PDBsum entry 1cvj

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protein dna_rna ligands Protein-protein interface(s) links
Gene regulation/RNA PDB id
Protein chains
169 a.a. *
151 a.a. *
131 a.a. *
132 a.a. *
__A ×8
Waters ×53
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Gene regulation/RNA
Title: X-ray crystal structure of the poly(a)-binding protein in complex with polyadenylate RNA
Structure: 5'-r( Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap A)-3'. Chain: m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t. Engineered: yes. Polyadenylate binding protein 1. Chain: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h. Fragment: residues 1-190. Synonym: poly(a) binding protein 1, pabp 1. Engineered: yes
Source: Synthetic: yes. Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562.
Biol. unit: 16mer (from PQS)
2.60Å     R-factor:   0.230     R-free:   0.304
Authors: R.C.Deo,J.B.Bonanno,N.Sonenberg,S.K.Burley
Key ref:
R.C.Deo et al. (1999). Recognition of polyadenylate RNA by the poly(A)-binding protein. Cell, 98, 835-845. PubMed id: 10499800 DOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81517-2
23-Aug-99     Release date:   04-Oct-99    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P11940  (PABP1_HUMAN) -  Polyadenylate-binding protein 1
636 a.a.
169 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P11940  (PABP1_HUMAN) -  Polyadenylate-binding protein 1
636 a.a.
151 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P11940  (PABP1_HUMAN) -  Polyadenylate-binding protein 1
636 a.a.
131 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P11940  (PABP1_HUMAN) -  Polyadenylate-binding protein 1
636 a.a.
132 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 9 residue positions (black crosses)

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biochemical function     nucleotide binding     2 terms  


DOI no: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81517-2 Cell 98:835-845 (1999)
PubMed id: 10499800  
Recognition of polyadenylate RNA by the poly(A)-binding protein.
R.C.Deo, J.B.Bonanno, N.Sonenberg, S.K.Burley.
The cocrystal structure of human poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) has been determined at 2.6 A resolution. PABP recognizes the 3' mRNA poly(A) tail and plays critical roles in eukaryotic translation initiation and mRNA stabilization/degradation. The minimal PABP used in this study consists of the N-terminal two RRM-type RNA-binding domains connected by a short linker (RRM1/2). These two RRMs form a continuous RNA-binding trough, lined by an antiparallel beta sheet backed by four alpha helices. The polyadenylate RNA adopts an extended conformation running the length of the molecular trough. Adenine recognition is primarily mediated by contacts with conserved residues found in the RNP motifs of the two RRMs. The convex dorsum of RRM1/2 displays a phylogenetically conserved hydrophobic/acidic portion, which may interact with translation initiation factors and regulatory proteins.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 4.
Figure 4. Schematic Representation of RNA–Protein InteractionsThe β sheets of RRM1 and RRM2 and the domain linker are colored as in Figure 2. Functional classifications: narrow solid lines, van der Waals contacts; narrow broken lines, hydrogen bonds; thick solid lines, protein–base stacking interactions; thick broken lines, base–base stacking interactions. For clarity, close contacts with ribose groups have been omitted.
Figure 5.
Figure 5. Adenine Recognition by PABPRIBBONS/stick figure representation of the interactions between PABP RRM1/2 and polyadenylate RNA. Green dashed lines indicate hydrogen bonds between RNA and protein.(A) Recognition of Ade-1 and Ade-2 by RRM2.(B) Recognition of Ade-3 by RRM2 and part of the RRM2/3 linker.(C) Recognition of Ade-4 and Ade-5 by RRM1, RRM2, and the RRM1/2 linker.(D) Recognition of Ade-6 by RRM1 and the RRM1/2 linker.(E) Recognition of Ade-7 by RRM1, and base stacking with the same base of a protein–RNA complex related by noncrystallographic symmetry (Ade-7′).(F) Recognition of Ade-8 by RRM1. The adenine is sandwiched between the side chain of Tyr-56 and the adenine of a free RNA strand (AdeX).
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Cell Press: Cell (1999, 98, 835-845) copyright 1999.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
22751018 L.A.Yates, S.Fleurdépine, O.S.Rissland, L.De Colibus, K.Harlos, C.J.Norbury, and R.J.Gilbert (2012).
Structural basis for the activity of a cytoplasmic RNA terminal uridylyl transferase.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 19, 782-787.
PDB codes: 4e7x 4e80 4e8f
21399644 A.Cléry, S.Jayne, N.Benderska, C.Dominguez, S.Stamm, and F.H.Allain (2011).
Molecular basis of purine-rich RNA recognition by the human SR-like protein Tra2-β1.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 18, 443-450.
PDB code: 2kxn
20805243 B.M.Lunde, M.Hörner, and A.Meinhart (2011).
Structural insights into cis element recognition of non-polyadenylated RNAs by the Nab3-RRM.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 39, 337-346.
PDB codes: 2xnq 2xnr
21419778 D.Anunciado, A.Dhar, M.Gruebele, and A.M.Baranger (2011).
Multistep kinetics of the U1A-SL2 RNA complex dissociation.
  J Mol Biol, 408, 896-908.  
21292982 D.Barthelme, S.Dinkelaker, S.V.Albers, P.Londei, U.Ermler, and R.Tampé (2011).
Ribosome recycling depends on a mechanistic link between the FeS cluster domain and a conformational switch of the twin-ATPase ABCE1.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108, 3228-3233.  
21572444 E.M.Gesner, M.J.Schellenberg, E.L.Garside, M.M.George, and A.M.Macmillan (2011).
Recognition and maturation of effector RNAs in a CRISPR interference pathway.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 18, 688-692.
PDB codes: 3qrp 3qrq 3qrr
21295486 Q.Yang, M.Coseno, G.M.Gilmartin, and S.Doublié (2011).
Crystal structure of a human cleavage factor CFI(m)25/CFI(m)68/RNA complex provides an insight into poly(A) site recognition and RNA looping.
