PDBsum entry 1bsx

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Hormone/growth factor PDB id
Jmol PyMol
Protein chains
243 a.a. *
12 a.a. *
_T3 ×2
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Hormone/growth factor
Title: Structure and specificity of nuclear receptor-coactivator interactions
Structure: Protein (thyroid hormone receptor beta). Chain: a, b. Fragment: ligand binding domain. Engineered: yes. Other_details: his-tagged (the following residues were not seen in the electron density: mgsshhhhhhssglvprgshm). Protein (grip1). Chain: x, y. Fragment: nr-box2 from nuclear receptor interaction domain.
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Expressed in: escherichia coli bl21(de3). Expression_system_taxid: 469008. Synthetic: yes
Biol. unit: Monomer (from PDB file)
3.70Å     R-factor:   0.249     R-free:   0.299
Authors: R.L.Wagner,B.D.Darimont,J.W.Apriletti,M.R.Stallcup, P.J.Kushner,J.D.Baxter,R.J.Fletterick,K.R.Yamamoto
Key ref: B.D.Darimont et al. (1998). Structure and specificity of nuclear receptor-coactivator interactions. Genes Dev, 12, 3343-3356. PubMed id: 9808622
31-Aug-98     Release date:   26-Aug-99    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P10828  (THB_HUMAN) -  Thyroid hormone receptor beta
461 a.a.
243 a.a.
Protein chains
No UniProt id for this chain
Struc: 12 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     nucleus   1 term 
  Biological process     steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     DNA binding     3 terms  


Genes Dev 12:3343-3356 (1998)
PubMed id: 9808622  
Structure and specificity of nuclear receptor-coactivator interactions.
B.D.Darimont, R.L.Wagner, J.W.Apriletti, M.R.Stallcup, P.J.Kushner, J.D.Baxter, R.J.Fletterick, K.R.Yamamoto.
Combinatorial regulation of transcription implies flexible yet precise assembly of multiprotein regulatory complexes in response to signals. Biochemical and crystallographic analyses revealed that hormone binding leads to the formation of a hydrophobic groove within the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the thyroid hormone receptor that interacts with an LxxLL motif-containing alpha-helix from GRIP1, a coactivator. Residues immediately adjacent to the motif modulate the affinity of the interaction; the motif and the adjacent sequences are employed to different extents in binding to different receptors. Such interactions of amphipathic alpha-helices with hydrophobic grooves define protein interfaces in other regulatory complexes as well. We suggest that these common structural elements impart flexibility to combinatorial regulation, whereas side chains at the interface impart specificity.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
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PDB codes: 2qxs 2qzo 3os8 3os9 3osa
20080405 J.J.Belanto, S.V.Diaz-Perez, C.E.Magyar, M.M.Maxwell, Y.Yilmaz, K.Topp, G.Boso, C.H.Jamieson, N.A.Cacalano, and C.A.Jamieson (2010).
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PDB code: 3kys
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PDB code: 3d57
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PDB code: 2knh
18596940 A.Stein, and P.Aloy (2008).
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PDB code: 3f5c
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PDB code: 3dr1
18354731 G.M.Lehmann, T.M.Garcia-Bates, T.J.Smith, S.E.Feldon, and R.P.Phipps (2008).
Regulation of Lymphocyte Function by PPARgamma: Relevance to Thyroid Eye Disease-Related Inflammation.
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18344977 K.W.Nettles, J.B.Bruning, G.Gil, J.Nowak, S.K.Sharma, J.B.Hahm, K.Kulp, R.B.Hochberg, H.Zhou, J.A.Katzenellenbogen, B.S.Katzenellenbogen, Y.Kim, A.Joachmiak, and G.L.Greene (2008).
NFkappaB selectivity of estrogen receptor ligands revealed by comparative crystallographic analyses.
  Nat Chem Biol, 4, 241-247.
PDB codes: 2b23 2qa6 2qa8 2qab 2qgt 2qgw 2qh6 2qr9 2qse 2qxm
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P160/SRC/NCoA coactivators form complexes via specific interaction of their PAS-B domain with the CID/AD1 domain.
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18362392 P.Zhang, L.O'Loughlin, D.N.Brindley, and K.Reue (2008).
Regulation of lipin-1 gene expression by glucocorticoids during adipogenesis.
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Vitamin D-dependent recruitment of corepressors to vitamin D/retinoid X receptor heterodimers.
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Identification of COUP-TFII orphan nuclear receptor as a retinoic acid-activated receptor.
  PLoS Biol, 6, e227.
PDB code: 3cjw
18456871 W.Wang, W.W.Prosise, J.Chen, S.S.Taremi, H.V.Le, V.Madison, X.Cui, A.Thomas, K.C.Cheng, and C.A.Lesburg (2008).
Construction and characterization of a fully active PXR/SRC-1 tethered protein with increased stability.
  Protein Eng Des Sel, 21, 425-433.
PDB codes: 3ctb 3hvl
17886255 B.J.Cheskis, J.G.Greger, S.Nagpal, and L.P.Freedman (2007).
Signaling by estrogens.
  J Cell Physiol, 213, 610-617.  
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Cyclic AMP-stimulated interaction between steroidogenic factor 1 and diacylglycerol kinase theta facilitates induction of CYP17.
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17198977 D.M.Heery, and P.M.Fischer (2007).
Pharmacological targeting of lysine acetyltransferases in human disease: a progress report.
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17367809 D.Ricketson, U.Hostick, L.Fang, K.R.Yamamoto, and B.D.Darimont (2007).
A conformational switch in the ligand-binding domain regulates the dependence of the glucocorticoid receptor on Hsp90.
  J Mol Biol, 368, 729-741.  
17211680 E.C.Theil (2007).
Coordinating responses to iron and oxygen stress with DNA and mRNA promoters: the ferritin story.
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Thermodynamic characterization of the interaction between CAR-RXR and SRC-1 peptide by isothermal titration calorimetry.
