PDBsum entry 1n25

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Viral protein PDB id
Jmol PyMol
Protein chains
362 a.a. *
_ZN ×2
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Viral protein
Title: Crystal structure of the sv40 large t antigen helicase domain
Structure: Large t antigen. Chain: a, b. Fragment: helicase domain. Engineered: yes
Source: Simian virus 40. Organism_taxid: 10633. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562.
Biol. unit: Hexamer (from PDB file)
2.80Å     R-factor:   0.243     R-free:   0.276
Authors: D.Li,R.Zhao,W.Lilyestrom,D.Gai,R.Zhang,J.A.Decaprio, E.Fanning,A.Jochimiak,G.Szakonyi,X.S.Chen
Key ref:
D.Li et al. (2003). Structure of the replicative helicase of the oncoprotein SV40 large tumour antigen. Nature, 423, 512-518. PubMed id: 12774115 DOI: 10.1038/nature01691
21-Oct-02     Release date:   03-Jun-03    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P03070  (LT_SV40) -  Large T antigen
708 a.a.
362 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 2 residue positions (black crosses)

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     DNA replication   1 term 
  Biochemical function     DNA binding     2 terms  


DOI no: 10.1038/nature01691 Nature 423:512-518 (2003)
PubMed id: 12774115  
Structure of the replicative helicase of the oncoprotein SV40 large tumour antigen.
D.Li, R.Zhao, W.Lilyestrom, D.Gai, R.Zhang, J.A.DeCaprio, E.Fanning, A.Jochimiak, G.Szakonyi, X.S.Chen.
The oncoprotein large tumour antigen (LTag) is encoded by the DNA tumour virus simian virus 40. LTag transforms cells and induces tumours in animals by altering the functions of tumour suppressors (including pRB and p53) and other key cellular proteins. LTag is also a molecular machine that distorts/melts the replication origin of the viral genome and unwinds duplex DNA. LTag therefore seems to be a functional homologue of the eukaryotic minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex. Here we present the X-ray structure of a hexameric LTag with DNA helicase activity. The structure identifies the p53-binding surface and reveals the structural basis of hexamerization. The hexamer contains a long, positively charged channel with an unusually large central chamber that binds both single-stranded and double-stranded DNA. The hexamer organizes into two tiers that can potentially rotate relative to each other through connecting alpha-helices to expand/constrict the channel, producing an 'iris' effect that could be used for distorting or melting the origin and unwinding DNA at the replication fork.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 5.
Figure 5: The channel features and DNA-binding activity of LTag hexamer. a, Surface representation of LTag hexamer with the smaller tier in front, showing the positively charged (blue) central channel. Red, negatively charged surface; white, uncharged surface (GRASP50). b, The interior of the central channel, showing the large 'chamber' and the side channel. Two monomers have been taken away from the front to show the vertical path of the central channel, which widens inside the larger tier, forming a 'chamber'. c, d, Autoradiographs of gels showing LTag (LT) hexamer binding to ssDNA (c) or dsDNA (d). Lanes 1 -5 and lanes 6 -10 contained 0, 0.1, 0.4, 1.6 and 6.4 pmol, respectively, LTag251 -627 hexamer.
Figure 6.
Figure 6: Models for origin distortion and melting, and DNA unwinding, by LTag. a, LTag double hexamer assembled at origin dsDNA. The helicase domain (LTag251 -627) is labelled, with the larger ring representing the larger tier. b, The model for origin distortion and melting by the LTag helicase domain through the 'iris' mechanism. The distorted AT sequence and melted early palindrome (EP) region are indicated by arrows (green). c -e, A looping model for bidirectional DNA unwinding by LTag double hexamer. The colour coding of LTag domains is the same as in a. After LTag double hexamer assembly (c), the dsDNA is distorted and melted (d) by the 'iris' mechanism. One separated ssDNA strand is extruded through a side channel of the helicase domain to unwind the two forks bidirectionally (e).
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature (2003, 423, 512-518) copyright 2003.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
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PDB code: 3qn2
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20441442 A.S.Brewster, and X.S.Chen (2010).
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The 2C putative helicase of echovirus 30 adopts a hexameric ring-shaped structure.
