PDBsum entry 1afv

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protein metals Protein-protein interface(s) links
Viral protein/immune system PDB id
Protein chains
151 a.a.
217 a.a. *
220 a.a. *
_PB ×2
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Viral protein/immune system
Title: HIV-1 capsid protein (p24) complex with fab25.3
Structure: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein. Chain: a, b. Fragment: amino-terminal domain residues 1 - 151. Synonym: HIV-1 ca, HIV ca, HIV p24, p24. Engineered: yes. Antibody fab25.3 fragment (light chain). Chain: l, m. Fragment: light chain residues 1 - 217, heavy chain
Source: Human immunodeficiency virus 1. Organism_taxid: 11676. Strain: c-12. Cell_line: bl21. Gene: gag. Expressed in: escherichia coli bl21(de3). Expression_system_taxid: 469008. Other_details: iiib/lai isolate of HIV-1. Mus musculus.
Biol. unit: Hexamer (from PQS)
3.70Å     R-factor:   0.217     R-free:   0.324
Authors: C.Momany,L.C.Kovari,A.J.Prongay,W.Keller,R.K.Gitti,B.M.Lee, A.E.Gorbalenya,L.Tong,J.Mcclure,L.S.Ehrlich,M.F.Summers, C.Carter,M.G.Rossmann
Key ref: C.Momany et al. (1996). Crystal structure of dimeric HIV-1 capsid protein. Nat Struct Biol, 3, 763-770. PubMed id: 8784350
14-Mar-97     Release date:   20-Aug-97    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P12497  (POL_HV1N5) -  Gag-Pol polyprotein
1435 a.a.
151 a.a.
Protein chains
No UniProt id for this chain
Struc: 217 a.a.
Protein chains
No UniProt id for this chain
Struc: 220 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     viral reproduction   1 term 


Nat Struct Biol 3:763-770 (1996)
PubMed id: 8784350  
Crystal structure of dimeric HIV-1 capsid protein.
C.Momany, L.C.Kovari, A.J.Prongay, W.Keller, R.K.Gitti, B.M.Lee, A.E.Gorbalenya, L.Tong, J.McClure, L.S.Ehrlich, M.F.Summers, C.Carter, M.G.Rossmann.
X-ray diffraction analysis of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) capsid (CA) protein shows that each monomer within the dimer consists of seven alpha-helices, five of which are arranged in a coiled coil-like structure. Sequence assignments were made for two of the helices, and tentative connectivity of the remainder of the protein was confirmed by the recent solution structure of a monomeric N-terminal fragment. The C-terminal third of the protein is mostly disordered in the crystal. The longest helices in the coiled coil-like structure are separated by a long, highly antigenic peptide that includes the binding site of an antibody fragment complexed with CA in the crystal. The site of binding of the Fab, the position of the antigenic loop and the site of cleavage between the matrix protein and CA establish the side of the dimer that would be on the exterior of the retroviral core.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
20095046 B.Chen, and R.Tycko (2010).
Structural and dynamical characterization of tubular HIV-1 capsid protein assemblies by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and electron microscopy.
  Protein Sci, 19, 716-730.  
21060818 G.N.Llewellyn, I.B.Hogue, J.R.Grover, and A.Ono (2010).
Nucleocapsid promotes localization of HIV-1 gag to uropods that participate in virological synapses between T cells.
  PLoS Pathog, 6, e1001167.  
20721640 M.S.Briones, and S.A.Chow (2010).
A new functional role of HIV-1 integrase during uncoating of the viral core.
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  20955553 N.Inagaki, H.Takeuchi, M.Yokoyama, H.Sato, A.Ryo, H.Yamamoto, M.Kawada, and T.Matano (2010).
A structural constraint for functional interaction between N-terminal and C-terminal domains in simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins.
  Retrovirology, 7, 90.  
19534569 C.S.Adamson, K.Salzwedel, and E.O.Freed (2009).
Virus maturation as a new HIV-1 therapeutic target.
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19194444 G.Cardone, J.G.Purdy, N.Cheng, R.C.Craven, and A.C.Steven (2009).
