PDBsum entry 1ycs

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protein metals Protein-protein interface(s) links
Complex (anti-oncogene/ankyrin repeats) PDB id
Protein chains
191 a.a. *
193 a.a. *
Waters ×275
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Complex (anti-oncogene/ankyrin repeats)
Title: P53-53bp2 complex
Structure: P53. Chain: a. Fragment: residues 97 - 287. Engineered: yes. 53bp2. Chain: b. Fragment: residues 327 - 519. Synonym: p53bp2. Engineered: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Cell_line: bl21. Gene: residues 291-529. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562. Other_details: the fragment used in the crystallization (residues 291-519) was produced by the cleavage of factor
Biol. unit: Dimer (from PQS)
2.20Å     R-factor:   0.205     R-free:   0.286
Authors: S.Gorina,N.P.Pavletich
Key ref: S.Gorina and N.P.Pavletich (1996). Structure of the p53 tumor suppressor bound to the ankyrin and SH3 domains of 53BP2. Science, 274, 1001-1005. PubMed id: 8875926
30-Sep-96     Release date:   19-Nov-97    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P04637  (P53_HUMAN) -  Cellular tumor antigen p53
393 a.a.
191 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q13625  (ASPP2_HUMAN) -  Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2
1128 a.a.
193 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     nucleus   1 term 
  Biological process     apoptotic process   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     transcription regulatory region DNA binding     3 terms  


Science 274:1001-1005 (1996)
PubMed id: 8875926  
Structure of the p53 tumor suppressor bound to the ankyrin and SH3 domains of 53BP2.
S.Gorina, N.P.Pavletich.
Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor are among the most frequently observed genetic alterations in human cancer and map to the 200-amino acid core domain of the protein. The core domain contains the sequence-specific DNA binding activity and the in vitro 53BP2 protein binding activity of p53. The crystal structure of the p53 core domain bound to the 53BP2 protein, which contains an SH3 (Src homology 3) domain and four ankyrin repeats, revealed that (i) the SH3 domain binds the L3 loop of p53 in a manner distinct from that of previously characterized SH3-polyproline peptide complexes, and (ii) an ankyrin repeat, which forms an L-shaped structure consisting of a beta hairpin and two alpha helices, binds the L2 loop of p53. The structure of the complex shows that the 53BP2 binding site on the p53 core domain consists of evolutionarily conserved regions that are frequently mutated in cancer and that it overlaps the site of DNA binding. The six most frequently observed p53 mutations disrupt 53BP2 binding in vitro. The structure provides evidence that the 53BP2-p53 complex forms in vivo and may have a critical role in the p53 pathway of tumor suppression.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
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The tumor suppressor p53: from structures to drug discovery.
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Promoter complexity and tissue-specific expression of stress response components in Mytilus galloprovincialis, a sessile marine invertebrate species.
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Human FEM1B is required for Rad9 recruitment and CHK1 activation in response to replication stress.
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18232717 C.B.Phelps, R.J.Huang, P.V.Lishko, R.R.Wang, and R.Gaudet (2008).
Structural analyses of the ankyrin repeat domain of TRPV6 and related TRPV ion channels.
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PDB code: 2rfa
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P53 represses human papillomavirus type 16 DNA replication via the viral E2 protein.
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18366598 C.J.Oldfield, J.Meng, J.Y.Yang, M.Q.Yang, V.N.Uversky, and A.K.Dunker (2008).
Flexible nets: disorder and induced fit in the associations of p53 and 14-3-3 with their partners.
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18719108 C.Katz, H.Benyamini, S.Rotem, M.Lebendiker, T.Danieli, A.Iosub, H.Refaely, M.Dines, V.Bronner, T.Bravman, D.E.Shalev, S.Rüdiger, and A.Friedler (2008).
Molecular basis of the interaction between the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins and the proapoptotic protein ASPP2.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 12277-12282.  
