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PDBsum entry 1d5r

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Hydrolase PDB id
1d5r
Jmol
Contents
Protein chain
307 a.a. *
Ligands
TLA
Waters ×382
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
1d5r
Name: Hydrolase
Title: Crystal structure of the pten tumor suppressor
Structure: Phosphoinositide phosphotase pten. Chain: a. Fragment: residues 7-353. Engineered: yes. Mutation: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Expressed in: trichoplusia ni. Expression_system_taxid: 7111. Expression_system_cell_line: high five.
Resolution:
2.10Å     R-factor:   0.224     R-free:   0.276
Authors: J.O.Lee,H.Yang,M.-M.Georgescu,A.Di Cristofano,N.P.Pavletich
Key ref:
J.O.Lee et al. (1999). Crystal structure of the PTEN tumor suppressor: implications for its phosphoinositide phosphatase activity and membrane association. Cell, 99, 323-334. PubMed id: 10555148 DOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81663-3
Date:
11-Oct-99     Release date:   04-Nov-99    
PROCHECK
Go to PROCHECK summary
 Headers
 References

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P60484  (PTEN_HUMAN) -  Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN
Seq:
Struc:
403 a.a.
307 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class 1: E.C.3.1.3.16  - Protein-serine/threonine phosphatase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: [a protein]-serine/threonine phosphate + H2O = [a protein]- serine/threonine + phosphate
[a protein]-serine/threonine phosphate
+ H(2)O
= [a protein]- serine/threonine
+ phosphate
   Enzyme class 2: E.C.3.1.3.48  - Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: Protein tyrosine phosphate + H2O = protein tyrosine + phosphate
Protein tyrosine phosphate
+ H(2)O
= protein tyrosine
+ phosphate
   Enzyme class 3: E.C.3.1.3.67  - Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]

      Pathway:
      Reaction: Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate + H2O = phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate + phosphate
Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate
+ H(2)O
= phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
+ phosphate
      Cofactor: Mg(2+)
Note, where more than one E.C. class is given (as above), each may correspond to a different protein domain or, in the case of polyprotein precursors, to a different mature protein.
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     dephosphorylation   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     phosphatase activity     3 terms  

 

 
    reference    
 
 
DOI no: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81663-3 Cell 99:323-334 (1999)
PubMed id: 10555148  
 
 
Crystal structure of the PTEN tumor suppressor: implications for its phosphoinositide phosphatase activity and membrane association.
J.O.Lee, H.Yang, M.M.Georgescu, A.Di Cristofano, T.Maehama, Y.Shi, J.E.Dixon, P.Pandolfi, N.P.Pavletich.
 
  ABSTRACT  
 
The PTEN tumor suppressor is mutated in diverse human cancers and in hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes. PTEN is a phosphatase that can act on both polypeptide and phosphoinositide substrates in vitro. The PTEN structure reveals a phosphatase domain that is similar to protein phosphatases but has an enlarged active site important for the accommodation of the phosphoinositide substrate. The structure also reveals that PTEN has a C2 domain. The PTEN C2 domain binds phospholipid membranes in vitro, and mutation of basic residues that could mediate this reduces PTEN's membrane affinity and its ability to suppress the growth of glioblastoma tumor cells. The phosphatase and C2 domains associate across an extensive interface, suggesting that the C2 domain may serve to productively position the catalytic domain on the membrane.
 
  Selected figure(s)  
 
Figure 2.
Figure 2. The PTEN Phosphatase Domain Has the Same Fold as the Dual Specificity Phosphatase VHR, but the Structure Differs around the Active Site(A) Superimposition of the PTEN phosphatase domain and VHR structures. The structural elements around the active site that differ in the two structures—the pβ2-α1, “TI”, and “WPD” loops—are in blue for PTEN and green for VHR.(B) Slice of the active site molecular surface, represented as a wire mesh, shows the larger size of the PTEN active site pocket compared to VHR and PTP1B. View is rotated approximately 180° about the vertical axis of Figure 2A.(C) Comparison of the active site structural elements and active site residues of PTEN, VHR, and PTP1B. Blue, green, and magenta spheres near the catalytic Cys-124 indicate the positions of a carboxylate carbon of tartrate in PTEN, the sulfur atom of sulfate in VHR, and the phosphorous atom of phosphotyrosine in PTP1B, respectively. PTEN residues are labeled, and residues of VHR and PTP1B are labeled only when they differ from PTEN. Orientation as in Figure 2B.(D) Close-up view of the PTEN active site, showing the contacts made with the tartrate molecule (green dotted lines). Fo-Fc difference electron density around the tartrate molecule is shown in magenta. The map was calculated at 2.1 Å using a PTEN model before any tartrate atoms were built; it was contoured at 2.5 σ.
Figure 6.
Figure 6. The PTEN Phosphatase and C2 Domains Pack across an Extensive Interface that Is Targeted by Tumorigenic Mutations(A) The interface consists of the “WPD” loop, “TI” loop, and pα6 helix from the phosphatase domain (blue), and cβ5, cβ6, cα1, and cα2 from the C2 domain (magenta). The hydrogen bond networks in the interface are shown as green dotted lines.(B) Superposition of PTEN (red) and PLCδ1 (green). Their C2 domains are shown as backbone traces, and their respective catalytic domains as dot surfaces. The active sites in both cases are located on the same face with the CBR3 loops.
 
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Cell Press: Cell (1999, 99, 323-334) copyright 1999.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
22562138 L.Liu, S.C.Kohout, Q.Xu, S.Müller, C.R.Kimberlin, E.Y.Isacoff, and D.L.Minor (2012).
A glutamate switch controls voltage-sensitive phosphatase function.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 19, 633-641.
PDB codes: 3v0d 3v0e 3v0f 3v0g 3v0h 3v0i 3v0j
22473468 M.S.Song, L.Salmena, and P.P.Pandolfi (2012).
The functions and regulation of the PTEN tumour suppressor.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 13, 283-296.  
21409566 C.Romá-Mateo, A.Sacristán-Reviriego, N.J.Beresford, J.A.Caparrós-Martín, F.A.Culiáñez-Macià, H.Martín, M.Molina, L.Tabernero, and R.Pulido (2011).