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PDB code: 3f8t
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A structure-guided mutational analysis of simian virus 40 large T antigen: identification of surface residues required for viral replication and transformation.
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Concerted loading of Mcm2-7 double hexamers around DNA during DNA replication origin licensing.
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19101707 E.Fanning, and K.Zhao (2009).
SV40 DNA replication: from the A gene to a nanomachine.
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The minimum replication origin of merkel cell polyomavirus has a unique large T-antigen loading architecture and requires small T-antigen expression for optimal replication.
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Simulating the electrostatic guidance of the vectorial translocations in hexameric helicases and translocases.
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19505649 J.Cheng, J.A.DeCaprio, M.M.Fluck, and B.S.Schaffhausen (2009).
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19144705 W.Wang, and D.T.Simmons (2009).
Simian virus 40 large T antigen can specifically unwind the central palindrome at the origin of DNA replication.
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18579587 A.Kumar, W.S.Joo, G.Meinke, S.Moine, E.N.Naumova, and P.A.Bullock (2008).
Evidence for a structural relationship between BRCT domains and the helicase domains of the replication initiators encoded by the Polyomaviridae and Papillomaviridae families of DNA tumor viruses.
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18337578 A.M.De Palma, W.Heggermont, K.Lanke, B.Coutard, M.Bergmann, A.M.Monforte, B.Canard, E.De Clercq, A.Chimirri, G.Pürstinger, J.Rohayem, F.van Kuppeveld, and J.Neyts (2008).
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PDB code: 3f9v
18267969 C.M.Sanders (2008).
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On helicases and other motor proteins.
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18754676 R.J.Fletcher, J.Shen, L.G.Holden, and X.S.Chen (2008).
Identification of amino acids important for the biochemical activity of Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus MCM.
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PCNA damage caused by antineoplastic drugs.
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18003733 S.Khopde, and D.T.Simmons (2008).
Simian virus 40 DNA replication is dependent on an interaction between topoisomerase I and the C-terminal end of T antigen.
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18400864 W.B.Greenleaf, J.Shen, D.Gai, and X.S.Chen (2008).
Systematic study of the functions for the residues around the nucleotide pocket in simian virus 40 AAA+ hexameric helicase.
  J Virol, 82, 6017-6023.  
18417534 W.Liu, B.Pucci, M.Rossi, F.M.Pisani, and R.Ladenstein (2008).
Structural analysis of the Sulfolobus solfataricus MCM protein N-terminal domain.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 36, 3235-3243.
PDB code: 2vl6
18353955 X.Zhao, R.J.Madden-Fuentes, B.X.Lou, J.M.Pipas, J.Gerhardt, C.J.Rigell, and E.Fanning (2008).
Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated damage-signaling kinase- and proteasome-dependent destruction of Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 subunits in Simian virus 40-infected primate cells.
  J Virol, 82, 5316-5328.  
17287270 A.Kumar, G.Meinke, D.K.Reese, S.Moine, P.J.Phelan, A.Fradet-Turcotte, J.Archambault, A.Bohm, and P.A.Bullock (2007).
Model for T-antigen-dependent melting of the simian virus 40 core origin based on studies of the interaction of the beta-hairpin with DNA.
  J Virol, 81, 4808-4818.  
17823614 A.L.Okorokov, A.Waugh, J.Hodgkinson, A.Murthy, H.K.Hong, E.Leo, M.B.Sherman, K.Stoeber, E.V.Orlova, and G.H.Williams (2007).
Hexameric ring structure of human MCM10 DNA replication factor.
  EMBO Rep, 8, 925-930.  
17253903 G.Meinke, P.Phelan, S.Moine, E.Bochkareva, A.Bochkarev, P.A.Bullock, and A.Bohm (2007).
The crystal structure of the SV40 T-antigen origin binding domain in complex with DNA.
  PLoS Biol, 5, e23.
PDB codes: 2if9 2ntc
17504766 I.Donmez, V.Rajagopal, Y.J.Jeong, and S.S.Patel (2007).
Nucleic acid unwinding by hepatitis C virus and bacteriophage t7 helicases is sensitive to base pair stability.
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17093187 K.A.Boyle, L.Arps, and P.Traktman (2007).
