PDBsum entry 1bkn

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protein Protein-protein interface(s) links
DNA repair PDB id
Protein chains
272 a.a. *
Waters ×55
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: DNA repair
Title: Crystal structure of an n-terminal 40kd fragment of e. Coli DNA mismatch repair protein mutl
Structure: Mutl. Chain: a, b. Fragment: n-terminal 40kd fragment. Engineered: yes
Source: Escherichia coli k12. Organism_taxid: 83333. Strain: k-12. Gene: mutl. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562.
2.90Å     R-factor:   0.248     R-free:   0.300
Authors: W.Yang,C.Ban
Key ref:
C.Ban and W.Yang (1998). Crystal structure and ATPase activity of MutL: implications for DNA repair and mutagenesis. Cell, 95, 541-552. PubMed id: 9827806 DOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81621-9
09-Jul-98     Release date:   11-May-99    
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Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P23367  (MUTL_ECOLI) -  DNA mismatch repair protein MutL
615 a.a.
272 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     mismatch repair complex   1 term 
  Biological process     mismatch repair   1 term 
  Biochemical function     ATP binding     2 terms  


DOI no: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81621-9 Cell 95:541-552 (1998)
PubMed id: 9827806  
Crystal structure and ATPase activity of MutL: implications for DNA repair and mutagenesis.
C.Ban, W.Yang.
MutL and its homologs are essential for DNA mismatch repair. Mutations in genes encoding human homologs of MutL cause multiorgan cancer susceptibility. We have determined the crystal structure of a 40 kDa N-terminal fragment of E. coli MutL that retains all of the conserved residues in the MutL family. The structure of MutL is homologous to that of an ATPase-containing fragment of DNA gyrase. We have demonstrated that MutL binds and hydrolyzes ATP to ADP and Pi. Mutations in the MutL family that cause deficiencies in DNA mismatch repair and a predisposition to cancer mainly occur in the putative ATP-binding site. We provide evidence that the flexible, yet conserved, loops surrounding this ATP-binding site undergo conformational changes upon ATP hydrolysis thereby modulating interactions between MutL and other components of the repair machinery.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 4.
Figure 4. Structural Comparison of LN40, NgyrB, and Hsp90(a) Ribbon diagrams of NgyrB, LN40, and human Hsp90 (PDB accession number: 1YET). The four conserved ATP-binding motifs are highlighted in red.(b) Structural elements that form the ATP-binding site in NgyrB and LN40. Helices are represented as cylinders, strands as arrows. The four ATP-binding motifs are labeled in NgyrB. ADPnP, side chains that contributed to ADPnP binding in NgyrB, and their counterparts in LN40 are shown in ball-and-stick.(c) Orthogonal views of overlay of the Cα traces of LN40 and NgyrB. Residues at the N and C termini of NgyrB are omitted for clarity. The regions in NgyrB that are equivalent to the L2 and L3 loops in LN40 are labeled.(d) Structure-based sequence alignment of MutL and NgyrB. Identical sequences are outlined in red; conserved changed are outlined in yellow. The four ATP-binding motifs from human HSP90 are also included. The secondary structures of LN40 are shown above the sequence alignment.
Figure 5.
Figure 5. Ribbon Diagram of a Structurally Similar Domain in MutL, DNA Gyrase, and EF-G
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Cell Press: Cell (1998, 95, 541-552) copyright 1998.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21354867 A.N.Schorzman, L.Perera, J.M.Cutalo-Patterson, L.C.Pedersen, L.G.Pedersen, T.A.Kunkel, and K.B.Tomer (2011).
Modeling of the DNA-binding site of yeast Pms1 by mass spectrometry.
  DNA Repair (Amst), 10, 454-465.  
20966089 C.Duvernay, L.Coulange, B.Dutilh, V.Dubois, C.Quentin, and C.Arpin (2011).
Duplication of the chromosomal blaSHV-11 gene in a clinical hypermutable strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae.
  Microbiology, 157, 496-503.  
20571910 C.Galles, R.L.Gomez, and C.P.Spampinato (2011).
PMS1 from Arabidopsis thaliana: optimization of protein overexpression in Escherichia coli.