  Structure, 19, 368-377.
PDB codes: 3q2s 3q2t
21364523 S.P.Blagden, and A.E.Willis (2011).
The biological and therapeutic relevance of mRNA translation in cancer.
  Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 8, 280-291.  
21292163 Y.Bai, S.K.Srivastava, J.H.Chang, J.L.Manley, and L.Tong (2011).
Structural basis for dimerization and activity of human PAPD1, a noncanonical poly(A) polymerase.
  Mol Cell, 41, 311-320.
PDB code: 3pq1
20739757 A.Yanagiya, G.Delbes, Y.V.Svitkin, B.Robaire, and N.Sonenberg (2010).
The poly(A)-binding protein partner Paip2a controls translation during late spermiogenesis in mice.
  J Clin Invest, 120, 3389-3400.  
21058657 J.Bernstein, J.D.Ballin, D.N.Patterson, G.M.Wilson, and E.A.Toth (2010).
Unique properties of the Mtr4p-poly(A) complex suggest a role in substrate targeting.
  Biochemistry, 49, 10357-10370.  
20479262 Q.Yang, G.M.Gilmartin, and S.Doublié (2010).
Structural basis of UGUA recognition by the Nudix protein CFI(m)25 and implications for a regulatory role in mRNA 3' processing.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 10062-10067.
PDB codes: 3mdg 3mdi
20102337 R.W.Smith, and N.K.Gray (2010).
Poly(A)-binding protein (PABP): a common viral target.
  Biochem J, 426, 1.  
19596809 A.Schwede, T.Manful, B.A.Jha, C.Helbig, N.Bercovich, M.Stewart, and C.Clayton (2009).
The role of deadenylation in the degradation of unstable mRNAs in trypanosomes.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 37, 5511-5528.  
19553194 K.Tsuda, K.Kuwasako, M.Takahashi, T.Someya, M.Inoue, T.Terada, N.Kobayashi, M.Shirouzu, T.Kigawa, A.Tanaka, S.Sugano, P.Güntert, Y.Muto, and S.Yokoyama (2009).
Structural basis for the sequence-specific RNA-recognition mechanism of human CUG-BP1 RRM3.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 37, 5151-5166.
PDB codes: 2rq4 2rqc
19865697 L.L.Cline, and M.L.Waters (2009).
Design of a beta-hairpin peptide-intercalator conjugate for simultaneous recognition of single stranded and double stranded regions of RNA.
  Org Biomol Chem, 7, 4622-4630.  
19174564 P.H.Kuo, L.G.Doudeva, Y.T.Wang, C.K.Shen, and H.S.Yuan (2009).
Structural insights into TDP-43 in nucleic-acid binding and domain interactions.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 37, 1799-1808.
PDB code: 3d2w
19576221 S.A.Kennedy, M.L.Frazier, M.Steiniger, A.M.Mast, W.F.Marzluff, and M.R.Redinbo (2009).
Crystal structure of the HEAT domain from the Pre-mRNA processing factor Symplekin.
  J Mol Biol, 392, 115-128.
PDB code: 3gs3
19889981 T.M.Link, P.Valentin-Hansen, and R.G.Brennan (2009).
Structure of Escherichia coli Hfq bound to polyriboadenylate RNA.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 19292-19297.
PDB code: 3gib
19217410 Y.Shi, D.C.Di Giammartino, D.Taylor, A.Sarkeshik, W.J.Rice, J.R.Yates, J.Frank, and J.L.Manley (2009).
Molecular architecture of the human pre-mRNA 3' processing complex.
  Mol Cell, 33, 365-376.  
18515081 A.Cléry, M.Blatter, and F.H.Allain (2008).
RNA recognition motifs: boring? Not quite.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 18, 290-298.  
18201561 A.O.Kumar, M.C.Swenson, M.M.Benning, and C.L.Kielkopf (2008).
Structure of the central RNA recognition motif of human TIA-1 at 1.95A resolution.
  Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 367, 813-819.
PDB code: 3bs9
18321554 C.I.Rivera, and R.E.Lloyd (2008).
Modulation of enteroviral proteinase cleavage of poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) by conformation and PABP-associated factors.
  Virology, 375, 59-72.  
18158581 C.R.Mandel, Y.Bai, and L.Tong (2008).
Protein factors in pre-mRNA 3'-end processing.
  Cell Mol Life Sci, 65, 1099-1122.  
18293956 D.Anunciado, M.Agumeh, B.L.Kormos, D.L.Beveridge, J.L.Knee, and A.M.Baranger (2008).
Characterization of the dynamics of an essential helix in the U1A protein by time-resolved fluorescence measurements.
  J Phys Chem B, 112, 6122-6130.  
18203745 G.Toba, and K.White (2008).
The third RNA recognition motif of Drosophila ELAV protein has a role in multimerization.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 36, 1390-1399.  
18059478 G.V.Crichlow, H.Zhou, H.H.Hsiao, K.B.Frederick, M.Debrosse, Y.Yang, E.J.Folta-Stogniew, H.J.Chung, C.Fan, E.M.De la Cruz, D.Levens, E.Lolis, and D.Braddock (2008).
Dimerization of FIR upon FUSE DNA binding suggests a mechanism of c-myc inhibition.
  EMBO J, 27, 277-289.
PDB code: 2qfj
18275081 H.Ge, D.Zhou, S.Tong, Y.Gao, M.Teng, and L.Niu (2008).
Crystal structure and possible dimerization of the single RRM of human PABPN1.
  Proteins, 71, 1539-1545.
PDB codes: 3b4d 3b4m
18632855 J.M.Bonderoff, J.L.Larey, and R.E.Lloyd (2008).
Cleavage of poly(A)-binding protein by poliovirus 3C proteinase inhibits viral internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation.
