PDBsum entry 1cts

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Oxo-acid-lyase PDB id
Protein chain
437 a.a. *
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Oxo-acid-lyase
Title: Crystallographic refinement and atomic models of two differe of citrate synthase at 2.7 and 1.7 angstroms resolution
Structure: Citrate synthase. Chain: a. Engineered: yes
Source: Sus scrofa. Pig. Organism_taxid: 9823
Biol. unit: Dimer (from PQS)
2.70Å     R-factor:   0.183    
Authors: S.Remington,G.Wiegand,R.Huber
Key ref:
S.Remington et al. (1982). Crystallographic refinement and atomic models of two different forms of citrate synthase at 2.7 and 1.7 A resolution. J Mol Biol, 158, 111-152. PubMed id: 7120407 DOI: 10.1016/0022-2836(82)90452-1
27-Jan-84     Release date:   20-Jul-84    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P00889  (CISY_PIG) -  Citrate synthase, mitochondrial
464 a.a.
437 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Citrate (Si)-synthase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]

Citric acid cycle
      Reaction: Acetyl-CoA + H2O + oxaloacetate = citrate + CoA
+ H(2)O
+ oxaloacetate
Bound ligand (Het Group name = CIT)
corresponds exactly
+ CoA
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     mitochondrion   2 terms 
  Biological process     carbohydrate metabolic process   3 terms 
  Biochemical function     transferase activity     3 terms  


DOI no: 10.1016/0022-2836(82)90452-1 J Mol Biol 158:111-152 (1982)
PubMed id: 7120407  
Crystallographic refinement and atomic models of two different forms of citrate synthase at 2.7 and 1.7 A resolution.
S.Remington, G.Wiegand, R.Huber.
No abstract given.

  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 1.
Figure 19.
FIG. 19. Stereo drawing of the citryl-thioether-CoA analogue ((XC%NPH6) difference Fourier map superimposed on the monoclinic model. Contours are at +49 e. with negative contours dashed. The Figure is discussd in the text.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Elsevier: J Mol Biol (1982, 158, 111-152) copyright 1982.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
20970504 S.Chittori, H.S.Savithri, and M.R.Murthy (2011).
Crystal structure of Salmonella typhimurium 2-methylcitrate synthase: Insights on domain movement and substrate specificity.
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PDB code: 3o8j
19645419 L.C.Kurz, C.Z.Constantine, H.Jiang, and T.J.Kappock (2009).
The partial substrate dethiaacetyl-coenzyme A mimics all critical carbon acid reactions in the condensation half-reaction catalyzed by Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase.
  Biochemistry, 48, 7878-7891.  
  19407370 S.B.Larson, J.S.Day, C.Nguyen, R.Cudney, and A.McPherson (2009).
Structure of pig heart citrate synthase at 1.78 A resolution.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 65, 430-434.
PDB code: 3enj
19776021 S.L.Bulfer, E.M.Scott, J.F.Couture, L.Pillus, and R.C.Trievel (2009).
Crystal structure and functional analysis of homocitrate synthase, an essential enzyme in lysine biosynthesis.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 35769-35780.
PDB codes: 3ivs 3ivt 3ivu
18789859 D.F.George, M.M.Bilek, and D.R.McKenzie (2008).
Detecting and exploring partially unfolded states of proteins using a sensor with chaperone bound to its surface.
  Biosens Bioelectron, 24, 969-975.  
17395198 D.R.Boutz, D.Cascio, J.Whitelegge, L.J.Perry, and T.O.Yeates (2007).
Discovery of a thermophilic protein complex stabilized by topologically interlinked chains.
  J Mol Biol, 368, 1332-1344.
PDB code: 2ibp
17486291 E.Ahrman, N.Gustavsson, C.Hultschig, W.C.Boelens, and C.S.Emanuelsson (2007).
Small heat shock proteins prevent aggregation of citrate synthase and bind to the N-terminal region which is absent in thermostable forms of citrate synthase.
  Extremophiles, 11, 659-666.  