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RIF-1, a novel nuclear receptor corepressor that associates with the nuclear matrix.
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Antiinflammatory glucocorticoid receptor ligand with reduced side effects exhibits an altered protein-protein interaction profile.
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Inhibitors of the interaction of a thyroid hormone receptor and coactivators: preliminary structure-activity relationships.
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Glucocorticoid receptor physiology.
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17320364 M.M.McGrane (2007).
Vitamin A regulation of gene expression: molecular mechanism of a prototype gene.
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Silicon analogues of the retinoid agonists TTNPB and 3-methyl-TTNPB, disila-TTNPB and disila-3-methyl-TTNPB: chemistry and biology.
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Interaction between the androgen receptor and a segment of its corepressor SHP.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 63, 1198-1200.
PDB code: 2z4j
17673910 T.Iwema, I.M.Billas, Y.Beck, F.Bonneton, H.Nierengarten, A.Chaumot, G.Richards, V.Laudet, and D.Moras (2007).
Structural and functional characterization of a novel type of ligand-independent RXR-USP receptor.
  EMBO J, 26, 3770-3782.
PDB code: 2nxx
17948058 T.Saitoh, M.Igura, T.Obita, T.Ose, R.Kojima, K.Maenaka, T.Endo, and D.Kohda (2007).
Tom20 recognizes mitochondrial presequences through dynamic equilibrium among multiple bound states.
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PDB codes: 2v1s 2v1t
17827210 W.Chen, and R.G.Roeder (2007).
The Mediator subunit MED1/TRAP220 is required for optimal glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transcription activation.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 35, 6161-6169.  
17307882 Y.Chen, and J.D.Müller (2007).
Determining the stoichiometry of protein heterocomplexes in living cells with fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.
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17116691 Y.He, and S.S.Simons (2007).
STAMP, a novel predicted factor assisting TIF2 actions in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated induction and repression.
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17476305 Y.Zhang, H.Zhang, J.Liang, W.Yu, and Y.Shang (2007).
SIP, a novel ankyrin repeat containing protein, sequesters steroid receptor coactivators in the cytoplasm.
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18418469 A.M.Jetten, and J.H.Joo (2006).
Retinoid-related Orphan Receptors (RORs): Roles in Cellular Differentiation and Development.
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16493426 C.K.Glass, and S.Ogawa (2006).
Combinatorial roles of nuclear receptors in inflammation and immunity.
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Structure of the papillomavirus DNA-tethering complex E2:Brd4 and a peptide that ablates HPV chromosomal association.
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PDB code: 2nnu
17130446 L.Fang, D.Ricketson, L.Getubig, and B.Darimont (2006).
Unliganded and hormone-bound glucocorticoid receptors interact with distinct hydrophobic sites in the Hsp90 C-terminal domain.
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Conformational changes of the glucocorticoid receptor ligand binding domain induced by ligand and cofactor binding, and the location of cofactor binding sites determined by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.
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The GRIP1:IRF3 interaction as a target for glucocorticoid receptor-mediated immunosuppression.
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16469706 P.Zhu, S.H.Baek, E.M.Bourk, K.A.Ohgi, I.Garcia-Bassets, H.Sanjo, S.Akira, P.F.Kotol, C.K.Glass, M.G.Rosenfeld, and D.W.Rose (2006).
Macrophage/cancer cell interactions mediate hormone resistance by a nuclear receptor derepression pathway.
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TBLR1 regulates the expression of nuclear hormone receptor co-repressors.
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Potent inhibitors of LXXLL-based protein-protein interactions.
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15684715 B.Tomkowicz, S.P.Singh, D.Lai, A.Singh, S.Mahalingham, J.Joseph, S.Srivastava, and A.Srinivasan (2005).
Mutational analysis reveals an essential role for the LXXLL motif in the transformation function of the human herpesvirus-8 oncoprotein, kaposin.
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Modulation of human nuclear receptor LRH-1 activity by phospholipids and SHP.
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PDB code: 1yuc
15728727 E.H.Kong, N.Heldring, J.A.Gustafsson, E.Treuter, R.E.Hubbard, and A.C.Pike (2005).
Delineation of a unique protein-protein interaction site on the surface of the estrogen receptor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 3593-3598.
PDB code: 2bj4
15579263 E.L.O'Bryant, and C.L.Jordan (2005).
Expression of nuclear receptor coactivators in androgen-responsive and -unresponsive motoneurons.
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16135815 F.F.Zheng, R.C.Wu, C.L.Smith, and B.W.O'Malley (2005).
Rapid estrogen-induced phosphorylation of the SRC-3 coactivator occurs in an extranuclear complex containing estrogen receptor.
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15738986 H.J.Dyson, and P.E.Wright (2005).
Intrinsically unstructured proteins and their functions.
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Structural analyses reveal phosphatidyl inositols as ligands for the NR5 orphan receptors SF-1 and LRH-1.
  Cell, 120, 343-355.
PDB codes: 1ymt 1yok 1yow
15709961 K.W.Nettles, and G.L.Greene (2005).
Ligand control of coregulator recruitment to nuclear receptors.
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15980170 L.Martínez, M.T.Sonoda, P.Webb, J.D.Baxter, M.S.Skaf, and I.Polikarpov (2005).
Molecular dynamics simulations reveal multiple pathways of ligand dissociation from thyroid hormone receptors.
  Biophys J, 89, 2011-2023.  
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T:G mismatch-specific thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) as a coregulator of transcription interacts with SRC1 family members through a novel tyrosine repeat motif.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 33, 6393-6404.  
16264191 P.Badenhorst, H.Xiao, L.Cherbas, S.Y.Kwon, M.Voas, I.Rebay, P.Cherbas, and C.Wu (2005).
The Drosophila nucleosome remodeling factor NURF is required for Ecdysteroid signaling and metamorphosis.
