PDBsum entry 1j1e

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protein metals Protein-protein interface(s) links
Contractile protein PDB id
Protein chains
158 a.a. *
69 a.a. *
118 a.a. *
159 a.a. *
75 a.a. *
141 a.a. *
_CA ×6
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Contractile protein
Title: Crystal structure of the 52kda domain of human cardiac troponin in the ca2+ saturated form
Structure: Troponin c. Chain: a, d. Synonym: tnc. Engineered: yes. Mutation: yes. Troponin t. Chain: b, e. Fragment: cnbr fragment, residues 183-288. Synonym: tnt.
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Tissue: cardiac muscle. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562.
Biol. unit: Trimer (from PQS)
3.30Å     R-factor:   0.251     R-free:   0.308
Authors: S.Takeda,A.Yamashita,K.Maeda,Y.Maeda
Key ref:
S.Takeda et al. (2003). Structure of the core domain of human cardiac troponin in the Ca(2+)-saturated form. Nature, 424, 35-41. PubMed id: 12840750 DOI: 10.1038/nature01780
03-Dec-02     Release date:   15-Jul-03    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P63316  (TNNC1_HUMAN) -  Troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles
161 a.a.
158 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P45379  (TNNT2_HUMAN) -  Troponin T, cardiac muscle
298 a.a.
69 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P19429  (TNNI3_HUMAN) -  Troponin I, cardiac muscle
210 a.a.
118 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P63316  (TNNC1_HUMAN) -  Troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles
161 a.a.
159 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P45379  (TNNT2_HUMAN) -  Troponin T, cardiac muscle
298 a.a.
75 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P19429  (TNNI3_HUMAN) -  Troponin I, cardiac muscle
210 a.a.
141 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 12 residue positions (black crosses)

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     nucleus   7 terms 
  Biological process     response to metal ion   8 terms 
  Biochemical function     protein binding     8 terms  


DOI no: 10.1038/nature01780 Nature 424:35-41 (2003)
PubMed id: 12840750  
Structure of the core domain of human cardiac troponin in the Ca(2+)-saturated form.
S.Takeda, A.Yamashita, K.Maeda, Y.Maéda.
Troponin is essential in Ca(2+) regulation of skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. It consists of three subunits (TnT, TnC and TnI) and, together with tropomyosin, is located on the actin filament. Here we present crystal structures of the core domains (relative molecular mass of 46,000 and 52,000) of human cardiac troponin in the Ca(2+)-saturated form. Analysis of the four-molecule structures reveals that the core domain is further divided into structurally distinct subdomains that are connected by flexible linkers, making the entire molecule highly flexible. The alpha-helical coiled-coil formed between TnT and TnI is integrated in a rigid and asymmetric structure (about 80 angstrom long), the IT arm, which bridges putative tropomyosin-anchoring regions. The structures of the troponin ternary complex imply that Ca(2+) binding to the regulatory site of TnC removes the carboxy-terminal portion of TnI from actin, thereby altering the mobility and/or flexibility of troponin and tropomyosin on the actin filament.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 4.
Figure 4: Side-chain interactions between the subunits. a, A stereo view of the interactions between the three chains around the C lobe of TnC. b, The hydrophobic residues in the N lobe of TnC interacting with segment H3(I) of TnI. TnC, TnI and TnT are coloured pink, cyan and yellow, respectively. The amino acid residues involved in the interactions are shown in ball and stick representation. The three Ca^2+ ions bound to sites II, III and IV are shown by the black spheres.
Figure 5.
Figure 5: A schematic representation of the interactions between troponin and other thin filament components. The potential actin-tropomyosin-binding portions, which are not included in the current structural model, are schematically drawn: TnT1 and C-TnT are yellow ellipsoids, and the inhibitory region (IR) and the C terminus of TnI (C-TnI) are blue ellipsoids. The actin and the tropomyosin strands are in green and brown, respectively. The black arrows indicate the interactions between troponin and tropomyosin-actin.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature (2003, 424, 35-41) copyright 2003.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
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21416543 R.Sancho Solis, Y.Ge, and J.W.Walker (2011).
A preferred AMPK phosphorylation site adjacent to the inhibitory loop of cardiac and skeletal troponin I.
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21207113 Y.C.Kwon, M.G.Kim, E.M.Kim, Y.B.Shin, S.K.Lee, S.D.Lee, M.J.Cho, and H.S.Ro (2011).