18305166 C.Löw, U.Weininger, P.Neumann, M.Klepsch, H.Lilie, M.T.Stubbs, and J.Balbach (2008).
Structural insights into an equilibrium folding intermediate of an archaeal ankyrin repeat protein.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 3779-3784.
PDB code: 2rfm
  18778253 G.Chen, L.DenBoer, and J.Shin (2008).
Design of a single plasmid-based modified yeast one-hybrid system for investigation of in vivo protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions.
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18278067 J.M.Espinosa (2008).
Mechanisms of regulatory diversity within the p53 transcriptional network.
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18201273 K.Tomoda, N.Takahashi, Y.Hibi, K.Asamitsu, H.Ishida, T.Kondo, Y.Fujii, and T.Okamoto (2008).
Molecular docking analysis of the protein-protein interaction between RelA-associated inhibitor and tumor suppressor protein p53 and its inhibitory effect on p53 action.
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18275817 R.A.Robinson, X.Lu, E.Y.Jones, and C.Siebold (2008).
Biochemical and structural studies of ASPP proteins reveal differential binding to p53, p63, and p73.
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PDB code: 2vge
18676979 S.Patel, R.George, F.Autore, F.Fraternali, J.E.Ladbury, and P.V.Nikolova (2008).
Molecular interactions of ASPP1 and ASPP2 with the p53 protein family and the apoptotic promoters PUMA and Bax.
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17401432 A.C.Joerger, and A.R.Fersht (2007).
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17211478 A.Sullivan, and X.Lu (2007).
ASPP: a new family of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes.
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17171436 F.Wang, J.Hu, P.Song, and W.Gong (2007).
Two novel transcripts encoding two Ankyrin repeat containing proteins have preponderant expression during the mouse spermatogenesis.
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17401433 G.Selivanova, and K.G.Wiman (2007).
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17620598 H.Tidow, R.Melero, E.Mylonas, S.M.Freund, J.G.Grossmann, J.M.Carazo, D.I.Svergun, M.Valle, and A.R.Fersht (2007).
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17015838 A.C.Joerger, H.C.Ang, and A.R.Fersht (2006).
Structural basis for understanding oncogenic p53 mutations and designing rescue drugs.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 15056-15061.
PDB codes: 2j1w 2j1x 2j1y 2j1z 2j20 2j21
17053786 A.L.Okorokov, M.B.Sherman, C.Plisson, V.Grinkevich, K.Sigmundsson, G.Selivanova, J.Milner, and E.V.Orlova (2006).
The structure of p53 tumour suppressor protein reveals the basis for its functional plasticity.
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16790278 A.T.Sim, R.I.Ludowyke, and N.M.Verrills (2006).
Mast cell function: regulation of degranulation by serine/threonine phosphatases.
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16575404 A.W.Braithwaite, G.Del Sal, and X.Lu (2006).
Some p53-binding proteins that can function as arbiters of life and death.
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16882997 C.J.McCleverty, E.Koesema, A.Patapoutian, S.A.Lesley, and A.Kreusch (2006).
Crystal structure of the human TRPV2 channel ankyrin repeat domain.
  Protein Sci, 15, 2201-2206.
PDB code: 2f37
16964264 D.Bergamaschi, Y.Samuels, A.Sullivan, M.Zvelebil, H.Breyssens, A.Bisso, G.Del Sal, N.Syed, P.Smith, M.Gasco, T.Crook, and X.Lu (2006).
iASPP preferentially binds p53 proline-rich region and modulates apoptotic function of codon 72-polymorphic p53.
  Nat Genet, 38, 1133-1141.  
16278824 D.Hamroun, S.Kato, C.Ishioka, M.Claustres, C.Béroud, and T.Soussi (2006).
The UMD TP53 database and website: update and revisions.
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16498444 G.Trigiante, and X.Lu (2006).
ASPP [corrected] and cancer.
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16611918 J.L.Parish, A.Kowalczyk, H.T.Chen, G.E.Roeder, R.Sessions, M.Buckle, and K.Gaston (2006).