  Genes Dev, 19, 2540-2545.  
16227615 P.Yi, R.C.Wu, J.Sandquist, J.Wong, S.Y.Tsai, M.J.Tsai, A.R.Means, and B.W.O'Malley (2005).
Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase 1 (Pin1) serves as a coactivator of steroid receptor by regulating the activity of phosphorylated steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3/AIB1).
  Mol Cell Biol, 25, 9687-9699.  
15558556 T.Shiraki, T.S.Kodama, H.Jingami, and N.Kamiya (2005).
Rational discovery of a novel interface for a coactivator in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma: theoretical implications of impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  Proteins, 58, 418-425.  
15957004 V.Perissi, and M.G.Rosenfeld (2005).
Controlling nuclear receptors: the circular logic of cofactor cycles.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 6, 542-554.  
16094445 W.Xu (2005).
Nuclear receptor coactivators: the key to unlock chromatin.
  Biochem Cell Biol, 83, 418-428.  
16054614 X.C.Kretschmer, and W.S.Baldwin (2005).
CAR and PXR: xenosensors of endocrine disrupters?
  Chem Biol Interact, 155, 111-128.  
14992717 C.K.Glass, D.P.McDonnell, and E.Jensen (2004).
The jensen symposium; a tribute to a pioneer in the field of nuclear receptor biology.
  Mol Cell, 13, 459-467.  
15175162 D.J.Taatjes, and R.Tjian (2004).
Structure and function of CRSP/Med2; a promoter-selective transcriptional coactivator complex.
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15195149 D.J.Taatjes, T.Schneider-Poetsch, and R.Tjian (2004).
Distinct conformational states of nuclear receptor-bound CRSP-Med complexes.
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15328534 E.Hur, S.J.Pfaff, E.S.Payne, H.Grøn, B.M.Buehrer, and R.J.Fletterick (2004).
Recognition and accommodation at the androgen receptor coactivator binding interface.
  PLoS Biol, 2, E274.
PDB codes: 1t73 1t74 1t76 1t79 1t7f 1t7m 1t7r 1t7t
15388935 F.M.Nunes, R.Aparicio, M.A.Santos, R.V.Portugal, S.M.Dias, F.A.Neves, L.A.Simeoni, J.D.Baxter, P.Webb, and I.Polikarpov (2004).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of isoform alpha1 of the human thyroid hormone receptor ligand-binding domain.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 60, 1867-1870.  
15246430 G.Benoit, M.Malewicz, and T.Perlmann (2004).
Digging deep into the pockets of orphan nuclear receptors: insights from structural studies.
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15256502 H.Zhang, X.Yi, X.Sun, N.Yin, B.Shi, H.Wu, D.Wang, G.Wu, and Y.Shang (2004).
Differential gene regulation by the SRC family of coactivators.
  Genes Dev, 18, 1753-1765.  
15109613 J.D.Baxter, P.Webb, G.Grover, and T.S.Scanlan (2004).
Selective activation of thyroid hormone signaling pathways by GC-1: a new approach to controlling cholesterol and body weight.
  Trends Endocrinol Metab, 15, 154-157.  
15610733 K.Suino, L.Peng, R.Reynolds, Y.Li, J.Y.Cha, J.J.Repa, S.A.Kliewer, and H.E.Xu (2004).
The nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR: structural determinants of constitutive activation and heterodimerization.
  Mol Cell, 16, 893-905.
PDB code: 1xls
14967140 K.W.Nettles, J.Sun, J.T.Radek, S.Sheng, A.L.Rodriguez, J.A.Katzenellenbogen, B.S.Katzenellenbogen, and G.L.Greene (2004).
Allosteric control of ligand selectivity between estrogen receptors alpha and beta: implications for other nuclear receptors.
  Mol Cell, 13, 317-327.  
14966297 L.Wang, C.L.Hsu, J.Ni, P.H.Wang, S.Yeh, P.Keng, and C.Chang (2004).
Human checkpoint protein hRad9 functions as a negative coregulator to repress androgen receptor transactivation in prostate cancer cells.
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 2202-2213.  
15143190 M.A.Mahajan, S.Das, H.Zhu, M.Tomic-Canic, and H.H.Samuels (2004).
The nuclear hormone receptor coactivator NRC is a pleiotropic modulator affecting growth, development, apoptosis, reproduction, and wound repair.
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 4994-5004.  
15169882 M.C.Louie, J.X.Zou, A.Rabinovich, and H.W.Chen (2004).
ACTR/AIB1 functions as an E2F1 coactivator to promote breast cancer cell proliferation and antiestrogen resistance.
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 5157-5171.  
14977406 M.L.Privalsky (2004).
The role of corepressors in transcriptional regulation by nuclear hormone receptors.
  Annu Rev Physiol, 66, 315-360.  
15004228 N.D.Freedman, and K.R.Yamamoto (2004).
Importin 7 and importin alpha/importin beta are nuclear import receptors for the glucocorticoid receptor.
  Mol Biol Cell, 15, 2276-2286.  
15049832 R.S.Savkur, and T.P.Burris (2004).
The coactivator LXXLL nuclear receptor recognition motif.
  J Pept Res, 63, 207-212.  
15340084 S.Malik, M.Guermah, C.X.Yuan, W.Wu, S.Yamamura, and R.G.Roeder (2004).
Structural and functional organization of TRAP220, the TRAP/mediator subunit that is targeted by nuclear receptors.
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 8244-8254.  
15123288 T.R.Geistlinger, A.C.McReynolds, and R.K.Guy (2004).
Ligand-selective inhibition of the interaction of steroid receptor coactivators and estrogen receptor isoforms.
  Chem Biol, 11, 273-281.  
14680484 W.Shao, and M.Brown (2004).
Advances in estrogen receptor biology: prospects for improvements in targeted breast cancer therapy.
  Breast Cancer Res, 6, 39-52.  