  Mol Biol Rep, 38, 1063-1070.  
20961292 H.Iino, K.Kim, A.Shimada, R.Masui, S.Kuramitsu, and K.Fukui (2011).
Characterization of C- and N-terminal domains of Aquifex aeolicus MutL endonuclease: N-terminal domain stimulates the endonuclease activity of C-terminal domain in a zinc-dependent manner.
  Biosci Rep, 31, 309-322.  
20854710 W.Yang (2011).
Nucleases: diversity of structure, function and mechanism.
  Q Rev Biophys, 44, 1.  
20129926 J.Mauris, and T.C.Evans (2010).
A human PMS2 homologue from Aquifex aeolicus stimulates an ATP-dependent DNA helicase.
  J Biol Chem, 285, 11087-11092.  
21103398 J.Park, Y.Jeon, D.In, R.Fishel, C.Ban, and J.B.Lee (2010).
Single-molecule analysis reveals the kinetics and physiological relevance of MutL-ssDNA binding.
  PLoS One, 5, e15496.  
  20725617 K.Fukui (2010).
DNA mismatch repair in eukaryotes and bacteria.
  J Nucleic Acids, 2010, 0.  
20138591 M.E.Arana, S.F.Holmes, J.M.Fortune, A.F.Moon, L.C.Pedersen, and T.A.Kunkel (2010).
Functional residues on the surface of the N-terminal domain of yeast Pms1.
  DNA Repair (Amst), 9, 448-457.
PDB code: 3h4l
20382827 V.E.Cotton, E.R.Hoffmann, and R.H.Borts (2010).
Distinct regulation of Mlh1p heterodimers in meiosis and mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  Genetics, 185, 459-467.  
19237577 A.Mazurek, C.N.Johnson, M.W.Germann, and R.Fishel (2009).
Sequence context effect for hMSH2-hMSH6 mismatch-dependent activation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 4177-4182.  
19881914 F.J.López de Saro (2009).
Regulation of interactions with sliding clamps during DNA replication and repair.
  Curr Genomics, 10, 206-215.  
19777055 J.Mauris, and T.C.Evans (2009).
Adenosine triphosphate stimulates Aquifex aeolicus MutL endonuclease activity.
  PLoS One, 4, e7175.  
19142183 M.Clyne, J.Offman, S.Shanley, J.D.Virgo, M.Radulovic, Y.Wang, A.Ardern-Jones, R.Eeles, E.Hoffmann, and V.P.Yu (2009).
The G67E mutation in hMLH1 is associated with an unusual presentation of Lynch syndrome.
  Br J Cancer, 100, 376-380.  
20080788 M.L.Mendillo, V.V.Hargreaves, J.W.Jamison, A.O.Mo, S.Li, C.D.Putnam, V.L.Woods, and R.D.Kolodner (2009).
A conserved MutS homolog connector domain interface interacts with MutL homologs.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 22223-22228.  
19474347 R.J.Heinze, L.Giron-Monzon, A.Solovyova, S.L.Elliot, S.Geisler, C.G.Cupples, B.A.Connolly, and P.Friedhoff (2009).
Physical and functional interactions between Escherichia coli MutL and the Vsr repair endonuclease.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 37, 4453-4463.  
19361515 R.M.Immormino, L.E.Metzger, P.N.Reardon, D.E.Dollins, B.S.Blagg, and D.T.Gewirth (2009).
Different poses for ligand and chaperone in inhibitor-bound Hsp90 and GRP94: implications for paralog-specific drug design.
  J Mol Biol, 388, 1033-1042.
PDB codes: 2exl 2fxs 2gfd
18566663 A.Demogines, A.Wong, C.Aquadro, and E.Alani (2008).
Incompatibilities involving yeast mismatch repair genes: a role for genetic modifiers and implications for disease penetrance and variation in genomic mutation rates.
  PLoS Genet, 4, e1000103.  
18206974 E.J.Sacho, F.A.Kadyrov, P.Modrich, T.A.Kunkel, and D.A.Erie (2008).
Direct visualization of asymmetric adenine-nucleotide-induced conformational changes in MutL alpha.