  J Virol, 82, 9389-9399.  
18824697 J.Song, J.V.McGivern, K.W.Nichols, J.L.Markley, and M.D.Sheets (2008).
Structural basis for RNA recognition by a type II poly(A)-binding protein.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 15317-15322.
PDB code: 2jwn
18045242 K.Duning, F.Buck, A.Barnekow, and J.Kremerskothen (2008).
SYNCRIP, a component of dendritically localized mRNPs, binds to the translation regulator BC200 RNA.
  J Neurochem, 105, 351-359.  
18597886 K.E.Lukong, K.W.Chang, E.W.Khandjian, and S.Richard (2008).
RNA-binding proteins in human genetic disease.
  Trends Genet, 24, 416-425.  
19079550 K.N.Rao, S.K.Burley, and S.Swaminathan (2008).
UPF201 archaeal specific family members reveal structural similarity to RNA-binding proteins but low likelihood for RNA-binding function.
  PLoS ONE, 3, e3903.
PDB codes: 2nrq 2nwu 2ogk 2pzz
18547518 O.Kotik-Kogan, E.R.Valentine, D.Sanfelice, M.R.Conte, and S.Curry (2008).
Structural analysis reveals conformational plasticity in the recognition of RNA 3' ends by the human La protein.
  Structure, 16, 852-862.
PDB codes: 2vod 2von 2voo 2vop
18022637 P.Deka, M.E.Bucheli, C.Moore, S.Buratowski, and G.Varani (2008).
Structure of the yeast SR protein Npl3 and Interaction with mRNA 3'-end processing signals.
  J Mol Biol, 375, 136-150.
PDB codes: 2osq 2osr
18186485 R.Worch, and R.Stolarski (2008).
Stacking efficiency and flexibility analysis of aromatic amino acids in cap-binding proteins.
  Proteins, 71, 2026-2037.  
18641416 T.Nagata, S.Suzuki, R.Endo, M.Shirouzu, T.Terada, M.Inoue, T.Kigawa, N.Kobayashi, P.Güntert, A.Tanaka, Y.Hayashizaki, Y.Muto, and S.Yokoyama (2008).
The RRM domain of poly(A)-specific ribonuclease has a noncanonical binding site for mRNA cap analog recognition.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 36, 4754-4767.
PDB code: 2rok
17473849 B.M.Lunde, C.Moore, and G.Varani (2007).
RNA-binding proteins: modular design for efficient function.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 8, 479-490.  
17229474 D.M.Lehmann, C.A.Galloway, C.MacElrevey, M.P.Sowden, J.E.Wedekind, and H.C.Smith (2007).
Functional characterization of APOBEC-1 complementation factor phosphorylation sites.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1773, 408-418.  
17766253 E.Simón, and B.Séraphin (2007).
A specific role for the C-terminal region of the Poly(A)-binding protein in mRNA decay.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 35, 6017-6028.  
17620415 G.Yao, Y.C.Chiang, C.Zhang, D.J.Lee, T.M.Laue, and C.L.Denis (2007).
PAB1 self-association precludes its binding to poly(A), thereby accelerating CCR4 deadenylation in vivo.
  Mol Cell Biol, 27, 6243-6253.  
18215114 J.L.Konopka, L.O.Penalva, J.M.Thompson, L.J.White, C.W.Beard, J.D.Keene, and R.E.Johnston (2007).
A two-phase innate host response to alphavirus infection identified by mRNP-tagging in vivo.
  PLoS Pathog, 3, e199.  
17595167 N.Siddiqui, D.A.Mangus, T.C.Chang, J.M.Palermino, A.B.Shyu, and K.Gehring (2007).
Poly(A) nuclease interacts with the C-terminal domain of polyadenylate-binding protein domain from poly(A)-binding protein.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 25067-25075.  
17353264 O.S.Rissland, A.Mikulasova, and C.J.Norbury (2007).
Efficient RNA polyuridylation by noncanonical poly(A) polymerases.
  Mol Cell Biol, 27, 3612-3624.  
17785461 P.Nilsson, N.Henriksson, A.Niedzwiecka, N.A.Balatsos, K.Kokkoris, J.Eriksson, and A.Virtanen (2007).
A multifunctional RNA recognition motif in poly(A)-specific ribonuclease with cap and poly(A) binding properties.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 32902-32911.  
16672237 A.Ebihara, M.Yao, R.Masui, I.Tanaka, S.Yokoyama, and S.Kuramitsu (2006).
Crystal structure of hypothetical protein TTHB192 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 reveals a new protein family with an RNA recognition motif-like domain.
  Protein Sci, 15, 1494-1499.
PDB code: 1wj9
16431980 C.Clerte, and K.B.Hall (2006).
Characterization of multimeric complexes formed by the human PTB1 protein on RNA.
  RNA, 12, 457-475.  
  16682775 E.A.Sickmier, K.E.Frato, and C.L.Kielkopf (2006).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a U2AF65 variant in complex with a polypyrimidine-tract analogue by use of protein engineering.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 62, 457-459.  
16818232 E.A.Sickmier, K.E.Frato, H.Shen, S.R.Paranawithana, M.R.Green, and C.L.Kielkopf (2006).
Structural basis for polypyrimidine tract recognition by the essential pre-mRNA splicing factor U2AF65.
  Mol Cell, 23, 49-59.
PDB codes: 2fzr 2g4b
16782705 E.Dizin, C.Gressier, C.Magnard, H.Ray, D.Décimo, T.Ohlmann, and N.Dalla Venezia (2006).
BRCA1 interacts with poly(A)-binding protein: implication of BRCA1 in translation regulation.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 24236-24246.  
16362043 F.Vitali, A.Henning, F.C.Oberstrass, Y.Hargous, S.D.Auweter, M.Erat, and F.H.Allain (2006).
Structure of the two most C-terminal RNA recognition motifs of PTB using segmental isotope labeling.
