This illustrated how a negatively charged acidic peptide side chain (P1 glutamic acid) was bound in a pocket despite the presence of two potentially negatively charged DQ8 residues, Glu31 and Glu86 . (b) Hypothetical interaction, similar to that seen in DQ8-insulinB. We proposed that insulinB P1glutamic acid (green) interacts with I-A^g7 through hydrogen bonds to Thr86 and via a bound water molecule to His24 . I-A^g7 coordinates, including those of the bound water molecules, were from I-A^g7-GAD65 peptide.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nat Immunol (2001, 2, 501-507) copyright 2001.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21531625 E.Mariño, P.A.Silveira, J.Stolp, and S.T.Grey (2011).
B cell-directed therapies in type 1 diabetes.
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21436590 H.Lv, E.Havari, S.Pinto, R.V.Gottumukkala, L.Cornivelli, K.Raddassi, T.Matsui, A.Rosenzweig, R.T.Bronson, R.Smith, A.L.Fletcher, S.J.Turley, K.Wucherpfennig, B.Kyewski, and M.A.Lipes (2011).
Impaired thymic tolerance to α-myosin directs autoimmunity to the heart in mice and humans.
  J Clin Invest, 121, 1561-1573.  
21179108 H.Q.Qu, S.P.Fisher-Hoch, and J.B.McCormick (2011).
Knowledge gaining by human genetic studies on tuberculosis susceptibility.
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21306912 K.W.Wucherpfennig, and D.Sethi (2011).
T cell receptor recognition of self and foreign antigens in the induction of autoimmunity.
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21257290 X.Ge, E.A.James, H.Reijonen, and W.W.Kwok (2011).
Differences in self-peptide binding between T1D-related susceptible and protective DR4 subtypes.
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20489610 A.W.Michels, and M.Nakayama (2010).
The anti-insulin trimolecular complex in type 1 diabetes.
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20534455 B.D.Stadinski, L.Zhang, F.Crawford, P.Marrack, G.S.Eisenbarth, and J.W.Kappler (2010).
Diabetogenic T cells recognize insulin bound to IAg7 in an unexpected, weakly binding register.
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20412755 B.Stadinski, J.Kappler, and G.S.Eisenbarth (2010).
Molecular targeting of islet autoantigens.
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20093428 D.R.Brims, J.Qian, I.Jarchum, L.Mikesh, E.Palmieri, U.A.Ramagopal, V.N.Malashkevich, R.J.Chaparro, T.Lund, M.Hattori, J.Shabanowitz, D.F.Hunt, S.G.Nathenson, S.C.Almo, and T.P.Dilorenzo (2010).
Predominant occupation of the class I MHC molecule H-2Kwm7 with a single self-peptide suggests a mechanism for its diabetes-protective effect.
  Int Immunol, 22, 191-203.
PDB codes: 3fol 3fom 3fon
20303712 F.Menconi, A.Huber, R.Osman, E.Concepcion, E.M.Jacobson, M.Stefan, C.S.David, and Y.Tomer (2010).
Tg.2098 is a major human thyroglobulin T-cell epitope.
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20503254 T.Burster, and B.O.Boehm (2010).
Processing and presentation of (pro)-insulin in the MHC class II pathway: the generation of antigen-based immunomodulators in the context of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
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19935805 B.Jabri, and L.M.Sollid (2009).
Tissue-mediated control of immunopathology in coeliac disease.
  Nat Rev Immunol, 9, 858-870.  
19143816 C.Brorsson, N.T.Hansen, K.Lage, R.Bergholdt, S.Brunak, and F.Pociot (2009).
Identification of T1D susceptibility genes within the MHC region by combining protein interaction networks and SNP genotyping data.
  Diabetes Obes Metab, 11, 60-66.  
19461125 K.Y.Chang, and E.R.Unanue (2009).
Prediction of HLA-DQ8beta cell peptidome using a computational program and its relationship to autoreactive T cells.
  Int Immunol, 21, 705-713.  
19718029 L.E.Fallang, E.Bergseng, K.Hotta, A.Berg-Larsen, C.Y.Kim, and L.M.Sollid (2009).
Differences in the risk of celiac disease associated with HLA-DQ2.5 or HLA-DQ2.2 are related to sustained gluten antigen presentation.
  Nat Immunol, 10, 1096-1101.  
20477508 N.Kumar, G.Kaur, and N.Mehra (2009).
Genetic determinants of type 1 diabetes: immune response genes.
  Biomark Med, 3, 153-173.  
19017300 S.Caillat-Zucman (2009).
Molecular mechanisms of HLA association with autoimmune diseases.