  Mol Cell, 29, 112-121.  
18157157 G.M.Li (2008).
Mechanisms and functions of DNA mismatch repair.
  Cell Res, 18, 85-98.  
18200512 G.Plotz, J.Raedle, A.Spina, C.Welsch, A.Stallmach, S.Zeuzem, and C.Schmidt (2008).
Evaluation of the MLH1 I219V alteration in DNA mismatch repair activity and ulcerative colitis.
  Inflamm Bowel Dis, 14, 605-611.  
18768816 I.Marinovic-Terzic, A.Yoshioka-Yamashita, H.Shimodaira, E.Avdievich, I.C.Hunton, R.D.Kolodner, W.Edelmann, and J.Y.Wang (2008).
Apoptotic function of human PMS2 compromised by the nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphic variant R20Q.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 13993-13998.  
18310077 K.Fukui, M.Nishida, N.Nakagawa, R.Masui, and S.Kuramitsu (2008).
Bound nucleotide controls the endonuclease activity of mismatch repair enzyme MutL.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 12136-12145.  
18647240 N.D.Thomsen, and J.M.Berger (2008).
Structural frameworks for considering microbial protein- and nucleic acid-dependent motor ATPases.
  Mol Microbiol, 69, 1071-1090.  
18378706 S.Besier, J.Zander, B.C.Kahl, P.Kraiczy, V.Brade, and T.A.Wichelhaus (2008).
The thymidine-dependent small-colony-variant phenotype is associated with hypermutability and antibiotic resistance in clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates.
  Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 52, 2183-2189.  
17559505 E.Dion, L.Li, M.Jean, and F.Belzile (2007).
An Arabidopsis MLH1 mutant exhibits reproductive defects and reveals a dual role for this gene in mitotic recombination.
  Plant J, 51, 431-440.  
17426027 M.L.Mendillo, C.D.Putnam, and R.D.Kolodner (2007).
Escherichia coli MutS tetramerization domain structure reveals that stable dimers but not tetramers are essential for DNA mismatch repair in vivo.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 16345-16354.
PDB code: 2ok2
17255941 O.Koroleva, N.Makharashvili, C.T.Courcelle, J.Courcelle, and S.Korolev (2007).
Structural conservation of RecF and Rad50: implications for DNA recognition and RecF function.
  EMBO J, 26, 867-877.
PDB code: 2o5v
17142111 W.Yang (2007).
Human MutLalpha: the jack of all trades in MMR is also an endonuclease.
  DNA Repair (Amst), 6, 135-139.  
16690604 A.B.Robertson, S.R.Pattishall, E.A.Gibbons, and S.W.Matson (2006).
MutL-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis is required at a post-UvrD loading step in methyl-directed mismatch repair.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 19949-19959.  
17055434 A.K.Shiau, S.F.Harris, D.R.Southworth, and D.A.Agard (2006).
Structural Analysis of E. coli hsp90 reveals dramatic nucleotide-dependent conformational rearrangements.
  Cell, 127, 329-340.
PDB codes: 2gq0 2iop 2ioq 2ior
16446358 A.Robertson, S.R.Pattishall, and S.W.Matson (2006).
The DNA binding activity of MutL is required for methyl-directed mismatch repair in Escherichia coli.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 8399-8408.  
16385472 B.S.Blagg, and T.D.Kerr (2006).
Hsp90 inhibitors: small molecules that transform the Hsp90 protein folding machinery into a catalyst for protein degradation.
  Med Res Rev, 26, 310-338.  
16213144 C.Avila, B.A.Kornilayev, and B.S.Blagg (2006).
Development and optimization of a useful assay for determining Hsp90's inherent ATPase activity.
  Bioorg Med Chem, 14, 1134-1142.  
16546997 F.J.López de Saro, M.G.Marinus, P.Modrich, and M.O'Donnell (2006).
The beta sliding clamp binds to multiple sites within MutL and MutS.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 14340-14349.  