E2 proteins from high- and low-risk human papillomavirus types differ in their ability to bind p53 and induce apoptotic cell death.
  J Virol, 80, 4580-4590.  
16983711 L.Römer, C.Klein, A.Dehner, H.Kessler, and J.Buchner (2006).
p53--a natural cancer killer: structural insights and therapeutic concepts.
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16793544 M.Kitayner, H.Rozenberg, N.Kessler, D.Rabinovich, L.Shaulov, T.E.Haran, and Z.Shakked (2006).
Structural basis of DNA recognition by p53 tetramers.
  Mol Cell, 22, 741-753.
PDB codes: 2ac0 2ady 2ahi 2ata
16821145 M.Matsumoto, M.Furihata, and Y.Ohtsuki (2006).
Posttranslational phosphorylation of mutant p53 protein in tumor development.
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16782791 P.J.Kundrotas, and E.Alexov (2006).
Electrostatic properties of protein-protein complexes.
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16596707 S.Qin, W.Qiu, J.R.Ehrlich, A.S.Ferdinand, J.P.Richie, M.P.O'leary, M.L.Lee, and B.C.Liu (2006).
Development of a "reverse capture" autoantibody microarray for studies of antigen-autoantibody profiling.
  Proteomics, 6, 3199-3209.  
16702401 V.Vives, J.Su, S.Zhong, I.Ratnayaka, E.Slee, R.Goldin, and X.Lu (2006).
ASPP2 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that cooperates with p53 to suppress tumor growth.
  Genes Dev, 20, 1262-1267.  
16951253 W.Lilyestrom, M.G.Klein, R.Zhang, A.Joachimiak, and X.S.Chen (2006).
Crystal structure of SV40 large T-antigen bound to p53: interplay between a viral oncoprotein and a cellular tumor suppressor.
  Genes Dev, 20, 2373-2382.
PDB code: 2h1l
16314841 X.Agirre, J.Román-Gómez, A.Jiménez-Velasco, L.Garate, C.Montiel-Duarte, G.Navarro, I.Vázquez, M.Zalacain, M.J.Calasanz, A.Heiniger, A.Torres, J.D.Minna, and F.Prósper (2006).
ASPP1, a common activator of TP53, is inactivated by aberrant methylation of its promoter in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  Oncogene, 25, 1862-1870.  
16492706 X.H.Zhang, C.Zhao, K.Seleznev, K.Song, J.J.Manfredi, and Z.A.Ma (2006).
Disruption of G1-phase phospholipid turnover by inhibition of Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 induces a p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest in G1 phase.
  J Cell Sci, 119, 1005-1015.  
16204849 B.Ma, Y.Pan, K.Gunasekaran, O.Keskin, R.B.Venkataraghavan, A.J.Levine, and R.Nussinov (2005).
The contribution of the Trp/Met/Phe residues to physical interactions of p53 with cellular proteins.
  Phys Biol, 2, S56-S66.  
15969767 D.H.Dreyfus, M.Nagasawa, E.W.Gelfand, and L.Y.Ghoda (2005).
Modulation of p53 activity by IkappaBalpha: evidence suggesting a common phylogeny between NF-kappaB and p53 transcription factors.
  BMC Immunol, 6, 12.  
15880548 L.J.Ball, R.Kühne, J.Schneider-Mergener, and H.Oschkinat (2005).
Recognition of Proline-Rich Motifs by Protein-Protein-Interaction Domains.
  Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 44, 2852-2869.  
16098144 N.Takahashi, S.Kobayashi, S.Kajino, K.Imai, K.Tomoda, S.Shimizu, and T.Okamoto (2005).
Inhibition of the 53BP2S-mediated apoptosis by nuclear factor kappaB and Bcl-2 family proteins.
  Genes Cells, 10, 803-811.  
15726638 P.B.Crowley, and A.Golovin (2005).
Cation-pi interactions in protein-protein interfaces.
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15743414 S.Kobayashi, S.Kajino, N.Takahashi, S.Kanazawa, K.Imai, Y.Hibi, H.Ohara, M.Itoh, and T.Okamoto (2005).