14966289 Y.H.Lee, H.D.Campbell, and M.R.Stallcup (2004).
Developmentally essential protein flightless I is a nuclear receptor coactivator with actin binding activity.
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 2103-2117.  
13679575 A.M.Leduc, J.O.Trent, J.L.Wittliff, K.S.Bramlett, S.L.Briggs, N.Y.Chirgadze, Y.Wang, T.P.Burris, and A.F.Spatola (2003).
Helix-stabilized cyclic peptides as selective inhibitors of steroid receptor-coactivator interactions.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 11273-11278.
PDB code: 1pcg
12536206 B.C.Kallenberger, J.D.Love, V.K.Chatterjee, and J.W.Schwabe (2003).
A dynamic mechanism of nuclear receptor activation and its perturbation in a human disease.
  Nat Struct Biol, 10, 136-140.  
12732728 B.D.Nguyen, K.L.Abbott, K.Potempa, M.S.Kobor, J.Archambault, J.Greenblatt, P.Legault, and J.G.Omichinski (2003).
NMR structure of a complex containing the TFIIF subunit RAP74 and the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain phosphatase FCP1.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 5688-5693.
PDB code: 1onv
12612084 B.He, and E.M.Wilson (2003).
Electrostatic modulation in steroid receptor recruitment of LXXLL and FXXLF motifs.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 2135-2150.  
12559765 B.M.Necela, and J.A.Cidlowski (2003).
Crystallization of the human glucocorticoid receptor ligand binding domain: a step towards selective glucocorticoids.
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 24, 58-61.  
  16604176 E.H.Xu, and M.H.Lambert (2003).
Structural insights into regulation of nuclear receptors by ligands.
  Nucl Recept Signal, 1, e004.  
12820970 E.P.Sablin, I.N.Krylova, R.J.Fletterick, and H.A.Ingraham (2003).
Structural basis for ligand-independent activation of the orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1.
  Mol Cell, 11, 1575-1585.
PDB code: 1pk5
12743361 I.Petitpas, C.E.Petersen, C.E.Ha, A.A.Bhattacharya, P.A.Zunszain, J.Ghuman, N.V.Bhagavan, and S.Curry (2003).
Structural basis of albumin-thyroxine interactions and familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 6440-6445.
PDB codes: 1hk1 1hk2 1hk3 1hk4 1hk5
14617768 I.Rogatsky, J.C.Wang, M.K.Derynck, D.F.Nonaka, D.B.Khodabakhsh, C.M.Haqq, B.D.Darimont, M.J.Garabedian, and K.R.Yamamoto (2003).
Target-specific utilization of transcriptional regulatory surfaces by the glucocorticoid receptor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 13845-13850.  
12809604 K.D.Baker, L.M.Shewchuk, T.Kozlova, M.Makishima, A.Hassell, B.Wisely, J.A.Caravella, M.H.Lambert, J.L.Reinking, H.Krause, C.S.Thummel, T.M.Willson, and D.J.Mangelsdorf (2003).
The Drosophila orphan nuclear receptor DHR38 mediates an atypical ecdysteroid signaling pathway.
  Cell, 113, 731-742.
PDB code: 1pdu
  14567757 K.W.Henry II, M.L.Spencer, M.Theodosiou, D.Lou, and D.J.Noonan (2003).
A neuronal-specific differentiation protein that directly modulates retinoid receptor transcriptional activation.
  Nucl Recept, 1, 7.  
12588987 L.N.Song, R.Herrell, S.Byers, S.Shah, E.M.Wilson, and E.P.Gelmann (2003).
Beta-catenin binds to the activation function 2 region of the androgen receptor and modulates the effects of the N-terminal domain and TIF2 on ligand-dependent transcription.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 1674-1687.  
12777627 M.Schapira, B.M.Raaka, S.Das, L.Fan, M.Totrov, Z.Zhou, S.R.Wilson, R.Abagyan, and H.H.Samuels (2003).
Discovery of diverse thyroid hormone receptor antagonists by high-throughput docking.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 7354-7359.  
12917342 P.W.Hsiao, C.J.Fryer, K.W.Trotter, W.Wang, and T.K.Archer (2003).
BAF60a mediates critical interactions between nuclear receptors and the BRG1 chromatin-remodeling complex for transactivation.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 6210-6220.  
  12904255 P.Webb, C.Valentine, P.Nguyen, R.H.Price, A.Marimuthu, B.L.West, J.D.Baxter, and P.J.Kushner (2003).
ERbeta Binds N-CoR in the Presence of Estrogens via an LXXLL-like Motif in the N-CoR C-terminus.
  Nucl Recept, 1, 4.  
14673100 S.Borngraeber, M.J.Budny, G.Chiellini, S.T.Cunha-Lima, M.Togashi, P.Webb, J.D.Baxter, T.S.Scanlan, and R.J.Fletterick (2003).
Ligand selectivity by seeking hydrophobicity in thyroid hormone receptor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 15358-15363.
PDB code: 1q4x
12424754 S.Yamada, M.Shimizu, and K.Yamamoto (2003).
Structure-function relationships of vitamin D including ligand recognition by the vitamin D receptor.
  Med Res Rev, 23, 89.  
12482977 T.Suzuki, M.Kasahara, H.Yoshioka, K.Morohashi, and K.Umesono (2003).
LXXLL-related motifs in Dax-1 have target specificity for the orphan nuclear receptors Ad4BP/SF-1 and LRH-1.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 238-249.  
12748280 X.Li, J.Wong, S.Y.Tsai, M.J.Tsai, and B.W.O'Malley (2003).
Progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors recruit distinct coactivator complexes and promote distinct patterns of local chromatin modification.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 3763-3773.  
12774125 Z.Wang, G.Benoit, J.Liu, S.Prasad, P.Aarnisalo, X.Liu, H.Xu, N.P.Walker, and T.Perlmann (2003).
Structure and function of Nurr1 identifies a class of ligand-independent nuclear receptors.