17135187 G.Plotz, C.Welsch, L.Giron-Monzon, P.Friedhoff, M.Albrecht, A.Piiper, R.M.Biondi, T.Lengauer, S.Zeuzem, and J.Raedle (2006).
Mutations in the MutSalpha interaction interface of MLH1 can abolish DNA mismatch repair.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 34, 6574-6586.  
16821093 G.Plotz, S.Zeuzem, and J.Raedle (2006).
DNA mismatch repair and Lynch syndrome.
  J Mol Histol, 37, 271-283.  
16920739 K.D.Corbett, and J.M.Berger (2006).
Structural basis for topoisomerase VI inhibition by the anti-Hsp90 drug radicicol.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 34, 4269-4277.
PDB code: 2hkj
16461354 K.Richter, S.Moser, F.Hagn, R.Friedrich, O.Hainzl, M.Heller, S.Schlee, H.Kessler, J.Reinstein, and J.Buchner (2006).
Intrinsic inhibition of the Hsp90 ATPase activity.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 11301-11311.
PDB code: 2akp
16623698 S.H.Jun, T.G.Kim, and C.Ban (2006).
DNA mismatch repair system. Classical and fresh roles.
  FEBS J, 273, 1609-1619.  
16935885 S.W.Matson, and A.B.Robertson (2006).
The UvrD helicase and its modulation by the mismatch repair protein MutL.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 34, 4089-4097.  
16341804 A.Giraldo, A.Gómez, G.Salguero, H.García, F.Aristizábal, O.Gutiérrez, L.A.Angel, J.Padrón, C.Martínez, H.Martínez, O.Malaver, L.Flórez, and R.Barvo (2005).
MLH1 and MSH2 mutations in Colombian families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome)--description of four novel mutations.
  Fam Cancer, 4, 285-290.  
15866932 A.L.Prunier, and R.Leclercq (2005).
Role of mutS and mutL genes in hypermutability and recombination in Staphylococcus aureus.
  J Bacteriol, 187, 3455-3464.  
15659661 E.S.Hong, A.Yeung, P.Funchain, M.M.Slupska, and J.H.Miller (2005).
Mutants with temperature-sensitive defects in the Escherichia coli mismatch repair system: sensitivity to mispairs generated in vivo.
  J Bacteriol, 187, 840-846.  
15855537 H.N.Trong, A.L.Prunier, and R.Leclercq (2005).
Hypermutable and fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.
  Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49, 2098-2101.  
16209953 J.Y.Lee, J.Chang, N.Joseph, R.Ghirlando, D.N.Rao, and W.Yang (2005).
MutH complexed with hemi- and unmethylated DNAs: coupling base recognition and DNA cleavage.
  Mol Cell, 20, 155-166.
PDB codes: 2aoq 2aor
15939019 K.D.Corbett, and J.M.Berger (2005).
Structural dissection of ATP turnover in the prototypical GHL ATPase TopoVI.
  Structure, 13, 873-882.
PDB codes: 1z59 1z5a 1z5b 1z5c
15861126 M.Kato, J.L.Chuang, S.C.Tso, R.M.Wynn, and D.T.Chuang (2005).
Crystal structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 3 bound to lipoyl domain 2 of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
  EMBO J, 24, 1763-1774.
PDB codes: 1y8n 1y8o 1y8p
15955239 M.Y.Galperin (2005).
A census of membrane-bound and intracellular signal transduction proteins in bacteria: bacterial IQ, extroverts and introverts.
  BMC Microbiol, 5, 35.  
16227575 N.Erdeniz, S.Dudley, R.Gealy, S.Jinks-Robertson, and R.M.Liskay (2005).
Novel PMS1 alleles preferentially affect the repair of primer strand loops during DNA replication.
  Mol Cell Biol, 25, 9221-9231.  
15952900 T.A.Kunkel, and D.A.Erie (2005).
DNA mismatch repair.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 74, 681-710.  
15470502 A.Guarné, S.Ramon-Maiques, E.M.Wolff, R.Ghirlando, X.Hu, J.H.Miller, and W.Yang (2004).
Structure of the MutL C-terminal domain: a model of intact MutL and its roles in mismatch repair.
  EMBO J, 23, 4134-4145.