17567739 E.Ahrman, W.Lambert, J.A.Aquilina, C.V.Robinson, and C.S.Emanuelsson (2007).
Chemical cross-linking of the chloroplast localized small heat-shock protein, Hsp21, and the model substrate citrate synthase.
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16984893 Y.Zhao, D.Stoffler, and M.Sanner (2006).
Hierarchical and multi-resolution representation of protein flexibility.
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16330550 Z.Fu, J.A.Runquist, F.Forouhar, M.Hussain, J.F.Hunt, H.M.Miziorko, and J.J.Kim (2006).
Crystal structure of human 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase: insights into catalysis and the molecular basis for hydroxymethylglutaric aciduria.
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PDB code: 2cw6
15783858 M.Ikeguchi, J.Ueno, M.Sato, and A.Kidera (2005).
Protein structural change upon ligand binding: linear response theory.
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15893663 N.Rai, M.Nöllmann, B.Spotorno, G.Tassara, O.Byron, and M.Rocco (2005).
SOMO (SOlution MOdeler) differences between X-Ray- and NMR-derived bead models suggest a role for side chain flexibility in protein hydrodynamics.
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16075427 V.Tugarinov, and L.E.Kay (2005).
Methyl groups as probes of structure and dynamics in NMR studies of high-molecular-weight proteins.
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15637152 V.Tugarinov, W.Y.Choy, V.Y.Orekhov, and L.E.Kay (2005).
Solution NMR-derived global fold of a monomeric 82-kDa enzyme.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 622-627.
PDB code: 1y8b
14747998 B.Japelj, J.P.Waltho, and R.Jerala (2004).
Comparison of backbone dynamics of monomeric and domain-swapped stefin A.
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15086813 P.P.Iannetta, N.M.Escobar, H.A.Ross, E.J.Souleyre, R.D.Hancock, C.P.Witte, and H.V.Davies (2004).
Identification, cloning and expression analysis of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) mitochondrial citrate synthase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.
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15189138 V.Tugarinov, P.M.Hwang, and L.E.Kay (2004).
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of high-molecular-weight proteins.
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12393860 C.V.Smith, C.C.Huang, A.Miczak, D.G.Russell, J.C.Sacchettini, and K.Höner zu Bentrup (2003).
Biochemical and structural studies of malate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 1735-1743.
PDB codes: 1n8i 1n8w
12930982 D.M.Anstrom, K.Kallio, and S.J.Remington (2003).
Structure of the Escherichia coli malate synthase G:pyruvate:acetyl-coenzyme A abortive ternary complex at 1.95 A resolution.
  Protein Sci, 12, 1822-1832.
PDB code: 1p7t
12623012 F.Rousseau, J.W.Schymkowitz, and L.S.Itzhaki (2003).
The unfolding story of three-dimensional domain swapping.
  Structure, 11, 243-251.  
12879490 F.Severcan, and P.I.Haris (2003).
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggests unfolding of loop structures precedes complete unfolding of pig citrate synthase.
  Biopolymers, 69, 440-447.  
12867417 S.Reinelt, E.Hofmann, T.Gerharz, M.Bott, and D.R.Madden (2003).
The structure of the periplasmic ligand-binding domain of the sensor kinase CitA reveals the first extracellular PAS domain.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 39189-39196.
PDB code: 1p0z
12456651 G.Ruprich-Robert, D.Zickler, V.Berteaux-Lecellier, C.Vélot, and M.Picard (2002).
Lack of mitochondrial citrate synthase discloses a new meiotic checkpoint in a strict aerobe.
  EMBO J, 21, 6440-6451.  
12473121 G.S.Bell, R.J.Russell, H.Connaris, D.W.Hough, M.J.Danson, and G.L.Taylor (2002).
Stepwise adaptations of citrate synthase to survival at life's extremes. From psychrophile to hyperthermophile.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 6250-6260.
PDB code: 1o7x
12366153 J.Elezgaray, G.Marcou, and Y.H.Sanejouand (2002).
Exploring the natural conformational changes of the C-terminal domain of calmodulin.
  Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys, 66, 031908.  
12021428 Y.Liu, and D.Eisenberg (2002).
3D domain swapping: as domains continue to swap.