Phylogenetic and genetic linkage between novel atypical dual-specificity phosphatases from non-metazoan organisms.
  Mol Genet Genomics, 285, 341-354.  
21116717 G.Hou, Z.Lu, M.Liu, H.Liu, and L.Xue (2011).
Mutational analysis of the PTEN gene and its effects in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
  Dig Dis Sci, 56, 1315-1322.  
21556061 L.He, C.Fan, A.Kapoor, A.J.Ingram, A.P.Rybak, R.C.Austin, J.Dickhout, J.C.Cutz, J.Scholey, and D.Tang (2011).
α-Mannosidase 2C1 attenuates PTEN function in prostate cancer cells.
  Nat Commun, 2, 307.  
21430697 M.C.Hollander, G.M.Blumenthal, and P.A.Dennis (2011).
PTEN loss in the continuum of common cancers, rare syndromes and mouse models.
  Nat Rev Cancer, 11, 289-301.  
21236500 N.R.Leslie, and M.Foti (2011).
Non-genomic loss of PTEN function in cancer: not in my genes.
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 32, 131-140.  
20926450 X.He, Y.Ni, Y.Wang, T.Romigh, and C.Eng (2011).
Naturally occurring germline and tumor-associated mutations within the ATP-binding motifs of PTEN lead to oxidative damage of DNA associated with decreased nuclear p53.
  Hum Mol Genet, 20, 80-89.  
20389282 A.Manford, T.Xia, A.K.Saxena, C.Stefan, F.Hu, S.D.Emr, and Y.Mao (2010).
Crystal structure of the yeast Sac1: implications for its phosphoinositide phosphatase function.
  EMBO J, 29, 1489-1498.
PDB code: 3lwt
20679247 C.W.Vander Kooi, A.O.Taylor, R.M.Pace, D.A.Meekins, H.F.Guo, Y.Kim, and M.S.Gentry (2010).
Structural basis for the glucan phosphatase activity of Starch Excess4.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 15379-15384.
PDB code: 3nme
  20395445 H.Xia, W.Khalil, J.Kahm, J.Jessurun, J.Kleidon, and C.A.Henke (2010).
Pathologic caveolin-1 regulation of PTEN in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
  Am J Pathol, 176, 2626-2637.  
20300775 J.Yang, Y.Ren, L.Wang, B.Li, Y.Chen, W.Zhao, W.Xu, T.Li, and F.Dai (2010).
PTEN mutation spectrum in breast cancers and breast hyperplasia.
  J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 136, 1303-1311.  
19915616 L.Davidson, H.Maccario, N.M.Perera, X.Yang, L.Spinelli, P.Tibarewal, B.Glancy, A.Gray, C.J.Weijer, C.P.Downes, and N.R.Leslie (2010).
Suppression of cellular proliferation and invasion by the concerted lipid and protein phosphatase activities of PTEN.
  Oncogene, 29, 687-697.  
20458142 L.He, A.Ingram, A.P.Rybak, and D.Tang (2010).
Shank-interacting protein-like 1 promotes tumorigenesis via PTEN inhibition in human tumor cells.
  J Clin Invest, 120, 2094-2108.  
  20957047 M.Siepmann, S.Kumar, G.Mayer, and J.Walter (2010).
Casein kinase 2 dependent phosphorylation of neprilysin regulates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling to Akt.
  PLoS One, 5, 0.  
20718038 R.E.Redfern, M.C.Daou, L.Li, M.Munson, A.Gericke, and A.H.Ross (2010).
A mutant form of PTEN linked to autism.
  Protein Sci, 19, 1948-1956.  
20826345 R.Guan, H.Dai, D.Han, S.C.Harrison, and T.Kirchhausen (2010).
Structure of the PTEN-like region of auxilin, a detector of clathrin-coated vesicle budding.
  Structure, 18, 1191-1198.
PDB code: 3n0a
19747564 S.Hafizi, E.Sernstad, J.D.Swinny, M.F.Gomez, and B.Dahlbäck (2010).
Individual domains of Tensin2 exhibit distinct subcellular localisations and migratory effects.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 42, 52-61.  
20430845 T.Tian, K.J.Nan, S.H.Wang, X.Liang, C.X.Lu, H.Guo, W.J.Wang, and Z.P.Ruan (2010).
PTEN regulates angiogenesis and VEGF expression through phosphatase-dependent and -independent mechanisms in HepG2 cells.
  Carcinogenesis, 31, 1211-1219.  
21067594 Y.D.Kwak, T.Ma, S.Diao, X.Zhang, Y.Chen, J.Hsu, S.A.Lipton, E.Masliah, H.Xu, and F.F.Liao (2010).
NO signaling and S-nitrosylation regulate PTEN inhibition in neurodegeneration.
  Mol Neurodegener, 5, 49.  
20727040 Y.Yarkoni, A.Getahun, and J.C.Cambier (2010).
Molecular underpinning of B-cell anergy.
  Immunol Rev, 237, 249-263.  
19174524 A.H.Ross, and A.Gericke (2009).
Phosphorylation keeps PTEN phosphatase closed for business.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 1297-1298.  
19694723 A.Suwa, T.Yamamoto, A.Sawada, K.Minoura, N.Hosogai, A.Tahara, T.Kurama, T.Shimokawa, and I.Aramori (2009).
Discovery and functional characterization of a novel small molecule inhibitor of the intracellular phosphatase, SHIP2.
  Br J Pharmacol, 158, 879-887.  
19734154 B.Li, V.G.Krishnan, M.E.Mort, F.Xin, K.K.Kamati, D.N.Cooper, S.D.Mooney, and P.Radivojac (2009).
Automated inference of molecular mechanisms of disease from amino acid substitutions.
  Bioinformatics, 25, 2744-2750.  
  19564425 C.A.Villalba-Galea, F.Miceli, M.Taglialatela, and F.Bezanilla (2009).
Coupling between the voltage-sensing and phosphatase domains of Ci-VSP.
  J Gen Physiol, 134, 5.  
19211894 C.Gregorian, J.Nakashima, J.Le Belle, J.Ohab, R.Kim, A.Liu, K.B.Smith, M.Groszer, A.D.Garcia, M.V.Sofroniew, S.T.Carmichael, H.I.Kornblum, X.Liu, and H.Wu (2009).
