PDBsum entry 1c26

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Gene regulation PDB id
Protein chain
32 a.a. *
Waters ×37
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Gene regulation
Title: Crystal structure of p53 tetramerization domain
Structure: P53 tumor suppressor. Chain: a. Fragment: tetramerization domain. Engineered: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562.
Biol. unit: Tetramer (from PDB file)
1.70Å     R-factor:   0.192    
Authors: P.D.Jeffrey,S.Gorina,N.P.Pavletich
Key ref: P.D.Jeffrey et al. (1995). Crystal structure of the tetramerization domain of the p53 tumor suppressor at 1.7 angstroms. Science, 267, 1498-1502. PubMed id: 7878469 DOI: 10.1126/science.7878469
22-Jul-99     Release date:   27-Jul-99    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P04637  (P53_HUMAN) -  Cellular tumor antigen p53
393 a.a.
32 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     nucleus   1 term 
  Biological process     apoptotic process   3 terms 
  Biochemical function     DNA binding     2 terms  


DOI no: 10.1126/science.7878469 Science 267:1498-1502 (1995)
PubMed id: 7878469  
Crystal structure of the tetramerization domain of the p53 tumor suppressor at 1.7 angstroms.
P.D.Jeffrey, S.Gorina, N.P.Pavletich.
The p53 protein is a tetrameric transcription factor that plays a central role in the prevention of neoplastic transformation. Oligomerization appears to be essential for the tumor suppressing activity of p53 because oligomerization-deficient p53 mutants cannot suppress the growth of carcinoma cell lines. The crystal structure of the tetramerization domain of p53 (residues 325 to 356) was determined at 1.7 angstrom resolution and refined to a crystallographic R factor of 19.2 percent. The monomer, which consists of a beta strand and an alpha helix, associates with a second monomer across an antiparallel beta sheet and an antiparallel helix-helix interface to form a dimer. Two of these dimers associate across a second and distinct parallel helix-helix interface to form the tetramer.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21172423 A.S.Bayden, V.A.Yakovlev, P.R.Graves, R.B.Mikkelsen, and G.E.Kellogg (2011).
Factors influencing protein tyrosine nitration--structure-based predictive models.
  Free Radic Biol Med, 50, 749-762.  
21335238 G.B.Deutsch, E.M.Zielonka, D.Coutandin, T.A.Weber, B.Schäfer, J.Hannewald, L.M.Luh, F.G.Durst, M.Ibrahim, J.Hoffmann, F.H.Niesen, A.Sentürk, H.Kunkel, B.Brutschy, E.Schleiff, S.Knapp, A.Acker-Palmer, M.Grez, F.McKeon, and V.Dötsch (2011).
DNA damage in oocytes induces a switch of the quality control factor TAp63α from dimer to tetramer.
  Cell, 144, 566-576.  
21338609 N.Khazanov, and Y.Levy (2011).
Sliding of p53 along DNA can be modulated by its oligomeric state and by cross-talks between its constituent domains.
  J Mol Biol, 408, 335-355.  
21178074 R.Melero, S.Rajagopalan, M.Lázaro, A.C.Joerger, T.Brandt, D.B.Veprintsev, G.Lasso, D.Gil, S.H.Scheres, J.M.Carazo, A.R.Fersht, and M.Valle (2011).
Electron microscopy studies on the quaternary structure of p53 reveal different binding modes for p53 tetramers in complex with DNA.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108, 557-562.  
21522129 T.J.Petty, S.Emamzadah, L.Costantino, I.Petkova, E.S.Stavridi, J.G.Saven, E.Vauthey, and T.D.Halazonetis (2011).
An induced fit mechanism regulates p53 DNA binding kinetics to confer sequence specificity.
  EMBO J, 30, 2167-2176.
PDB codes: 3q01 3q05 3q06
21049125 V.N.Uversky (2011).
Multitude of binding modes attainable by intrinsically disordered proteins: a portrait gallery of disorder-based complexes.
  Chem Soc Rev, 40, 1623-1634.  
  20516128 A.C.Joerger, and A.R.Fersht (2010).
The tumor suppressor p53: from structures to drug discovery.
  Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol, 2, a000919.  