53BP2 induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial death pathway.
  Genes Cells, 10, 253-260.  
15661530 X.Lu (2005).
p53: a heavily dictated dictator of life and death.
  Curr Opin Genet Dev, 15, 27-33.  
16139958 Z.J.Liu, X.Lu, and S.Zhong (2005).
ASPP--Apoptotic specific regulator of p53.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1756, 77-80.  
15377792 C.C.Mello, and D.Barrick (2004).
An experimentally determined protein folding energy landscape.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 14102-14107.  
14729977 D.Bergamaschi, Y.Samuels, B.Jin, S.Duraisingham, T.Crook, and X.Lu (2004).
ASPP1 and ASPP2: common activators of p53 family members.
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 1341-1350.  
15585169 D.Crighton, and K.M.Ryan (2004).
Splicing DNA-damage responses to tumour cell death.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1705, 3.  
14966275 H.Seimiya, Y.Muramatsu, S.Smith, and T.Tsuruo (2004).
Functional subdomain in the ankyrin domain of tankyrase 1 required for poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of TRF1 and telomere elongation.
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 1944-1955.  
15232572 J.J.Jefferson, C.L.Leung, and R.K.Liem (2004).
Plakins: goliaths that link cell junctions and the cytoskeleton.
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15611164 J.W.Loar, R.M.Seiser, A.E.Sundberg, H.J.Sagerson, N.Ilias, P.Zobel-Thropp, E.A.Craig, and D.E.Lycan (2004).
Genetic and biochemical interactions among Yar1, Ltv1 and Rps3 define novel links between environmental stress and ribosome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
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15152081 L.K.Mosavi, T.J.Cammett, D.C.Desrosiers, and Z.Y.Peng (2004).
The ankyrin repeat as molecular architecture for protein recognition.
  Protein Sci, 13, 1435-1448.  
15146457 M.J.Neville, E.C.Johnstone, and R.T.Walton (2004).
Identification and characterization of ANKK1: a novel kinase gene closely linked to DRD2 on chromosome band 11q23.1.
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15164081 M.Terrak, F.Kerff, K.Langsetmo, T.Tao, and R.Dominguez (2004).
Structural basis of protein phosphatase 1 regulation.
  Nature, 429, 780-784.
PDB code: 1s70
14691235 S.J.Demarest, S.Deechongkit, H.J.Dyson, R.M.Evans, and P.E.Wright (2004).
Packing, specificity, and mutability at the binding interface between the p160 coactivator and CREB-binding protein.
  Protein Sci, 13, 203-210.  
15162489 S.Liu, C.Zhang, H.Zhou, and Y.Zhou (2004).
A physical reference state unifies the structure-derived potential of mean force for protein folding and binding.
  Proteins, 56, 93.  
12566564 A.Kohl, H.K.Binz, P.Forrer, M.T.Stumpp, A.Plückthun, and M.G.Grütter (2003).
Designed to be stable: crystal structure of a consensus ankyrin repeat protein.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 1700-1705.
PDB code: 1mj0
12524540 D.Bergamaschi, Y.Samuels, N.J.O'Neil, G.Trigiante, T.Crook, J.K.Hsieh, D.J.O'Connor, S.Zhong, I.Campargue, M.L.Tomlinson, P.E.Kuwabara, and X.Lu (2003).
iASPP oncoprotein is a key inhibitor of p53 conserved from worm to human.
  Nat Genet, 33, 162-167.  
12646494 H.Iida, A.Urasoko, M.Doiguchi, T.Mōri, K.Toshimori, and Y.Shibata (2003).
Complementary DNA cloning and characterization of rat spergen-2, a spermatogenic cell-specific gene 2 encoding a 56-kilodalton nuclear protein bearing ankyrin repeat motifs.
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12517341 K.S.Tang, A.R.Fersht, and L.S.Itzhaki (2003).
Sequential unfolding of ankyrin repeats in tumor suppressor p16.