Biochemical and genetic analysis of the vaccinia virus d5 protein: Multimerization-dependent ATPase activity is required to support viral DNA replication.
  J Virol, 81, 844-859.  
17157498 K.P.Hopfner, and J.Michaelis (2007).
Mechanisms of nucleic acid translocases: lessons from structural biology and single-molecule biophysics.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 17, 87-95.  
17501915 P.Guo, and T.J.Lee (2007).
Viral nanomotors for packaging of dsDNA and dsRNA.
  Mol Microbiol, 64, 886-903.  
17630848 R.A.Sclafani, and T.M.Holzen (2007).
Cell cycle regulation of DNA replication.
  Annu Rev Genet, 41, 237-280.  
17898054 S.F.Cotmore, R.L.Gottlieb, and P.Tattersall (2007).
Replication initiator protein NS1 of the parvovirus minute virus of mice binds to modular divergent sites distributed throughout duplex viral DNA.
  J Virol, 81, 13015-13027.  
17202221 S.Schuck, and A.Stenlund (2007).
ATP-dependent minor groove recognition of TA base pairs is required for template melting by the E1 initiator protein.
  J Virol, 81, 3293-3302.  
17301125 W.Wang, D.Manna, and D.T.Simmons (2007).
Role of the hydrophilic channels of simian virus 40 T-antigen helicase in DNA replication.
  J Virol, 81, 4510-4519.  
17386260 X.Liu, S.Schuck, and A.Stenlund (2007).
Adjacent residues in the E1 initiator beta-hairpin define different roles of the beta-hairpin in Ori melting, helicase loading, and helicase activity.
  Mol Cell, 25, 825-837.  
17062628 A.Costa, T.Pape, M.van Heel, P.Brick, A.Patwardhan, and S.Onesti (2006).
Structural basis of the Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus MCM helicase activity.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 34, 5829-5838.  
16943286 D.Clérot, and F.Bernardi (2006).
DNA helicase activity is associated with the replication initiator protein rep of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus.
  J Virol, 80, 11322-11330.  
17005644 D.K.Reese, G.Meinke, A.Kumar, S.Moine, K.Chen, J.L.Sudmeier, W.Bachovchin, A.Bohm, and P.A.Bullock (2006).
Analyses of the interaction between the origin binding domain from simian virus 40 T antigen and single-stranded DNA provide insights into DNA unwinding and initiation of DNA replication.
  J Virol, 80, 12248-12259.  
17139255 E.Bochkareva, D.Martynowski, A.Seitova, and A.Bochkarev (2006).
Structure of the origin-binding domain of simian virus 40 large T antigen bound to DNA.
  EMBO J, 25, 5961-5969.
PDB codes: 2ipr 2itj 2itl 2nl8
16855583 E.J.Enemark, and L.Joshua-Tor (2006).
Mechanism of DNA translocation in a replicative hexameric helicase.
  Nature, 442, 270-275.
PDB code: 2gxa
17158702 E.R.Barry, and S.D.Bell (2006).
DNA replication in the archaea.
  Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 70, 876-887.  
16611889 G.Meinke, P.A.Bullock, and A.Bohm (2006).
Crystal structure of the simian virus 40 large T-antigen origin-binding domain.
  J Virol, 80, 4304-4312.
PDB code: 2fuf
16935879 I.Donmez, and S.S.Patel (2006).
Mechanisms of a ring shaped helicase.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 34, 4216-4224.  
16689629 J.P.Erzberger, and J.M.Berger (2006).
Evolutionary relationships and structural mechanisms of AAA+ proteins.
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16935878 M.N.Nedelcheva-Veleva, D.B.Krastev, and S.S.Stoynov (2006).
Coordination of DNA synthesis and replicative unwinding by the S-phase checkpoint pathways.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 34, 4138-4146.  
16430918 M.Rappas, J.Schumacher, H.Niwa, M.Buck, and X.Zhang (2006).
Structural basis of the nucleotide driven conformational changes in the AAA+ domain of transcription activator PspF.
  J Mol Biol, 357, 481-492.
PDB codes: 2c96 2c98 2c99 2c9c
16765890 P.A.Meyer, P.Ye, M.Zhang, M.H.Suh, and J.Fu (2006).
Phasing RNA polymerase II using intrinsically bound Zn atoms: an updated structural model.