  EMBO J, 25, 150-162.
PDB code: 2evz
16794580 J.M.Pérez-Cañadillas (2006).
Grabbing the message: structural basis of mRNA 3'UTR recognition by Hrp1.
  EMBO J, 25, 3167-3178.
PDB code: 2cjk
16923806 J.Mercante, K.Suzuki, X.Cheng, P.Babitzke, and T.Romeo (2006).
Comprehensive alanine-scanning mutagenesis of Escherichia coli CsrA defines two subdomains of critical functional importance.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 31832-31842.  
16581774 K.H.Nielsen, L.Valásek, C.Sykes, A.Jivotovskaya, and A.G.Hinnebusch (2006).
Interaction of the RNP1 motif in PRT1 with HCR1 promotes 40S binding of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 in yeast.
  Mol Cell Biol, 26, 2984-2998.  
17381337 M.C.Derry, A.Yanagiya, Y.Martineau, and N.Sonenberg (2006).
Regulation of poly(A)-binding protein through PABP-interacting proteins.
  Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 71, 537-543.  
16738410 M.J.Law, A.J.Rice, P.Lin, and I.A.Laird-Offringa (2006).
The role of RNA structure in the interaction of U1A protein with U1 hairpin II RNA.
  RNA, 12, 1168-1178.  
16407334 M.J.Law, M.E.Linde, E.J.Chambers, C.Oubridge, P.S.Katsamba, L.Nilsson, I.S.Haworth, and I.A.Laird-Offringa (2006).
The role of positively charged amino acids and electrostatic interactions in the complex of U1A protein and U1 hairpin II RNA.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 34, 275-285.  
16432215 M.J.Schellenberg, R.A.Edwards, D.B.Ritchie, O.A.Kent, M.M.Golas, H.Stark, R.Lührmann, J.N.Glover, and A.M.MacMillan (2006).
Crystal structure of a core spliceosomal protein interface.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 1266-1271.
PDB codes: 2f9d 2f9j
16462747 S.A.Jacobs, E.R.Podell, and T.R.Cech (2006).
Crystal structure of the essential N-terminal domain of telomerase reverse transcriptase.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 13, 218-225.
PDB code: 2b2a
16982642 S.D.Auweter, F.C.Oberstrass, and F.H.Allain (2006).
Sequence-specific binding of single-stranded RNA: is there a code for recognition?
  Nucleic Acids Res, 34, 4943-4959.  
16362037 S.D.Auweter, R.Fasan, L.Reymond, J.G.Underwood, D.L.Black, S.Pitsch, and F.H.Allain (2006).
Molecular basis of RNA recognition by the human alternative splicing factor Fox-1.
  EMBO J, 25, 163-173.
PDB code: 2err
16332685 S.Ma, T.Musa, and J.Bag (2006).
Reduced stability of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-2 mRNA and phosphorylation of poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) in cells overexpressing PABP.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 3145-3156.  
16715044 S.P.Ryder (2006).
Oskar gains weight.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 13, 297-299.  
16611943 S.Wang, Y.Hu, M.T.Overgaard, F.V.Karginov, O.C.Uhlenbeck, and D.B.McKay (2006).
The domain of the Bacillus subtilis DEAD-box helicase YxiN that is responsible for specific binding of 23S rRNA has an RNA recognition motif fold.
  RNA, 12, 959-967.
PDB code: 2g0c
16278830 Y.Zhao, B.L.Kormos, D.L.Beveridge, and A.M.Baranger (2006).
Molecular dynamics simulation studies of a protein-RNA complex with a selectively modified binding interface.
  Biopolymers, 81, 256-269.  
15831480 A.J.Woods, T.Kantidakis, H.Sabe, D.R.Critchley, and J.C.Norman (2005).
Interaction of paxillin with poly(A)-binding protein 1 and its role in focal adhesion turnover and cell migration.
  Mol Cell Biol, 25, 3763-3773.  
15735338 B.V.Strokopytov, A.Fedorov, N.M.Mahoney, M.Kessels, D.G.Drubin, and S.C.Almo (2005).
Phased translation function revisited: structure solution of the cofilin-homology domain from yeast actin-binding protein 1 using six-dimensional searches.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 61, 285-293.
PDB code: 1hqz
15769879 C.Brune, S.E.Munchel, N.Fischer, A.V.Podtelejnikov, and K.Weis (2005).
Yeast poly(A)-binding protein Pab1 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and functions in mRNA export.
  RNA, 11, 517-531.  
15654320 C.L.Ng, D.Waterman, E.V.Koonin, A.A.Antson, and M.Ortiz-Lombardía (2005).
Crystal structure of Mil (Mth680): internal duplication and similarity between the Imp4/Brix domain and the anticodon-binding domain of class IIa aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.
  EMBO Rep, 6, 140-146.
PDB code: 1w94
15853797 C.Maris, C.Dominguez, and F.H.Allain (2005).
The RNA recognition motif, a plastic RNA-binding platform to regulate post-transcriptional gene expression.
  FEBS J, 272, 2118-2131.  
16179478 F.C.Oberstrass, S.D.Auweter, M.Erat, Y.Hargous, A.Henning, P.Wenter, L.Reymond, B.Amir-Ahmady, S.Pitsch, D.L.Black, and F.H.Allain (2005).
Structure of PTB bound to RNA: specific binding and implications for splicing regulation.
  Science, 309, 2054-2057.
PDB codes: 2ad9 2adb 2adc
15713657 G.S.Wilkie, P.Gautier, D.Lawson, and N.K.Gray (2005).
Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein stimulates translation in germ cells.
  Mol Cell Biol, 25, 2060-2071.  
16330711 H.Wang, A.Iacoangeli, D.Lin, K.Williams, R.B.Denman, C.U.Hellen, and H.Tiedge (2005).
Dendritic BC1 RNA in translational control mechanisms.