20644729 A.Yang, Z.Zhu, A.Kettenbach, P.Kapranov, F.McKeon, T.R.Gingeras, and K.Struhl (2010).
Genome-wide mapping indicates that p73 and p63 co-occupy target sites and have similar dna-binding profiles in vivo.
  PLoS One, 5, e11572.  
20696896 D.Coutandin, H.Der Ou, F.Löhr, and V.Dötsch (2010).
Tracing the protectors path from the germ line to the genome.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 15318-15325.  
19887449 G.Sahu, D.Wang, C.B.Chen, V.B.Zhurkin, R.E.Harrington, E.Appella, G.L.Hager, and A.K.Nagaich (2010).
p53 binding to nucleosomal DNA depends on the rotational positioning of DNA response element.
  J Biol Chem, 285, 1321-1332.  
20656489 M.M.Maslon, and T.R.Hupp (2010).
Drug discovery and mutant p53.
  Trends Cell Biol, 20, 542-555.  
21086029 P.W.Chun, and M.S.Lewis (2010).
Planck-Benzinger thermal work function: thermodynamic characterization of the carboxy-terminus of p53 peptide fragments.
  Protein J, 29, 617-630.  
19953346 S.M.Ortigosa, A.Fernández-San Millán, and J.Veramendi (2010).
Stable production of peptide antigens in transgenic tobacco chloroplasts by fusion to the p53 tetramerisation domain.
  Transgenic Res, 19, 703-709.  
  20516129 V.A.Belyi, P.Ak, E.Markert, H.Wang, W.Hu, A.Puzio-Kuter, and A.J.Levine (2010).
The origins and evolution of the p53 family of genes.
  Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol, 2, a001198.  
19815500 A.C.Joerger, S.Rajagopalan, E.Natan, D.B.Veprintsev, C.V.Robinson, and A.R.Fersht (2009).
Structural evolution of p53, p63, and p73: implication for heterotetramer formation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 17705-17710.
PDB codes: 2wqi 2wqj 2wtt
19286366 A.L.Okorokov, and E.V.Orlova (2009).
Structural biology of the p53 tumour suppressor.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 19, 197-202.  
19763140 D.Coutandin, F.Löhr, F.H.Niesen, T.Ikeya, T.A.Weber, B.Schäfer, E.M.Zielonka, A.N.Bullock, A.Yang, P.Güntert, S.Knapp, F.McKeon, H.D.Ou, and V.Dötsch (2009).
Conformational stability and activity of p73 require a second helix in the tetramerization domain.
  Cell Death Differ, 16, 1582-1589.
PDB code: 2kby
18978813 K.A.Malecka, W.C.Ho, and R.Marmorstein (2009).
Crystal structure of a p53 core tetramer bound to DNA.
  Oncogene, 28, 325-333.
PDB codes: 3exj 3exl
19690369 S.Emamzadah, T.J.Petty, V.De Almeida, T.Nishimura, J.Joly, J.L.Ferrer, and T.D.Halazonetis (2009).
Cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics for protein crystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 65, 913-920.  
20030809 T.Brandt, M.Petrovich, A.C.Joerger, and D.B.Veprintsev (2009).
Conservation of DNA-binding specificity and oligomerisation properties within the p53 family.
  BMC Genomics, 10, 628.  
19393630 T.M.Webber, A.C.Allen, W.K.Ma, R.G.Molloy, C.N.Kettelkamp, C.A.Dow, and M.J.Gage (2009).
Conformational detection of p53's oligomeric state by FlAsH Fluorescence.
  Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 384, 66-70.  
18781628 T.Nomura, R.Kamada, I.Ito, Y.Chuman, Y.Shimohigashi, and K.Sakaguchi (2009).
Oxidation of methionine residue at hydrophobic core destabilizes p53 tetrameric structure.
  Biopolymers, 91, 78-84.  
19826090 V.A.Belyi, and A.J.Levine (2009).
One billion years of p53/p63/p73 evolution.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 17609-17610.  
19106109 Y.Itahana, H.Ke, and Y.Zhang (2009).
p53 Oligomerization is essential for its C-terminal lysine acetylation.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 5158-5164.  
18410249 A.C.Joerger, and A.R.Fersht (2008).
Structural biology of the tumor suppressor p53.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 77, 557-582.  