Development of a surface plasmon resonance-based immunosensor for the rapid detection of cardiac troponin I.
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21262274 Z.Grabarek (2011).
Insights into modulation of calcium signaling by magnesium in calmodulin, troponin C and related EF-hand proteins.
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Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of native thin filaments reveal species-specific differences in regulatory strand densities.
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The C terminus of cardiac troponin I stabilizes the Ca2+-activated state of tropomyosin on actin filaments.
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Coiled coils: attractive protein folding motifs for the fabrication of self-assembled, responsive and bioactive materials.
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Troponin regulatory function and dynamics revealed by H/D exchange-mass spectrometry.
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20025974 D.M.Paul, J.M.Squire, and E.P.Morris (2010).
A novel approach to the structural analysis of partially decorated actin based filaments.
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20083117 G.A.Ramirez-Correa, S.Cortassa, B.Stanley, W.D.Gao, and A.M.Murphy (2010).
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20528152 J.G.Dennisson, Y.Tando, N.Sato, M.Ogasawara, K.Kubokawa, and T.Obinata (2010).
Functional characteristics of amphioxus troponin in regulation of muscle contraction.
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Deciphering modifications in swine cardiac troponin I by top-down high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.
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20079745 L.Sfichi-Duke, M.L.Garcia-Cazarin, C.A.Sumandea, G.A.Sievert, C.W.Balke, D.Y.Zhan, S.Morimoto, and M.P.Sumandea (2010).
Cardiomyopathy-causing deletion K210 in cardiac troponin T alters phosphorylation propensity of sarcomeric proteins.
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20116385 M.Oleszczuk, I.M.Robertson, M.X.Li, and B.D.Sykes (2010).
Solution structure of the regulatory domain of human cardiac troponin C in complex with the switch region of cardiac troponin I and W7: the basis of W7 as an inhibitor of cardiac muscle contraction.
  J Mol Cell Cardiol, 48, 925-933.
PDB code: 2krd
20617149 M.S.Parvatiyar, J.R.Pinto, D.Dweck, and J.D.Potter (2010).
Cardiac troponin mutations and restrictive cardiomyopathy.
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20057144 M.W.Lassalle (2010).
Defective dynamic properties of human cardiac troponin mutations.
  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 74, 82-91.  
20100986 P.Vanburen, and B.M.Palmer (2010).
Cooperative activation of the cardiac myofilament: the pivotal role of tropomyosin.
  Circulation, 121, 351-353.  
20467475 R.J.Solaro (2010).
Sarcomere control mechanisms and the dynamics of the cardiac cycle.
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20128626 S.B.Tikunova, B.Liu, N.Swindle, S.C.Little, A.V.Gomes, D.R.Swartz, and J.P.Davis (2010).
Effect of calcium-sensitizing mutations on calcium binding and exchange with troponin C in increasingly complex biochemical systems.
  Biochemistry, 49, 1975-1984.  
20004664 Y.B.Sun, and M.Irving (2010).
The molecular basis of the steep force-calcium relation in heart muscle.
  J Mol Cell Cardiol, 48, 859-865.  
19446498 Z.Kaya, H.A.Katus, and N.R.Rose (2010).
Cardiac troponins and autoimmunity: their role in the pathogenesis of myocarditis and of heart failure.
  Clin Immunol, 134, 80-88.  
18986304 B.You, G.Yan, Z.Zhang, L.Yan, J.Li, Q.Ge, J.P.Jin, and J.Sun (2009).
Phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I by mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1.
  Biochem J, 418, 93.  
20477518 C.E.Jackson, J.R.Dalzell, and R.S.Gardner (2009).
Prognostic utility of cardiac troponin in heart failure: a novel role for an established biomarker.
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19321456 C.M.Warren, T.Kobayashi, and R.J.Solaro (2009).
Sites of Intra- and Intermolecular Cross-linking of the N-terminal Extension of Troponin I in Human Cardiac Whole Troponin Complex.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 14258-14266.  
19108638 D.A.Patel, and D.D.Root (2009).
Close proximity of myosin loop 3 to troponin determined by triangulation of resonance energy transfer distance measurements.
  Biochemistry, 48, 357-369.  
19321455 D.M.Paul, E.P.Morris, R.W.Kensler, and J.M.Squire (2009).
Structure and orientation of troponin in the thin filament.
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19679447 F.Leuschner, H.A.Katus, and Z.Kaya (2009).
Autoimmune myocarditis: past, present and future.