Pten deletion in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances constitutive neurogenesis.
  J Neurosci, 29, 1874-1886.  
19415758 D.G.Jeong, S.K.Jung, T.S.Yoon, E.J.Woo, J.H.Kim, B.C.Park, S.E.Ryu, and S.J.Kim (2009).
Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human MKP-2 reveals a 24-mer assembly.
  Proteins, 76, 763-767.
PDB code: 3ezz
19225621 E.Meggers (2009).
Targeting proteins with metal complexes.
  Chem Commun (Camb), (), 1001-1010.  
19369943 J.Cao, J.Schulte, A.Knight, N.R.Leslie, A.Zagozdzon, R.Bronson, Y.Manevich, C.Beeson, and C.A.Neumann (2009).
Prdx1 inhibits tumorigenesis via regulating PTEN/AKT activity.
  EMBO J, 28, 1505-1517.  
19965465 J.D.Scott, and T.Pawson (2009).
Cell Signaling in Space and Time: Where Proteins Come Together and When They're Apart.
  Science, 326, 1220-1224.  
19653894 J.Liu, H.Lu, H.Ohgaki, A.Merlo, and Z.Shen (2009).
Alterations of BCCIP, a BRCA2 interacting protein, in astrocytomas.
  BMC Cancer, 9, 268.  
19794503 J.Zhou, and L.F.Parada (2009).
A motor driving PTEN.
  Nat Cell Biol, 11, 1177-1179.  
19114656 M.Rahdar, T.Inoue, T.Meyer, J.Zhang, F.Vazquez, and P.N.Devreotes (2009).
A phosphorylation-dependent intramolecular interaction regulates the membrane association and activity of the tumor suppressor PTEN.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 480-485.  
19818631 M.S.Gentry, J.E.Dixon, and C.A.Worby (2009).
Lafora disease: insights into neurodegeneration from plant metabolism.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 34, 628-639.  
18767981 N.Chalhoub, and S.J.Baker (2009).
PTEN and the PI3-kinase pathway in cancer.
  Annu Rev Pathol, 4, 127-150.  
19472188 P.Ramachandran, R.Barria, J.Ashley, and V.Budnik (2009).
A critical step for postsynaptic F-actin organization: Regulation of Baz/Par-3 localization by aPKC and PTEN.
  Dev Neurobiol, 69, 583-602.  
19754155 S.Hsu, Y.Kim, S.Li, E.S.Durrant, R.M.Pace, V.L.Woods, and M.S.Gentry (2009).
Structural insights into glucan phosphatase dynamics using amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.
  Biochemistry, 48, 9891-9902.  
19493313 S.V.Madhunapantula, and G.P.Robertson (2009).
The PTEN-AKT3 signaling cascade as a therapeutic target in melanoma.
  Pigment Cell Melanoma Res, 22, 400-419.  
19580826 T.Sasaki, S.Takasuga, J.Sasaki, S.Kofuji, S.Eguchi, M.Yamazaki, and A.Suzuki (2009).
Mammalian phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases.
  Prog Lipid Res, 48, 307-343.  
  19564424 Y.Okamura (2009).
Another story of arginines in voltage sensing: the role of phosphoinositides in coupling voltage sensing to enzyme activity.
  J Gen Physiol, 134, 1-4.  
18201277 A.Suzuki, T.Nakano, T.W.Mak, and T.Sasaki (2008).
Portrait of PTEN: messages from mutant mice.
  Cancer Sci, 99, 209-213.  
18536720 B.Heit, S.M.Robbins, C.M.Downey, Z.Guan, P.Colarusso, B.J.Miller, F.R.Jirik, and P.Kubes (2008).
PTEN functions to 'prioritize' chemotactic cues and prevent 'distraction' in migrating neutrophils.
  Nat Immunol, 9, 743-752.  
18332125 C.J.Chang, D.J.Mulholland, B.Valamehr, S.Mosessian, W.R.Sellers, and H.Wu (2008).
PTEN nuclear localization is regulated by oxidative stress and mediates p53-dependent tumor suppression.
  Mol Cell Biol, 28, 3281-3289.  
18416662 D.Haas-Kogan, and D.Stokoe (2008).
PTEN in brain tumors.
  Expert Rev Neurother, 8, 599-610.  
18433060 D.J.Aceti, E.Bitto, A.F.Yakunin, M.Proudfoot, C.A.Bingman, R.O.Frederick, H.K.Sreenath, F.C.Vojtik, R.L.Wrobel, B.G.Fox, J.L.Markley, and G.N.Phillips (2008).
Structural and functional characterization of a novel phosphatase from the Arabidopsis thaliana gene locus At1g05000.
  Proteins, 73, 241-253.
PDB code: 1xri
18604624 H.K.Siddall, C.E.Warrell, D.M.Yellon, and M.M.Mocanu (2008).
Ischemia-reperfusion injury and cardioprotection: investigating PTEN, the phosphatase that negatively regulates PI3K, using a congenital model of PTEN haploinsufficiency.
  Basic Res Cardiol, 103, 560-568.  
18759931 J.L.Buckler, X.Liu, and L.A.Turka (2008).
Regulation of T-cell responses by PTEN.
  Immunol Rev, 224, 239-248.  
18997061 J.W.Kim, K.H.Kang, P.Burrola, T.W.Mak, and G.Lemke (2008).
Retinal degeneration triggered by inactivation of PTEN in the retinal pigment epithelium.
  Genes Dev, 22, 3147-3157.  
18455982 L.Salmena, A.Carracedo, and P.P.Pandolfi (2008).
Tenets of PTEN tumor suppression.
  Cell, 133, 403-414.  
18794875 M.S.Orloff, and C.Eng (2008).
Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in the PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome.
  Oncogene, 27, 5387-5397.  
  19048075 N.J.Oviedo, B.J.Pearson, M.Levin, and A.Sánchez Alvarado (2008).
Planarian PTEN homologs regulate stem cells and regeneration through TOR signaling.
  Dis Model Mech, 1, 131-143.  
18794881 N.R.Leslie, I.H.Batty, H.Maccario, L.Davidson, and C.P.Downes (2008).
Understanding PTEN regulation: PIP2, polarity and protein stability.