18366598 C.J.Oldfield, J.Meng, J.Y.Yang, M.Q.Yang, V.N.Uversky, and A.K.Dunker (2008).
Flexible nets: disorder and induced fit in the associations of p53 and 14-3-3 with their partners.
  BMC Genomics, 9, S1.  
18453682 C.Tu, Y.H.Tan, G.Shaw, Z.Zhou, Y.Bai, R.Luo, and X.Ji (2008).
Impact of low-frequency hotspot mutation R282Q on the structure of p53 DNA-binding domain as revealed by crystallography at 1.54 angstroms resolution.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 64, 471-477.
PDB code: 2pcx
18714371 J.J.Jordan, D.Menendez, A.Inga, M.Nourredine, D.Bell, and M.A.Resnick (2008).
Noncanonical DNA motifs as transactivation targets by wild type and mutant p53.
  PLoS Genet, 4, e1000104.  
18515283 M.E.Castro, J.F.Leal, M.E.Lleonart, S.Ramon Y Cajal, and A.Carnero (2008).
Loss-of-function genetic screening identifies a cluster of ribosomal proteins regulating p53 function.
  Carcinogenesis, 29, 1343-1350.  
18076077 P.Mora, R.J.Carbajo, A.Pineda-Lucena, M.M.Sánchez del Pino, and E.Pérez-Payá (2008).
Solvent-exposed residues located in the beta-sheet modulate the stability of the tetramerization domain of p53--a structural and combinatorial approach.
  Proteins, 71, 1670-1685.
PDB codes: 2j0z 2j10 2j11
18189286 R.Gabizon, M.Mor, M.M.Rosenberg, L.Britan, Z.Hayouka, M.Kotler, D.E.Shalev, and A.Friedler (2008).
Using peptides to study the interaction between the p53 tetramerization domain and HIV-1 Tat.
  Biopolymers, 90, 105-116.  
18803266 R.H.Chen, C.T.Chang, T.Y.Wang, W.L.Huang, C.H.Tsai, and F.J.Tsai (2008).
p53 codon 72 proline/arginine polymorphism and autoimmune thyroid diseases.
  J Clin Lab Anal, 22, 321-326.  
18940924 S.Gordo, V.Martos, E.Santos, M.Menéndez, C.Bo, E.Giralt, and Mendoza (2008).
Stability and structural recovery of the tetramerization domain of p53-R337H mutant induced by a designed templating ligand.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 16426-16431.  
18199664 S.Rigacci, M.Bucciantini, A.Relini, A.Pesce, A.Gliozzi, A.Berti, and M.Stefani (2008).
The (1-63) region of the p53 transactivation domain aggregates in vitro into cytotoxic amyloid assemblies.
  Biophys J, 94, 3635-3646.  
17290219 C.J.Matheny, M.E.Speck, P.R.Cushing, Y.Zhou, T.Corpora, M.Regan, M.Newman, L.Roudaia, C.L.Speck, T.L.Gu, S.M.Griffey, J.H.Bushweller, and N.A.Speck (2007).
Disease mutations in RUNX1 and RUNX2 create nonfunctional, dominant-negative, or hypomorphic alleles.
  EMBO J, 26, 1163-1175.  
17581633 H.D.Ou, F.Löhr, V.Vogel, W.Mäntele, and V.Dötsch (2007).
Structural evolution of C-terminal domains in the p53 family.
  EMBO J, 26, 3463-3473.
PDB codes: 2rp4 2rp5
17620598 H.Tidow, R.Melero, E.Mylonas, S.M.Freund, J.G.Grossmann, J.M.Carazo, D.I.Svergun, M.Valle, and A.R.Fersht (2007).
Quaternary structures of tumor suppressor p53 and a specific p53 DNA complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 12324-12329.  
17417775 K.Otsuka, S.Kato, Y.Kakudo, S.Mashiko, H.Shibata, and C.Ishioka (2007).
The screening of the second-site suppressor mutations of the common p53 mutants.
  Int J Cancer, 121, 559-566.  
18282133 P.M.Chumakov (2007).
Versatile functions of p53 protein in multicellular organisms.
  Biochemistry (Mosc), 72, 1399-1421.  
18087040 R.S.Foo, Y.J.Nam, M.J.Ostreicher, M.D.Metzl, R.S.Whelan, C.F.Peng, A.W.Ashton, W.Fu, K.Mani, S.F.Chin, E.Provenzano, I.Ellis, N.Figg, S.Pinder, M.R.Bennett, C.Caldas, and R.N.Kitsis (2007).