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19542563 I.M.Robertson, M.X.Li, and B.D.Sykes (2009).
Solution structure of human cardiac troponin C in complex with the green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 23012-23023.
PDB code: 2kdh
18942727 J.L.Li, C.Y.Geng, Y.Bu, X.R.Huang, and C.C.Sun (2009).
Conformational transition pathway in the allosteric process of calcium-induced recoverin: molecular dynamics simulations.
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19439414 J.R.Pinto, M.S.Parvatiyar, M.A.Jones, J.Liang, M.J.Ackerman, and J.D.Potter (2009).
A functional and structural study of troponin C mutations related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
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19545346 M.A.Alaiti, A.Maroo, and T.B.Edel (2009).
Troponin levels after cardiac electrophysiology procedures: review of the literature.
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19289050 M.C.Mathur, T.Kobayashi, and J.M.Chalovich (2009).
Some cardiomyopathy-causing troponin I mutations stabilize a functional intermediate actin state.
  Biophys J, 96, 2237-2244.  
19141534 N.J.Palpant, L.G.D'Alecy, and J.M.Metzger (2009).
Single histidine button in cardiac troponin I sustains heart performance in response to severe hypercapnic respiratory acidosis in vivo.
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19472326 O.Julien, P.Mercier, M.L.Crane, and B.D.Sykes (2009).
The effect of the cosolvent trifluoroethanol on a tryptophan side chain orientation in the hydrophobic core of troponin C.
  Protein Sci, 18, 1165-1174.
PDB code: 2kgb
19502551 P.J.Guinto, T.E.Haim, C.C.Dowell-Martino, N.Sibinga, and J.C.Tardiff (2009).
Temporal and mutation-specific alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis differentially determine the progression of cTnT-related cardiomyopathies in murine models.
  Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 297, H614-H626.  
20031601 R.E.Hershberger, J.R.Pinto, S.B.Parks, J.D.Kushner, D.Li, S.Ludwigsen, J.Cowan, A.Morales, M.S.Parvatiyar, and J.D.Potter (2009).
Clinical and functional characterization of TNNT2 mutations identified in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.
  Circ Cardiovasc Genet, 2, 306-313.  
19384409 R.Jain, S.Kumar, S.Gourinath, S.Bhattacharya, and A.Bhattacharya (2009).
N- and C-terminal domains of the calcium binding protein EhCaBP1 of the parasite entamoeba histolytica display distinct functions.
  PLoS ONE, 4, e5269.  
19419198 R.M.Hoffman, and B.D.Sykes (2009).
Structure of the inhibitor W7 bound to the regulatory domain of cardiac troponin C.
  Biochemistry, 48, 5541-5552.
PDB code: 2kfx
19483081 T.Kobayashi, S.E.Patrick, and M.Kobayashi (2009).
Ala scanning of the inhibitory region of cardiac troponin I.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 20052-20060.  
19186142 T.Tamura, J.Wakayama, K.Inoue, N.Yagi, and H.Iwamoto (2009).
Dynamics of thin-filament activation in rabbit skeletal muscle fibers examined by time-resolved x-ray diffraction.
  Biophys J, 96, 1045-1055.  
19379756 W.A.Mudalige, T.C.Tao, and S.S.Lehrer (2009).
Ca2+-dependent photocrosslinking of tropomyosin residue 146 to residues 157-163 in the C-terminal domain of troponin I in reconstituted skeletal muscle thin filaments.
  J Mol Biol, 389, 575-583.  
19427304 W.Huang, R.Zhang, and X.Xu (2009).
Myofibrillogenesis in the developing zebrafish heart: A functional study of tnnt2.
  Dev Biol, 331, 237-249.  
19341744 W.Lehman, A.Galińska-Rakoczy, V.Hatch, L.S.Tobacman, and R.Craig (2009).
Structural basis for the activation of muscle contraction by troponin and tropomyosin.
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18514658 A.Galińska-Rakoczy, P.Engel, C.Xu, H.Jung, R.Craig, L.S.Tobacman, and W.Lehman (2008).
Structural basis for the regulation of muscle contraction by troponin and tropomyosin.
  J Mol Biol, 379, 929-935.  
18820258 D.Dweck, N.Hus, and J.D.Potter (2008).
  J Biol Chem, 283, 33119-33128.  
18775725 H.S.Jung, and R.Craig (2008).
Ca2+ -induced tropomyosin movement in scallop striated muscle thin filaments.