Visualization of a missing link in retrovirus capsid assembly.
  Nature, 457, 694-698.  
19403686 I.B.Hogue, A.Hoppe, and A.Ono (2009).
Quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag-Gag interaction: relative contributions of the CA and NC domains and membrane binding.
  J Virol, 83, 7322-7336.  
19914170 I.J.Byeon, X.Meng, J.Jung, G.Zhao, R.Yang, J.Ahn, J.Shi, J.Concel, C.Aiken, P.Zhang, and A.M.Gronenborn (2009).
Structural convergence between Cryo-EM and NMR reveals intersubunit interactions critical for HIV-1 capsid function.
  Cell, 139, 780-790.
PDB code: 2kod
19361521 J.G.Purdy, J.M.Flanagan, I.J.Ropson, and R.C.Craven (2009).
Retroviral capsid assembly: a role for the CA dimer in initiation.
  J Mol Biol, 389, 438-451.  
19825045 J.L.Neira (2009).
The capsid protein of human immunodeficiency virus: designing inhibitors of capsid assembly.
  FEBS J, 276, 6110-6117.  
19825044 M.G.Mateu (2009).
The capsid protein of human immunodeficiency virus: intersubunit interactions during virus assembly.
  FEBS J, 276, 6098-6109.  
19812689 O.O.Yang (2009).
Candidate vaccine sequences to represent intra- and inter-clade HIV-1 variation.
  PLoS One, 4, e7388.  
  19356241 S.Abdurahman, A.Végvári, M.Levi, S.Höglund, M.Högberg, W.Tong, I.Romero, J.Balzarini, and A.Vahlne (2009).
Isolation and characterization of a small antiretroviral molecule affecting HIV-1 capsid morphology.
  Retrovirology, 6, 34.  
18206161 C.Butan, D.C.Winkler, J.B.Heymann, R.C.Craven, and A.C.Steven (2008).
RSV capsid polymorphism correlates with polymerization efficiency and envelope glycoprotein content: implications that nucleation controls morphogenesis.
  J Mol Biol, 376, 1168-1181.  
18489586 L.A.Alcaraz, M.Del Alamo, M.G.Mateu, and J.L.Neira (2008).
Structural mobility of the monomeric C-terminal domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein.
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17904185 M.E.Fluet, A.C.Whitmore, D.A.Moshkoff, K.Fu, Y.Tang, M.L.Collier, A.West, D.T.Moore, R.Swanstrom, R.E.Johnston, and N.L.Davis (2008).
Effects of rapid antigen degradation and VEE glycoprotein specificity on immune responses induced by a VEE replicon vaccine.
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18473392 N.Krauss, H.Wessner, K.Welfle, H.Welfle, C.Scholz, M.Seifert, K.Zubow, J.Aÿ, M.Hahn, P.Scheerer, A.Skerra, and W.Höhne (2008).
The structure of the anti-c-myc antibody 9E10 Fab fragment/epitope peptide complex reveals a novel binding mode dominated by the heavy chain hypervariable loops.
  Proteins, 73, 552-565.
PDB codes: 2or9 2orb
18433823 P.M.Lokhandwala, T.L.Nguyen, J.B.Bowzard, and R.C.Craven (2008).
Cooperative role of the MHR and the CA dimerization helix in the maturation of the functional retrovirus capsid.
  Virology, 376, 191-198.  
18382677 S.K.Kyere, P.R.Joseph, and M.F.Summers (2008).
The p12 domain is unstructured in a murine leukemia virus p12-CA(N) Gag construct.
  PLoS ONE, 3, e1902.  
17923088 B.K.Ganser-Pornillos, A.Cheng, and M.Yeager (2007).
Structure of full-length HIV-1 CA: a model for the mature capsid lattice.
  Cell, 131, 70-79.
PDB code: 3dik
17526891 C.G.Patkar, C.T.Jones, Y.H.Chang, R.Warrier, and R.J.Kuhn (2007).
Functional requirements of the yellow fever virus capsid protein.
  J Virol, 81, 6471-6481.  