  J Cell Biol, 171, 811-821.  
15882268 I.Santamaría, D.Alvarez-Hernández, R.Jofré, J.R.Polo, J.Menárguez, and J.B.Cannata-Andía (2005).
Progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism involves deregulation of genes related to DNA and RNA stability.
  Kidney Int, 67, 2267-2279.  
16211523 J.B.Bonanno, S.C.Almo, A.Bresnick, M.R.Chance, A.Fiser, S.Swaminathan, J.Jiang, F.W.Studier, L.Shapiro, C.D.Lima, T.M.Gaasterland, A.Sali, K.Bain, I.Feil, X.Gao, D.Lorimer, A.Ramos, J.M.Sauder, S.R.Wasserman, S.Emtage, K.L.D'Amico, and S.K.Burley (2005).
New York-Structural GenomiX Research Consortium (NYSGXRC): a large scale center for the protein structure initiative.
  J Struct Funct Genomics, 6, 225-232.  
15914668 M.J.Law, E.J.Chambers, P.S.Katsamba, I.S.Haworth, and I.A.Laird-Offringa (2005).
Kinetic analysis of the role of the tyrosine 13, phenylalanine 56 and glutamine 54 network in the U1A/U1 hairpin II interaction.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 33, 2917-2928.  
15809648 P.Gollnick, and A.Antson (2005).
Going for RNA repeats.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 12, 289-290.  
15643449 R.Stefl, L.Skrisovska, and F.H.Allain (2005).
RNA sequence- and shape-dependent recognition by proteins in the ribonucleoprotein particle.
  EMBO Rep, 6, 33-38.  
15795249 R.W.Hardy, and C.M.Rice (2005).
Requirements at the 3' end of the sindbis virus genome for efficient synthesis of minus-strand RNA.
  J Virol, 79, 4630-4639.  
16094695 S.Ilin, A.Hoskins, O.Ohlenschläger, H.R.Jonker, H.Schwalbe, and J.Wöhnert (2005).
Domain reorientation and induced fit upon RNA binding: solution structure and dynamics of ribosomal protein L11 from Thermotoga maritima.
  Chembiochem, 6, 1611-1618.
PDB code: 2k3f
16192572 T.Kumarevel, H.Mizuno, and P.K.Kumar (2005).
Characterization of the metal ion binding site in the anti-terminator protein, HutP, of Bacillus subtilis.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 33, 5494-5502.
PDB codes: 1wpt 1wrn 1wro
15758992 T.Kumarevel, H.Mizuno, and P.K.Kumar (2005).
Structural basis of HutP-mediated anti-termination and roles of the Mg2+ ion and L-histidine ligand.
  Nature, 434, 183-191.
PDB codes: 1wmq 1wps 1wpv
16299002 U.Z.Littauer, and U.Z.Littauer (2005).
From polynucleotide phosphorylase to neurobiology.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 38889-38897.  
15853794 Y.Chen, and G.Varani (2005).
Protein families and RNA recognition.
  FEBS J, 272, 2088-2097.  
16204451 Z.Yang, H.J.Edenberg, and R.L.Davis (2005).
Isolation of mRNA from specific tissues of Drosophila by mRNA tagging.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 33, e148.  
14981510 B.P.Hudson, M.A.Martinez-Yamout, H.J.Dyson, and P.E.Wright (2004).
Recognition of the mRNA AU-rich element by the zinc finger domain of TIS11d.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 11, 257-264.
PDB code: 1rgo
15004549 C.Alfano, D.Sanfelice, J.Babon, G.Kelly, A.Jacks, S.Curry, and M.R.Conte (2004).
Structural analysis of cooperative RNA binding by the La motif and central RRM domain of human La protein.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 11, 323-329.
PDB codes: 1s79 1s7a
15155766 C.Butan, H.Van Der Zandt, and P.A.Tucker (2004).
Structure and assembly of the RNA binding domain of bluetongue virus non-structural protein 2.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 37613-37621.
PDB code: 1uty
15231733 C.L.Kielkopf, S.Lücke, and M.R.Green (2004).
U2AF homology motifs: protein recognition in the RRM world.
  Genes Dev, 18, 1513-1526.  
14730023 H.Banerjee, A.Rahn, B.Gawande, S.Guth, J.Valcarcel, and R.Singh (2004).
The conserved RNA recognition motif 3 of U2 snRNA auxiliary factor (U2AF 65) is essential in vivo but dispensable for activity in vitro.
  RNA, 10, 240-253.  
15547135 K.Dower, N.Kuperwasser, H.Merrikh, and M.Rosbash (2004).
A synthetic A tail rescues yeast nuclear accumulation of a ribozyme-terminated transcript.
  RNA, 10, 1888-1899.  
15226427 K.L.Carroll, D.A.Pradhan, J.A.Granek, N.D.Clarke, and J.L.Corden (2004).
Identification of cis elements directing termination of yeast nonpolyadenylated snoRNA transcripts.
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 6241-6252.  
15189156 L.D.Kapp, and J.R.Lorsch (2004).
The molecular mechanics of eukaryotic translation.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 73, 657-704.  
15085179 R.Khanna, and M.Kiledjian (2004).
Poly(A)-binding-protein-mediated regulation of hDcp2 decapping in vitro.
  EMBO J, 23, 1968-1976.  
14717712 R.T.Sladic, C.A.Lagnado, C.J.Bagley, and G.J.Goodall (2004).
Human PABP binds AU-rich RNA via RNA-binding domains 3 and 4.
  Eur J Biochem, 271, 450-457.  
15166247 S.Degot, H.Le Hir, F.Alpy, V.Kedinger, I.Stoll, C.Wendling, B.Seraphin, M.C.Rio, and C.Tomasetto (2004).
Association of the breast cancer protein MLN51 with the exon junction complex via its speckle localizer and RNA binding module.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 33702-33715.  