  Structure, 11, 67-73.  
14573873 M.E.Zweifel, D.J.Leahy, F.M.Hughson, and D.Barrick (2003).
Structure and stability of the ankyrin domain of the Drosophila Notch receptor.
  Protein Sci, 12, 2622-2632.
PDB code: 1ot8
12667443 M.Mihara, S.Erster, A.Zaika, O.Petrenko, T.Chittenden, P.Pancoska, and U.M.Moll (2003).
p53 has a direct apoptogenic role at the mitochondria.
  Mol Cell, 11, 577-590.  
12688310 S.M.Feller, G.Tuchscherer, and J.Voss (2003).
High affinity molecules disrupting GRB2 protein complexes as a therapeutic strategy for chronic myelogenous leukaemia.
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11793474 A.C.Martin, A.M.Facchiano, A.L.Cuff, T.Hernandez-Boussard, M.Olivier, P.Hainaut, and J.M.Thornton (2002).
Integrating mutation data and structural analysis of the TP53 tumor-suppressor protein.
  Hum Mutat, 19, 149-164.  
11782540 A.Friedler, L.O.Hansson, D.B.Veprintsev, S.M.Freund, T.M.Rippin, P.V.Nikolova, M.R.Proctor, S.Rüdiger, and A.R.Fersht (2002).
A peptide that binds and stabilizes p53 core domain: chaperone strategy for rescue of oncogenic mutants.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 937-942.  
12110597 D.J.Derbyshire, B.P.Basu, L.C.Serpell, W.S.Joo, T.Date, K.Iwabuchi, and A.J.Doherty (2002).
Crystal structure of human 53BP1 BRCT domains bound to p53 tumour suppressor.
  EMBO J, 21, 3863-3872.
PDB code: 1gzh
11854307 F.Perez, K.Pernet-Gallay, C.Nizak, H.V.Goodson, T.E.Kreis, and B.Goud (2002).
CLIPR-59, a new trans-Golgi/TGN cytoplasmic linker protein belonging to the CLIP-170 family.
  J Cell Biol, 156, 631-642.  
12101406 H.J.Choi, S.Park-Snyder, L.T.Pascoe, K.J.Green, and W.I.Weis (2002).
Structures of two intermediate filament-binding fragments of desmoplakin reveal a unique repeat motif structure.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 612-620.
PDB codes: 1lm5 1lm7
12124396 L.O.Hansson, A.Friedler, S.Freund, S.Rudiger, and A.R.Fersht (2002).
Two sequence motifs from HIF-1alpha bind to the DNA-binding site of p53.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 10305-10309.  
11948787 P.Chakrabarti, and J.Janin (2002).
Dissecting protein-protein recognition sites.
  Proteins, 47, 334-343.  
12456646 P.Michaely, D.R.Tomchick, M.Machius, and R.G.Anderson (2002).
Crystal structure of a 12 ANK repeat stack from human ankyrinR.
  EMBO J, 21, 6387-6396.
PDB code: 1n11
12065413 R.A.Woo, M.T.Jack, Y.Xu, S.Burma, D.J.Chen, and P.W.Lee (2002).
DNA damage-induced apoptosis requires the DNA-dependent protein kinase, and is mediated by the latent population of p53.
  EMBO J, 21, 3000-3008.  
11877378 W.S.Joo, P.D.Jeffrey, S.B.Cantor, M.S.Finnin, D.M.Livingston, and N.P.Pavletich (2002).
Structure of the 53BP1 BRCT region bound to p53 and its comparison to the Brca1 BRCT structure.
  Genes Dev, 16, 583-593.
PDB codes: 1kzy 1l0b
12119167 , (2002).
Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in plants: a new nomenclature.
  Trends Plant Sci, 7, 301-308.  
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Latent and active p53 are identical in conformation.
  Nat Struct Biol, 8, 756-760.  
11509662 B.T.Kile, D.Metcalf, S.Mifsud, L.DiRago, N.A.Nicola, D.J.Hilton, and W.S.Alexander (2001).
Functional analysis of Asb-1 using genetic modification in mice.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 6189-6197.  