Regulation of p53 tetramerization and nuclear export by ARC.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 20826-20831.  
17900613 T.Z.Lwin, J.J.Durant, and D.Bashford (2007).
A fluid salt-bridging cluster and the stabilization of p53.
  J Mol Biol, 373, 1334-1347.  
17703463 V.De Grandis, A.R.Bizzarri, and S.Cannistraro (2007).
Docking study and free energy simulation of the complex between p53 DNA-binding domain and azurin.
  J Mol Recognit, 20, 215-226.  
17392367 W.Bu, K.D.Carroll, D.Palmeri, and D.M.Lukac (2007).
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 ORF50/Rta lytic switch protein functions as a tetramer.
  J Virol, 81, 5788-5806.  
17327663 Y.Wang, A.Rosengarth, and H.Luecke (2007).
Structure of the human p53 core domain in the absence of DNA.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 63, 276-281.
PDB code: 2ocj
17640907 Z.Shakked (2007).
Quaternary structure of p53: the light at the end of the tunnel.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 12231-12232.  
17015838 A.C.Joerger, H.C.Ang, and A.R.Fersht (2006).
Structural basis for understanding oncogenic p53 mutations and designing rescue drugs.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 15056-15061.
PDB codes: 2j1w 2j1x 2j1y 2j1z 2j20 2j21
17053786 A.L.Okorokov, M.B.Sherman, C.Plisson, V.Grinkevich, K.Sigmundsson, G.Selivanova, J.Milner, and E.V.Orlova (2006).
The structure of p53 tumour suppressor protein reveals the basis for its functional plasticity.
  EMBO J, 25, 5191-5200.  
16903909 B.Li, A.Samanta, X.Song, K.Furuuchi, K.T.Iacono, S.Kennedy, M.Katsumata, S.J.Saouaf, and M.I.Greene (2006).
FOXP3 ensembles in T-cell regulation.
  Immunol Rev, 212, 99.  
16575406 G.M.Wahl (2006).
Mouse bites dogma: how mouse models are changing our views of how P53 is regulated in vivo.
  Cell Death Differ, 13, 973-983.  
16757565 H.You, K.Yamamoto, and T.W.Mak (2006).
Regulation of transactivation-independent proapoptotic activity of p53 by FOXO3a.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 9051-9056.  
20141510 J.Deng, R.Dayam, and N.Neamati (2006).
Patented small molecule inhibitors of p53-MDM2 interaction.
  Expert Opin Ther Pat, 16, 165-188.  
17054774 L.O.Baumbusch, S.Myhre, A.Langerød, A.Bergamaschi, S.B.Geisler, P.E.Lønning, W.Deppert, I.Dornreiter, and A.L.Børresen-Dale (2006).
Expression of full-length p53 and its isoform Deltap53 in breast carcinomas in relation to mutation status and clinical parameters.
  Mol Cancer, 5, 47.  
16983711 L.Römer, C.Klein, A.Dehner, H.Kessler, and J.Buchner (2006).
p53--a natural cancer killer: structural insights and therapeutic concepts.
  Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 45, 6440-6460.  
16793544 M.Kitayner, H.Rozenberg, N.Kessler, D.Rabinovich, L.Shaulov, T.E.Haran, and Z.Shakked (2006).
Structural basis of DNA recognition by p53 tetramers.
  Mol Cell, 22, 741-753.
PDB codes: 2ac0 2ady 2ahi 2ata
16807229 N.Kantarci, P.Doruker, and T.Haliloglu (2006).
Cooperative fluctuations point to the dimerization interface of p53 core domain.
  Biophys J, 91, 421-432.  
16575405 O.Laptenko, and C.Prives (2006).
Transcriptional regulation by p53: one protein, many possibilities.
  Cell Death Differ, 13, 951-961.  
16462939 S.B.Nabuurs, C.A.Spronk, G.W.Vuister, and G.Vriend (2006).
Traditional biomolecular structure determination by NMR spectroscopy allows for major errors.
  PLoS Comput Biol, 2, e9.  