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18570382 I.M.Robertson, O.K.Baryshnikova, M.X.Li, and B.D.Sykes (2008).
Defining the binding site of levosimendan and its analogues in a regulatory cardiac troponin C-troponin I complex.
  Biochemistry, 47, 7485-7495.  
19956787 I.Turner, F.Belema-Bedada, J.Martindale, D.Townsend, W.Wang, N.Palpant, S.C.Yasuda, M.Barnabei, E.Fomicheva, and J.M.Metzger (2008).
Molecular cardiology in translation: gene, cell and chemical-based experimental therapeutics for the failing heart.
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18423659 J.Davis, H.Wen, T.Edwards, and J.M.Metzger (2008).
Allele and species dependent contractile defects by restrictive and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked troponin I mutants.
  J Mol Cell Cardiol, 44, 891-904.  
18676638 J.M.Robinson, H.C.Cheung, and W.Dong (2008).
The cardiac Ca2+-sensitive regulatory switch, a system in dynamic equilibrium.
  Biophys J, 95, 4772-4789.  
18386050 J.R.Pinto, T.Veltri, and M.M.Sorenson (2008).
Modulation of troponin C affinity for the thin filament by different cross-bridge states in skinned skeletal muscle fibers.
  Pflugers Arch, 456, 1177-1187.  
19053249 J.Xing, M.Chinnaraj, Z.Zhang, H.C.Cheung, and W.J.Dong (2008).
Structural studies of interactions between cardiac troponin I and actin in regulated thin filament using Förster resonance energy transfer.
  Biochemistry, 47, 13383-13393.  
18579801 L.Larsson, X.Wang, F.Yu, P.Höök, K.Borg, S.M.Chong, and J.P.Jin (2008).
Adaptation by alternative RNA splicing of slow troponin T isoforms in type 1 but not type 2 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.
  Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, 295, C722-C731.  
17872964 M.C.Mathur, T.Kobayashi, and J.M.Chalovich (2008).
Negative charges at protein kinase C sites of troponin I stabilize the inactive state of actin.
  Biophys J, 94, 542-549.  
18281058 M.D.Jeyasingham, A.Artigues, O.W.Nadeau, and G.M.Carlson (2008).
Structural evidence for co-evolution of the regulation of contraction and energy production in skeletal muscle.
  J Mol Biol, 377, 623-629.  
18065478 M.Tassieri, R.M.Evans, L.Barbu-Tudoran, J.Trinick, and T.A.Waigh (2008).
The self-assembly, elasticity, and dynamics of cardiac thin filaments.
  Biophys J, 94, 2170-2178.  
18162171 M.X.Li, I.M.Robertson, and B.D.Sykes (2008).
Interaction of cardiac troponin with cardiotonic drugs: a structural perspective.
  Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 369, 88-99.  
18635554 N.J.Palpant, S.M.Day, T.J.Herron, K.L.Converso, and J.M.Metzger (2008).
Single histidine-substituted cardiac troponin I confers protection from age-related systolic and diastolic dysfunction.
  Cardiovasc Res, 80, 209-218.  
18162178 R.J.Solaro, P.Rosevear, and T.Kobayashi (2008).
The unique functions of cardiac troponin I in the control of cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation.
  Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 369, 82-87.  
18433059 R.M.Hoffman, and B.D.Sykes (2008).
Isoform-specific variation in the intrinsic disorder of troponin I.
  Proteins, 73, 338-350.  
17984178 S.Sadayappan, N.Finley, J.W.Howarth, H.Osinska, R.Klevitsky, J.N.Lorenz, P.R.Rosevear, and J.Robbins (2008).
Role of the acidic N' region of cardiac troponin I in regulating myocardial function.
  FASEB J, 22, 1246-1257.  
18063575 W.J.Dong, J.Xing, Y.Ouyang, J.An, and H.C.Cheung (2008).
Structural kinetics of cardiac troponin C mutants linked to familial hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy in troponin complexes.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 3424-3432.  
18231806 Y.M.Liou, S.C.Kuo, and S.R.Hsieh (2008).
Differential effects of a green tea-derived polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the acidosis-induced decrease in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of cardiac and skeletal muscle.
  Pflugers Arch, 456, 787-800.  
18955666 Z.Kaya, S.Göser, S.J.Buss, F.Leuschner, R.Ottl, J.Li, M.Völkers, S.Zittrich, G.Pfitzer, N.R.Rose, and H.A.Katus (2008).
Identification of cardiac troponin I sequence motifs leading to heart failure by induction of myocardial inflammation and fibrosis.