  Protein Sci, 11, 1285-1299.  
11683888 E.Fukuda, H.Kino, H.Matsuzawa, and T.Wakagi (2001).
Role of a highly conserved YPITP motif in 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase: heterologous expression of the gene from Sulfolobus sp.strain 7, and characterization of the recombinant and variant enzymes.
  Eur J Biochem, 268, 5639-5646.  
11567095 P.A.van den Berg, S.B.Mulrooney, B.Gobets, I.H.van Stokkum, A.van Hoek, C.H.Williams, and A.J.Visser (2001).
Exploring the conformational equilibrium of E. coli thioredoxin reductase: characterization of two catalytically important states by ultrafast flavin fluorescence spectroscopy.
  Protein Sci, 10, 2037-2049.  
10715138 B.R.Howard, J.A.Endrizzi, and S.J.Remington (2000).
Crystal structure of Escherichia coli malate synthase G complexed with magnesium and glyoxylate at 2.0 A resolution: mechanistic implications.
  Biochemistry, 39, 3156-3168.
PDB code: 1d8c
10858450 J.Ishijima, T.Nakai, S.Kawaguchi, K.Hirotsu, and S.Kuramitsu (2000).
Free energy requirement for domain movement of an enzyme.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 18939-18945.
PDB codes: 1c9c 1cq6 1cq7 1cq8
10694395 L.C.Kurz, G.Drysdale, M.Riley, M.A.Tomar, J.Chen, R.J.Russell, and M.J.Danson (2000).
Kinetics and mechanism of the citrate synthase from the thermophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum.
  Biochemistry, 39, 2283-2296.  
10737930 R.Abseher, and M.Nilges (2000).
Efficient sampling in collective coordinate space.
  Proteins, 39, 82-88.  
  10338022 A.Ayed, and H.W.Duckworth (1999).
A stable intermediate in the equilibrium unfolding of Escherichia coli citrate synthase.
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10521472 A.Roujeinikova, S.Sedelnikova, Boer, A.R.Stuitje, A.R.Slabas, J.B.Rafferty, and D.W.Rice (1999).
Inhibitor binding studies on enoyl reductase reveal conformational changes related to substrate recognition.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 30811-30817.
PDB code: 1cwu
10587442 C.Vélot, S.Lebreton, I.Morgunov, K.C.Usher, and P.A.Srere (1999).
Metabolic effects of mislocalized mitochondrial and peroxisomal citrate synthases in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  Biochemistry, 38, 16195-16204.  
10024023 K.Hinsen, A.Thomas, and M.J.Field (1999).
Analysis of domain motions in large proteins.
  Proteins, 34, 369-382.  
10450084 S.Hayward (1999).
Structural principles governing domain motions in proteins.
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10447894 S.Kaspar, R.Perozzo, S.Reinelt, M.Meyer, K.Pfister, L.Scapozza, and M.Bott (1999).
The periplasmic domain of the histidine autokinase CitA functions as a highly specific citrate receptor.
  Mol Microbiol, 33, 858-872.  
10091606 S.M.Pitson, G.L.Mendz, S.Srinivasan, and S.L.Hazell (1999).
The tricarboxylic acid cycle of Helicobacter pylori.
  Eur J Biochem, 260, 258-267.  
10205156 T.Izard, and A.Geerlof (1999).
The crystal structure of a novel bacterial adenylyltransferase reveals half of sites reactivity.
  EMBO J, 18, 2021-2030.
PDB code: 1b6t
10387046 Z.Gu, D.G.Drueckhammer, L.Kurz, K.Liu, D.P.Martin, and A.McDermott (1999).
Solid state NMR studies of hydrogen bonding in a citrate synthase inhibitor complex.
  Biochemistry, 38, 8022-8031.  
9852049 D.L.Daugherty, D.Rozema, P.E.Hanson, and S.H.Gellman (1998).
Artificial chaperone-assisted refolding of citrate synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 33961-33971.  
  9758862 H.Choe, H.Sackin, and L.G.Palmer (1998).
Permeation and gating of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel. Evidence for a variable energy well.