16641528 S.P.Hussain, and C.C.Harris (2006).
p53 biological network: at the crossroads of the cellular-stress response pathway and molecular carcinogenesis.
  J Nippon Med Sch, 73, 54-64.  
16460008 Y.Higashimoto, Y.Asanomi, S.Takakusagi, M.S.Lewis, K.Uosaki, S.R.Durell, C.W.Anderson, E.Appella, and K.Sakaguchi (2006).
Unfolding, aggregation, and amyloid formation by the tetramerization domain from mutant p53 associated with lung cancer.
  Biochemistry, 45, 1608-1619.  
16035029 A.Dehner, C.Klein, S.Hansen, L.Müller, J.Buchner, M.Schwaiger, and H.Kessler (2005).
Cooperative binding of p53 to DNA: regulation by protein-protein interactions through a double salt bridge.
  Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 44, 5247-5251.  
16138303 A.Dehner, and H.Kessler (2005).
Diffusion NMR spectroscopy: folding and aggregation of domains in p53.
  Chembiochem, 6, 1550-1565.  
16204849 B.Ma, Y.Pan, K.Gunasekaran, O.Keskin, R.B.Venkataraghavan, A.J.Levine, and R.Nussinov (2005).
The contribution of the Trp/Met/Phe residues to physical interactions of p53 with cellular proteins.
  Phys Biol, 2, S56-S66.  
15738397 B.Ma, Y.Pan, K.Gunasekaran, R.B.Venkataraghavan, A.J.Levine, and R.Nussinov (2005).
Comparison of the protein-protein interfaces in the p53-DNA crystal structures: towards elucidation of the biological interface.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 3988-3993.  
16260757 C.Galea, P.Bowman, and R.W.Kriwacki (2005).
Disruption of an intermonomer salt bridge in the p53 tetramerization domain results in an increased propensity to form amyloid fibrils.
  Protein Sci, 14, 2993-3003.  
15969767 D.H.Dreyfus, M.Nagasawa, E.W.Gelfand, and L.Y.Ghoda (2005).
Modulation of p53 activity by IkappaBalpha: evidence suggesting a common phylogeny between NF-kappaB and p53 transcription factors.
  BMC Immunol, 6, 12.  
16869788 D.P.Lane (2005).
Exploiting the p53 pathway for the diagnosis and therapy of human cancer.
  Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 70, 489-497.  
15723359 J.Duan, and L.Nilsson (2005).
Thermal unfolding simulations of a multimeric protein--transition state and unfolding pathways.
  Proteins, 59, 170-182.  
16007150 T.Kawaguchi, S.Kato, K.Otsuka, G.Watanabe, T.Kumabe, T.Tominaga, T.Yoshimoto, and C.Ishioka (2005).
The relationship among p53 oligomer formation, structure and transcriptional activity using a comprehensive missense mutation library.
  Oncogene, 24, 6976-6981.  
16094605 V.N.Uversky, C.J.Oldfield, and A.K.Dunker (2005).
Showing your ID: intrinsic disorder as an ID for recognition, regulation and cell signaling.
  J Mol Recognit, 18, 343-384.  
15863617 W.Feng, J.F.Long, and M.Zhang (2005).
A unified assembly mode revealed by the structures of tetrameric L27 domain complexes formed by mLin-2/mLin-7 and Patj/Pals1 scaffold proteins.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 6861-6866.
PDB codes: 1y74 1y76
15607981 G.A.Lang, T.Iwakuma, Y.A.Suh, G.Liu, V.A.Rao, J.M.Parant, Y.A.Valentin-Vega, T.Terzian, L.C.Caldwell, L.C.Strong, A.K.El-Naggar, and G.Lozano (2004).
Gain of function of a p53 hot spot mutation in a mouse model of Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  Cell, 119, 861-872.  
15509798 K.G.McLure, M.Takagi, and M.B.Kastan (2004).
NAD+ modulates p53 DNA binding specificity and function.
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 9958-9967.  
15558054 N.Issaeva, P.Bozko, M.Enge, M.Protopopova, L.G.Verhoef, M.Masucci, A.Pramanik, and G.Selivanova (2004).
Small molecule RITA binds to p53, blocks p53-HDM-2 interaction and activates p53 function in tumors.
  Nat Med, 10, 1321-1328.  