PDB code: 1x9z
15604748 A.H.Alou, A.Azaiez, M.Jean, and F.J.Belzile (2004).
Involvement of the Arabidopsis thaliana AtPMS1 gene in somatic repeat instability.
  Plant Mol Biol, 56, 339-349.  
15475387 A.R.Ellison, J.Lofing, and G.A.Bitter (2004).
Human MutL homolog (MLH1) function in DNA mismatch repair: a prospective screen for missense mutations in the ATPase domain.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 32, 5321-5338.  
15466438 G.Siligardi, B.Hu, B.Panaretou, P.W.Piper, L.H.Pearl, and C.Prodromou (2004).
Co-chaperone regulation of conformational switching in the Hsp90 ATPase cycle.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 51989-51998.  
14651619 J.S.Bell, T.I.Harvey, A.M.Sims, and R.McCulloch (2004).
Characterization of components of the mismatch repair machinery in Trypanosoma brucei.
  Mol Microbiol, 51, 159-173.  
15139806 K.D.Corbett, and J.M.Berger (2004).
Structure, molecular mechanisms, and evolutionary relationships in DNA topoisomerases.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 33, 95.  
15371440 L.Giron-Monzon, L.Manelyte, R.Ahrends, D.Kirsch, B.Spengler, and P.Friedhoff (2004).
Mapping protein-protein interactions between MutL and MutH by cross-linking.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 49338-49345.  
15199178 N.Sugawara, T.Goldfarb, B.Studamire, E.Alani, and J.E.Haber (2004).
Heteroduplex rejection during single-strand annealing requires Sgs1 helicase and mismatch repair proteins Msh2 and Msh6 but not Pms1.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 9315-9320.  
14739935 P.Meyer, C.Prodromou, C.Liao, B.Hu, S.Mark Roe, C.K.Vaughan, I.Vlasic, B.Panaretou, P.W.Piper, and L.H.Pearl (2004).
Structural basis for recruitment of the ATPase activator Aha1 to the Hsp90 chaperone machinery.
  EMBO J, 23, 511-519.  
15292259 R.M.Immormino, D.E.Dollins, P.L.Shaffer, K.L.Soldano, M.A.Walker, and D.T.Gewirth (2004).
Ligand-induced conformational shift in the N-terminal domain of GRP94, an Hsp90 chaperone.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 46162-46171.
PDB codes: 1tbw 1tc0 1tc6
15105144 S.Bellon, J.D.Parsons, Y.Wei, K.Hayakawa, L.L.Swenson, P.S.Charifson, J.A.Lippke, R.Aldape, and C.H.Gross (2004).
Crystal structures of Escherichia coli topoisomerase IV ParE subunit (24 and 43 kilodaltons): a single residue dictates differences in novobiocin potency against topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase.
  Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 48, 1856-1864.
PDB codes: 1s14 1s16
14583603 V.H.Oestergaard, L.Bjergbaek, C.Skouboe, L.Giangiacomo, B.R.Knudsen, and A.H.Andersen (2004).
The transducer domain is important for clamp operation in human DNA topoisomerase IIalpha.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 1684-1691.  
14526019 A.C.Shaver, and P.D.Sniegowski (2003).
Spontaneously arising mutL mutators in evolving Escherichia coli populations are the result of changes in repeat length.
  J Bacteriol, 185, 6076-6082.  
12596227 D.Gadelle, J.Filée, C.Buhler, and P.Forterre (2003).
Phylogenomics of type II DNA topoisomerases.
  Bioessays, 25, 232-242.  
12582174 E.Alani, J.Y.Lee, M.J.Schofield, A.W.Kijas, P.Hsieh, and W.Yang (2003).
Crystal structure and biochemical analysis of the MutS.ADP.beryllium fluoride complex suggests a conserved mechanism for ATP interactions in mismatch repair.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 16088-16094.
PDB code: 1nne
12560476 G.H.Toedt, R.Krishnan, and P.Friedhoff (2003).
Site-specific protein modification to identify the MutL interface of MutH.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 819-825.  