  12586718 D.A.Belostotsky (2003).
Unexpected complexity of poly(A)-binding protein gene families in flowering plants: three conserved lineages that are at least 200 million years old and possible auto- and cross-regulation.
  Genetics, 163, 311-319.  
12844354 D.A.Mangus, M.C.Evans, and A.Jacobson (2003).
Poly(A)-binding proteins: multifunctional scaffolds for the post-transcriptional control of gene expression.
  Genome Biol, 4, 223.  
12595703 D.B.Hoggan, J.A.Chao, G.S.Prasad, C.D.Stout, and J.R.Williamson (2003).
Combinatorial crystallization of an RNA-protein complex.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 59, 466-473.  
12912928 D.L.Theobald, and S.C.Schultz (2003).
Nucleotide shuffling and ssDNA recognition in Oxytricha nova telomere end-binding protein complexes.
  EMBO J, 22, 4314-4324.
PDB codes: 1pa6 1ph1 1ph2 1ph3 1ph4 1ph5 1ph6 1ph7 1ph8 1ph9 1phj
14602897 E.A.Worthey, A.Schnaufer, I.S.Mian, K.Stuart, and R.Salavati (2003).
Comparative analysis of editosome proteins in trypanosomatids.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 6392-6408.  
12952955 E.O.Melo, R.Dhalia, C.Martins de Sa, N.Standart, and Melo Neto (2003).
Identification of a C-terminal poly(A)-binding protein (PABP)-PABP interaction domain: role in cooperative binding to poly (A) and efficient cap distal translational repression.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 46357-46368.  
12809490 G.C.Pérez-Alvarado, M.Martínez-Yamout, M.M.Allen, R.Grosschedl, H.J.Dyson, and P.E.Wright (2003).
Structure of the nuclear factor ALY: insights into post-transcriptional regulatory and mRNA nuclear export processes.
  Biochemistry, 42, 7348-7357.
PDB code: 1no8
12554879 H.Banerjee, A.Rahn, W.Davis, and R.Singh (2003).
Sex lethal and U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor (U2AF65) recognize polypyrimidine tracts using multiple modes of binding.
  RNA, 9, 88-99.  
12637517 J.G.De Gaudenzi, I.D'Orso, and A.C.Frasch (2003).
RNA recognition motif-type RNA-binding proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi form a family involved in the interaction with specific transcripts in vivo.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 18884-18894.  
12773396 J.M.Pérez Cañadillas, and G.Varani (2003).
Recognition of GU-rich polyadenylation regulatory elements by human CstF-64 protein.
  EMBO J, 22, 2821-2830.
PDB code: 1p1t
12595544 M.I.Zarudnaya, I.M.Kolomiets, A.L.Potyahaylo, and D.M.Hovorun (2003).
Downstream elements of mammalian pre-mRNA polyadenylation signals: primary, secondary and higher-order structures.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 1375-1386.  
12930992 N.Siddiqui, G.Kozlov, I.D'Orso, J.F.Trempe, and K.Gehring (2003).
Solution structure of the C-terminal domain from poly(A)-binding protein in Trypanosoma cruzi: a vegetal PABC domain.
  Protein Sci, 12, 1925-1933.
PDB code: 1nmr
12581660 N.Sonenberg, and T.E.Dever (2003).
Eukaryotic translation initiation factors and regulators.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 13, 56-63.  
14635255 T.Preiss, and M.W Hentze (2003).
Starting the protein synthesis machine: eukaryotic translation initiation.
  Bioessays, 25, 1201-1211.  
12637556 U.Kühn, A.Nemeth, S.Meyer, and E.Wahle (2003).
The RNA binding domains of the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 16916-16925.  
11704675 A.J.Woods, M.S.Roberts, J.Choudhary, S.T.Barry, Y.Mazaki, H.Sabe, S.J.Morley, D.R.Critchley, and J.C.Norman (2002).
Paxillin associates with poly(A)-binding protein 1 at the dense endoplasmic reticulum and the leading edge of migrating cells.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 6428-6437.  
11871661 A.Mehta, and D.M.Driscoll (2002).
Identification of domains in apobec-1 complementation factor required for RNA binding and apolipoprotein-B mRNA editing.
  RNA, 8, 69-82.  
11854282 A.V.Pisarev, M.A.Skabkin, A.A.Thomas, W.C.Merrick, L.P.Ovchinnikov, and I.N.Shatsky (2002).
Positive and negative effects of the major mammalian messenger ribonucleoprotein p50 on binding of 40 S ribosomal subunits to the initiation codon of beta-globin mRNA.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 15445-15451.  
12086624 C.M.Groft, and S.K.Burley (2002).
Recognition of eIF4G by rotavirus NSP3 reveals a basis for mRNA circularization.
  Mol Cell, 9, 1273-1283.
PDB code: 1lj2
12434151 G.Calero, K.F.Wilson, T.Ly, J.L.Rios-Steiner, J.C.Clardy, and R.A.Cerione (2002).
Structural basis of m7GpppG binding to the nuclear cap-binding protein complex.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 912-917.
PDB codes: 1n52 1n54
11875511 G.Varani, and F.H.Allain (2002).
How a rotavirus hijacks the human protein synthesis machinery.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 158-160.  
12403777 I.D'Orso, and A.C.Frasch (2002).
TcUBP-1, an mRNA destabilizing factor from trypanosomes, homodimerizes and interacts with novel AU-rich element- and Poly(A)-binding proteins forming a ribonucleoprotein complex.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 50520-50528.  
12466552 J.B.Tuite, J.C.Shiels, and A.M.Baranger (2002).
Substitution of an essential adenine in the U1A-RNA complex with a non-polar isostere.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 30, 5269-5275.  
11788718 J.C.Shiels, J.B.Tuite, S.J.Nolan, and A.M.Baranger (2002).
Investigation of a conserved stacking interaction in target site recognition by the U1A protein.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 30, 550-558.  