15367600 S.Borah, S.C.Verma, and E.S.Robertson (2004).
ORF73 of herpesvirus saimiri, a viral homolog of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, modulates the two cellular tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRb.
  J Virol, 78, 10336-10347.  
15060172 W.M.Chan, W.Y.Siu, A.Lau, and R.Y.Poon (2004).
How many mutant p53 molecules are needed to inactivate a tetramer?
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 3536-3551.  
12581658 K.Ogata, K.Sato, T.H.Tahirov, and T.Tahirov (2003).
Eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory complexes: cooperativity from near and afar.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 13, 40-48.  
12672954 N.Sogame, M.Kim, and J.M.Abrams (2003).
Drosophila p53 preserves genomic stability by regulating cell death.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 4696-4701.  
12826609 S.Kato, S.Y.Han, W.Liu, K.Otsuka, H.Shibata, R.Kanamaru, and C.Ishioka (2003).
Understanding the function-structure and function-mutation relationships of p53 tumor suppressor protein by high-resolution missense mutation analysis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 8424-8429.  
  14573481 Z.Yang, S.Ro, and B.Rannala (2003).
Likelihood models of somatic mutation and codon substitution in cancer genes.
  Genetics, 165, 695-705.  
11793474 A.C.Martin, A.M.Facchiano, A.L.Cuff, T.Hernandez-Boussard, M.Olivier, P.Hainaut, and J.M.Thornton (2002).
Integrating mutation data and structural analysis of the TP53 tumor-suppressor protein.
  Hum Mutat, 19, 149-164.  
11753428 E.L.DiGiammarino, A.S.Lee, C.Cadwell, W.Zhang, B.Bothner, R.C.Ribeiro, G.Zambetti, and R.W.Kriwacki (2002).
A novel mechanism of tumorigenesis involving pH-dependent destabilization of a mutant p53 tetramer.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 12-16.  
11917017 J.D.Wright, S.Y.Noskov, and C.Lim (2002).
Factors governing loss and rescue of DNA binding upon single and double mutations in the p53 core domain.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 30, 1563-1574.  
11222313 A.R.Völkel, and J.Noolandi (2001).
Meanfield approach to the thermodynamics of protein-solvent systems with application to p53.
  Biophys J, 80, 1524-1537.  
11342217 C.C.Wetzel, and S.J.Berberich (2001).
p53 binds to cisplatin-damaged DNA.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1517, 392-397.  
11604520 H.Poulsen, J.Nilsson, C.K.Damgaard, J.Egebjerg, and J.Kjems (2001).
CRM1 mediates the export of ADAR1 through a nuclear export signal within the Z-DNA binding domain.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 7862-7871.  
11713288 J.Gu, L.Nie, D.Wiederschain, and Z.M.Yuan (2001).
Identification of p53 sequence elements that are required for MDM2-mediated nuclear export.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 8533-8546.  
11559355 J.L.Neira, and M.G.Mateu (2001).
Hydrogen exchange of the tetramerization domain of the human tumour suppressor p53 probed by denaturants and temperature.
  Eur J Biochem, 268, 4868-4877.  
11481490 R.C.Ribeiro, F.Sandrini, B.Figueiredo, G.P.Zambetti, E.Michalkiewicz, A.R.Lafferty, L.DeLacerda, M.Rabin, C.Cadwell, G.Sampaio, I.Cat, C.A.Stratakis, and R.Sandrini (2001).
An inherited p53 mutation that contributes in a tissue-specific manner to pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 9330-9335.  
  11452014 T.Y.Kim, and W.G.Kaelin (2001).
Differential control of transcription by DNA-bound cyclins.
  Mol Biol Cell, 12, 2207-2217.  
11752443 X.Jiang, J.N.Buxbaum, and J.W.Kelly (2001).
The V122I cardiomyopathy variant of transthyretin increases the velocity of rate-limiting tetramer dissociation, resulting in accelerated amyloidosis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 14943-14948.  
11041875 D.H.Kim, D.S.Jang, G.H.Nam, S.Yun, J.H.Cho, G.Choi, H.C.Lee, and K.Y.Choi (2000).
Equilibrium and kinetic analysis of folding of ketosteroid isomerase from Comamonas testosteroni.
  Biochemistry, 39, 13084-13092.  