17878955 J.A.Borghans, A.Mølgaard, Boer, and C.KeĊŸmir (2007).
HLA alleles associated with slow progression to AIDS truly prefer to present HIV-1 p24.
  PLoS ONE, 2, e920.  
17526561 L.A.Alcaraz, M.del Alamo, F.N.Barrera, M.G.Mateu, and J.L.Neira (2007).
Flexibility in HIV-1 assembly subunits: solution structure of the monomeric C-terminal domain of the capsid protein.
  Biophys J, 93, 1264-1276.
PDB code: 2jo0
17442718 L.S.Larsen, M.Zhang, N.Beliakova-Bethell, V.Bilanchone, A.Lamsa, K.Nagashima, R.Najdi, K.Kosaka, V.Kovacevic, J.Cheng, P.Baldi, G.W.Hatfield, and S.Sandmeyer (2007).
Ty3 capsid mutations reveal early and late functions of the amino-terminal domain.
  J Virol, 81, 6957-6972.  
17267487 R.Yang, and C.Aiken (2007).
A mutation in alpha helix 3 of CA renders human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cyclosporin A resistant and dependent: rescue by a second-site substitution in a distal region of CA.
  J Virol, 81, 3749-3756.  
17055023 S.Tang, S.Ablan, M.Dueck, W.Ayala-López, B.Soto, M.Caplan, K.Nagashima, I.K.Hewlett, E.O.Freed, and J.G.Levin (2007).
A second-site suppressor significantly improves the defective phenotype imposed by mutation of an aromatic residue in the N-terminal domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein.
  Virology, 359, 105-115.  
16855310 B.DeLaBarre, and A.T.Brunger (2006).
Considerations for the refinement of low-resolution crystal structures.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 62, 923-932.  
16770689 H.H.Chu, Y.F.Chang, and C.T.Wang (2006).
Mutations in the alpha-helix directly C-terminal to the major homology region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein disrupt Gag multimerization and markedly impair virus particle production.
  J Biomed Sci, 13, 645-656.  
16537629 J.Martinez-Picado, J.G.Prado, E.E.Fry, K.Pfafferott, A.Leslie, S.Chetty, C.Thobakgale, I.Honeyborne, H.Crawford, P.Matthews, T.Pillay, C.Rousseau, J.I.Mullins, C.Brander, B.D.Walker, D.I.Stuart, P.Kiepiela, and P.Goulder (2006).
Fitness cost of escape mutations in p24 Gag in association with control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
  J Virol, 80, 3617-3623.  
16809314 P.Ulbrich, S.Haubova, M.V.Nermut, E.Hunter, M.Rumlova, and T.Ruml (2006).
Distinct roles for nucleic acid in in vitro assembly of purified Mason-Pfizer monkey virus CANC proteins.
  J Virol, 80, 7089-7099.  
16873273 W.W.Yeh, E.M.Cale, P.Jaru-Ampornpan, C.I.Lord, F.W.Peyerl, and N.L.Letvin (2006).
Compensatory substitutions restore normal core assembly in simian immunodeficiency virus isolates with Gag epitope cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape mutations.
  J Virol, 80, 8168-8177.  
16254348 A.Ono, A.A.Waheed, A.Joshi, and E.O.Freed (2005).
Association of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag with membrane does not require highly basic sequences in the nucleocapsid: use of a novel Gag multimerization assay.
  J Virol, 79, 14131-14140.  
15613315 B.M.Forshey, J.Shi, and C.Aiken (2005).
Structural requirements for recognition of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 core during host restriction in owl monkey cells.
  J Virol, 79, 869-875.  
15734744 D.Huseby, R.L.Barklis, A.Alfadhli, and E.Barklis (2005).
Assembly of human immunodeficiency virus precursor gag proteins.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 17664-17670.  
15569685 F.Bouamr, C.C.Cornilescu, S.P.Goff, N.Tjandra, and C.A.Carter (2005).
Structural and dynamics studies of the D54A mutant of human T cell leukemia virus-1 capsid protein.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 6792-6801.  