  Tissue Antigens, 73, 1-8.  
19811893 V.Taneja, and C.S.David (2009).
Spontaneous autoimmune myocarditis and cardiomyopathy in HLA-DQ8.NODAbo transgenic mice.
  J Autoimmun, 33, 260-269.  
19307103 Y.Tomer, and A.Huber (2009).
The etiology of autoimmune thyroid disease: a story of genes and environment.
  J Autoimmun, 32, 231-239.  
18504544 A.J.Williams, R.J.Aitken, M.A.Chandler, K.M.Gillespie, V.Lampasona, and P.J.Bingley (2008).
Autoantibodies to islet antigen-2 are associated with HLA-DRB1*07 and DRB1*09 haplotypes as well as DRB1*04 at onset of type 1 diabetes: the possible role of HLA-DQA in autoimmunity to IA-2.
  Diabetologia, 51, 1444-1448.  
18055025 A.Suri, and A.Szallasi (2008).
The emerging role of TRPV1 in diabetes and obesity.
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 29, 29-36.  
18082388 A.Suri, M.G.Levisetti, and E.R.Unanue (2008).
Do the peptide-binding properties of diabetogenic class II molecules explain autoreactivity?
  Curr Opin Immunol, 20, 105-110.  
18854049 C.S.Parry, and B.R.Brooks (2008).
A new model defines the minimal set of polymorphism in HLA-DQ and -DR that determines susceptibility and resistance to autoimmune diabetes.
  Biol Direct, 3, 42.  
18779568 F.Menconi, M.C.Monti, D.A.Greenberg, T.Oashi, R.Osman, T.F.Davies, Y.Ban, E.M.Jacobson, E.S.Concepcion, C.W.Li, and Y.Tomer (2008).
Molecular amino acid signatures in the MHC class II peptide-binding pocket predispose to autoimmune thyroiditis in humans and in mice.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 14034-14039.  
18157812 L.G.Petrich de Marquesini, A.K.Moustakas, I.J.Thomas, L.Wen, G.K.Papadopoulos, and F.S.Wong (2008).
Functional inhibition related to structure of a highly potent insulin-specific CD8 T cell clone using altered peptide ligands.
  Eur J Immunol, 38, 240-249.  
17678925 C.Gianfrani, R.A.Siciliano, A.M.Facchiano, A.Camarca, M.F.Mazzeo, S.Costantini, V.M.Salvati, F.Maurano, G.Mazzarella, G.Iaquinto, P.Bergamo, and M.Rossi (2007).
Transamidation of wheat flour inhibits the response to gliadin of intestinal T cells in celiac disease.
  Gastroenterology, 133, 780-789.  
17257322 D.A.Ostrov, C.L.Barnes, L.E.Smith, S.Binns, T.M.Brusko, A.C.Brown, P.S.Quint, S.A.Litherland, D.C.Roopenian, and K.A.Iczkowski (2007).
Characterization of HKE2: an ancient antigen encoded in the major histocompatibility complex.
  Tissue Antigens, 69, 181-188.  
17497145 G.P.Bondinas, A.K.Moustakas, and G.K.Papadopoulos (2007).
The spectrum of HLA-DQ and HLA-DR alleles, 2006: a listing correlating sequence and structure with function.
  Immunogenetics, 59, 539-553.  
  18084083 K.N.Henderson, H.H.Reid, N.A.Borg, S.E.Broughton, T.Huyton, R.P.Anderson, J.McCluskey, and J.Rossjohn (2007).
The production and crystallization of the human leukocyte antigen class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 complexed with deamidated gliadin peptides implicated in coeliac disease.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 63, 1021-1025.  
17629515 K.N.Henderson, J.A.Tye-Din, H.H.Reid, Z.Chen, N.A.Borg, T.Beissbarth, A.Tatham, S.I.Mannering, A.W.Purcell, N.L.Dudek, D.A.van Heel, J.McCluskey, J.Rossjohn, and R.P.Anderson (2007).
A structural and immunological basis for the role of human leukocyte antigen DQ8 in celiac disease.
  Immunity, 27, 23-34.
PDB code: 2nna
17207708 R.J.Duquesnoy, and M.Askar (2007).
HLAMatchmaker: a molecularly based algorithm for histocompatibility determination. V. Eplet matching for HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP.
  Hum Immunol, 68, 12-25.  
17499268 V.Taneja, M.Behrens, L.T.Cooper, S.Yamada, H.Kita, M.M.Redfield, A.Terzic, and C.David (2007).
Spontaneous myocarditis mimicking human disease occurs in the presence of an appropriate MHC and non-MHC background in transgenic mice.