  Circulation, 118, 2063-2072.  
17403044 B.Gafurov, and J.M.Chalovich (2007).
Equilibrium distribution of skeletal actin-tropomyosin-troponin states, determined by pyrene-tropomyosin fluorescence.
  FEBS J, 274, 2287-2299.  
17260966 B.J.Biesiadecki, S.M.Chong, T.M.Nosek, and J.P.Jin (2007).
Troponin T core structure and the regulatory NH2-terminal variable region.
  Biochemistry, 46, 1368-1379.  
17180551 C.Eichmüller, and N.R.Skrynnikov (2007).
Observation of microsecond time-scale protein dynamics in the presence of Ln3+ ions: application to the N-terminal domain of cardiac troponin C.
  J Biomol NMR, 37, 79-95.  
17532339 D.G.Vassylyev, and J.Symersky (2007).
Crystal structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase 1 and its functional implications.
  J Mol Biol, 370, 417-426.
PDB code: 2pnq
  17554181 F.Yumoto, K.Nagata, Y.Miyauchi, T.Ojima, H.Tanaka, K.Nishita, I.Ohtsuki, and M.Tanokura (2007).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Ca2+-bound C-terminal lobe of troponin C in complex with a troponin I-derived peptide fragment from Akazara scallop.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 63, 535-537.  
17293397 J.P.Davis, C.Norman, T.Kobayashi, R.J.Solaro, D.R.Swartz, and S.B.Tikunova (2007).
Effects of thin and thick filament proteins on calcium binding and exchange with cardiac troponin C.
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17704185 J.Solzin, B.Iorga, E.Sierakowski, D.P.Gomez Alcazar, D.F.Ruess, T.Kubacki, S.Zittrich, N.Blaudeck, G.Pfitzer, and R.Stehle (2007).
Kinetic mechanism of the Ca2+-dependent switch-on and switch-off of cardiac troponin in myofibrils.
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17602701 M.V.Westfall, and J.M.Metzger (2007).
Single amino acid substitutions define isoform-specific effects of troponin I on myofilament Ca2+ and pH sensitivity.
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17123541 O.W.Nadeau, D.W.Anderson, Q.Yang, A.Artigues, J.E.Paschall, G.J.Wyckoff, J.L.McClintock, and G.M.Carlson (2007).
Evidence for the location of the allosteric activation switch in the multisubunit phosphorylase kinase complex from mass spectrometric identification of chemically crosslinked peptides.
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17099250 P.L.Engel, T.Kobayashi, B.Biesiadecki, J.Davis, S.Tikunova, S.Wu, and R.J.Solaro (2007).
Identification of a region of troponin I important in signaling cross-bridge-dependent activation of cardiac myofilaments.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 183-193.  
17436057 S.E.Boussouf, R.Maytum, K.Jaquet, and M.A.Geeves (2007).
Role of tropomyosin isoforms in the calcium sensitivity of striated muscle thin filaments.
  J Muscle Res Cell Motil, 28, 49-58.  
17396243 S.M.Day, M.V.Westfall, and J.M.Metzger (2007).
Tuning cardiac performance in ischemic heart disease and failure by modulating myofilament function.
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17720810 T.Strahl, I.G.Huttner, J.D.Lusin, M.Osawa, D.King, J.Thorner, and J.B.Ames (2007).
Structural insights into activation of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (Pik1) by yeast frequenin (Frq1).
  J Biol Chem, 282, 30949-30959.
PDB code: 2ju0
17603127 U.Nongthomba, M.Ansari, D.Thimmaiya, M.Stark, and J.Sparrow (2007).
Aberrant splicing of an alternative exon in the Drosophila troponin-T gene affects flight muscle development.
  Genetics, 177, 295-306.  
20477369 V.C.Vasile, and A.S.Jaffe (2007).
New potential uses for cardiac troponins.
  Biomark Med, 1, 491-501.  
16470090 A.M.Murphy (2006).
Heart failure, myocardial stunning, and troponin: a key regulator of the cardiac myofilament.
  Congest Heart Fail, 12, 32.  
17008370 B.Schoffstall, N.M.Brunet, S.Williams, V.F.Miller, A.T.Barnes, F.Wang, L.A.Compton, L.A.McFadden, D.W.Taylor, M.Seavy, R.Dhanarajan, and P.B.Chase (2006).
Ca2+ sensitivity of regulated cardiac thin filament sliding does not depend on myosin isoform.