16041386 F.Ternois, J.Sticht, S.Duquerroy, H.G.Kräusslich, and F.A.Rey (2005).
The HIV-1 capsid protein C-terminal domain in complex with a virus assembly inhibitor.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 12, 678-682.
PDB code: 2buo
15650173 I.Scholz, B.Arvidson, D.Huseby, and E.Barklis (2005).
Virus particle core defects caused by mutations in the human immunodeficiency virus capsid N-terminal domain.
  J Virol, 79, 1470-1479.  
16131662 M.C.Lidón-Moya, F.N.Barrera, M.Bueno, R.Pérez-Jiménez, J.Sancho, M.G.Mateu, and J.L.Neira (2005).
An extensive thermodynamic characterization of the dimerization domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein.
  Protein Sci, 14, 2387-2404.  
  16188035 M.L.Vana, A.Chen, P.Boross, I.Weber, D.Colman, E.Barklis, and J.Leis (2005).
Mutations affecting cleavage at the p10-capsid protease cleavage site block Rous sarcoma virus replication.
  Retrovirology, 2, 58.  
15659370 N.Morellet, S.Druillennec, C.Lenoir, S.Bouaziz, and B.P.Roques (2005).
Helical structure determined by NMR of the HIV-1 (345-392)Gag sequence, surrounding p2: implications for particle assembly and RNA packaging.
  Protein Sci, 14, 375-386.
PDB code: 1u57
15650204 X.Guo, A.Roldan, J.Hu, M.A.Wainberg, and C.Liang (2005).
Mutation of the SP1 sequence impairs both multimerization and membrane-binding activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag.
  J Virol, 79, 1803-1812.  
16183096 X.Guo, B.B.Roy, J.Hu, A.Roldan, M.A.Wainberg, and C.Liang (2005).
The R362A mutation at the C-terminus of CA inhibits packaging of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA.
  Virology, 343, 190-200.  
15956549 Y.G.Kuznetsov, M.Zhang, T.M.Menees, A.McPherson, and S.Sandmeyer (2005).
Investigation by atomic force microscopy of the structure of Ty3 retrotransposon particles.
  J Virol, 79, 8032-8045.  
15247214 A.Roldan, R.S.Russell, B.Marchand, M.Götte, C.Liang, and M.A.Wainberg (2004).
In vitro identification and characterization of an early complex linking HIV-1 genomic RNA recognition and Pr55Gag multimerization.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 39886-39894.  
15331691 A.Stevens, M.Bock, S.Ellis, P.LeTissier, K.N.Bishop, M.W.Yap, W.Taylor, and J.P.Stoye (2004).
Retroviral capsid determinants of Fv1 NB and NR tropism.
  J Virol, 78, 9592-9598.  
14963157 B.K.Ganser-Pornillos, U.K.von Schwedler, K.M.Stray, C.Aiken, and W.I.Sundquist (2004).
Assembly properties of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CA protein.
  J Virol, 78, 2545-2552.  
15331700 D.Melamed, M.Mark-Danieli, M.Kenan-Eichler, O.Kraus, A.Castiel, N.Laham, T.Pupko, F.Glaser, N.Ben-Tal, and E.Bacharach (2004).
The conserved carboxy terminus of the capsid domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag protein is important for virion assembly and release.
  J Virol, 78, 9675-9688.  
14722296 M.Oshima, D.Muriaux, J.Mirro, K.Nagashima, K.Dryden, M.Yeager, and A.Rein (2004).
Effects of blocking individual maturation cleavages in murine leukemia virus gag.
  J Virol, 78, 1411-1420.  
14694138 S.Cen, M.Niu, J.Saadatmand, F.Guo, Y.Huang, G.J.Nabel, and L.Kleiman (2004).
Incorporation of pol into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag virus-like particles occurs independently of the upstream Gag domain in Gag-pol.
  J Virol, 78, 1042-1049.  
15254179 S.Kiermayr, R.M.Kofler, C.W.Mandl, P.Messner, and F.X.Heinz (2004).
Isolation of capsid protein dimers from the tick-borne encephalitis flavivirus and in vitro assembly of capsid-like particles.