  11156985 D.Rudel, and J.Kimble (2001).
Conservation of glp-1 regulation and function in nematodes.
  Genetics, 157, 639-654.  
11406576 M.Nishida, K.Nagata, Y.Hachimori, M.Horiuchi, K.Ogura, V.Mandiyan, J.Schlessinger, and F.Inagaki (2001).
Novel recognition mode between Vav and Grb2 SH3 domains.
  EMBO J, 20, 2995-3007.
PDB codes: 1gcp 1gcq
11463838 N.Nekrep, M.Geyer, N.Jabrane-Ferrat, and B.M.Peterlin (2001).
Analysis of ankyrin repeats reveals how a single point mutation in RFXANK results in bare lymphocyte syndrome.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 5566-5576.  
11554448 P.Hainaut, and K.Mann (2001).
Zinc binding and redox control of p53 structure and function.
  Antioxid Redox Signal, 3, 611-623.  
11486030 Y.C.Peng, F.Kuo, D.E.Breiding, Y.F.Wang, C.P.Mansur, and E.J.Androphy (2001).
AMF1 (GPS2) modulates p53 transactivation.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 5913-5924.  
11684014 Y.Samuels-Lev, D.J.O'Connor, D.Bergamaschi, G.Trigiante, J.K.Hsieh, S.Zhong, I.Campargue, L.Naumovski, T.Crook, and X.Lu (2001).
ASPP proteins specifically stimulate the apoptotic function of p53.
  Mol Cell, 8, 781-794.  
  11206067 A.Rath, and A.R.Davidson (2000).
The design of a hyperstable mutant of the Abp1p SH3 domain by sequence alignment analysis.
  Protein Sci, 9, 2457-2469.  
11050437 B.Kobe, and A.V.Kajava (2000).
When protein folding is simplified to protein coiling: the continuum of solenoid protein structures.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 25, 509-515.  
11027272 C.D.Lopez, Y.Ao, L.H.Rohde, T.D.Perez, D.J.O'Connor, X.Lu, J.M.Ford, and L.Naumovski (2000).
Proapoptotic p53-interacting protein 53BP2 is induced by UV irradiation but suppressed by p53.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 8018-8025.  
10659709 J.M.Zhou, Y.Trifa, H.Silva, D.Pontier, E.Lam, J.Shah, and D.F.Klessig (2000).
NPR1 differentially interacts with members of the TGA/OBF family of transcription factors that bind an element of the PR-1 gene required for induction by salicylic acid.
  Mol Plant Microbe Interact, 13, 191-202.  
10913088 M.L.Howell, E.Alsabbagh, J.F.Ma, U.A.Ochsner, M.G.Klotz, T.J.Beveridge, K.M.Blumenthal, E.C.Niederhoffer, R.E.Morris, D.Needham, G.E.Dean, M.A.Wani, and D.J.Hassett (2000).
AnkB, a periplasmic ankyrin-like protein in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is required for optimal catalase B (KatB) activity and resistance to hydrogen peroxide.
  J Bacteriol, 182, 4545-4556.  
10378263 B.Kobe, T.Gleichmann, J.Horne, I.G.Jennings, P.D.Scotney, and T.Teh (1999).
Turn up the HEAT.
  Structure, 7, R91-R97.  
10625438 C.D.Cianci, Z.Zhang, D.Pradhan, and J.S.Morrow (1999).
Brain and muscle express a unique alternative transcript of alphaII spectrin.
  Biochemistry, 38, 15721-15730.  
10341712 C.Prives, and P.A.Hall (1999).
The p53 pathway.
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10410794 C.Wolberger (1999).
Multiprotein-DNA complexes in transcriptional regulation.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 28, 29-56.  
10629550 H.J.van Slooten, M.J.van De Vijver, A.L.Borresen, J.E.Eyfjörd, R.Valgardsdóttir, S.Scherneck, J.M.Nesland, P.Devilee, C.J.Cornelisse, and J.H.van Dierendonck (1999).