  J Gen Physiol, 112, 433-446.  
9837903 H.Grallert, K.Rutkat, and J.Buchner (1998).
GroEL traps dimeric and monomeric unfolding intermediates of citrate synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 33305-33310.  
9657685 L.C.Kurz, T.Nakra, R.Stein, W.Plungkhen, M.Riley, F.Hsu, and G.R.Drysdale (1998).
Effects of changes in three catalytic residues on the relative stabilities of some of the intermediates and transition states in the citrate synthase reaction.
  Biochemistry, 37, 9724-9737.  
9722650 M.Gerstein, and W.Krebs (1998).
A database of macromolecular motions.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 26, 4280-4290.  
9746940 M.J.Danson, and D.W.Hough (1998).
Structure, function and stability of enzymes from the Archaea.
  Trends Microbiol, 6, 307-314.  
9551556 R.J.Russell, U.Gerike, M.J.Danson, D.W.Hough, and G.L.Taylor (1998).
Structural adaptations of the cold-active citrate synthase from an Antarctic bacterium.
  Structure, 6, 351-361.
PDB code: 1a59
9744475 T.Fukao, H.Nakamura, X.Q.Song, K.Nakamura, K.E.Orii, Y.Kohno, M.Kano, S.Yamaguchi, T.Hashimoto, T.Orii, and N.Kondo (1998).
Characterization of N93S, I312T, and A333P missense mutations in two Japanese families with mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase deficiency.
  Hum Mutat, 12, 245-254.  
10076800 T.Neufeld, M.Eisenstein, K.A.Muszkat, and G.Fleminger (1998).
A citrate-binding site in calmodulin.
  J Mol Recognit, 11, 20-24.  
9817851 Y.Modis, and R.Wierenga (1998).
Two crystal structures of N-acetyltransferases reveal a new fold for CoA-dependent enzymes.
  Structure, 6, 1345-1350.  
9235002 A.L.Lomize, and H.I.Mosberg (1997).
Thermodynamic model of secondary structure for alpha-helical peptides and proteins.
  Biopolymers, 42, 239-269.  
9188741 A.V.Efimov (1997).
Structural trees for protein superfamilies.
  Proteins, 28, 241-260.  
9241431 C.Chothia, T.Hubbard, S.Brenner, H.Barns, and A.Murzin (1997).
Protein folds in the all-beta and all-alpha classes.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 26, 597-627.  
9083108 M.Bergdoll, M.H.Remy, C.Cagnon, J.M.Masson, and P.Dumas (1997).
Proline-dependent oligomerization with arm exchange.
  Structure, 5, 391-401.  
  9401029 M.E.Rasche, K.S.Smith, and J.G.Ferry (1997).
Identification of cysteine and arginine residues essential for the phosphotransacetylase from Methanosarcina thermophila.
  J Bacteriol, 179, 7712-7717.  
9013551 N.Dekker, J.Tommassen, A.Lustig, J.P.Rosenbusch, and H.M.Verheij (1997).
Dimerization regulates the enzymatic activity of Escherichia coli outer membrane phospholipase A.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 3179-3184.  
9254593 R.J.Russell, J.M.Ferguson, D.W.Hough, M.J.Danson, and G.L.Taylor (1997).
The crystal structure of citrate synthase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon pyrococcus furiosus at 1.9 A resolution,.
  Biochemistry, 36, 9983-9994.
PDB code: 1aj8
9211866 S.Rhee, M.M.Silva, C.C.Hyde, P.H.Rogers, C.M.Metzler, D.E.Metzler, and A.Arnone (1997).
Refinement and comparisons of the crystal structures of pig cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase and its complex with 2-methylaspartate.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 17293-17302.
PDB codes: 1ajr 1ajs
9310359 U.Gerike, M.J.Danson, N.J.Russell, and D.W.Hough (1997).
Sequencing and expression of the gene encoding a cold-active citrate synthase from an Antarctic bacterium, strain DS2-3R.
  Eur J Biochem, 248, 49-57.  