  Nature, 423, 555-560.
PDB code: 1ovl
12215540 A.N.Moraitis, V.Giguère, and C.C.Thompson (2002).
Novel mechanism of nuclear receptor corepressor interaction dictated by activation function 2 helix determinants.
  Mol Cell Biol, 22, 6831-6841.  
11963993 A.Ohno, M.Shimizu, and S.Yamada (2002).
Fluorinated vitamin D analogs to probe the conformation of vitamin D in its receptor complex: 19F-NMR studies and biological activity.
  Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 50, 475-483.  
12138189 D.Li, T.Li, F.Wang, H.Tian, and H.H.Samuels (2002).
Functional evidence for retinoid X receptor (RXR) as a nonsilent partner in the thyroid hormone receptor/RXR heterodimer.
  Mol Cell Biol, 22, 5782-5792.  
12101224 I.Dussault, M.Lin, K.Hollister, M.Fan, J.Termini, M.A.Sherman, and B.M.Forman (2002).
A structural model of the constitutive androstane receptor defines novel interactions that mediate ligand-independent activity.
  Mol Cell Biol, 22, 5270-5280.  
12481024 I.Rogatsky, H.F.Luecke, D.C.Leitman, and K.R.Yamamoto (2002).
Alternate surfaces of transcriptional coregulator GRIP1 function in different glucocorticoid receptor activation and repression contexts.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 16701-16706.  
11972046 J.C.Ghosh, X.Yang, A.Zhang, M.H.Lambert, H.Li, H.E.Xu, and J.D.Chen (2002).
Interactions that determine the assembly of a retinoid X receptor/corepressor complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 5842-5847.  
12242337 K.D.Augustijn, D.L.Duval, R.Wechselberger, R.Kaptein, A.Gutierrez-Hartmann, and P.C.van der Vliet (2002).
Structural characterization of the PIT-1/ETS-1 interaction: PIT-1 phosphorylation regulates PIT-1/ETS-1 binding.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 12657-12662.  
12444966 K.Steketee, C.A.Berrevoets, H.J.Dubbink, P.Doesburg, R.Hersmus, A.O.Brinkmann, and J.Trapman (2002).
Amino acids 3-13 and amino acids in and flanking the 23FxxLF27 motif modulate the interaction between the N-terminal and ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 5780-5791.  
12215545 M.A.Mahajan, A.Murray, and H.H.Samuels (2002).
NRC-interacting factor 1 is a novel cotransducer that interacts with and regulates the activity of the nuclear hormone receptor coactivator NRC.
  Mol Cell Biol, 22, 6883-6894.  
12411578 M.B.Kumar, T.Fujimoto, D.W.Potter, Q.Deng, and S.R.Palli (2002).
A single point mutation in ecdysone receptor leads to increased ligand specificity: implications for gene switch applications.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 14710-14715.  
12486878 M.Fu, C.Wang, J.Wang, B.T.Zafonte, M.P.Lisanti, and R.G.Pestell (2002).
Acetylation in hormone signaling and the cell cycle.
  Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 13, 259-276.  
12004807 M.Nichols, and K.S.McCarty (2002).
Functional mutations of estrogen receptor protein: assay for detection.
  Breast Cancer Res Treat, 72, 61-68.  
11854019 O.Hermanson, C.K.Glass, and M.G.Rosenfeld (2002).
Nuclear receptor coregulators: multiple modes of modification.
  Trends Endocrinol Metab, 13, 55-60.  
  15455059 S.Sasorith, I.M.Billas, T.Iwema, D.Moras, and J.M.Wurtz (2002).
Structure-based analysis of the ultraspiracle protein and docking studies of putative ligands.
  J Insect Sci, 2, 25.  
12024042 T.V.Beischlag, S.Wang, D.W.Rose, J.Torchia, S.Reisz-Porszasz, K.Muhammad, W.E.Nelson, M.R.Probst, M.G.Rosenfeld, and O.Hankinson (2002).
Recruitment of the NCoA/SRC-1/p160 family of transcriptional coactivators by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator complex.
  Mol Cell Biol, 22, 4319-4333.  
11250199 A.C.Pike, A.M.Brzozowski, J.Walton, R.E.Hubbard, A.G.Thorsell, Y.L.Li, J.A.Gustafsson, and M.Carlquist (2001).
Structural insights into the mode of action of a pure antiestrogen.
  Structure, 9, 145-153.
PDB code: 1hj1
11340063 A.C.Steinmetz, J.P.Renaud, and D.Moras (2001).
Binding of ligands and activation of transcription by nuclear receptors.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 30, 329-359.  
11343920 B.C.Freeman, and K.R.Yamamoto (2001).
Continuous recycling: a mechanism for modulatory signal transduction.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 26, 285-290.  
11306337 B.D.Jenkins, C.B.Pullen, and B.D.Darimont (2001).
Novel glucocorticoid receptor coactivator effector mechanisms.
  Trends Endocrinol Metab, 12, 122-126.  
11248056 B.Liu, M.Gross, J.ten Hoeve, and K.Shuai (2001).
A transcriptional corepressor of Stat1 with an essential LXXLL signature motif.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 3203-3207.  
11157757 C.J.Schwartz, H.M.Sampson, D.Hlousek, A.Percival-Smith, J.W.Copeland, A.J.Simmonds, and H.M.Krause (2001).
FTZ-Factor1 and Fushi tarazu interact via conserved nuclear receptor and coactivator motifs.
  EMBO J, 20, 510-519.  
11689423 C.Stehlin, J.M.Wurtz, A.Steinmetz, E.Greiner, R.Schüle, D.Moras, and J.P.Renaud (2001).
X-ray structure of the orphan nuclear receptor RORbeta ligand-binding domain in the active conformation.
  EMBO J, 20, 5822-5831.