  Oncogene, 27, 5464-5476.  
18321849 P.Song, Z.Xie, Y.Wu, J.Xu, Y.Dong, and M.H.Zou (2008).
Protein kinase Czeta-dependent LKB1 serine 428 phosphorylation increases LKB1 nucleus export and apoptosis in endothelial cells.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 12446-12455.  
18298792 R.Pulido, and R.Hooft van Huijsduijnen (2008).
Protein tyrosine phosphatases: dual-specificity phosphatases in health and disease.
  FEBS J, 275, 848-866.  
18084307 S.C.Kohout, M.H.Ulbrich, S.C.Bell, and E.Y.Isacoff (2008).
Subunit organization and functional transitions in Ci-VSP.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 15, 106-108.  
18671162 S.R.Kim, and Y.C.Lee (2008).
PTEN as a unique promising therapeutic target for occupational asthma.
  Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol, 30, 793-814.  
18794878 V.J.Cid, I.Rodríguez-Escudero, A.Andrés-Pons, C.Romá-Mateo, A.Gil, J.den Hertog, M.Molina, and R.Pulido (2008).
Assessment of PTEN tumor suppressor activity in nonmammalian models: the year of the yeast.
  Oncogene, 27, 5431-5442.  
18626510 X.Wang, and X.Jiang (2008).
PTEN: a default gate-keeping tumor suppressor with a versatile tail.
  Cell Res, 18, 807-816.  
18794880 X.Wang, and X.Jiang (2008).
Post-translational regulation of PTEN.
  Oncogene, 27, 5454-5463.  
18794879 Y.Yin, and W.H.Shen (2008).
PTEN: a new guardian of the genome.
  Oncogene, 27, 5443-5453.  
17186024 A.Gil, A.Andrés-Pons, and R.Pulido (2007).
Nuclear PTEN: a tale of many tails.
  Cell Death Differ, 14, 395-399.  
17078075 D.G.Jeong, Y.H.Cho, T.S.Yoon, J.H.Kim, S.E.Ryu, and S.J.Kim (2007).
Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human DUSP5, a dual specificity MAP kinase protein phosphatase.
  Proteins, 66, 253-258.
PDB code: 2g6z
18254244 H.B.Li, X.Yi, J.M.Gao, X.X.Ying, H.Q.Guan, and J.C.Li (2007).
Magnolol-induced H460 cells death via autophagy but not apoptosis.
  Arch Pharm Res, 30, 1566-1574.  
17173287 H.M.Chu, and A.H.Wang (2007).
Enzyme-substrate interactions revealed by the crystal structures of the archaeal Sulfolobus PTP-fold phosphatase and its phosphopeptide complexes.
  Proteins, 66, 996.
PDB codes: 2dxp 2i6i 2i6j 2i6m 2i6o 2i6p
17427195 J.D.Buxbaum, G.Cai, P.Chaste, G.Nygren, J.Goldsmith, J.Reichert, H.Anckarsäter, M.Rastam, C.J.Smith, J.M.Silverman, E.Hollander, M.Leboyer, C.Gillberg, A.Verloes, and C.Betancur (2007).
Mutation screening of the PTEN gene in patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly.
  Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet, 144, 484-491.  
18027876 J.He, S.de la Monte, and J.R.Wands (2007).
Acute ethanol exposure inhibits insulin signaling in the liver.
  Hepatology, 46, 1791-1800.  
  19079757 J.J.Falke (2007).
Membrane Recruitment as a Cancer Mechanism: A Case Study of Akt PH Domain.
  Cellscience, 4, 25-30.  
17922022 J.P.Lai, J.T.Dalton, and D.L.Knoell (2007).
Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) as a molecular target in lung epithelial wound repair.
  Br J Pharmacol, 152, 1172-1184.  
17473844 K.L.Jeffrey, M.Camps, C.Rommel, and C.R.Mackay (2007).
Targeting dual-specificity phosphatases: manipulating MAP kinase signalling and immune responses.
  Nat Rev Drug Discov, 6, 391-403.  
17218261 L.C.Trotman, X.Wang, A.Alimonti, Z.Chen, J.Teruya-Feldstein, H.Yang, N.P.Pavletich, B.S.Carver, C.Cordon-Cardo, H.Erdjument-Bromage, P.Tempst, S.G.Chi, H.J.Kim, T.Misteli, X.Jiang, and P.P.Pandolfi (2007).
Ubiquitination regulates PTEN nuclear import and tumor suppression.
  Cell, 128, 141-156.  
17565999 L.Odriozola, G.Singh, T.Hoang, and A.M.Chan (2007).
Regulation of PTEN activity by its carboxyl-terminal autoinhibitory domain.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 23306-23315.  
17508027 L.Salmena, and P.P.Pandolfi (2007).
Changing venues for tumour suppression: balancing destruction and localization by monoubiquitylation.
  Nat Rev Cancer, 7, 409-413.  
17433073 M.A.Riehle, and J.M.Brown (2007).
Characterization of phosphatase and tensin homolog expression in the mosquito Aedes aegypti: six splice variants with developmental and tissue specificity.
  Insect Mol Biol, 16, 277-286.  
17894888 M.C.Dery, C.Van Themsche, D.Provencher, A.M.Mes-Masson, and E.Asselin (2007).
Characterization of EN-1078D, a poorly differentiated human endometrial carcinoma cell line: a novel tool to study endometrial invasion in vitro.
  Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 5, 38.  
17922021 M.Zhao (2007).
PTEN: a promising pharmacological target to enhance epithelial wound healing.
  Br J Pharmacol, 152, 1141-1144.  
17240336 N.R.Leslie, X.Yang, C.P.Downes, and C.J.Weijer (2007).
PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)-dependent and -independent roles for PTEN in the control of cell migration.
  Curr Biol, 17, 115-125.  
18039372 R.Brenchley, H.Tariq, H.McElhinney, B.Szöor, J.Huxley-Jones, R.Stevens, K.Matthews, and L.Tabernero (2007).
The TriTryp phosphatome: analysis of the protein phosphatase catalytic domains.
  BMC Genomics, 8, 434.  
17044055 S.J.Kim, D.G.Jeong, T.S.Yoon, J.H.Son, S.K.Cho, S.E.Ryu, and J.H.Kim (2007).
Crystal structure of human TMDP, a testis-specific dual specificity protein phosphatase: implications for substrate specificity.