  J Virol, 78, 8078-8084.  
14694086 X.Guo, J.Hu, J.B.Whitney, R.S.Russell, and C.Liang (2004).
Important role for the CA-NC spacer region in the assembly of bovine immunodeficiency virus Gag protein.
  J Virol, 78, 551-560.  
14671087 Y.M.Ma, and V.M.Vogt (2004).
Nucleic acid binding-induced Gag dimerization in the assembly of Rous sarcoma virus particles in vitro.
  J Virol, 78, 52-60.  
15152006 Y.Morikawa, T.Goto, and F.Momose (2004).
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag assembly through assembly intermediates.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 31964-31972.  
12944304 A.Fernández, and R.Scott (2003).
Dehydron: a structurally encoded signal for protein interaction.
  Biophys J, 85, 1914-1928.  
12805204 B.K.Ganser, A.Cheng, W.I.Sundquist, and M.Yeager (2003).
Three-dimensional structure of the M-MuLV CA protein on a lipid monolayer: a general model for retroviral capsid assembly.
  EMBO J, 22, 2886-2892.  
12525611 C.Liang, J.Hu, J.B.Whitney, L.Kleiman, and M.A.Wainberg (2003).
A structurally disordered region at the C terminus of capsid plays essential roles in multimerization and membrane binding of the gag protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
  J Virol, 77, 1772-1783.  
12756246 H.Javanbakht, R.Halwani, S.Cen, J.Saadatmand, K.Musier-Forsyth, H.Gottlinger, and L.Kleiman (2003).
The interaction between HIV-1 Gag and human lysyl-tRNA synthetase during viral assembly.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 27644-27651.  
12557239 K.Welfle, R.Misselwitz, W.Höhne, and H.Welfle (2003).
Interaction of epitope-related and -unrelated peptides with anti-p24 (HIV-1) monoclonal antibody CB4-1 and its Fab fragment.
  J Mol Recognit, 16, 54-62.  
12761222 M.del Alamo, J.L.Neira, and M.G.Mateu (2003).
Thermodynamic dissection of a low affinity protein-protein interface involved in human immunodeficiency virus assembly.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 27923-27929.  
12634357 R.Halwani, A.Khorchid, S.Cen, and L.Kleiman (2003).
Rapid localization of Gag/GagPol complexes to detergent-resistant membrane during the assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
  J Virol, 77, 3973-3984.  
12829840 S.M.Rue, J.W.Roos, L.M.Amzel, J.E.Clements, and S.A.Barber (2003).
Hydrogen bonding at a conserved threonine in lentivirus capsid is required for virus replication.
  J Virol, 77, 8009-8018.  
14610182 S.Tang, T.Murakami, N.Cheng, A.C.Steven, E.O.Freed, and J.G.Levin (2003).
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 N-terminal capsid mutants containing cores with abnormally high levels of capsid protein and virtually no reverse transcriptase.
  J Virol, 77, 12592-12602.  
12692245 U.K.von Schwedler, K.M.Stray, J.E.Garrus, and W.I.Sundquist (2003).
Functional surfaces of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein.
  J Virol, 77, 5439-5450.  
14581526 Y.G.Kuznetsov, J.G.Victoria, W.E.Robinson, and A.McPherson (2003).
Atomic force microscopy investigation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HIV-infected lymphocytes.
  J Virol, 77, 11896-11909.  
11907255 A.Khorchid, R.Halwani, M.A.Wainberg, and L.Kleiman (2002).
Role of RNA in facilitating Gag/Gag-Pol interaction.
  J Virol, 76, 4131-4137.  
11991995 B.M.Forshey, U.von Schwedler, W.I.Sundquist, and C.Aiken (2002).
Formation of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 core of optimal stability is crucial for viral replication.
  J Virol, 76, 5667-5677.  
12388733 C.Liang, J.Hu, R.S.Russell, A.Roldan, L.Kleiman, and M.A.Wainberg (2002).
Characterization of a putative alpha-helix across the capsid-SP1 boundary that is critical for the multimerization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag.