PDB code: 1k4w
11389589 C.W.Wong, B.Komm, and B.J.Cheskis (2001).
Structure-function evaluation of ER alpha and beta interplay with SRC family coactivators. ER selective ligands.
  Biochemistry, 40, 6756-6765.  
11438648 D.L.Osburn, G.Shao, H.M.Seidel, and I.G.Schulman (2001).
Ligand-dependent degradation of retinoid X receptors does not require transcriptional activity or coactivator interactions.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 4909-4918.  
11713274 D.Li, F.Wang, and H.H.Samuels (2001).
Domain structure of the NRIF3 family of coregulators suggests potential dual roles in transcriptional regulation.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 8371-8384.  
11113208 F.Sauvé, L.D.McBroom, J.Gallant, A.N.Moraitis, F.Labrie, and V.Giguère (2001).
CIA, a novel estrogen receptor coactivator with a bifunctional nuclear receptor interacting determinant.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 343-353.  
11171988 G.M.Clayton, S.Y.Peak-Chew, R.M.Evans, and J.W.Schwabe (2001).
The structure of the ultraspiracle ligand-binding domain reveals a nuclear receptor locked in an inactive conformation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 1549-1554.
PDB code: 1hg4
11390665 H.Y.Mak, and M.G.Parker (2001).
Use of suppressor mutants to probe the function of estrogen receptor-p160 coactivator interactions.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 4379-4390.  
11689447 I.Rogatsky, K.A.Zarember, and K.R.Yamamoto (2001).
Factor recruitment and TIF2/GRIP1 corepressor activity at a collagenase-3 response element that mediates regulation by phorbol esters and hormones.
  EMBO J, 20, 6071-6083.  
11397643 K.C.Lee, and W.Lee Kraus (2001).
Nuclear receptors, coactivators and chromatin: new approaches, new insights.
  Trends Endocrinol Metab, 12, 191-197.  
11181953 K.Pettersson, and J.A.Gustafsson (2001).
Role of estrogen receptor beta in estrogen action.
  Annu Rev Physiol, 63, 165-192.  
11689448 M.Y.Kim, S.J.Hsiao, and W.L.Kraus (2001).
A role for coactivators and histone acetylation in estrogen receptor alpha-mediated transcription initiation.
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11267654 S.Arai, K.Ogawa, S.Yamachika, T.Nishihara, and J.Nishikawa (2001).
Cloning and functional characterization of chicken p160 coactivator family members.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1518, 7.  
11406412 S.Khorasanizadeh, and F.Rastinejad (2001).
Nuclear-receptor interactions on DNA-response elements.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 26, 384-390.  
11197335 S.R.Stauffer, Y.R.Huang, Z.D.Aron, C.J.Coletta, J.Sun, B.S.Katzenellenbogen, and J.A.Katzenellenbogen (2001).
Triarylpyrazoles with basic side chains: development of pyrazole-based estrogen receptor antagonists.
  Bioorg Med Chem, 9, 151-161.  
11395411 T.M.Willson, M.H.Lambert, and S.A.Kliewer (2001).
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and metabolic disease.
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11592991 T.Suzuki, H.Kawasaki, R.T.Yu, H.Ueda, and K.Umesono (2001).
Segmentation gene product Fushi tarazu is an LXXLL motif-dependent coactivator for orphan receptor FTZ-F1.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 12403-12408.  
11607933 U.Egner, N.Heinrich, M.Ruff, M.Gangloff, A.Mueller-Fahrnow, and J.M.Wurtz (2001).
Different ligands-different receptor conformations: modeling of the hER alpha LBD in complex with agonists and antagonists.
  Med Res Rev, 21, 523-539.  
11170455 X.Be, Y.Hong, J.Wei, E.J.Androphy, J.J.Chen, and J.D.Baleja (2001).
Solution structure determination and mutational analysis of the papillomavirus E6 interacting peptide of E6AP.
  Biochemistry, 40, 1293-1299.
PDB code: 1eqx
11238912 X.Hu, Y.Li, and M.A.Lazar (2001).
Determinants of CoRNR-dependent repression complex assembly on nuclear hormone receptors.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 1747-1758.  
11265755 A.Benecke, P.Chambon, and H.Gronemeyer (2000).
Synergy between estrogen receptor alpha activation functions AF1 and AF2 mediated by transcription intermediary factor TIF2.
  EMBO Rep, 1, 151-157.  
  10691735 B.C.Freeman, S.J.Felts, D.O.Toft, and K.R.Yamamoto (2000).
The p23 molecular chaperones act at a late step in intracellular receptor action to differentially affect ligand efficacies.
  Genes Dev, 14, 422-434.  
10733574 C.Rachez, M.Gamble, C.P.Chang, G.B.Atkins, M.A.Lazar, and L.P.Freedman (2000).
The DRIP complex and SRC-1/p160 coactivators share similar nuclear receptor binding determinants but constitute functionally distinct complexes.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 2718-2726.  
10744719 D.Avram, A.Fields, K.Pretty On Top, D.J.Nevrivy, J.E.Ishmael, and M.Leid (2000).
Isolation of a novel family of C(2)H(2) zinc finger proteins implicated in transcriptional repression mediated by chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF) orphan nuclear receptors.
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10839822 D.E.Sterner, and S.L.Berger (2000).
Acetylation of histones and transcription-related factors.
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10913186 J.A.Iñiguez-Lluhí, and D.Pearce (2000).
A common motif within the negative regulatory regions of multiple factors inhibits their transcriptional synergy.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 6040-6050.  
10866661 J.Font de Mora, and M.Brown (2000).
AIB1 is a conduit for kinase-mediated growth factor signaling to the estrogen receptor.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 5041-5047.  
10760302 J.Llopis, S.Westin, M.Ricote, Z.Wang, C.Y.Cho, R.Kurokawa, T.M.Mullen, D.W.Rose, M.G.Rosenfeld, R.Y.Tsien, C.K.Glass, and J.Wang (2000).