11917013 J.Vitali, J.Ding, J.Jiang, Y.Zhang, A.R.Krainer, and R.M.Xu (2002).
Correlated alternative side chain conformations in the RNA-recognition motif of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 30, 1531-1538.
PDB code: 1l3k
12108548 K.C.Moraes, W.H.Lee, and J.Kobarg (2002).
Analysis of the structural determinants for RNA binding of the human protein AUF1/hnRNP D.
  Biol Chem, 383, 831-837.  
12100721 M.A.Fouraux, A.van der Heijden, W.J.van Venrooij, and G.J.Pruijn (2002).
Cross-reactivity of the anti-La monoclonal antibody SW5 with early endosome antigen 2.
  Immunology, 106, 336-342.  
12093755 M.A.Schumacher, R.F.Pearson, T.Møller, P.Valentin-Hansen, and R.G.Brennan (2002).
Structures of the pleiotropic translational regulator Hfq and an Hfq-RNA complex: a bacterial Sm-like protein.
  EMBO J, 21, 3546-3556.
PDB codes: 1kq1 1kq2
11836384 N.M.Kuyumcu-Martinez, M.Joachims, and R.E.Lloyd (2002).
Efficient cleavage of ribosome-associated poly(A)-binding protein by enterovirus 3C protease.
  J Virol, 76, 2062-2074.  
12388766 P.Björk, G.Baurén, S.Jin, Y.G.Tong, T.R.Bürglin, U.Hellman, and L.Wieslander (2002).
A novel conserved RNA-binding domain protein, RBD-1, is essential for ribosome biogenesis.
  Mol Biol Cell, 13, 3683-3695.  
12082087 P.S.Katsamba, M.Bayramyan, I.S.Haworth, D.G.Myszka, and I.A.Laird-Offringa (2002).
Complex role of the beta 2-beta 3 loop in the interaction of U1A with U1 hairpin II RNA.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 33267-33274.  
11792322 R.C.Deo, C.M.Groft, K.R.Rajashankar, and S.K.Burley (2002).
Recognition of the rotavirus mRNA 3' consensus by an asymmetric NSP3 homodimer.
  Cell, 108, 71-81.
PDB code: 1knz
11877379 R.Lemaire, J.Prasad, T.Kashima, J.Gustafson, J.L.Manley, and R.Lafyatis (2002).
Stability of a PKCI-1-related mRNA is controlled by the splicing factor ASF/SF2: a novel function for SR proteins.
  Genes Dev, 16, 594-607.  
11884397 S.B.Jin, J.Zhao, P.Bjork, K.Schmekel, P.O.Ljungdahl, and L.Wieslander (2002).
Mrd1p is required for processing of pre-rRNA and for maintenance of steady-state levels of 40 S ribosomal subunits in yeast.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 18431-18439.  
12121976 S.Horke, K.Reumann, A.Rang, and T.Heise (2002).
Molecular characterization of the human La protein.hepatitis B virus RNA.B interaction in vitro.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 34949-34958.  
11839494 T.M.Hall (2002).
Poly(A) tail synthesis and regulation: recent structural insights.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 12, 82-88.  
11788707 X.Yuan, N.Davydova, M.R.Conte, S.Curry, and S.Matthews (2002).
Chemical shift mapping of RNA interactions with the polypyrimidine tract binding protein.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 30, 456-462.  
12762031 A.Kahvejian, G.Roy, and N.Sonenberg (2001).
The mRNA closed-loop model: the function of PABP and PABP-interacting proteins in mRNA translation.
  Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 66, 293-300.  
11551507 C.L.Kielkopf, N.A.Rodionova, M.R.Green, and S.K.Burley (2001).
A novel peptide recognition mode revealed by the X-ray structure of a core U2AF35/U2AF65 heterodimer.
  Cell, 106, 595-605.
PDB code: 1jmt
11545740 C.Mazza, M.Ohno, A.Segref, I.W.Mattaj, and S.Cusack (2001).
Crystal structure of the human nuclear cap binding complex.
  Mol Cell, 8, 383-396.
PDB code: 1h6k
11274061 G.K.Voeltz, J.Ongkasuwan, N.Standart, and J.A.Steitz (2001).
A novel embryonic poly(A) binding protein, ePAB, regulates mRNA deadenylation in Xenopus egg extracts.
  Genes Dev, 15, 774-788.  
11287632 G.Kozlov, J.F.Trempe, K.Khaleghpour, A.Kahvejian, I.Ekiel, and K.Gehring (2001).
Structure and function of the C-terminal PABC domain of human poly(A)-binding protein.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 4409-4413.
PDB code: 1g9l
11514570 G.M.Wilson, K.Sutphen, M.Moutafis, S.Sinha, and G.Brewer (2001).
Structural remodeling of an A + U-rich RNA element by cation or AUF1 binding.
  J Biol Chem, 276, 38400-38409.  
12762045 G.R.Andersen, and J.Nyborg (2001).
Structural studies of eukaryotic elongation factors.
  Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 66, 425-437.  
11296278 G.Varani (2001).
Delivering messages from the 3' end.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 4288-4289.  
11438677 H.Peled-Zehavi, J.A.Berglund, M.Rosbash, and A.D.Frankel (2001).
Recognition of RNA branch point sequences by the KH domain of splicing factor 1 (mammalian branch point binding protein) in a splicing factor complex.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 5232-5241.  
11463383 J.Herold, and R.Andino (2001).
Poliovirus RNA replication requires genome circularization through a protein-protein bridge.
  Mol Cell, 7, 581-591.  
11179892 J.M.Pérez-Cañadillas, and G.Varani (2001).
Recent advances in RNA-protein recognition.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 11, 53-58.  