  J Physiol, 577, 935-944.  
16186114 D.H.Heeley, B.Belknap, and H.D.White (2006).
Maximal activation of skeletal muscle thin filaments requires both rigor myosin S1 and calcium.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 668-676.  
16857209 D.R.Swartz, Z.Yang, A.Sen, S.B.Tikunova, and J.P.Davis (2006).
Myofibrillar troponin exists in three states and there is signal transduction along skeletal myofibrillar thin filaments.
  J Mol Biol, 361, 420-435.  
16957918 F.Capozzi, F.Casadei, and C.Luchinat (2006).
EF-hand protein dynamics and evolution of calcium signal transduction: an NMR view.
  J Biol Inorg Chem, 11, 949-962.  
16798729 I.W.Glaaser, J.R.Bankston, H.Liu, M.Tateyama, and R.S.Kass (2006).
A carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic interface is critical to sodium channel function. Relevance to inherited disorders.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 24015-24023.  
17020884 J.B.Ames, K.Levay, J.N.Wingard, J.D.Lusin, and V.Z.Slepak (2006).
Structural basis for calcium-induced inhibition of rhodopsin kinase by recoverin.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 37237-37245.
PDB code: 2i94
16258047 M.G.Bell, E.B.Lankford, G.E.Gonye, G.C.Ellis-Davies, D.A.Martyn, M.Regnier, and R.J.Barsotti (2006).
Kinetics of cardiac thin-filament activation probed by fluorescence polarization of rhodamine-labeled troponin C in skinned guinea pig trabeculae.
  Biophys J, 90, 531-543.  
16432210 M.Ikura, and J.B.Ames (2006).
Genetic polymorphism and protein conformational plasticity in the calmodulin superfamily: two ways to promote multifunctionality.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 1159-1164.  
16429145 S.M.Day, M.V.Westfall, E.V.Fomicheva, K.Hoyer, S.Yasuda, N.C.La Cross, L.G.D'Alecy, J.S.Ingwall, and J.M.Metzger (2006).
Histidine button engineered into cardiac troponin I protects the ischemic and failing heart.
  Nat Med, 12, 181-189.  
16980359 X.Lu, L.S.Tobacman, and M.Kawai (2006).
Temperature-dependence of isometric tension and cross-bridge kinetics of cardiac muscle fibers reconstituted with a tropomyosin internal deletion mutant.
  Biophys J, 91, 4230-4240.  
17101992 Y.B.Sun, B.Brandmeier, and M.Irving (2006).
Structural changes in troponin in response to Ca2+ and myosin binding to thin filaments during activation of skeletal muscle.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 17771-17776.  
16981728 Z.Zhang, B.J.Biesiadecki, and J.P.Jin (2006).
Selective deletion of the NH2-terminal variable region of cardiac troponin T in ischemia reperfusion by myofibril-associated mu-calpain cleavage.
  Biochemistry, 45, 11681-11694.  
15883223 A.J.Marian (2005).
On mice, rabbits, and human heart failure.
  Circulation, 111, 2276-2279.  
15670158 A.O.Tiroli, L.Tasic, C.L.Oliveira, C.Bloch, I.Torriani, C.S.Farah, and C.H.Ramos (2005).
Mapping contacts between regulatory domains of skeletal muscle TnC and TnI by analyses of single-chain chimeras.
  FEBS J, 272, 779-790.  
16326803 B.R.Ertz-Berger, H.He, C.Dowell, S.M.Factor, T.E.Haim, S.Nunez, S.D.Schwartz, J.S.Ingwall, and J.C.Tardiff (2005).
Changes in the chemical and dynamic properties of cardiac troponin T cause discrete cardiomyopathies in transgenic mice.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 18219-18224.  
16080151 H.Chen, and H.X.Zhou (2005).
Prediction of interface residues in protein-protein complexes by a consensus neural network method: test against NMR data.
  Proteins, 61, 21-35.  
15644437 H.Gong, V.Hatch, L.Ali, W.Lehman, R.Craig, and L.S.Tobacman (2005).
Mini-thin filaments regulated by troponin-tropomyosin.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 656-661.  
16128816 H.Tanaka, Y.Takeya, T.Doi, F.Yumoto, M.Tanokura, I.Ohtsuki, K.Nishita, and T.Ojima (2005).
Comparative studies on the functional roles of N- and C-terminal regions of molluskan and vertebrate troponin-I.
  FEBS J, 272, 4475-4486.  