12799449 G.Plotz, J.Raedle, A.Brieger, J.Trojan, and S.Zeuzem (2003).
N-terminus of hMLH1 confers interaction of hMutLalpha and hMutLbeta with hMutSalpha.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 3217-3226.  
12890674 H.Wegele, P.Muschler, M.Bunck, J.Reinstein, and J.Buchner (2003).
Dissection of the contribution of individual domains to the ATPase mechanism of Hsp90.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 39303-39310.  
12529393 J.L.Argueso, A.W.Kijas, S.Sarin, J.Heck, M.Waase, and E.Alani (2003).
Systematic mutagenesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MLH1 gene reveals distinct roles for Mlh1p in meiotic crossing over and in vegetative and meiotic mismatch repair.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 873-886.  
12505993 K.D.Corbett, and J.M.Berger (2003).
Structure of the topoisomerase VI-B subunit: implications for type II topoisomerase mechanism and evolution.
  EMBO J, 22, 151-163.
PDB codes: 1mu5 1mx0
12682353 M.C.Hall, P.V.Shcherbakova, J.M.Fortune, C.H.Borchers, J.M.Dial, K.B.Tomer, and T.A.Kunkel (2003).
DNA binding by yeast Mlh1 and Pms1: implications for DNA mismatch repair.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 2025-2034.  
14527292 M.J.Schofield, and P.Hsieh (2003).
DNA mismatch repair: molecular mechanisms and biological function.
  Annu Rev Microbiol, 57, 579-608.  
12783580 P.Chène (2003).
The ATPases: a new family for a family-based drug design approach.
  Expert Opin Ther Targets, 7, 453-461.  
12667448 P.Meyer, C.Prodromou, B.Hu, C.Vaughan, S.M.Roe, B.Panaretou, P.W.Piper, and L.H.Pearl (2003).
Structural and functional analysis of the middle segment of hsp90: implications for ATP hydrolysis and client protein and cochaperone interactions.
  Mol Cell, 11, 647-658.
PDB code: 1hk7
14506009 R.J.Willems, J.Top, D.J.Smith, D.I.Roper, S.E.North, and N.Woodford (2003).
Mutations in the DNA mismatch repair proteins MutS and MutL of oxazolidinone-resistant or -susceptible Enterococcus faecium.
  Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 47, 3061-3066.  
12887908 S.Acharya, P.L.Foster, P.Brooks, and R.Fishel (2003).
The coordinated functions of the E. coli MutS and MutL proteins in mismatch repair.
  Mol Cell, 12, 233-246.  
12697830 X.Wu, J.L.Platt, and M.Cascalho (2003).
Dimerization of MLH1 and PMS2 limits nuclear localization of MutLalpha.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 3320-3328.  
  12399371 A.C.Shaver, P.G.Dombrowski, J.Y.Sweeney, T.Treis, R.M.Zappala, and P.D.Sniegowski (2002).
Fitness evolution and the rise of mutator alleles in experimental Escherichia coli populations.
  Genetics, 162, 557-566.  
11751892 B.A.Owen, W.P.Sullivan, S.J.Felts, and D.O.Toft (2002).
Regulation of heat shock protein 90 ATPase activity by sequences in the carboxyl terminus.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 7086-7091.  
  12454061 C.Welz-Voegele, J.E.Stone, P.T.Tran, H.M.Kearney, R.M.Liskay, T.D.Petes, and S.Jinks-Robertson (2002).
Alleles of the yeast Pms1 mismatch-repair gene that differentially affect recombination- and replication-related processes.
  Genetics, 162, 1131-1145.  
11955433 E.A.Campbell, S.Masuda, J.L.Sun, O.Muzzin, C.A.Olson, S.Wang, and S.A.Darst (2002).
Crystal structure of the Bacillus stearothermophilus anti-sigma factor SpoIIAB with the sporulation sigma factor sigmaF.
  Cell, 108, 795-807.
PDB code: 1l0o
11897781 G.Tomer, A.B.Buermeyer, M.M.Nguyen, and R.M.Liskay (2002).
Contribution of human mlh1 and pms2 ATPase activities to DNA mismatch repair.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 21801-21809.  