  J Virol, 76, 11729-11737.  
12080334 D.Kern (2002).
Cutting the leash.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 496-497.  
12368324 M.Sakalian, S.S.Dittmer, A.D.Gandy, N.D.Rapp, A.Zábranský, and E.Hunter (2002).
The Mason-Pfizer monkey virus internal scaffold domain enables in vitro assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag.
  J Virol, 76, 10811-10820.  
11884577 R.M.Kofler, F.X.Heinz, and C.W.Mandl (2002).
Capsid protein C of tick-borne encephalitis virus tolerates large internal deletions and is a favorable target for attenuation of virulence.
  J Virol, 76, 3534-3543.  
11157057 A.D.Kelleher, C.Long, E.C.Holmes, R.L.Allen, J.Wilson, C.Conlon, C.Workman, S.Shaunak, K.Olson, P.Goulder, C.Brander, G.Ogg, J.S.Sullivan, W.Dyer, I.Jones, A.J.McMichael, S.Rowland-Jones, and R.E.Phillips (2001).
Clustered mutations in HIV-1 gag are consistently required for escape from HLA-B27-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.
  J Exp Med, 193, 375-386.  
11333909 F.Rayne, F.Bouamr, J.Lalanne, and R.Z.Mamoun (2001).
The NH2-terminal domain of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 capsid protein is involved in particle formation.
  J Virol, 75, 5277-5287.  
11222698 F.Yu, S.M.Joshi, Y.M.Ma, R.L.Kingston, M.N.Simon, and V.M.Vogt (2001).
Characterization of Rous sarcoma virus Gag particles assembled in vitro.
  J Virol, 75, 2753-2764.  
11816161 H.G.Göttlinger (2001).
The HIV-1 assembly machine.
  AIDS, 15, S13-S20.  
11435564 J.B.Bowzard, J.W.Wills, and R.C.Craven (2001).
Second-site suppressors of Rous sarcoma virus Ca mutations: evidence for interdomain interactions.
  J Virol, 75, 6850-6856.  
11312344 L.Dietrich, L.S.Ehrlich, T.J.LaGrassa, D.Ebbets-Reed, and C.Carter (2001).
Structural consequences of cyclophilin A binding on maturational refolding in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein.
  J Virol, 75, 4721-4733.  
11423440 L.S.Ehrlich, T.Liu, S.Scarlata, B.Chu, and C.A.Carter (2001).
HIV-1 capsid protein forms spherical (immature-like) and tubular (mature-like) particles in vitro: structure switching by pH-induced conformational changes.
  Biophys J, 81, 586-594.  
11483736 O.W.Lindwasser, and M.D.Resh (2001).
Multimerization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag promotes its localization to barges, raft-like membrane microdomains.
  J Virol, 75, 7913-7924.  
11533218 S.D.Parker, J.S.Wall, and E.Hunter (2001).
Analysis of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus Gag particles by scanning transmission electron microscopy.
  J Virol, 75, 9543-9548.  
11533199 S.Tang, T.Murakami, B.E.Agresta, S.Campbell, E.O.Freed, and J.G.Levin (2001).
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 N-terminal capsid mutants that exhibit aberrant core morphology and are blocked in initiation of reverse transcription in infected cells.
  J Virol, 75, 9357-9366.  
10823843 M.A.Accola, B.Strack, and H.G.Göttlinger (2000).
Efficient particle production by minimal Gag constructs which retain the carboxy-terminal domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid-p2 and a late assembly domain.
  J Virol, 74, 5395-5402.  
10064580 C.Berthet-Colominas, S.Monaco, A.Novelli, G.Sibaï, F.Mallet, and S.Cusack (1999).
Head-to-tail dimers and interdomain flexibility revealed by the crystal structure of HIV-1 capsid protein (p24) complexed with a monoclonal antibody Fab.
  EMBO J, 18, 1124-1136.  
10383459 C.Cartier, P.Sivard, C.Tranchat, D.Decimo, C.Desgranges, and V.Boyer (1999).
Identification of three major phosphorylation sites within HIV-1 capsid. Role of phosphorylation during the early steps of infection.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 19434-19440.  