  J Mol Cell Cardiol, 42, 1054-1064.  
16639700 A.Kosmopoulou, M.Vlassi, A.Stavrakoudis, C.Sakarellos, and M.Sakarellos-Daitsiotis (2006).
T-cell epitopes of the La/SSB autoantigen: prediction based on the homology modeling of HLA-DQ2/DQ7 with the insulin-B peptide/HLA-DQ8 complex.
  J Comput Chem, 27, 1033-1044.  
16316750 A.Suri, S.B.Lovitch, and E.R.Unanue (2006).
The wide diversity and complexity of peptides bound to class II MHC molecules.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 18, 70-77.  
16398702 D.G.Alleva, R.A.Maki, A.L.Putnam, J.M.Robinson, M.S.Kipnes, P.Dandona, J.B.Marks, D.L.Simmons, C.J.Greenbaum, R.G.Jimenez, P.J.Conlon, and P.A.Gottlieb (2006).
Immunomodulation in type 1 diabetes by NBI-6024, an altered peptide ligand of the insulin B epitope.
  Scand J Immunol, 63, 59-69.  
16557259 E.Y.Jones, L.Fugger, J.L.Strominger, and C.Siebold (2006).
MHC class II proteins and disease: a structural perspective.
  Nat Rev Immunol, 6, 271-282.  
16510499 J.C.Tong, G.L.Zhang, T.W.Tan, J.T.August, V.Brusic, and S.Ranganathan (2006).
Prediction of HLA-DQ3.2beta ligands: evidence of multiple registers in class II binding peptides.
  Bioinformatics, 22, 1232-1238.  
16963140 L.Pasquali, Y.Fan, M.Trucco, and S.Ringquist (2006).
Rehabilitation of adaptive immunity and regeneration of beta cells.
  Trends Biotechnol, 24, 516-522.  
16791622 M.E.Patarroyo, G.Cifuentes, and J.Baquero (2006).
Comparative molecular and three-dimensional analysis of the peptide-MHC II binding region in both human and Aotus MHC-DRB molecules confirms their usefulness in antimalarial vaccine development.
  Immunogenetics, 58, 598-606.  
20476978 N.Mehra, and G.Kaur (2006).
HLA genetics and disease with particular reference to Type 1 diabetes and HIV infection in Asian Indians.
  Expert Rev Clin Immunol, 2, 901-913.  
16323065 P.P.Rood, R.Bottino, A.N.Balamurugan, Y.Fan, D.K.Cooper, and M.Trucco (2006).
Facilitating physiologic self-regeneration: a step beyond islet cell replacement.
  Pharm Res, 23, 227-242.  
16878175 S.Tollefsen, H.Arentz-Hansen, B.Fleckenstein, O.Molberg, M.Ráki, W.W.Kwok, G.Jung, K.E.Lundin, and L.M.Sollid (2006).
HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 signatures of gluten T cell epitopes in celiac disease.
  J Clin Invest, 116, 2226-2236.  
16075062 A.Suri, J.J.Walters, M.L.Gross, and E.R.Unanue (2005).
Natural peptides selected by diabetogenic DQ8 and murine I-A(g7) molecules show common sequence specificity.
  J Clin Invest, 115, 2268-2276.  
15826953 E.Bergseng, J.Xia, C.Y.Kim, C.Khosla, and L.M.Sollid (2005).
Main chain hydrogen bond interactions in the binding of proline-rich gluten peptides to the celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ2 molecule.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 21791-21796.  
15790362 R.Gianani, and G.S.Eisenbarth (2005).
The stages of type 1A diabetes: 2005.
  Immunol Rev, 204, 232-249.  
20476990 R.J.Creusot, C.G.Fathman, U.Müller-Ladner, and I.H.Tarner (2005).
Targeted gene therapy of autoimmune diseases: advances and prospects.
  Expert Rev Clin Immunol, 1, 385-404.  
15096192 A.Vyakarnam, D.Sidebottom, S.Murad, J.A.Underhill, P.J.Easterbrook, A.G.Dalgleish, and M.Peakman (2004).
Possession of human leucocyte antigen DQ6 alleles and the rate of CD4 T-cell decline in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.
  Immunology, 112, 136-142.  
14769912 C.Siebold, B.E.Hansen, J.R.Wyer, K.Harlos, R.E.Esnouf, A.Svejgaard, J.I.Bell, J.L.Strominger, E.Y.Jones, and L.Fugger (2004).
Crystal structure of HLA-DQ0602 that protects against type 1 diabetes and confers strong susceptibility to narcolepsy.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 1999-2004.