  Proteins, 66, 239-245.
PDB code: 2gwo
17427953 S.K.Jung, D.G.Jeong, T.S.Yoon, J.H.Kim, S.E.Ryu, and S.J.Kim (2007).
Crystal structure of human slingshot phosphatase 2.
  Proteins, 68, 408-412.
PDB code: 2nt2
17360437 S.W.Min, W.P.Chang, and T.C.Südhof (2007).
E-Syts, a family of membranous Ca2+-sensor proteins with multiple C2 domains.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 3823-3828.  
17526801 W.H.Tan, H.N.Baris, P.E.Burrows, C.D.Robson, A.I.Alomari, J.B.Mulliken, S.J.Fishman, and M.B.Irons (2007).
The spectrum of vascular anomalies in patients with PTEN mutations: implications for diagnosis and management.
  J Med Genet, 44, 594-602.  
17400920 X.Tao, and L.Tong (2007).
Crystal structure of the MAP kinase binding domain and the catalytic domain of human MKP5.
  Protein Sci, 16, 880-886.
PDB codes: 2ouc 2oud
18021457 Y.C.Yang, T.C.Ho, S.L.Chen, H.Y.Lai, J.Y.Wu, and Y.P.Tsao (2007).
Inhibition of cell motility by troglitazone in human ovarian carcinoma cell line.
  BMC Cancer, 7, 216.  
17347852 Y.Okamura (2007).
Biodiversity of voltage sensor domain proteins.
  Pflugers Arch, 454, 361-371.  
16807353 A.Gil, A.Andrés-Pons, E.Fernández, M.Valiente, J.Torres, J.Cervera, and R.Pulido (2006).
Nuclear localization of PTEN by a Ran-dependent mechanism enhances apoptosis: Involvement of an N-terminal nuclear localization domain and multiple nuclear exclusion motifs.
  Mol Biol Cell, 17, 4002-4013.  
16755629 A.M.Riley, M.Trusselle, P.Kuad, M.Borkovec, J.Cho, J.H.Choi, X.Qian, S.B.Shears, B.Spiess, and B.V.Potter (2006).
scyllo-inositol pentakisphosphate as an analogue of myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate: chemical synthesis, physicochemistry and biological applications.
  Chembiochem, 7, 1114-1122.  
16287065 B.I.Bertelsen, S.J.Steine, R.Sandvei, A.Molven, and O.D.Laerum (2006).
Molecular analysis of the PI3K-AKT pathway in uterine cervical neoplasia: frequent PIK3CA amplification and AKT phosphorylation.
  Int J Cancer, 118, 1877-1883.  
16515600 C.P.Gomes, and L.A.Andrade (2006).
PTEN and p53 expression in primary ovarian carcinomas: immunohistochemical study and discussion of pathogenetic mechanisms.
  Int J Gynecol Cancer, 16, 254-258.  
16699184 D.G.Jeong, Y.H.Cho, T.S.Yoon, J.H.Kim, J.H.Son, S.E.Ryu, and S.J.Kim (2006).
Structure of human DSP18, a member of the dual-specificity protein tyrosine phosphatase family.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 62, 582-588.
PDB code: 2esb
16612540 E.Baudry, M.Desmadril, and J.H.Werren (2006).
Rapid adaptive evolution of the tumor suppressor gene Pten in an insect lineage.
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16537447 F.Vazquez, S.Matsuoka, W.R.Sellers, T.Yanagida, M.Ueda, and P.N.Devreotes (2006).
Tumor suppressor PTEN acts through dynamic interaction with the plasma membrane.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 3633-3638.  
16938887 J.Liu, L.Wang, J.Harvey-White, D.Osei-Hyiaman, R.Razdan, Q.Gong, A.C.Chan, Z.Zhou, B.X.Huang, H.Y.Kim, and G.Kunos (2006).
A biosynthetic pathway for anandamide.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 13345-13350.  
16293612 J.R.Giorgione, J.H.Lin, J.A.McCammon, and A.C.Newton (2006).
Increased membrane affinity of the C1 domain of protein kinase Cdelta compensates for the lack of involvement of its C2 domain in membrane recruitment.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 1660-1669.  
16829519 K.Okumura, M.Mendoza, R.M.Bachoo, R.A.DePinho, W.K.Cavenee, and F.B.Furnari (2006).
PCAF modulates PTEN activity.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 26562-26568.  
16373498 M.Groszer, R.Erickson, D.D.Scripture-Adams, J.D.Dougherty, J.Le Belle, J.A.Zack, D.H.Geschwind, X.Liu, H.I.Kornblum, and H.Wu (2006).
PTEN negatively regulates neural stem cell self-renewal by modulating G0-G1 cell cycle entry.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 111-116.  
16798879 R.H.Massol, W.Boll, A.M.Griffin, and T.Kirchhausen (2006).
A burst of auxilin recruitment determines the onset of clathrin-coated vesicle uncoating.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 10265-10270.  
17013611 V.Schick, M.Majores, G.Engels, S.Spitoni, A.Koch, C.E.Elger, M.Simon, C.Knobbe, I.Blümcke, and A.J.Becker (2006).
Activation of Akt independent of PTEN and CTMP tumor-suppressor gene mutations in epilepsy-associated Taylor-type focal cortical dysplasias.
  Acta Neuropathol, 112, 715-725.  
16426222 Y.Kanae, D.Endoh, H.Yokota, H.Taniyama, and M.Hayashi (2006).
Expression of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in malignant mammary gland tumors of dogs.
  Am J Vet Res, 67, 127-133.  
16456542 Y.Takahashi, F.C.Morales, E.L.Kreimann, and M.M.Georgescu (2006).
PTEN tumor suppressor associates with NHERF proteins to attenuate PDGF receptor signaling.
  EMBO J, 25, 910-920.  
15713658 A.Changela, A.Martins, S.Shuman, and A.Mondragón (2005).
Crystal structure of baculovirus RNA triphosphatase complexed with phosphate.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 17848-17856.
PDB code: 1yn9
15890001 A.Salmeen, and D.Barford (2005).
Functions and mechanisms of redox regulation of cysteine-based phosphatases.