10026140 M.M.Endrich, P.Gehrig, and H.Gehring (1999).
Maturation-induced conformational changes of HIV-1 capsid protein and identification of two high affinity sites for cyclophilins in the C-terminal domain.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 5326-5332.  
10077575 M.Srivastava, M.Cartas, T.A.Rizvi, S.P.Singh, D.Serio, V.S.Kalyanaraman, H.B.Pollard, and A.Srinivasan (1999).
HIV-1 Gag shares a signature motif with annexin (Anx7), which is required for virus replication.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 2704-2709.  
10394365 S.A.Wynne, R.A.Crowther, and A.G.Leslie (1999).
The crystal structure of the human hepatitis B virus capsid.
  Mol Cell, 3, 771-780.
PDB code: 1qgt
  9971810 S.Campbell, and A.Rein (1999).
In vitro assembly properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag protein lacking the p6 domain.
  J Virol, 73, 2270-2279.  
10322217 T.Wilk, and S.D.Fuller (1999).
Towards the structure of the human immunodeficiency virus: divide and conquer.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 9, 231-243.  
9759480 A.D.Frankel, and J.A.Young (1998).
HIV-1: fifteen proteins and an RNA.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 67, 1.  
9516405 E.Barklis, J.McDermott, S.Wilkens, S.Fuller, and D.Thompson (1998).
Organization of HIV-1 capsid proteins on a lipid monolayer.
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9727585 G.S.Ogg, T.Dong, P.Hansasuta, L.Dorrell, J.Clarke, R.Coker, G.Luzzi, C.Conlon, A.P.McMichael, and S.Rowland-Jones (1998).
Four novel cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes in the highly conserved major homology region of HIV-1 Gag, restricted through B*4402, B*1801, A*2601, B*70 (B*1509)
  AIDS, 12, 1561-1563.  
  9841669 H.Garoff, R.Hewson, and D.J.Opstelten (1998).
Virus maturation by budding.
  Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 62, 1171-1190.  
  9729530 Haard, B.Kazemier, M.J.Koolen, L.J.Nijholt, R.H.Meloen, B.van Gemen, H.R.Hoogenboom, and J.W.Arends (1998).
Selection of recombinant, library-derived antibody fragments against p24 for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 diagnostics.
  Clin Diagn Lab Immunol, 5, 636-644.  
9564051 H.Reil, A.A.Bukovsky, H.R.Gelderblom, and H.G.Göttlinger (1998).
Efficient HIV-1 replication can occur in the absence of the viral matrix protein.
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  9573245 I.Gross, H.Hohenberg, C.Huckhagel, and H.G.Kräusslich (1998).
N-Terminal extension of human immunodeficiency virus capsid protein converts the in vitro assembly phenotype from tubular to spherical particles.
  J Virol, 72, 4798-4810.  
  9525604 K.Wiegers, G.Rutter, H.Kottler, U.Tessmer, H.Hohenberg, and H.G.Kräusslich (1998).
Sequential steps in human immunodeficiency virus particle maturation revealed by alterations of individual Gag polyprotein cleavage sites.
  J Virol, 72, 2846-2854.  
  9557731 L.B.Kong, D.An, B.Ackerson, J.Canon, O.Rey, I.S.Chen, P.Krogstad, and P.L.Stewart (1998).
Cryoelectron microscopic examination of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions with mutations in the cyclophilin A binding loop.
  J Virol, 72, 4403-4407.  
  9499062 M.A.Accola, S.Höglund, and H.G.Göttlinger (1998).
A putative alpha-helical structure which overlaps the capsid-p2 boundary in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag precursor is crucial for viral particle assembly.
  J Virol, 72, 2072-2078.  
9636143 M.Yeager, E.M.Wilson-Kubalek, S.G.Weiner, P.O.Brown, and A.Rein (1998).
Supramolecular organization of immature and mature murine leukemia virus revealed by electron cryo-microscopy: implications for retroviral assembly mechanisms.