PDB code: 1uvq
  15467836 C.Tian, J.Bagley, N.Cretin, N.Seth, K.W.Wucherpfennig, and J.Iacomini (2004).
Prevention of type 1 diabetes by gene therapy.
  J Clin Invest, 114, 969-978.  
15020763 C.Y.Kim, H.Quarsten, E.Bergseng, C.Khosla, and L.M.Sollid (2004).
Structural basis for HLA-DQ2-mediated presentation of gluten epitopes in celiac disease.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 4175-4179.
PDB code: 1s9v
15501399 E.E.Drouin, L.J.Glickstein, and A.C.Steere (2004).
Molecular characterization of the OspA(161-175) T cell epitope associated with treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis: differences among the three pathogenic species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.
  J Autoimmun, 23, 281-292.  
15349728 F.S.Wong, and L.Wen (2004).
What can the HLA transgenic mouse tell us about autoimmune diabetes?
  Diabetologia, 47, 1476-1487.  
14748001 H.D.Schafroth, and C.A.Floudas (2004).
Predicting peptide binding to MHC pockets via molecular modeling, implicit solvation, and global optimization.
  Proteins, 54, 534-556.  
14734520 K.W.Wucherpfennig (2004).
Presentation of a self-peptide in two distinct conformations by a disease-associated HLA-B27 subtype.
  J Exp Med, 199, 151-154.  
15517241 R.A.Ettinger, A.K.Moustakas, and S.D.Lobaton (2004).
Open reading frame sequencing and structure-based alignment of polypeptides encoded by RT1-Bb, RT1-Ba, RT1-Db, and RT1-Da alleles.
  Immunogenetics, 56, 585-596.  
15311276 S.Quaratino, E.Badami, Y.Y.Pang, I.Bartok, J.Dyson, D.Kioussis, M.Londei, and L.Maiuri (2004).
Degenerate self-reactive human T-cell receptor causes spontaneous autoimmune disease in mice.
  Nat Med, 10, 920-926.  
15331779 Z.Zavala-Ruiz, I.Strug, B.D.Walker, P.J.Norris, and L.J.Stern (2004).
A hairpin turn in a class II MHC-bound peptide orients residues outside the binding groove for T cell recognition.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 13279-13284.
PDB codes: 1sje 1sjh
15489166 Z.Zavala-Ruiz, I.Strug, M.W.Anderson, J.Gorski, and L.J.Stern (2004).
A polymorphic pocket at the P10 position contributes to peptide binding specificity in class II MHC proteins.
  Chem Biol, 11, 1395-1402.
PDB codes: 1t5w 1t5x
12682304 A.Suri, J.J.Walters, O.Kanagawa, M.L.Gross, and E.R.Unanue (2003).
Specificity of peptide selection by antigen-presenting cells homozygous or heterozygous for expression of class II MHC molecules: The lack of competition.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 5330-5335.  
12935776 E.Melanitou, P.Fain, and G.S.Eisenbarth (2003).
Genetics of type 1A (immune mediated) diabetes.
  J Autoimmun, 21, 93-98.  
14679045 G.S.Eisenbarth (2003).
Insulin autoimmunity: immunogenetics/immunopathogenesis of type 1A diabetes.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1005, 109-118.  
12740374 I.Potolicchio, L.Santambrogio, and J.L.Strominger (2003).
Molecular interaction and enzymatic activity of macrophage migration inhibitory factor with immunorelevant peptides.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 30889-30895.  
14679046 K.W.Wucherpfennig (2003).
MHC-linked susceptibility to type 1 diabetes: a structural perspective.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1005, 119-127.  
12560454 M.A.Kelly, M.L.Rayner, C.H.Mijovic, and A.H.Barnett (2003).
Molecular aspects of type 1 diabetes.
  Mol Pathol, 56, 1.  
  12975475 T.Stratmann, N.Martin-Orozco, V.Mallet-Designe, L.Poirot, D.McGavern, G.Losyev, C.M.Dobbs, M.B.Oldstone, K.Yoshida, H.Kikutani, D.Mathis, C.Benoist, K.Haskins, and L.Teyton (2003).
Susceptible MHC alleles, not background genes, select an autoimmune T cell reactivity.
  J Clin Invest, 112, 902-914.  
  12794058 V.Geenen, and F.Brilot (2003).
Role of the thymus in the development of tolerance and autoimmunity towards the neuroendocrine system.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 992, 186-195.  