12006561 H.Wang, and J.B.Hays (2002).
Mismatch repair in human nuclear extracts. Time courses and ATP requirements for kinetically distinguishable steps leading to tightly controlled 5' to 3' and aphidicolin-sensitive 3' to 5' mispair-provoked excision.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 26143-26148.  
  11901110 J.L.Argueso, D.Smith, J.Yi, M.Waase, S.Sarin, and E.Alani (2002).
Analysis of conditional mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MLH1 gene in mismatch repair and in meiotic crossing over.
  Genetics, 160, 909-921.  
  11781295 J.Trojan, S.Zeuzem, A.Randolph, C.Hemmerle, A.Brieger, J.Raedle, G.Plotz, J.Jiricny, and G.Marra (2002).
Functional analysis of hMLH1 variants and HNPCC-related mutations using a human expression system.
  Gastroenterology, 122, 211-219.  
12222686 K.Drotschmann, M.C.Hall, P.V.Shcherbakova, H.Wang, D.A.Erie, F.R.Brownewell, E.T.Kool, and T.A.Kunkel (2002).
DNA binding properties of the yeast Msh2-Msh6 and Mlh1-Pms1 heterodimers.
  Biol Chem, 383, 969-975.  
12235160 K.Richter, J.Reinstein, and J.Buchner (2002).
N-terminal residues regulate the catalytic efficiency of the Hsp90 ATPase cycle.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 44905-44910.  
11717305 M.C.Hall, P.V.Shcherbakova, and T.A.Kunkel (2002).
Differential ATP binding and intrinsic ATP hydrolysis by amino-terminal domains of the yeast Mlh1 and Pms1 proteins.
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11948175 M.Räschle, P.Dufner, G.Marra, and J.Jiricny (2002).
Mutations within the hMLH1 and hPMS2 subunits of the human MutLalpha mismatch repair factor affect its ATPase activity, but not its ability to interact with hMutSalpha.
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12209147 P.Chène (2002).
ATPases as drug targets: learning from their structure.
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11934505 P.Friedhoff, B.Sheybani, E.Thomas, C.Merz, and A.Pingoud (2002).
Haemophilus influenzae and Vibrio cholerae genes for mutH are able to fully complement a mutH defect in Escherichia coli.
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11809896 T.H.Wu, T.Loh, and M.G.Marinus (2002).
The function of Asp70, Glu77 and Lys79 in the Escherichia coli MutH protein.
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11920679 T.M.Marti, C.Kunz, and O.Fleck (2002).
DNA mismatch repair and mutation avoidance pathways.
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11574484 A.Guarné, M.S.Junop, and W.Yang (2001).
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PDB codes: 1ea6 1h7s 1h7u
11406410 A.H.West, and A.M.Stock (2001).
Histidine kinases and response regulator proteins in two-component signaling systems.
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11359570 A.R.Richardson, and I.Stojiljkovic (2001).
Mismatch repair and the regulation of phase variation in Neisseria meningitidis.
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11483605 C.N.Steussy, K.M.Popov, M.M.Bowker-Kinley, R.B.Sloan, R.A.Harris, and J.A.Hamilton (2001).
Structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Novel folding pattern for a serine protein kinase.
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PDB code: 1jm6
11689704 E.A.Sia, M.Dominska, L.Stefanovic, and T.D.Petes (2001).
Isolation and characterization of point mutations in mismatch repair genes that destabilize microsatellites in yeast.
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11584270 F.Randow, and B.Seed (2001).
Endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96 is required for innate immunity but not cell viability.
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11416201 G.Marra, S.D'Atri, C.Corti, L.Bonmassar, M.S.Cattaruzza, P.Schweizer, K.Heinimann, Z.Bartosova, M.Nyström-Lahti, and J.Jiricny (2001).
Tolerance of human MSH2+/- lymphoblastoid cells to the methylating agent temozolomide.
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11473354 K.Richter, and J.Buchner (2001).
Hsp90: chaperoning signal transduction.
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11222761 M.Beaulieu, G.P.Larson, L.Geller, S.D.Flanagan, and T.G.Krontiris (2001).