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9501077 U.K.von Schwedler, T.L.Stemmler, V.Y.Klishko, S.Li, K.H.Albertine, D.R.Davis, and W.I.Sundquist (1998).
Proteolytic refolding of the HIV-1 capsid protein amino-terminus facilitates viral core assembly.
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9551794 X.H.Qian, and K.B.Tomer (1998).
Affinity capillary electrophoresis investigation of an epitope on human immunodeficiency virus recognized by a monoclonal antibody.
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  9696871 Y.Morikawa, W.H.Zhang, D.J.Hockley, M.V.Nermut, and I.M.Jones (1998).
Detection of a trimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag intermediate is dependent on sequences in the matrix protein, p17.
  J Virol, 72, 7659-7663.  
9380739 A.A.Bukovsky, A.Weimann, M.A.Accola, and H.G.Göttlinger (1997).
Transfer of the HIV-1 cyclophilin-binding site to simian immunodeficiency virus from Macaca mulatta can confer both cyclosporin sensitivity and cyclosporin dependence.
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Cyclophilin A-induced alterations of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CA protein in vitro.
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9135137 E.Barklis, J.McDermott, S.Wilkens, E.Schabtach, M.F.Schmid, S.Fuller, S.Karanjia, Z.Love, R.Jones, Y.Rui, X.Zhao, and D.Thompson (1997).
Structural analysis of membrane-bound retrovirus capsid proteins.
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9233786 K.Beck, J.E.Gambee, A.Kamawal, and H.P.Bächinger (1997).
A single amino acid can switch the oligomerization state of the alpha-helical coiled-coil domain of cartilage matrix protein.
  EMBO J, 16, 3767-3777.  
  9261411 K.J.Palmer, W.Tichelaar, N.Myers, N.R.Burns, S.J.Butcher, A.J.Kingsman, S.D.Fuller, and H.R.Saibil (1997).
Cryo-electron microscopy structure of yeast Ty retrotransposon virus-like particles.
  J Virol, 71, 6863-6868.  
  9188643 L.Bénit, N.De Parseval, J.F.Casella, I.Callebaut, A.Cordonnier, and T.Heidmann (1997).
Cloning of a new murine endogenous retrovirus, MuERV-L, with strong similarity to the human HERV-L element and with a gag coding sequence closely related to the Fv1 restriction gene.
  J Virol, 71, 5652-5657.  
9018241 P.J.Goulder, R.E.Phillips, R.A.Colbert, S.McAdam, G.Ogg, M.A.Nowak, P.Giangrande, G.Luzzi, B.Morgan, A.Edwards, A.J.McMichael, and S.Rowland-Jones (1997).
Late escape from an immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response associated with progression to AIDS.
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9368755 S.D.Fuller, T.Wilk, B.E.Gowen, H.G.Kräusslich, and V.M.Vogt (1997).
Cryo-electron microscopy reveals ordered domains in the immature HIV-1 particle.
  Curr Biol, 7, 729-738.  
  9261445 T.Dorfman, A.Weimann, A.Borsetti, C.T.Walsh, and H.G.Göttlinger (1997).
Active-site residues of cyclophilin A are crucial for its incorporation into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions.
  J Virol, 71, 7110-7113.  
9346481 T.R.Gamble, S.Yoo, F.F.Vajdos, U.K.von Schwedler, D.K.Worthylake, H.Wang, J.P.McCutcheon, W.I.Sundquist, and C.P.Hill (1997).
Structure of the carboxyl-terminal dimerization domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein.
  Science, 278, 849-853.
PDB codes: 1a8o 1am3 1aum
8980222 J.Luban (1996).
Absconding with the chaperone: essential cyclophilin-Gag interaction in HIV-1 virions.
  Cell, 87, 1157-1159.  
  8976548 M.A.Massiah, D.Worthylake, A.M.Christensen, W.I.Sundquist, C.P.Hill, and M.F.Summers (1996).
Comparison of the NMR and X-ray structures of the HIV-1 matrix protein: evidence for conformational changes during viral assembly.
  Protein Sci, 5, 2391-2398.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.