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15717329 D.K.Crockett, G.C.Fillmore, K.S.Elenitoba-Johnson, and M.S.Lim (2005).
Analysis of phosphatase and tensin homolog tumor suppressor interacting proteins by in vitro and in silico proteomics.
  Proteomics, 5, 1250-1262.  
15710873 D.Stokoe, and J.F.Costello (2005).
Phosphatase and tensin homologue growth suppression without phosphatase.
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16088943 F.Liu, S.Wagner, R.B.Campbell, J.A.Nickerson, C.A.Schiffer, and A.H.Ross (2005).
PTEN enters the nucleus by diffusion.
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15716355 I.Ivetac, A.D.Munday, M.V.Kisseleva, X.M.Zhang, S.Luff, T.Tiganis, J.C.Whisstock, T.Rowe, P.W.Majerus, and C.A.Mitchell (2005).
The type Ialpha inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase generates and terminates phosphoinositide 3-kinase signals on endosomes and the plasma membrane.
  Mol Biol Cell, 16, 2218-2233.  
16193492 J.A.Croushore, B.Blasiole, R.C.Riddle, C.Thisse, B.Thisse, V.A.Canfield, G.P.Robertson, K.C.Cheng, and R.Levenson (2005).
Ptena and ptenb genes play distinct roles in zebrafish embryogenesis.
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15988030 J.L.Liu, X.Sheng, Z.K.Hortobagyi, Z.Mao, G.E.Gallick, and W.K.Yung (2005).
Nuclear PTEN-mediated growth suppression is independent of Akt down-regulation.
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15659546 K.Okumura, M.Zhao, R.A.Depinho, F.B.Furnari, and W.K.Cavenee (2005).
Cellular transformation by the MSP58 oncogene is inhibited by its physical interaction with the PTEN tumor suppressor.
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15951562 M.Valiente, A.Andrés-Pons, B.Gomar, J.Torres, A.Gil, C.Tapparel, S.E.Antonarakis, and R.Pulido (2005).
Binding of PTEN to specific PDZ domains contributes to PTEN protein stability and phosphorylation by microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinases.
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15528213 O.H.Shin, W.Han, Y.Wang, and T.C.Südhof (2005).
Evolutionarily conserved multiple C2 domain proteins with two transmembrane regions (MCTPs) and unusual Ca2+ binding properties.
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15632144 P.C.Stolt, Y.Chen, P.Liu, H.H.Bock, S.C.Blacklow, and J.Herz (2005).
Phosphoinositide binding by the disabled-1 PTB domain is necessary for membrane localization and Reelin signal transduction.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 9671-9677.  
15780595 S.G.Rhee, S.W.Kang, W.Jeong, T.S.Chang, K.S.Yang, and H.A.Woo (2005).
Intracellular messenger function of hydrogen peroxide and its regulation by peroxiredoxins.
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16170801 T.S.Yoon, D.G.Jeong, J.H.Kim, Y.H.Cho, J.H.Son, J.W.Lee, S.E.Ryu, and S.J.Kim (2005).
Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human VHY, a dual-specificity protein phosphatase.
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PDB code: 1yz4
15764699 T.Sanchez, S.Thangada, M.T.Wu, C.D.Kontos, D.Wu, H.Wu, and T.Hla (2005).
PTEN as an effector in the signaling of antimigratory G protein-coupled receptor.
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15869386 W.Cho, and R.V.Stahelin (2005).
Membrane-protein interactions in cell signaling and membrane trafficking.
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Phosphoinositide phosphatase activity coupled to an intrinsic voltage sensor.
  Nature, 435, 1239-1243.  
16288286 Z.Lian, and A.Di Cristofano (2005).
Class reunion: PTEN joins the nuclear crew.
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  15578447 Z.Z.Chong, F.Li, and K.Maiese (2005).
Activating Akt and the brain's resources to drive cellular survival and prevent inflammatory injury.
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15882775 Z.Z.Chong, F.Li, and K.Maiese (2005).
Oxidative stress in the brain: novel cellular targets that govern survival during neurodegenerative disease.
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15201283 A.Alonso, S.Burkhalter, J.Sasin, L.Tautz, J.Bogetz, H.Huynh, M.C.Bremer, L.J.Holsinger, A.Godzik, and T.Mustelin (2004).
The minimal essential core of a cysteine-based protein-tyrosine phosphatase revealed by a novel 16-kDa VH1-like phosphatase, VHZ.
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15247229 D.J.Pagliarini, C.A.Worby, and J.E.Dixon (2004).
A PTEN-like phosphatase with a novel substrate specificity.
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14561749 E.A.Orchiston, D.Bennett, N.R.Leslie, R.G.Clarke, L.Winward, C.P.Downes, and S.T.Safrany (2004).
PTEN M-CBR3, a versatile and selective regulator of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5). Evidence for Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 as a proliferative signal.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 1116-1122.  
15256004 F.Cvrcková, M.Novotný, D.Pícková, and V.Zárský (2004).
Formin homology 2 domains occur in multiple contexts in angiosperms.
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14704153 G.Kozlov, J.Cheng, E.Ziomek, D.Banville, K.Gehring, and I.Ekiel (2004).
Structural insights into molecular function of the metastasis-associated phosphatase PRL-3.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 11882-11889.
PDB code: 1r6h
14726521 H.Huang, D.C.Muddiman, and D.J.Tindall (2004).
Androgens negatively regulate forkhead transcription factor FKHR (FOXO1) through a proteolytic mechanism in prostate cancer cells.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 13866-13877.  
15534200 J.Kwon, S.R.Lee, K.S.Yang, Y.Ahn, Y.J.Kim, E.R.Stadtman, and S.G.Rhee (2004).
Reversible oxidation and inactivation of the tumor suppressor PTEN in cells stimulated with peptide growth factors.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 16419-16424.  
14718524 L.Mahimainathan, and G.G.Choudhury (2004).
Inactivation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor by the tumor suppressor PTEN provides a novel mechanism of action of the phosphatase.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 15258-15268.  
14764604 M.Iijima, Y.E.Huang, H.R.Luo, F.Vazquez, and P.N.Devreotes (2004).
Novel mechanism of PTEN regulation by its phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding motif is critical for chemotaxis.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 16606-16613.  