12939341 W.A.Macdonald, A.W.Purcell, N.A.Mifsud, L.K.Ely, D.S.Williams, L.Chang, J.J.Gorman, C.S.Clements, L.Kjer-Nielsen, D.M.Koelle, S.R.Burrows, B.D.Tait, R.Holdsworth, A.G.Brooks, G.O.Lovrecz, L.Lu, J.Rossjohn, and J.McCluskey (2003).
A naturally selected dimorphism within the HLA-B44 supertype alters class I structure, peptide repertoire, and T cell recognition.
  J Exp Med, 198, 679-691.
PDB codes: 1m6o 1n2r
14657345 Y.Ban, D.A.Greenberg, E.Concepcion, L.Skrabanek, R.Villanueva, and Y.Tomer (2003).
Amino acid substitutions in the thyroglobulin gene are associated with susceptibility to human and murine autoimmune thyroid disease.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 15119-15124.  
12952957 Z.Zavala-Ruiz, E.J.Sundberg, J.D.Stone, D.B.DeOliveira, I.C.Chan, J.Svendsen, R.A.Mariuzza, and L.J.Stern (2003).
Exploration of the P6/P7 region of the peptide-binding site of the human class II major histocompatability complex protein HLA-DR1.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 44904-44912.
PDB code: 1pyw
12116175 A.K.Moustakas, and G.K.Papadopoulos (2002).
Molecular properties of HLA-DQ alleles conferring susceptibility to or protection from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: keys to the fate of islet beta-cells.
  Am J Med Genet, 115, 37-47.  
11857638 B.J.McFarland, and C.Beeson (2002).
Binding interactions between peptides and proteins of the class II major histocompatibility complex.
  Med Res Rev, 22, 168-203.  
11956295 D.H.Fremont, S.Dai, H.Chiang, F.Crawford, P.Marrack, and J.Kappler (2002).
Structural basis of cytochrome c presentation by IE(k).
  J Exp Med, 195, 1043-1052.
PDB codes: 1kt2 1ktd
  12370280 E.Liu, H.Moriyama, N.Abiru, D.Miao, L.Yu, R.M.Taylor, F.D.Finkelman, and G.S.Eisenbarth (2002).
Anti-peptide autoantibodies and fatal anaphylaxis in NOD mice in response to insulin self-peptides B:9-23 and B:13-23.
  J Clin Invest, 110, 1021-1027.  
12190925 E.R.Unanue (2002).
Perspective on antigen processing and presentation.
  Immunol Rev, 185, 86.  
11943868 H.Moriyama, L.Wen, N.Abiru, E.Liu, L.Yu, D.Miao, R.Gianani, F.S.Wong, and G.S.Eisenbarth (2002).
Induction and acceleration of insulitis/diabetes in mice with a viral mimic (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid) and an insulin self-peptide.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 5539-5544.  
12324465 I.Parrot, P.C.Huang, and C.Khosla (2002).
Circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of immunogenic gluten peptides and their analogs.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 45572-45578.  
11801453 J.G.Rosmalen, W.van Ewijk, and P.J.Leenen (2002).
T-cell education in autoimmune diabetes: teachers and students.
  Trends Immunol, 23, 40-46.  
12413526 M.S.Anderson (2002).
Autoimmune endocrine disease.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 14, 760-764.  
12471156 O.Rötzschke, J.M.Lau, M.Hofstätter, K.Falk, and J.L.Strominger (2002).
A pH-sensitive histidine residue as control element for ligand release from HLA-DR molecules.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 16946-16950.  
12150894 X.L.He, C.Radu, J.Sidney, A.Sette, E.S.Ward, and K.C.Garcia (2002).
Structural snapshot of aberrant antigen presentation linked to autoimmunity: the immunodominant epitope of MBP complexed with I-Au.
  Immunity, 17, 83-94.
PDB code: 1k2d
12084926 X.Liu, S.Dai, F.Crawford, R.Fruge, P.Marrack, and J.Kappler (2002).
Alternate interactions define the binding of peptides to the MHC molecule IA(b).
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 8820-8825.
PDB code: 1lnu
  11696566 G.K.Papadopoulos, C.Wijmenga, and F.Koning (2001).
Interplay between genetics and the environment in the development of celiac disease: perspectives for a healthy life.
  J Clin Invest, 108, 1261-1266.  
11567629 J.A.Todd, and L.S.Wicker (2001).
Genetic protection from the inflammatory disease type 1 diabetes in humans and animal models.
  Immunity, 15, 387-395.  
11677085 K.W.Wucherpfennig (2001).
Insights into autoimmunity gained from structural analysis of MHC-peptide complexes.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 13, 650-656.  
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