8841108 A.H.Elcock, and J.A.McCammon (1996).
Evidence for electrostatic channeling in a fusion protein of malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase.
  Biochemistry, 35, 12652-12658.  
8994879 C.Engel, and R.Wierenga (1996).
The diverse world of coenzyme A binding proteins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 6, 790-797.  
8718855 C.T.Evans, L.C.Kurz, S.J.Remington, and P.A.Srere (1996).
Active site mutants of pig citrate synthase: effects of mutations on the enzyme catalytic and structural properties.
  Biochemistry, 35, 10661-10672.  
8639589 M.A.Sinev, E.V.Sineva, V.Ittah, and E.Haas (1996).
Domain closure in adenylate kinase.
  Biochemistry, 35, 6425-6437.  
8882970 R.E.Gossett, A.A.Frolov, J.B.Roths, W.D.Behnke, A.B.Kier, and F.Schroeder (1996).
Acyl-CoA binding proteins: multiplicity and function.
  Lipids, 31, 895-918.  
  8868492 S.M.Dunn, P.C.Moody, J.A.Downie, and W.V.Shaw (1996).
Crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of NodL, a rhizobial O-acetyl-transferase involved in the host-specific nodulation of legume roots.
  Protein Sci, 5, 538-541.  
8789192 C.S.Poornima, and P.M.Dean (1995).
Hydration in drug design. 1. Multiple hydrogen-bonding features of water molecules in mediating protein-ligand interactions.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 9, 500-512.  
8789193 C.S.Poornima, and P.M.Dean (1995).
Hydration in drug design. 2. Influence of local site surface shape on water binding.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 9, 513-520.  
8789194 C.S.Poornima, and P.M.Dean (1995).
Hydration in drug design. 3. Conserved water molecules at the ligand-binding sites of homologous proteins.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 9, 521-531.  
  8535248 M.M.Flocco, and S.L.Mowbray (1995).
C alpha-based torsion angles: a simple tool to analyze protein conformational changes.
  Protein Sci, 4, 2118-2122.  
8749851 O.Marques, and Y.H.Sanejouand (1995).
Hinge-bending motion in citrate synthase arising from normal mode calculations.
  Proteins, 23, 557-560.  
7775414 R.Lehner, and A.Kuksis (1995).
Triacylglycerol synthesis by purified triacylglycerol synthetase of rat intestinal mucosa. Role of acyl-CoA acyltransferase.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 13630-13636.  
7706269 U.Jakob, H.Lilie, I.Meyer, and J.Buchner (1995).
Transient interaction of Hsp90 with early unfolding intermediates of citrate synthase. Implications for heat shock in vivo.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 7288-7294.  
7580855 V.Landschütze, B.Müller-Röber, and L.Willmitzer (1995).
Mitochondrial citrate synthase from potato: predominant expression in mature leaves and young flower buds.
  Planta, 196, 756-764.  
7964928 A.R.Leach, and S.R.Kilvington (1994).
Automated molecular design: a new fragment-joining algorithm.
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  8062817 A.Vrielink, W.Rüger, H.P.Driessen, and P.S.Freemont (1994).
Crystal structure of the DNA modifying enzyme beta-glucosyltransferase in the presence and absence of the substrate uridine diphosphoglucose.
  EMBO J, 13, 3413-3422.
PDB codes: 1bgt 1bgu 2bgt 2bgu
7876902 G.Klebe, and T.Mietzner (1994).
A fast and efficient method to generate biologically relevant conformations.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 8, 583-606.  
7529124 J.Jäger, S.J.Smerdon, J.Wang, D.C.Boisvert, and T.A.Steitz (1994).
Comparison of three different crystal forms shows HIV-1 reverse transcriptase displays an internal swivel motion.
  Structure, 2, 869-876.  
7704526 R.J.Russell, D.W.Hough, M.J.Danson, and G.L.Taylor (1994).
The crystal structure of citrate synthase from the thermophilic archaeon, Thermoplasma acidophilum.
  Structure, 2, 1157-1167.  
  8045898 S.Jin, and A.L.Sonenshein (1994).
Identification of two distinct Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes.