14976311 M.Raftopoulou, S.Etienne-Manneville, A.Self, S.Nicholls, and A.Hall (2004).
Regulation of cell migration by the C2 domain of the tumor suppressor PTEN.
  Science, 303, 1179-1181.  
14749127 M.Sumitomo, A.Iwase, R.Zheng, D.Navarro, D.Kaminetzky, R.Shen, M.M.Georgescu, and D.M.Nanus (2004).
Synergy in tumor suppression by direct interaction of neutral endopeptidase with PTEN.
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15249580 P.Mitra, Y.Zhang, L.E.Rameh, M.P.Ivshina, D.McCollum, J.J.Nunnari, G.M.Hendricks, M.L.Kerr, S.J.Field, L.C.Cantley, and A.H.Ross (2004).
A novel phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)P3 pathway in fission yeast.
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15078904 R.Dunn, D.A.Klos, A.S.Adler, and L.Hicke (2004).
The C2 domain of the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase binds membrane phosphoinositides and directs ubiquitination of endosomal cargo.
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15209376 R.Parsons (2004).
Human cancer, PTEN and the PI-3 kinase pathway.
  Semin Cell Dev Biol, 15, 171-176.  
14993900 S.J.Baker, and P.J.McKinnon (2004).
Tumour-suppressor function in the nervous system.
  Nat Rev Cancer, 4, 184-196.  
15128740 W.Q.Wang, J.Bembenek, K.R.Gee, H.Yu, H.Charbonneau, and Z.Y.Zhang (2004).
Kinetic and mechanistic studies of a cell cycle protein phosphatase Cdc14.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 30459-30468.  
12802008 A.Oganesian, M.Poot, G.Daum, S.A.Coats, M.B.Wright, R.A.Seifert, and D.F.Bowen-Pope (2003).
Protein tyrosine phosphatase RQ is a phosphatidylinositol phosphatase that can regulate cell survival and proliferation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 7563-7568.  
12917336 A.Radu, V.Neubauer, T.Akagi, H.Hanafusa, and M.M.Georgescu (2003).
PTEN induces cell cycle arrest by decreasing the level and nuclear localization of cyclin D1.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 6139-6149.  
14675182 A.Vega, J.Torres, M.Torres, J.Cameselle-Teijeiro, M.Macia, A.Carracedo, and R.Pulido (2003).
A novel loss-of-function mutation (N48K) in the PTEN gene in a Spanish patient with Cowden disease.
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12938083 C.Eng (2003).
PTEN: one gene, many syndromes.
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12853468 C.H.Gray, V.M.Good, N.K.Tonks, and D.Barford (2003).
The structure of the cell cycle protein Cdc14 reveals a proline-directed protein phosphatase.
  EMBO J, 22, 3524-3535.
PDB codes: 1ohc 1ohd 1ohe
12620407 D.J.Freeman, A.G.Li, G.Wei, H.H.Li, N.Kertesz, R.Lesche, A.D.Whale, H.Martinez-Diaz, N.Rozengurt, R.D.Cardiff, X.Liu, and H.Wu (2003).
PTEN tumor suppressor regulates p53 protein levels and activity through phosphatase-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
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12573692 J.H.Hurley (2003).
Membrane proteins: adapting to life at the interface.
  Chem Biol, 10, 2-3.  
12788938 J.Torres, J.Rodriguez, M.P.Myers, M.Valiente, J.D.Graves, N.K.Tonks, and R.Pulido (2003).
Phosphorylation-regulated cleavage of the tumor suppressor PTEN by caspase-3: implications for the control of protein stability and PTEN-protein interactions.
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12620402 L.C.Trotman, and P.P.Pandolfi (2003).
PTEN and p53: who will get the upper hand?
  Cancer Cell, 3, 97-99.  
12670397 M.C.Seminario, and R.L.Wange (2003).
Lipid phosphatases in the regulation of T cell activation: living up to their PTEN-tial.
  Immunol Rev, 192, 80-97.  
14690594 M.J.Begley, G.S.Taylor, S.A.Kim, D.M.Veine, J.E.Dixon, and J.A.Stuckey (2003).
Crystal structure of a phosphoinositide phosphatase, MTMR2: insights into myotubular myopathy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome.
  Mol Cell, 12, 1391-1402.
PDB codes: 1lw3 1m7r
12857747 R.B.Campbell, F.Liu, and A.H.Ross (2003).
Allosteric activation of PTEN phosphatase by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 33617-33620.  
12808147 S.Das, J.E.Dixon, and W.Cho (2003).
Membrane-binding and activation mechanism of PTEN.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 7491-7496.  
12878591 S.Merlot, R.Meili, D.J.Pagliarini, T.Maehama, J.E.Dixon, and R.A.Firtel (2003).
A PTEN-related 5-phosphatidylinositol phosphatase localized in the Golgi.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 39866-39873.  
12569575 W.Shi, X.Zhang, M.Pintilie, N.Ma, N.Miller, D.Banerjee, M.S.Tsao, T.Mak, A.Fyles, and F.F.Liu (2003).
Dysregulated PTEN-PKB and negative receptor status in human breast cancer.
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12869565 Y.Lu, Q.Yu, J.H.Liu, J.Zhang, H.Wang, D.Koul, J.S.McMurray, X.Fang, W.K.Yung, K.A.Siminovitch, and G.B.Mills (2003).
Src family protein-tyrosine kinases alter the function of PTEN to regulate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT cascades.
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12084351 C.B.Knobbe, A.Merlo, and G.Reifenberger (2002).
Pten signaling in gliomas.
  Neuro Oncol, 4, 196-211.  
12151385 C.Suzuki, G.Murakami, M.Fukuchi, T.Shimanuki, Y.Shikauchi, T.Imamura, and K.Miyazono (2002).
Smurf1 regulates the inhibitory activity of Smad7 by targeting Smad7 to the plasma membrane.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 39919-39925.  
12085208 F.J.Staal, R.B.van der Luijt, M.R.Baert, J.van Drunen, H.van Bakel, E.Peters, I.de Valk, H.K.van Amstel, M.J.Taphoorn, G.H.Jansen, C.W.van Veelen, B.Burgering, and G.E.Staal (2002).