  Structure, 14, 973-982.
PDB code: 2b8k
17060327 P.M.Matias, S.Gorynia, P.Donner, and M.A.Carrondo (2006).
Crystal structure of the human AAA+ protein RuvBL1.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 38918-38929.
PDB code: 2c9o
16611903 R.Hoffmann, B.Hirt, V.Bechtold, P.Beard, and K.Raj (2006).
Different modes of human papillomavirus DNA replication during maintenance.
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Characterization of two novel polyomaviruses of birds by using multiply primed rolling-circle amplification of their genomes.
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16738139 S.Castella, G.Bingham, and C.M.Sanders (2006).
Common determinants in DNA melting and helicase-catalysed DNA unwinding by papillomavirus replication protein E1.
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16916635 T.H.Massey, C.P.Mercogliano, J.Yates, D.J.Sherratt, and J.Löwe (2006).
Double-stranded DNA translocation: structure and mechanism of hexameric FtsK.
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PDB codes: 2ius 2iut 2iuu
17082786 T.R.Strick, and A.Quessada-Vial (2006).
FtsK: a groovy helicase.
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16951253 W.Lilyestrom, M.G.Klein, R.Zhang, A.Joachimiak, and X.S.Chen (2006).
Crystal structure of SV40 large T-antigen bound to p53: interplay between a viral oncoprotein and a cellular tumor suppressor.
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PDB code: 2h1l
17110927 X.Jiang, V.Klimovich, A.I.Arunkumar, E.B.Hysinger, Y.Wang, R.D.Ott, G.D.Guler, B.Weiner, W.J.Chazin, and E.Fanning (2006).
Structural mechanism of RPA loading on DNA during activation of a simple pre-replication complex.
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16116441 A.T.McGeoch, M.A.Trakselis, R.A.Laskey, and S.D.Bell (2005).
Organization of the archaeal MCM complex on DNA and implications for the helicase mechanism.
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16148308 C.Neylon, A.V.Kralicek, T.M.Hill, and N.E.Dixon (2005).
Replication termination in Escherichia coli: structure and antihelicase activity of the Tus-Ter complex.
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SV40 large T antigen targets multiple cellular pathways to elicit cellular transformation.
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15761468 D.J.Glover, H.J.Lipps, and D.A.Jans (2005).
Towards safe, non-viral therapeutic gene expression in humans.
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15838518 D.Y.Takeda, and A.Dutta (2005).
DNA replication and progression through S phase.
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15870706 F.Krepulat, J.Löhler, C.Heinlein, A.Hermannstädter, G.V.Tolstonog, and W.Deppert (2005).
Epigenetic mechanisms affect mutant p53 transgene expression in WAP-mutp53 transgenic mice.
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15901724 H.Kawakami, K.Keyamura, and T.Katayama (2005).
Formation of an ATP-DnaA-specific initiation complex requires DnaA Arginine 285, a conserved motif in the AAA+ protein family.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 27420-27430.  
15928711 J.J.Blow, and A.Dutta (2005).
Preventing re-replication of chromosomal DNA.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 6, 476-486.  
16142223 J.P.Chong (2005).
Learning to unwind.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 12, 734-736.  
16140746 J.S.Kasper, H.Kuwabara, T.Arai, S.H.Ali, and J.A.DeCaprio (2005).
Simian virus 40 large T antigen's association with the CUL7 SCF complex contributes to cellular transformation.
  J Virol, 79, 11685-11692.  
16061814 J.Shen, D.Gai, A.Patrick, W.B.Greenleaf, and X.S.Chen (2005).
The roles of the residues on the channel beta-hairpin and loop structures of simian virus 40 hexameric helicase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 11248-11253.  
16304143 P.W.White, A.M.Faucher, M.J.Massariol, E.Welchner, J.Rancourt, M.Cartier, and J.Archambault (2005).
Biphenylsulfonacetic acid inhibitors of the human papillomavirus type 6 E1 helicase inhibit ATP hydrolysis by an allosteric mechanism involving tyrosine 486.
  Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49, 4834-4842.  