Ligand-dependent interactions of coactivators steroid receptor coactivator-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor binding protein with nuclear hormone receptors can be imaged in live cells and are required for transcription.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 4363-4368.  
10677485 K.Yamamoto, H.Masuno, M.Choi, K.Nakashima, T.Taga, H.Ooizumi, K.Umesono, W.Sicinska, J.VanHooke, H.F.DeLuca, and S.Yamada (2000).
Three-dimensional modeling of and ligand docking to vitamin D receptor ligand binding domain.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 1467-1472.  
10648597 L.Johansson, A.Båvner, J.S.Thomsen, M.Färnegårdh, J.A.Gustafsson, and E.Treuter (2000).
The orphan nuclear receptor SHP utilizes conserved LXXLL-related motifs for interactions with ligand-activated estrogen receptors.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 1124-1133.  
10866662 M.A.Mahajan, and H.H.Samuels (2000).
A new family of nuclear receptor coregulators that integrate nuclear receptor signaling through CREB-binding protein.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 5048-5063.  
11050174 M.K.Tikkanen, D.J.Carter, A.M.Harris, H.M.Le, D.O.Azorsa, P.S.Meltzer, and F.E.Murdoch (2000).
Endogenously expressed estrogen receptor and coactivator AIB1 interact in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 12536-12540.  
10848596 M.Li, G.Pascual, and C.K.Glass (2000).
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent repression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 4699-4707.  
10933727 M.P.Sherman, Noronha, D.Pearce, and W.C.Greene (2000).
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr contains two leucine-rich helices that mediate glucocorticoid receptor coactivation independently of its effects on G(2) cell cycle arrest.
  J Virol, 74, 8159-8165.  
11250728 M.Ruff, M.Gangloff, J.M.Wurtz, and D.Moras (2000).
Estrogen receptor transcription and transactivation: Structure-function relationship in DNA- and ligand-binding domains of estrogen receptors.
  Breast Cancer Res, 2, 353-359.  
10973497 N.Nasrin, S.Ogg, C.M.Cahill, W.Biggs, S.Nui, J.Dore, D.Calvo, Y.Shi, G.Ruvkun, and M.C.Alexander-Bridges (2000).
DAF-16 recruits the CREB-binding protein coactivator complex to the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 promoter in HepG2 cells.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 10412-10417.  
11015194 N.Swamy, W.Xu, N.Paz, J.C.Hsieh, M.R.Haussler, G.J.Maalouf, S.C.Mohr, and R.Ray (2000).
Molecular modeling, affinity labeling, and site-directed mutagenesis define the key points of interaction between the ligand-binding domain of the vitamin D nuclear receptor and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
  Biochemistry, 39, 12162-12171.  
10835357 P.F.Egea, A.Mitschler, N.Rochel, M.Ruff, P.Chambon, and D.Moras (2000).
Crystal structure of the human RXRalpha ligand-binding domain bound to its natural ligand: 9-cis retinoic acid.
  EMBO J, 19, 2592-2601.
PDB code: 1fby
10983973 P.Pissios, I.Tzameli, P.Kushner, and D.D.Moore (2000).
Dynamic stabilization of nuclear receptor ligand binding domains by hormone or corepressor binding.
  Mol Cell, 6, 245-253.  
10995388 R.M.Nissen, and K.R.Yamamoto (2000).
The glucocorticoid receptor inhibits NFkappaB by interfering with serine-2 phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain.
  Genes Dev, 14, 2314-2329.  
10970886 R.T.Gampe, V.G.Montana, M.H.Lambert, G.B.Wisely, M.V.Milburn, and H.E.Xu (2000).
Structural basis for autorepression of retinoid X receptor by tetramer formation and the AF-2 helix.
  Genes Dev, 14, 2229-2241.
PDB codes: 1g1u 1g5y
11250729 S.Nilsson, and J.A.Gustafsson (2000).
Estrogen receptor transcription and transactivation: Basic aspects of estrogen action.
  Breast Cancer Res, 2, 360-366.  
11050318 W.Bourguet, P.Germain, and H.Gronemeyer (2000).
Nuclear receptor ligand-binding domains: three-dimensional structures, molecular interactions and pharmacological implications.
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 21, 381-388.  
10882070 W.Bourguet, V.Vivat, J.M.Wurtz, P.Chambon, H.Gronemeyer, and D.Moras (2000).
Crystal structure of a heterodimeric complex of RAR and RXR ligand-binding domains.
  Mol Cell, 5, 289-298.
PDB code: 1dkf
10594021 Y.K.Lee, H.Dell, D.H.Dowhan, M.Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, and D.D.Moore (2000).
The orphan nuclear receptor SHP inhibits hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 and retinoid X receptor transactivation: two mechanisms for repression.
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10821699 Y.Ke, H.Sierzputowska-Gracz, Z.Gdaniec, and E.C.Theil (2000).
Internal loop/bulge and hairpin loop of the iron-responsive element of ferritin mRNA contribute to maximal iron regulatory protein 2 binding and translational regulation in the iso-iron-responsive element/iso-iron regulatory protein family.
  Biochemistry, 39, 6235-6242.  
10891484 Y.Ren, E.Behre, Z.Ren, J.Zhang, Q.Wang, and J.D.Fondell (2000).
Specific structural motifs determine TRAP220 interactions with nuclear hormone receptors.
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10688660 Y.Xu, L.Klein-Hitpass, and M.K.Bagchi (2000).
E1A-mediated repression of progesterone receptor-dependent transactivation involves inhibition of the assembly of a multisubunit coactivation complex.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 2138-2146.  
11073988 Z.Nie, Y.Xue, D.Yang, S.Zhou, B.J.Deroo, T.K.Archer, and W.Wang (2000).
A specificity and targeting subunit of a human SWI/SNF family-related chromatin-remodeling complex.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 8879-8888.  