Mutations in exons 5-8 of the p53 gene, independent of their type and location, are associated with increased apoptosis and mitosis in invasive breast carcinoma.
  J Pathol, 189, 504-513.  
9990839 J.A.Trulson, and G.L.Millhauser (1999).
The effect of mutations on peptide models of the DNA binding helix of p53: evidence for a correlation between structure and tumorigenesis.
  Biopolymers, 49, 215-224.  
10074345 J.Li, I.J.Byeon, K.Ericson, M.J.Poi, P.O'Maille, T.Selby, and M.D.Tsai (1999).
Tumor suppressor INK4: determination of the solution structure of p18INK4C and demonstration of the functional significance of loops in p18INK4C and p16INK4A.
  Biochemistry, 38, 2930-2940.
PDB code: 1bu9
9927436 K.G.McLure, and P.W.Lee (1999).
p53 DNA binding can be modulated by factors that alter the conformational equilibrium.
  EMBO J, 18, 763-770.  
10361086 M.R.Groves, and D.Barford (1999).
Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 9, 383-389.  
  10373761 R.Günther, H.Zill, W.E.Schmidt, and U.R.Fölsch (1999).
[ZAP genes: characterizing the protein structure of a new family of proliferation associated genes in the exocrine pancreas]
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10431175 S.G.Sedgwick, and S.J.Smerdon (1999).
The ankyrin repeat: a diversity of interactions on a common structural framework.
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9874770 S.Simeonidis, D.Stauber, G.Chen, W.A.Hendrickson, and D.Thanos (1999).
Mechanisms by which IkappaB proteins control NF-kappaB activity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 49-54.  
11232330 T.Huxford, S.Malek, and G.Ghosh (1999).
Structure and mechanism in NF-kappa B/I kappa B signaling.
  Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 64, 533-540.  
10496344 T.Mee, A.L.Okorokov, S.Metcalfe, and J.Milner (1999).
Proteolytic cleavage of p53 mutants in response to mismatched DNA.
  Br J Cancer, 81, 212-218.  
10601011 V.Mandiyan, J.Andreev, J.Schlessinger, and S.R.Hubbard (1999).
Crystal structure of the ARF-GAP domain and ankyrin repeats of PYK2-associated protein beta.
  EMBO J, 18, 6890-6898.
PDB code: 1dcq
  10409718 Y.Ho, M.Costanzo, L.Moore, R.Kobayashi, and B.J.Andrews (1999).
Regulation of transcription at the Saccharomyces cerevisiae start transition by Stb1, a Swi6-binding protein.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 5267-5278.  
10339621 Y.Zhang, W.Fan, M.Kinkema, X.Li, and X.Dong (1999).
Interaction of NPR1 with basic leucine zipper protein transcription factors that bind sequences required for salicylic acid induction of the PR-1 gene.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 6523-6528.  
  9655353 A.Bateman, A.G.Murzin, and S.A.Teichmann (1998).
Structure and distribution of pentapeptide repeats in bacteria.
  Protein Sci, 7, 1477-1480.  
9794820 C.Wolberger (1998).
Combinatorial transcription factors.
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9850860 D.H.Chu, C.T.Morita, and A.Weiss (1998).
The Syk family of protein tyrosine kinases in T-cell activation and development.
  Immunol Rev, 165, 167-180.  
9827808 E.ter Haar, A.Musacchio, S.C.Harrison, and T.Kirchhausen (1998).
Atomic structure of clathrin: a beta propeller terminal domain joins an alpha zigzag linker.
  Cell, 95, 563-573.
PDB code: 1bpo
9499782 F.Gonzalez-Fernandez, S.A.Kaltreider, B.D.Patnaik, J.D.Retief, Y.Bao, S.Newman, M.H.Stoler, and P.A.Levine (1998).
Sebaceous carcinoma. Tumor progression through mutational inactivation of p53.
  Ophthalmology, 105, 497-506.  