11172724 J.Marcotrigiano, I.B.Lomakin, N.Sonenberg, T.V.Pestova, C.U.Hellen, and S.K.Burley (2001).
A conserved HEAT domain within eIF4G directs assembly of the translation initiation machinery.
  Mol Cell, 7, 193-203.
PDB code: 1hu3
11172725 K.Khaleghpour, Y.V.Svitkin, A.W.Craig, C.T.DeMaria, R.C.Deo, S.K.Burley, and N.Sonenberg (2001).
Translational repression by a novel partner of human poly(A) binding protein, Paip2.
  Mol Cell, 7, 205-216.  
11738050 K.Kurimoto, S.Fukai, O.Nureki, Y.Muto, and S.Yokoyama (2001).
Crystal structure of human AUH protein, a single-stranded RNA binding homolog of enoyl-CoA hydratase.
  Structure, 9, 1253-1263.
PDB code: 1hzd
11287654 R.C.Deo, N.Sonenberg, and S.K.Burley (2001).
X-ray structure of the human hyperplastic discs protein: an ortholog of the C-terminal domain of poly(A)-binding protein.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 4414-4419.
PDB code: 1i2t
11134326 R.J.Maraia, and R.V.Intine (2001).
Recognition of nascent RNA by the human La antigen: conserved and divergent features of structure and function.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 367-379.  
11574481 V.Evdokimova, P.Ruzanov, H.Imataka, B.Raught, Y.Svitkin, L.P.Ovchinnikov, and N.Sonenberg (2001).
The major mRNA-associated protein YB-1 is a potent 5' cap-dependent mRNA stabilizer.
  EMBO J, 20, 5491-5502.  
11376140 X.Manival, L.Ghisolfi-Nieto, G.Joseph, P.Bouvet, and M.Erard (2001).
RNA-binding strategies common to cold-shock domain- and RNA recognition motif-containing proteins.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 29, 2223-2233.  
11445005 X.Song, and S.M.Singh (2001).
Distribution and molecular characterization of mRNA-binding proteins specific to the (U)15 region of 3' UTR of the mouse catalase (Cas-1).
  DNA Cell Biol, 20, 339-348.  
10679466 A.A.Antson (2000).
Single-stranded-RNA binding proteins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 10, 87-94.  
10851193 A.D.Frankel (2000).
Fitting peptides into the RNA world.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 10, 332-340.  
10722654 C.L.Fong, A.Lentz, and S.P.Mayfield (2000).
Disulfide bond formation between RNA binding domains is used to regulate mRNA binding activity of the chloroplast poly(A)-binding protein.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 8275-8278.  
11060011 E.Liker, E.Fernandez, E.Izaurralde, and E.Conti (2000).
The structure of the mRNA export factor TAP reveals a cis arrangement of a non-canonical RNP domain and an LRR domain.
  EMBO J, 19, 5587-5598.
PDB codes: 1fo1 1ft8
11118222 F.H.Allain, P.Bouvet, T.Dieckmann, and J.Feigon (2000).
Molecular basis of sequence-specific recognition of pre-ribosomal RNA by nucleolin.
  EMBO J, 19, 6870-6881.
PDB code: 1fje
10944102 G.Martin, W.Keller, and S.Doublié (2000).
Crystal structure of mammalian poly(A) polymerase in complex with an analog of ATP.
  EMBO J, 19, 4193-4203.
PDB code: 1f5a
10676814 H.A.Lewis, K.Musunuru, K.B.Jensen, C.Edo, H.Chen, R.B.Darnell, and S.K.Burley (2000).
Sequence-specific RNA binding by a Nova KH domain: implications for paraneoplastic disease and the fragile X syndrome.
  Cell, 100, 323-332.
PDB code: 1ec6
10745010 H.Pan, and D.B.Wigley (2000).
Structure of the zinc-binding domain of Bacillus stearothermophilus DNA primase.
  Structure, 8, 231-239.
PDB code: 1d0q
11142380 L.Guo, E.Allen, and W.A.Miller (2000).
Structure and function of a cap-independent translation element that functions in either the 3' or the 5' untranslated region.
  RNA, 6, 1808-1820.  
10801497 L.Jovine, T.Hainzl, C.Oubridge, W.G.Scott, J.Li, T.K.Sixma, A.Wonacott, T.Skarzynski, and K.Nagai (2000).
Crystal structure of the ffh and EF-G binding sites in the conserved domain IV of Escherichia coli 4.5S RNA.
  Structure, 8, 527-540.
PDB code: 1duh
10734193 M.Inoue, Y.Muto, H.Sakamoto, and S.Yokoyama (2000).
NMR studies on functional structures of the AU-rich element-binding domains of Hu antigen C.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 28, 1743-1750.
PDB codes: 1d8z 1d9a
10856256 M.R.Conte, T.Grüne, J.Ghuman, G.Kelly, A.Ladas, S.Matthews, and S.Curry (2000).
Structure of tandem RNA recognition motifs from polypyrimidine tract binding protein reveals novel features of the RRM fold.
  EMBO J, 19, 3132-3141.
PDB code: 1qm9
10864047 R.Singh, H.Banerjee, and M.R.Green (2000).
Differential recognition of the polypyrimidine-tract by the general splicing factor U2AF65 and the splicing repressor sex-lethal.
  RNA, 6, 901-911.  
10848602 S.Park, D.G.Myszka, M.Yu, S.J.Littler, and I.A.Laird-Offringa (2000).
HuD RNA recognition motifs play distinct roles in the formation of a stable complex with AU-rich RNA.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 4765-4772.  
10660288 Y.Muto, C.Oubridge, and K.Nagai (2000).
RNA-binding proteins: TRAPping RNA bases.
  Curr Biol, 10, R19-R21.  
10938110 Z.Wang, and M.Kiledjian (2000).
The poly(A)-binding protein and an mRNA stability protein jointly regulate an endoribonuclease activity.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 6334-6341.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.