10469641 A.C.Pike, A.M.Brzozowski, R.E.Hubbard, T.Bonn, A.G.Thorsell, O.Engström, J.Ljunggren, J.A.Gustafsson, and M.Carlquist (1999).
Structure of the ligand-binding domain of oestrogen receptor beta in the presence of a partial agonist and a full antagonist.
  EMBO J, 18, 4608-4618.
PDB codes: 1qkm 1qkn
  10082574 A.Mouchon, M.H.Delmotte, P.Formstecher, and P.Lefebvre (1999).
Allosteric regulation of the discriminative responsiveness of retinoic acid receptor to natural and synthetic ligands by retinoid X receptor and DNA.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 3073-3085.  
10205176 C.Gaudon, P.Chambon, and R.Losson (1999).
Role of the essential yeast protein PSU1 in p6anscriptional enhancement by the ligand-dependent activation function AF-2 of nuclear receptors.
  EMBO J, 18, 2229-2240.  
  10567563 C.L.Bevan, S.Hoare, F.Claessens, D.M.Heery, and M.G.Parker (1999).
The AF1 and AF2 domains of the androgen receptor interact with distinct regions of SRC1.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 8383-8392.  
  10490654 D.Li, V.Desai-Yajnik, E.Lo, M.Schapira, R.Abagyan, and H.H.Samuels (1999).
NRIF3 is a novel coactivator mediating functional specificity of nuclear hormone receptors.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 7191-7202.  
  10409749 D.Parker, M.Rivera, T.Zor, A.Henrion-Caude, I.Radhakrishnan, A.Kumar, L.H.Shapiro, P.E.Wright, M.Montminy, and P.K.Brindle (1999).
Role of secondary structure in discrimination between constitutive and inducible activators.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 5601-5607.  
10051583 F.J.Dilworth, C.Fromental-Ramain, E.Remboutsika, A.Benecke, and P.Chambon (1999).
Ligand-dependent activation of transcription in vitro by retinoic acid receptor alpha/retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimers that mimics transactivation by retinoids in vivo.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 1995-2000.  
10490106 H.Chen, R.J.Lin, W.Xie, D.Wilpitz, and R.M.Evans (1999).
Regulation of hormone-induced histone hyperacetylation and gene activation via acetylation of an acetylase.
  Cell, 98, 675-686.  
  10454563 H.Ma, H.Hong, S.M.Huang, R.A.Irvine, P.Webb, P.J.Kushner, G.A.Coetzee, and M.R.Stallcup (1999).
Multiple signal input and output domains of the 160-kilodalton nuclear receptor coactivator proteins.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 6164-6173.  
  10207113 H.Y.Mak, S.Hoare, P.M.Henttu, and M.G.Parker (1999).
Molecular determinants of the estrogen receptor-coactivator interface.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 3895-3903.  
10611355 J.An, R.C.Ribeiro, P.Webb, J.A.Gustafsson, P.J.Kushner, J.D.Baxter, and D.C.Leitman (1999).
Estradiol repression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha transcription requires estrogen receptor activation function-2 and is enhanced by coactivators.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 15161-15166.  
  10454590 J.Zhang, X.Hu, and M.A.Lazar (1999).
A novel role for helix 12 of retinoid X receptor in regulating repression.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 6448-6457.  
  10567540 L.A.Sheldon, C.L.Smith, J.E.Bodwell, A.U.Munck, and G.L.Hager (1999).
A ligand binding domain mutation in the mouse glucocorticoid receptor functionally links chromatin remodeling and transcription initiation.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 8146-8157.  
10617570 L.Nagy, H.Y.Kao, J.D.Love, C.Li, E.Banayo, J.T.Gooch, V.Krishna, K.Chatterjee, R.M.Evans, and J.W.Schwabe (1999).
Mechanism of corepressor binding and release from nuclear hormone receptors.
  Genes Dev, 13, 3209-3216.  
10322133 L.Xu, C.K.Glass, and M.G.Rosenfeld (1999).
Coactivator and corepressor complexes in nuclear receptor function.
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  10409715 M.Bustin (1999).
Regulation of DNA-dependent activities by the functional motifs of the high-mobility-group chromosomal proteins.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 5237-5246.  
10421757 M.Géhin, V.Vivat, J.M.Wurtz, R.Losson, P.Chambon, D.Moras, and H.Gronemeyer (1999).
Structural basis for engineering of retinoic acid receptor isotype-selective agonists and antagonists.
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10390614 M.T.Bedford, and P.Leder (1999).
The FF domain: a novel motif that often accompanies WW domains.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 24, 264-265.  
10611293 M.Uesugi, and G.L.Verdine (1999).
The alpha-helical FXXPhiPhi motif in p53: TAF interaction and discrimination by MDM2.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 14801-14806.  
10075926 N.A.Cacalano, T.S.Migone, F.Bazan, E.P.Hanson, M.Chen, F.Candotti, J.J.O'Shea, and J.A.Johnston (1999).
Autosomal SCID caused by a point mutation in the N-terminus of Jak3: mapping of the Jak3-receptor interaction domain.
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10872460 R.V.Weatherman, R.J.Fletterick, and T.S.Scanlan (1999).
Nuclear-receptor ligands and ligand-binding domains.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 68, 559-581.  
10617569 V.Perissi, L.M.Staszewski, E.M.McInerney, R.Kurokawa, A.Krones, D.W.Rose, M.H.Lambert, M.V.Milburn, C.K.Glass, and M.G.Rosenfeld (1999).
Molecular determinants of nuclear receptor-corepressor interaction.
  Genes Dev, 13, 3198-3208.  
10384324 K.R.Yamamoto, B.D.Darimont, R.L.Wagner, and J.A.Iñiguez-Lluhí (1998).
Building transcriptional regulatory complexes: signals and surfaces.
  Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 63, 587-598.  
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