  J Bacteriol, 176, 4669-4679.  
8508809 A.J.Patton, D.W.Hough, P.Towner, and M.J.Danson (1993).
Does Escherichia coli possess a second citrate synthase gene?
  Eur J Biochem, 214, 75-81.  
8356049 J.J.Kim, M.Wang, and R.Paschke (1993).
Crystal structures of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from pig liver mitochondria with and without substrate.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 90, 7523-7527.
PDB codes: 3mdd 3mde
8356034 M.A.Ech-Cherif el-Kettani, K.Zakrzewska, J.Durup, and R.Lavery (1993).
An analysis of the conformational paths of citrate synthase.
  Proteins, 16, 393-407.  
8332605 S.Furois-Corbin, J.C.Smith, and G.R.Kneller (1993).
Picosecond timescale rigid-helix and side-chain motions in deoxymyoglobin.
  Proteins, 16, 141-154.  
8343957 X.Cheng, S.Kumar, J.Posfai, J.W.Pflugrath, and R.J.Roberts (1993).
Crystal structure of the HhaI DNA methyltransferase complexed with S-adenosyl-L-methionine.
  Cell, 74, 299-307.
PDB code: 1hmy
1541275 C.Prodromou, P.J.Artymiuk, and J.R.Guest (1992).
The aconitase of Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequence of the aconitase gene and amino acid sequence similarity with mitochondrial aconitases, the iron-responsive-element-binding protein and isopropylmalate isomerases.
  Eur J Biochem, 204, 599-609.  
  1311544 F.J.Schendel, P.R.August, C.R.Anderson, R.S.Hanson, and M.C.Flickinger (1992).
Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for citrate synthase from a thermotolerant Bacillus sp.
  Appl Environ Microbiol, 58, 335-345.  
1594574 J.A.Hartsuck, G.Koelsch, and S.J.Remington (1992).
The high-resolution crystal structure of porcine pepsinogen.
  Proteins, 13, 1.
PDB code: 3psg
1515547 M.A.Ech-Cherif el-Kettani, and J.Durup (1992).
Theoretical determination of conformational paths in citrate synthase.
  Biopolymers, 32, 561-574.  
1399705 R.Chaudhary, B.P.Chowdhary, I.Harbitz, I.Gustavsson, and C.T.Evans (1992).
Localization of the citrate synthase (CS) gene to the p12-p13 bands of chromosome 5 in pigs by in situ hybridization.
  Hereditas, 117, 39-43.  
1521537 U.Lill, S.Lefrank, A.Henschen, and H.Eggerer (1992).
Conversion, by limited proteolysis, of an archaebacterial citrate synthase into essentially a citryl-CoA hydrolase.
  Eur J Biochem, 208, 459-466.  
1350093 W.Al-Feel, S.S.Chirala, and S.J.Wakil (1992).
Cloning of the yeast FAS3 gene and primary structure of yeast acetyl-CoA carboxylase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 89, 4534-4538.  
  1363914 W.Zhi, S.J.Landry, L.M.Gierasch, and P.A.Srere (1992).
Renaturation of citrate synthase: influence of denaturant and folding assistants.
  Protein Sci, 1, 522-529.  
2017435 A.P.Korn, and R.M.Burnett (1991).
Distribution and complementarity of hydropathy in multisubunit proteins.
  Proteins, 9, 37-55.  
1749823 J.C.Smith (1991).
Protein dynamics: comparison of simulations with inelastic neutron scattering experiments.
  Q Rev Biophys, 24, 227-291.  
  1989878 M.Coll, A.Guasch, F.X.Avilés, and R.Huber (1991).
Three-dimensional structure of porcine procarboxypeptidase B: a structural basis of its inactivity.
  EMBO J, 10, 1-9.
PDB code: 1nsa
1810349 P.Nemeth, W.C.Small, C.T.Evans, W.Zhi, L.O.Persson, and P.A.Srere (1991).
Immunological mapping of fine molecular surface structures of citrate synthase enzymes from different cell types.
  J Mol Recognit, 4, 77-83.  