PCR candidate region mismatch scanning: adaptation to quantitative, high-throughput genotyping.
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11562470 M.Machius, J.L.Chuang, R.M.Wynn, D.R.Tomchick, and D.T.Chuang (2001).
Structure of rat BCKD kinase: nucleotide-induced domain communication in a mitochondrial protein kinase.
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PDB codes: 1gjv 1gkx 1gkz
11172706 M.S.Junop, G.Obmolova, K.Rausch, P.Hsieh, and W.Yang (2001).
Composite active site of an ABC ATPase: MutS uses ATP to verify mismatch recognition and authorize DNA repair.
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PDB code: 1fw6
11438669 N.S.Amin, M.N.Nguyen, S.Oh, and R.D.Kolodner (2001).
exo1-Dependent mutator mutations: model system for studying functional interactions in mismatch repair.
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11481425 P.T.Tran, J.A.Simon, and R.M.Liskay (2001).
Interactions of Exo1p with components of MutLalpha in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
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11154280 P.V.Shcherbakova, M.C.Hall, M.S.Lewis, S.E.Bennett, K.J.Martin, P.R.Bushel, C.A.Afshari, and T.A.Kunkel (2001).
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11553774 S.D.Catz, J.L.Johnson, and B.M.Babior (2001).
Characterization of the nucleotide-binding capacity and the ATPase activity of the PIP3-binding protein JFC1.
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11179891 T.K.Sixma (2001).
DNA mismatch repair: MutS structures bound to mismatches.
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11586295 Y.Wu, M.J.Berends, R.H.Sijmons, R.G.Mensink, E.Verlind, K.A.Kooi, T.van der Sluis, C.Kempinga, A.G.van dDer Zee, H.Hollema, C.H.Buys, J.H.Kleibeuker, and R.M.Hofstra (2001).
A role for MLH3 in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.
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11092832 B.D.Harfe, and S.Jinks-Robertson (2000).
DNA mismatch repair and genetic instability.
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10734142 C.Spampinato, and P.Modrich (2000).
The MutL ATPase is required for mismatch repair.
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10892749 K.P.Hopfner, A.Karcher, D.S.Shin, L.Craig, L.M.Arthur, J.P.Carney, and J.A.Tainer (2000).
Structural biology of Rad50 ATPase: ATP-driven conformational control in DNA double-strand break repair and the ABC-ATPase superfamily.
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PDB codes: 1f2t 1f2u
10679459 L.H.Pearl, and C.Prodromou (2000).
Structure and in vivo function of Hsp90.
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10938116 P.T.Tran, and R.M.Liskay (2000).
Functional studies on the candidate ATPase domains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MutLalpha.
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12760035 R.Fishel, S.Acharya, M.Berardini, T.Bocker, N.Charbonneau, A.Cranston, S.Gradia, S.Guerrette, C.D.Heinen, A.Mazurek, T.Snowden, C.Schmutte, K.S.Shim, G.Tombline, and T.Wilson (2000).
Signaling mismatch repair: the mechanics of an adenosine-nucleotide molecular switch.
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11188689 T.Zhou, M.Daugherty, N.V.Grishin, A.L.Osterman, and H.Zhang (2000).
Structure and mechanism of homoserine kinase: prototype for the GHMP kinase superfamily.
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PDB codes: 1fwk 1fwl
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DNA mismatch repair: from structure to mechanism.
  Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 65, 225-232.  
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Mammalian DNA mismatch repair.
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Separation-of-function mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH2 that confer mismatch repair defects but do not affect nonhomologous-tail removal during recombination.
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10199405 C.Ban, M.Junop, and W.Yang (1999).
Transformation of MutL by ATP binding and hydrolysis: a switch in DNA mismatch repair.
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PDB codes: 1b62 1b63
10339418 J.Stock (1999).
Signal transduction: Gyrating protein kinases.
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Mutator phenotypes conferred by MLH1 overexpression and by heterozygosity for mlh1 mutations.
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Eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair.
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10564504 R.Dutta, L.Qin, and M.Inouye (1999).
Histidine kinases: diversity of domain organization.
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