15611140 J.C.Barbato, Q.Q.Huang, M.M.Hossain, M.Bond, J.P.Jin, and J.P.Jin (2005).
Proteolytic N-terminal truncation of cardiac troponin I enhances ventricular diastolic function.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 6602-6609.  
16416046 J.C.Tardiff (2005).
Sarcomeric proteins and familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: linking mutations in structural proteins to complex cardiovascular phenotypes.
  Heart Fail Rev, 10, 237-248.  
  16275971 L.Babuin, and A.S.Jaffe (2005).
Troponin: the biomarker of choice for the detection of cardiac injury.
  CMAJ, 173, 1191-1202.  
15923195 M.Mirza, S.Marston, R.Willott, C.Ashley, J.Mogensen, W.McKenna, P.Robinson, C.Redwood, and H.Watkins (2005).
Dilated cardiomyopathy mutations in three thin filament regulatory proteins result in a common functional phenotype.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 28498-28506.  
15784741 M.V.Vinogradova, D.B.Stone, G.G.Malanina, C.Karatzaferi, R.Cooke, R.A.Mendelson, and R.J.Fletterick (2005).
Ca(2+)-regulated structural changes in troponin.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 5038-5043.
PDB codes: 1ytz 1yv0
16115869 O.M.Hernandez, D.Szczesna-Cordary, B.C.Knollmann, T.Miller, M.Bell, J.Zhao, S.G.Sirenko, Z.Diaz, G.Guzman, Y.Xu, Y.Wang, W.G.Kerrick, and J.D.Potter (2005).
F110I and R278C troponin T mutations that cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy affect muscle contraction in transgenic mice and reconstituted human cardiac fibers.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 37183-37194.  
15743415 R.Ruksana, K.Kuroda, H.Terami, T.Bando, S.Kitaoka, T.Takaya, Y.Sakube, and H.Kagawa (2005).
Tissue expression of four troponin I genes and their molecular interactions with two troponin C isoforms in Caenorhabditis elegans.
  Genes Cells, 10, 261-276.  
  15507453 S.Mukhopadhyay, K.Langsetmo, W.F.Stafford, G.D.Henry, J.D.Baleja, and S.Sarkar (2005).
Identification of a region of fast skeletal troponin T required for stabilization of the coiled-coil formation with troponin I.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 538-547.  
  15507454 S.Sakthivel, N.L.Finley, P.R.Rosevear, J.N.Lorenz, J.Gulick, S.Kim, P.VanBuren, L.A.Martin, and J.Robbins (2005).
In vivo and in vitro analysis of cardiac troponin I phosphorylation.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 703-714.  
15709952 T.Kobayashi, and R.J.Solaro (2005).
Calcium, thin filaments, and the integrative biology of cardiac contractility.
  Annu Rev Physiol, 67, 39-67.  
15826946 T.M.Blumenschein, D.B.Stone, R.J.Fletterick, R.A.Mendelson, and B.D.Sykes (2005).
Calcium-dependent changes in the flexibility of the regulatory domain of troponin C in the troponin complex.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 21924-21932.  
15665378 X.Wang, Q.Q.Huang, M.T.Breckenridge, A.Chen, T.O.Crawford, D.H.Morton, and J.P.Jin (2005).
Cellular fate of truncated slow skeletal muscle troponin T produced by Glu180 nonsense mutation in amish nemaline myopathy.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 13241-13249.  
15548522 Y.Shitaka, C.Kimura, and M.Miki (2005).
The rates of switching movement of troponin T between three states of skeletal muscle thin filaments determined by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 2613-2619.  
14990488 A.Cammarato, V.Hatch, J.Saide, R.Craig, J.C.Sparrow, L.S.Tobacman, and W.Lehman (2004).
Drosophila muscle regulation characterized by electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of thin filament mutants.
  Biophys J, 86, 1618-1624.  
15525223 A.J.Marian, and V.Nambi (2004).
Biomarkers of cardiac disease.
  Expert Rev Mol Diagn, 4, 805-820.  
14747334 A.K.Burkeen, S.L.Maday, K.K.Rybicka, J.A.Sulcove, J.Ward, M.M.Huang, R.Barstead, C.Franzini-Armstrong, and T.S.Allen (2004).
Disruption of Caenorhabditis elegans muscle structure and function caused by mutation of troponin I.
  Biophys J, 86, 991.  
15201162 A.V.Gomes, and J.D.Potter (2004).
Molecular and cellular aspects of troponin cardiomyopathies.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1015, 214-224.  