16221679 R.J.Fletcher, J.Shen, Y.Gómez-Llorente, C.S.Martín, J.M.Carazo, and X.S.Chen (2005).
Double hexamer disruption and biochemical activities of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum MCM.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 42405-42410.  
16285920 S.Schuck, and A.Stenlund (2005).
Assembly of a double hexameric helicase.
  Mol Cell, 20, 377-389.  
16184610 T.D.Friedrich, E.Bedner, Z.Darzynkiewicz, and J.M.Lehman (2005).
Distinct patterns of MCM protein binding in nuclei of S phase and rereplicating SV40-infected monkey kidney cells.
  Cytometry A, 68, 10-18.  
15917243 T.Kinebuchi, W.Kagawa, H.Kurumizaka, and S.Yokoyama (2005).
Role of the N-terminal domain of the human DMC1 protein in octamer formation and DNA binding.
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Pumps, paradoxes and ploughshares: mechanism of the MCM2-7 DNA helicase.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 30, 437-444.  
16221680 Y.Gómez-Llorente, R.J.Fletcher, X.S.Chen, J.M.Carazo, and C.San Martín (2005).
Polymorphism and double hexamer structure in the archaeal minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 40909-40915.  
15917436 Z.You, and H.Masai (2005).
DNA binding and helicase actions of mouse MCM4/6/7 helicase.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 33, 3033-3047.  
14967147 A.B.Hickman, D.R.Ronning, Z.N.Perez, R.M.Kotin, and F.Dyda (2004).
The nuclease domain of adeno-associated virus rep coordinates replication initiation using two distinct DNA recognition interfaces.
  Mol Cell, 13, 403-414.
PDB codes: 1rz9 1uut
15371413 B.Pucci, M.De Felice, M.Rossi, S.Onesti, and F.M.Pisani (2004).
Amino acids of the Sulfolobus solfataricus mini-chromosome maintenance-like DNA helicase involved in DNA binding/remodeling.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 49222-49228.  
15247252 D.Gai, D.Li, C.V.Finkielstein, R.D.Ott, P.Taneja, E.Fanning, and X.S.Chen (2004).
Insights into the oligomeric states, conformational changes, and helicase activities of SV40 large tumor antigen.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 38952-38959.  
15454080 D.Gai, R.Zhao, D.Li, C.V.Finkielstein, and X.S.Chen (2004).
Mechanisms of conformational change for a replicative hexameric helicase of SV40 large tumor antigen.
  Cell, 119, 47-60.
PDB codes: 1svl 1svm 1svo
14990710 D.K.Reese, K.R.Sreekumar, and P.A.Bullock (2004).
Interactions required for binding of simian virus 40 T antigen to the viral origin and molecular modeling of initial assembly events.
  J Virol, 78, 2921-2934.  
15326181 D.Shechter, C.Y.Ying, and J.Gautier (2004).
DNA unwinding is an Mcm complex-dependent and ATP hydrolysis-dependent process.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 45586-45593.  
15289463 E.A.Abbate, J.M.Berger, and M.R.Botchan (2004).
The X-ray structure of the papillomavirus helicase in complex with its molecular matchmaker E2.
  Genes Dev, 18, 1981-1996.
PDB code: 1tue
15369673 E.J.Mancini, D.E.Kainov, J.M.Grimes, R.Tuma, D.H.Bamford, and D.I.Stuart (2004).
Atomic snapshots of an RNA packaging motor reveal conformational changes linking ATP hydrolysis to RNA translocation.
  Cell, 118, 743-755.
PDB codes: 1w44 1w46 1w47 1w48 1w49 1w4a 1w4b 1w4c
15310852 J.A.James, A.K.Aggarwal, R.M.Linden, and C.R.Escalante (2004).
Structure of adeno-associated virus type 2 Rep40-ADP complex: insight into nucleotide recognition and catalysis by superfamily 3 helicases.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 12455-12460.
PDB code: 1u0j
15247253 K.Weisshart, S.Friedl, P.Taneja, H.P.Nasheuer, B.Schlott, F.Grosse, and E.Fanning (2004).
Partial proteolysis of simian virus 40 T antigen reveals intramolecular contacts between domains and conformation changes upon hexamer assembly.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 38943-38951.  