1756983 R.A.Heinzen, M.E.Frazier, and L.P.Mallavia (1991).
Sequence and linkage analysis of the Coxiella burnetii citrate synthase-encoding gene.
  Gene, 109, 63-69.  
1675605 U.Lill, A.Kollmann-Koch, A.Bibinger, and H.Eggerer (1991).
Inhibitors of metabolic reactions. Scope and limitation of acyl-CoA-analogue CoA-thioethers.
  Eur J Biochem, 198, 767-773.  
2199973 G.N.Phillips, R.M.Arduini, B.A.Springer, and S.G.Sligar (1990).
Crystal structure of myoglobin from a synthetic gene.
  Proteins, 7, 358-365.
PDB code: 1mbw
2180490 G.N.Phillips (1990).
Comparison of the dynamics of myoglobin in different crystal forms.
  Biophys J, 57, 381-383.  
2281087 J.F.Gibrat, and N.Go (1990).
Normal mode analysis of human lysozyme: study of the relative motion of the two domains and characterization of the harmonic motion.
  Proteins, 8, 258-279.  
2269303 K.J.Sutherland, C.M.Henneke, P.Towner, D.W.Hough, and M.J.Danson (1990).
Citrate synthase from the thermophilic archaebacterium Thermoplasma acidophilium. Cloning and sequencing of the gene.
  Eur J Biochem, 194, 839-844.  
2205500 M.Hupperich, A.Henschen, and H.Eggerer (1990).
Citrate lyase from Klebsiella pneumoniae. The complete primary structure of the acyl lyase subunit.
  Eur J Biochem, 192, 161-166.  
2166604 M.Nilges, G.M.Clore, and A.M.Gronenborn (1990).
1H-NMR stereospecific assignments by conformational data-base searches.
  Biopolymers, 29, 813-822.  
2404762 R.Huber (1990).
E. Antonini Plenary lecture. A structural basis of light energy and electron transfer in biology.
  Eur J Biochem, 187, 283-305.  
  2147412 R.Huber, J.Römisch, and E.P.Paques (1990).
The crystal and molecular structure of human annexin V, an anticoagulant protein that binds to calcium and membranes.
  EMBO J, 9, 3867-3874.  
2279068 R.Sankararamakrishnan, and S.Vishveshwara (1990).
Conformational studies on peptides with proline in the right-handed alpha-helical region.
  Biopolymers, 30, 287-298.  
2395881 S.K.Burley, P.R.David, A.Taylor, and W.N.Lipscomb (1990).
Molecular structure of leucine aminopeptidase at 2.7-A resolution.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 87, 6878-6882.
PDB code: 1lap
2798408 A.H.Robbins, and C.D.Stout (1989).
The structure of aconitase.
  Proteins, 5, 289-312.  
2583190 A.Kollmann-Koch, and H.Eggerer (1989).
Ligand-induced conformational changes of citrate synthase studied with the fluorescent probe 8-anilinonaphthalene 1-sulfonate.
  Eur J Biochem, 185, 441-447.  
2771940 D.E.McRee, J.A.Tainer, T.E.Meyer, J.Van Beeumen, M.A.Cusanovich, and E.D.Getzoff (1989).
Crystallographic structure of a photoreceptor protein at 2.4 A resolution.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 86, 6533-6537.
PDB code: 1phy
  2507528 L.J.Donald, G.F.Molgat, and H.W.Duckworth (1989).
Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene for NADH-sensitive citrate synthase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  J Bacteriol, 171, 5542-5550.  
2707265 M.A.Sinev, O.I.Razgulyaev, M.Vas, A.A.Timchenko, and O.B.Ptitsyn (1989).
Correlation between enzyme activity and hinge-bending domain displacement in 3-phosphoglycerate kinase.
  Eur J Biochem, 180, 61-66.  
2675171 M.F.Perutz (1989).
Mechanisms of cooperativity and allosteric regulation in proteins.
  Q Rev Biophys, 22, 139-237.  
2692721 R.Huber (1989).
Nobel lecture. A structural basis of light energy and electron transfer in biology.
  Biosci Rep, 9, 635-673.  