9546211 K.R.Ely, and R.Kodandapani (1998).
Ankyrin(g) ETS domains to DNA.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 255-259.  
  9841670 M.D.Mendenhall, and A.E.Hodge (1998).
Regulation of Cdc28 cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity during the cell cycle of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 62, 1191-1243.  
9823374 M.Ruas, and G.Peters (1998).
The p16INK4a/CDKN2A tumor suppressor and its relatives.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1378, F115-F177.  
9461066 N.Q.McDonald, and G.Peters (1998).
Ankyrin for clues about the function of p16INK4a.
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9782052 R.Baumgartner, C.Fernandez-Catalan, A.Winoto, R.Huber, R.A.Engh, and T.A.Holak (1998).
Structure of human cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19INK4d: comparison to known ankyrin-repeat-containing structures and implications for the dysfunction of tumor suppressor p16INK4a.
  Structure, 6, 1279-1290.
PDB code: 1bd8
9437433 R.Venkataramani, K.Swaminathan, and R.Marmorstein (1998).
Crystal structure of the CDK4/6 inhibitory protein p18INK4c provides insights into ankyrin-like repeat structure/function and tumor-derived p16INK4 mutations.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 74-81.
PDB code: 1ihb
9521763 S.P.Ewaskow, J.M.Sidorova, J.Hendle, J.C.Emery, D.E.Lycan, K.Y.Zhang, and L.L.Breeden (1998).
Mutation and modeling analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Swi6 ankyrin repeats.
  Biochemistry, 37, 4437-4450.  
  9566872 S.Sachdev, A.Hoffmann, and M.Hannink (1998).
Nuclear localization of IkappaB alpha is mediated by the second ankyrin repeat: the IkappaB alpha ankyrin repeats define a novel class of cis-acting nuclear import sequences.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 2524-2534.  
9520595 T.J.Gibson, and J.Spring (1998).
Genetic redundancy in vertebrates: polyploidy and persistence of genes encoding multidomain proteins.
  Trends Genet, 14, 46.  
9646028 Y.Li, M.Bhuiyan, V.K.Vaitkevicius, and F.H.Sarkar (1998).
Molecular analysis of the p53 gene in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
  Diagn Mol Pathol, 7, 4-9.  
9634699 Y.Yang, S.Nanduri, S.Sen, and J.Qin (1998).
The structural basis of ankyrin-like repeat function as revealed by the solution structure of myotrophin.
  Structure, 6, 619-626.
PDB codes: 1myo 2myo
9395285 A.Strasser, D.C.Huang, and D.L.Vaux (1997).
The role of the bcl-2/ced-9 gene family in cancer and general implications of defects in cell death control for tumourigenesis and resistance to chemotherapy.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1333, F151-F178.  
9566119 D.C.Dalgarno, M.C.Botfield, and R.J.Rickles (1997).
SH3 domains and drug design: ligands, structure, and biological function.
  Biopolymers, 43, 383-400.  
9114050 E.M.Ruaro, L.Collavin, G.Del Sal, R.Haffner, M.Oren, A.J.Levine, and C.Schneider (1997).
A proline-rich motif in p53 is required for transactivation-independent growth arrest as induced by Gas1.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 4675-4680.  
9019406 H.Cao, J.Glazebrook, J.D.Clarke, S.Volko, and X.Dong (1997).
The Arabidopsis NPR1 gene that controls systemic acquired resistance encodes a novel protein containing ankyrin repeats.
  Cell, 88, 57-63.  
9390687 X.F.Yang, G.F.Weber, and H.Cantor (1997).
A novel Bcl-x isoform connected to the T cell receptor regulates apoptosis in T cells.
  Immunity, 7, 629-639.  
  9194197 Y.Yang, N.S.Rao, E.Walker, S.Sen, and J.Qin (1997).
Nuclear magnetic resonance assignment and secondary structure of an ankyrin-like repeat-bearing protein: myotrophin.
  Protein Sci, 6, 1347-1351.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.