15093826 K.Yamada, M.Ariyoshi, and K.Morikawa (2004).
Three-dimensional structural views of branch migration and resolution in DNA homologous recombination.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 14, 130-137.  
15630689 M.Capitanio, F.Vanzi, C.Broggio, R.Cicchi, D.Normanno, G.Romano, L.Sacconi, and F.S.Pavone (2004).
Exploring molecular motors and switches at the single-molecule level.
  Microsc Res Tech, 65, 194-204.  
15572699 M.Nemethova, M.Smutny, and E.Wintersberger (2004).
Transactivation of E2F-regulated genes by polyomavirus large T antigen: evidence for a two-step mechanism.
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 10986-10994.  
15371437 M.Yoon-Robarts, A.G.Blouin, S.Bleker, J.A.Kleinschmidt, A.K.Aggarwal, C.R.Escalante, and R.M.Linden (2004).
Residues within the B' motif are critical for DNA binding by the superfamily 3 helicase Rep40 of adeno-associated virus type 2.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 50472-50481.  
15128295 N.Tuteja, and R.Tuteja (2004).
Unraveling DNA helicases. Motif, structure, mechanism and function.
  Eur J Biochem, 271, 1849-1863.  
15342486 R.A.Sclafani, R.J.Fletcher, and X.S.Chen (2004).
Two heads are better than one: regulation of DNA replication by hexameric helicases.
  Genes Dev, 18, 2039-2045.  
15193311 R.B.Russell, F.Alber, P.Aloy, F.P.Davis, D.Korkin, M.Pichaud, M.Topf, and A.Sali (2004).
A structural perspective on protein-protein interactions.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 14, 313-324.  
15007098 S.L.Forsburg (2004).
Eukaryotic MCM proteins: beyond replication initiation.
  Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 68, 109-131.  
15210950 T.Hishida, Y.W.Han, S.Fujimoto, H.Iwasaki, and H.Shinagawa (2004).
Direct evidence that a conserved arginine in RuvB AAA+ ATPase acts as an allosteric effector for the ATPase activity of the adjacent subunit in a hexamer.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 9573-9577.  
15123793 Y.J.Jeong, M.K.Levin, and S.S.Patel (2004).
The DNA-unwinding mechanism of the ring helicase of bacteriophage T7.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 7264-7269.  
14504622 A.Stenlund (2003).
Initiation of DNA replication: lessons from viral initiator proteins.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 4, 777-785.  
13679365 D.L.Kaplan, M.J.Davey, and M.O'Donnell (2003).
Mcm4,6,7 uses a "pump in ring" mechanism to unwind DNA by steric exclusion and actively translocate along a duplex.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 49171-49182.  
12906833 J.A.James, C.R.Escalante, M.Yoon-Robarts, T.A.Edwards, R.M.Linden, and A.K.Aggarwal (2003).
Crystal structure of the SF3 helicase from adeno-associated virus type 2.
  Structure, 11, 1025-1035.
PDB code: 1s9h
12975364 J.H.Shin, Y.Jiang, B.Grabowski, J.Hurwitz, and Z.Kelman (2003).
Substrate requirements for duplex DNA translocation by the eukaryal and archaeal minichromosome maintenance helicases.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 49053-49062.  
14610194 J.Jiao, and D.T.Simmons (2003).
Nonspecific double-stranded DNA binding activity of simian virus 40 large T antigen is involved in melting and unwinding of the origin.
  J Virol, 77, 12720-12728.  
14633980 M.G.Gomez-Lorenzo, M.Valle, J.Frank, C.Gruss, C.O.Sorzano, X.S.Chen, L.E.Donate, and J.M.Carazo (2003).
Large T antigen on the simian virus 40 origin of replication: a 3D snapshot prior to DNA replication.
  EMBO J, 22, 6205-6213.  
12906810 M.J.Davey, and M.O'Donnell (2003).
Replicative helicase loaders: ring breakers and ring makers.
  Curr Biol, 13, R594-R596.  
14566326 T.Pape, H.Meka, S.Chen, G.Vicentini, M.van Heel, and S.Onesti (2003).
Hexameric ring structure of the full-length archaeal MCM protein complex.
  EMBO Rep, 4, 1079-1083.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.