  2676513 R.Huber (1989).
Nobel lecture. A structural basis of light energy and electron transfer in biology.
  EMBO J, 8, 2125-2147.  
3288984 A.G.Leslie, P.C.Moody, and W.V.Shaw (1988).
Structure of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase at 1.75-A resolution.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 85, 4133-4137.  
2901088 F.López-Casillas, D.H.Bai, X.C.Luo, I.S.Kong, M.A.Hermodson, and K.H.Kim (1988).
Structure of the coding sequence and primary amino acid sequence of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 85, 5784-5788.  
3399495 F.M.Richards, and C.E.Kundrot (1988).
Identification of structural motifs from protein coordinate data: secondary structure and first-level supersecondary structure.
  Proteins, 3, 71-84.  
3413116 J.J.Kim, and J.Wu (1988).
Structure of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from pig liver mitochondria at 3-A resolution.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 85, 6677-6681.  
  3112124 D.O.Wood, L.R.Williamson, H.H.Winkler, and D.C.Krause (1987).
Nucleotide sequence of the Rickettsia prowazekii citrate synthase gene.
  J Bacteriol, 169, 3564-3572.  
  3104207 R.A.Heinzen, and L.P.Mallavia (1987).
Cloning and functional expression of the Coxiella burnetii citrate synthase gene in Escherichia coli.
  Infect Immun, 55, 848-855.  
3830163 U.Lill, A.Bibinger, and H.Eggerer (1987).
Hysteretic behaviour of citrate synthase. Symmetry in the kinetics of the synthase partial reactions.
  Eur J Biochem, 162, 683-689.  
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Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two functional citrate synthase genes.
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  3540614 M.Rosenkrantz, T.Alam, K.S.Kim, B.J.Clark, P.A.Srere, and L.P.Guarente (1986).
Mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial citrate synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are encoded by distinct homologous genes.
  Mol Cell Biol, 6, 4509-4515.  
2943325 Pavlov MYu, M.A.Sinev, A.A.Timchenko, and O.B.Ptitsyn (1986).
A study of apo- and holo-forms of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase in solution by diffuse x-ray scattering.
  Biopolymers, 25, 1385-1397.  
3768485 R.E.Bruccoleri, M.Karplus, and J.A.McCammon (1986).
The hinge-bending mode of a lysozyme-inhibitor complex.
  Biopolymers, 25, 1767-1802.  
  3709525 T.A.Jones, and S.Thirup (1986).
Using known substructures in protein model building and crystallography.
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3006045 V.S.Allured, R.J.Collier, S.F.Carroll, and D.B.McKay (1986).
Structure of exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 3.0-Angstrom resolution.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 83, 1320-1324.  
  2413342 G.A.Scarborough (1985).
Binding energy, conformational change, and the mechanism of transmembrane solute movements.
  Microbiol Rev, 49, 214-231.  
  6205346 C.M.Visser (1984).
Evolution of biocatalysis 3. Post-genetic-code evolution of condensation reactions.
  Orig Life, 14, 693-698.  
  6090126 M.Suissa, K.Suda, and G.Schatz (1984).
Isolation of the nuclear yeast genes for citrate synthase and fifteen other mitochondrial proteins by a new screening method.
  EMBO J, 3, 1773-1781.  
6381053 U.Lill, A.Schreil, A.Henschen, and H.Eggerer (1984).
Hysteretic behaviour of citrate synthase. Site-directed limited proteolysis.
  Eur J Biochem, 143, 205-212.  
6861748 G.Löhlein-Werhahn, E.Bayer, B.Bauer, and H.Eggerer (1983).
Hysteretic behaviour of citrate synthase. Alternating sites during the catalytic cycle.
  Eur J Biochem, 133, 665-672.  
6340108 N.K.Vyas, M.N.Vyas, and F.A.Quiocho (1983).
The 3 A resolution structure of a D-galactose-binding protein for transport and chemotaxis in Escherichia coli.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 80, 1792-1796.  
6673759 R.Huber, and W.S.Bennett (1983).
Functional significance of flexibility in proteins.
  Biopolymers, 22, 261-279.  
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