A novel germline mutation of PTEN associated with brain tumours of multiple lineages.
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11875759 K.A.Waite, and C.Eng (2002).
Protean PTEN: form and function.
  Am J Hum Genet, 70, 829-844.  
12062103 M.Iijima, and P.Devreotes (2002).
Tumor suppressor PTEN mediates sensing of chemoattractant gradients.
  Cell, 109, 599-610.  
12495846 M.J.Wishart, and J.E.Dixon (2002).
PTEN and myotubularin phosphatases: from 3-phosphoinositide dephosphorylation to disease.
  Trends Cell Biol, 12, 579-585.  
12367630 S.Backman, V.Stambolic, and T.Mak (2002).
PTEN function in mammalian cell size regulation.
  Curr Opin Neurobiol, 12, 516-522.  
11916965 S.R.Lee, K.S.Yang, J.Kwon, C.Lee, W.Jeong, and S.G.Rhee (2002).
Reversible inactivation of the tumor suppressor PTEN by H2O2.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 20336-20342.  
  12163369 X.P.Zhou, A.Loukola, R.Salovaara, M.Nystrom-Lahti, P.Peltomäki, A.de la Chapelle, L.A.Aaltonen, and C.Eng (2002).
PTEN mutational spectra, expression levels, and subcellular localization in microsatellite stable and unstable colorectal cancers.
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12209607 Y.Kanamori, J.Kigawa, H.Itamochi, H.Sultana, M.Suzuki, M.Ohwada, T.Kamura, T.Sugiyama, Y.Kikuchi, T.Kita, K.Fujiwara, and N.Terakawa (2002).
PTEN expression is associated with prognosis for patients with advanced endometrial carcinoma undergoing postoperative chemotherapy.
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12177006 Z.Yu, N.Fotouhi-Ardakani, L.Wu, M.Maoui, S.Wang, D.Banville, and S.H.Shen (2002).
PTEN associates with the vault particles in HeLa cells.
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Structure and mechanism of the RNA triphosphatase component of mammalian mRNA capping enzyme.
  EMBO J, 20, 2575-2586.
PDB codes: 1i9s 1i9t
11395417 B.Vanhaesebroeck, S.J.Leevers, K.Ahmadi, J.Timms, R.Katso, P.C.Driscoll, R.Woscholski, P.J.Parker, and M.D.Waterfield (2001).
Synthesis and function of 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids.
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PTEN is a target of chromosome 10q loss in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and PTEN alterations are associated with poor prognosis.
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Structural characterization of the C2 domain of novel protein kinase Cepsilon.
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11248551 M.J.Wishart, G.S.Taylor, J.T.Slama, and J.E.Dixon (2001).
PTEN and myotubularin phosphoinositide phosphatases: bringing bioinformatics to the lab bench.
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11698660 M.S.Bennett, Z.Guan, M.Laurberg, and X.D.Su (2001).
Bacillus subtilis arsenate reductase is structurally and functionally similar to low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 13577-13582.
PDB code: 1jl3
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Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent membrane recruitment of p62(dok) is essential for its negative effect on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation.
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12084298 P.E.Li, and P.S.Nelson (2001).
Prostate cancer genomics.
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11274365 S.Wen, J.Stolarov, M.P.Myers, J.D.Su, M.H.Wigler, N.K.Tonks, and D.L.Durden (2001).
PTEN controls tumor-induced angiogenesis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 4622-4627.  
11395408 T.Maehama, G.S.Taylor, and J.E.Dixon (2001).
PTEN and myotubularin: novel phosphoinositide phosphatases.
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11707646 T.Schöndorf, M.Becker, U.J.Göhring, B.Wappenschmidt, H.Kolhagen, and C.M.Kurbacher (2001).
Interaction of cisplatin, paclitaxel and adriamycin with the tumor suppressor PTEN.
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3-Deoxy-3-substituted-D-myo-inositol imidazolyl ether lipid phosphates and carbonate as inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and cancer cell growth.
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The multiple roles of PTEN in tumor suppression.
  Cell, 100, 387-390.  
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Phosphorylation of the PTEN tail regulates protein stability and function.
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10900271 G.S.Taylor, T.Maehama, and J.E.Dixon (2000).
Inaugural article: myotubularin, a protein tyrosine phosphatase mutated in myotubular myopathy, dephosphorylates the lipid second messenger, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 8910-8915.  
10807691 I.De Vivo, D.M.Gertig, S.Nagase, S.E.Hankinson, R.O'Brien, F.E.Speizer, R.Parsons, and D.J.Hunter (2000).
Novel germline mutations in the PTEN tumour suppressor gene found in women with multiple cancers.
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Floundering about at cell membranes: a structural view of phospholipid signaling.
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11073996 N.Nakamura, S.Ramaswamy, F.Vazquez, S.Signoretti, M.Loda, and W.R.Sellers (2000).
Forkhead transcription factors are critical effectors of cell death and cell cycle arrest downstream of PTEN.
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11094066 P.F.Dijkers, R.H.Medema, C.Pals, L.Banerji, N.S.Thomas, E.W.Lam, B.M.Burgering, J.A.Raaijmakers, J.W.Lammers, L.Koenderman, and P.J.Coffer (2000).
Forkhead transcription factor FKHR-L1 modulates cytokine-dependent transcriptional regulation of p27(KIP1).
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 9138-9148.  
10993660 R.M.Sharrard, and N.J.Maitland (2000).
Phenotypic effects of overexpression of the MMAC1 gene in prostate epithelial cells.
  Br J Cancer, 83, 1102-1109.  
10958682 V.Taylor, M.Wong, C.Brandts, L.Reilly, N.M.Dean, L.M.Cowsert, S.Moodie, and D.Stokoe (2000).
5' phospholipid phosphatase SHIP-2 causes protein kinase B inactivation and cell cycle arrest in glioblastoma cells.
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10760291 X.Wu, K.Hepner, S.Castelino-Prabhu, D.Do, M.B.Kaye, X.J.Yuan, J.Wood, C.Ross, C.L.Sawyers, and Y.E.Whang (2000).
Evidence for regulation of the PTEN tumor suppressor by a membrane-localized multi-PDZ domain containing scaffold protein MAGI-2.
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The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.