14765112 B.Agianian, U.Krzic, F.Qiu, W.A.Linke, K.Leonard, and B.Bullard (2004).
A troponin switch that regulates muscle contraction by stretch instead of calcium.
  EMBO J, 23, 772-779.  
15568820 B.Gafurov, S.Fredricksen, A.Cai, B.Brenner, P.B.Chase, and J.M.Chalovich (2004).
The Delta 14 mutation of human cardiac troponin T enhances ATPase activity and alters the cooperative binding of S1-ADP to regulated actin.
  Biochemistry, 43, 15276-15285.  
14736877 B.J.Biesiadecki, K.L.Schneider, Z.B.Yu, S.M.Chong, J.P.Jin, and J.P.Jin (2004).
An R111C polymorphism in wild turkey cardiac troponin I accompanying the dilated cardiomyopathy-related abnormal splicing variant of cardiac troponin T with potentially compensatory effects.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 13825-13832.  
15457434 D.A.Lindhout, J.R.Litowski, P.Mercier, R.S.Hodges, and B.D.Sykes (2004).
NMR solution structure of a highly stable de novo heterodimeric coiled-coil.
  Biopolymers, 75, 367-375.
PDB code: 1u0i
15630612 J.R.Sellers (2004).
Fifty years of contractility research post sliding filament hypothesis.
  J Muscle Res Cell Motil, 25, 475-482.  
14722098 K.Harada, and J.D.Potter (2004).
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutations from different functional regions of troponin T result in different effects on the pH and Ca2+ sensitivity of cardiac muscle contraction.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 14488-14495.  
15631686 K.Harada, and S.Morimoto (2004).
Inherited cardiomyopathies as a troponin disease.
  Jpn J Physiol, 54, 307-318.  
14724287 L.M.Holthauzen, F.Corrêa, and C.S.Farah (2004).
Ca2+-induced rolling of tropomyosin in muscle thin filaments: the alpha- and beta-band hypothesis revisited.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 15204-15213.  
15201148 M.P.Sumandea, E.M.Burkart, T.Kobayashi, P.P.De Tombe, and R.J.Solaro (2004).
Molecular and integrated biology of thin filament protein phosphorylation in heart muscle.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1015, 39-52.  
15711886 M.X.Li, X.Wang, and B.D.Sykes (2004).
Structural based insights into the role of troponin in cardiac muscle pathophysiology.
  J Muscle Res Cell Motil, 25, 559-579.  
15485824 N.L.Finley, and P.R.Rosevear (2004).
Introduction of negative charge mimicking protein kinase C phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I. Effects on cardiac troponin C.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 54833-54840.  
15486021 R.D.Gaffin, C.W.Tong, D.C.Zawieja, T.E.Hewett, R.Klevitsky, J.Robbins, and M.Muthuchamy (2004).
Charged residue alterations in the inner-core domain and carboxy-terminus of alpha-tropomyosin differentially affect mouse cardiac muscle contractility.
  J Physiol, 561, 777-791.  
14752114 R.Maytum, F.Bathe, M.Konrad, and M.A.Geeves (2004).
Tropomyosin exon 6b is troponin-specific and required for correct acto-myosin regulation.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 18203-18209.  
15630610 W.Lehman, R.Craig, and J.Hanson (2004).
The structure of the vertebrate striated muscle thin filament: a tribute to the contributions of Jean Hanson.
  J Muscle Res Cell Motil, 25, 455-466.  
12886291 B.D.Sykes (2003).
Pulling the calcium trigger.
  Nat Struct Biol, 10, 588-589.  
14661957 M.X.Li, X.Wang, D.A.Lindhout, N.Buscemi, J.E.Van Eyk, and B.D.Sykes (2003).
Phosphorylation and mutation of human cardiac troponin I deferentially destabilize the interaction of the functional regions of troponin I with troponin C.
  Biochemistry, 42, 14460-14468.  
12909617 W.J.Dong, J.M.Robinson, J.Xing, and H.C.Cheung (2003).
Kinetics of conformational transitions in cardiac troponin induced by Ca2+ dissociation determined by Förster resonance energy transfer.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 42394-42402.  
14500764 X.Lu, L.S.Tobacman, and M.Kawai (2003).
Effects of tropomyosin internal deletion Delta23Tm on isometric tension and the cross-bridge kinetics in bovine myocardium.
  J Physiol, 553, 457-471.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.