10653977 J.Atz, P.Wagner, and K.Roemer (2000).
Function, oligomerization, and conformation of tumor-associated p53 proteins with mutated C-terminus.
  J Cell Biochem, 76, 572-584.  
10860994 S.Jin, S.Martinek, W.S.Joo, J.R.Wortman, N.Mirkovic, A.Sali, M.D.Yandell, N.P.Pavletich, M.W.Young, and A.J.Levine (2000).
Identification and characterization of a p53 homologue in Drosophila melanogaster.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 7301-7306.  
10882117 S.Minucci, M.Maccarana, M.Cioce, P.De Luca, V.Gelmetti, S.Segalla, L.Di Croce, S.Giavara, C.Matteucci, A.Gobbi, A.Bianchini, E.Colombo, I.Schiavoni, G.Badaracco, X.Hu, M.A.Lazar, N.Landsberger, C.Nervi, and P.G.Pelicci (2000).
Oligomerization of RAR and AML1 transcription factors as a novel mechanism of oncogenic activation.
  Mol Cell, 5, 811-820.  
11092918 Y.W.Chen, and G.M.Clore (2000).
A systematic case study on using NMR models for molecular replacement: p53 tetramerization domain revisited.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 56, 1535-1540.  
  10523638 A.L.Okorokov, and J.Milner (1999).
An ATP/ADP-dependent molecular switch regulates the stability of p53-DNA complexes.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 7501-7510.  
  9891077 C.J.Di Como, C.Gaiddon, and C.Prives (1999).
p73 function is inhibited by tumor-derived p53 mutants in mammalian cells.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 1438-1449.  
10341712 C.Prives, and P.A.Hall (1999).
The p53 pathway.
  J Pathol, 187, 112-126.  
  10493578 E.S.Stavridi, N.H.Chehab, L.C.Caruso, and T.D.Halazonetis (1999).
Change in oligomerization specificity of the p53 tetramerization domain by hydrophobic amino acid substitutions.
  Protein Sci, 8, 1773-1779.  
  10211819 I.Matsumura, and A.D.Ellington (1999).
In vitro evolution of thermostable p53 variants.
  Protein Sci, 8, 731-740.  
10075936 J.M.Stommel, N.D.Marchenko, G.S.Jimenez, U.M.Moll, T.J.Hope, and G.M.Wahl (1999).
A leucine-rich nuclear export signal in the p53 tetramerization domain: regulation of subcellular localization and p53 activity by NES masking.
  EMBO J, 18, 1660-1672.  
10588737 J.Yu, L.Zhang, P.M.Hwang, C.Rago, K.W.Kinzler, and B.Vogelstein (1999).
Identification and classification of p53-regulated genes.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 14517-14522.  
10488331 K.Rittinger, J.Budman, J.Xu, S.Volinia, L.C.Cantley, S.J.Smerdon, S.J.Gamblin, and M.B.Yaffe (1999).
Structural analysis of 14-3-3 phosphopeptide complexes identifies a dual role for the nuclear export signal of 14-3-3 in ligand binding.
  Mol Cell, 4, 153-166.
PDB codes: 1qja 1qjb
  9891054 L.Liu, D.M.Scolnick, R.C.Trievel, H.B.Zhang, R.Marmorstein, T.D.Halazonetis, and S.L.Berger (1999).
p53 sites acetylated in vitro by PCAF and p300 are acetylated in vivo in response to DNA damage.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 1202-1209.  
10097082 M.G.Mateu, and A.R.Fersht (1999).
Mutually compensatory mutations during evolution of the tetramerization domain of tumor suppressor p53 lead to impaired hetero-oligomerization.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 3595-3599.  
10202145 S.Y.Shieh, Y.Taya, and C.Prives (1999).
DNA damage-inducible phosphorylation of p53 at N-terminal sites including a novel site, Ser20, requires tetramerization.
  EMBO J, 18, 1815-1823.  
10200270 U.P.Kelavkar, and K.F.Badr (1999).
Effects of mutant p53 expression on human 15-lipoxygenase-promoter activity and murine 12/15-lipoxygenase gene expression: evidence that 15-lipoxygenase is a mutator gene.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 4378-4383.  
10203277 W.G.Kaelin (1999).
The emerging p53 gene family.
  J Natl Cancer Inst, 91, 594-598.  
10619603 Y.N.Vaishnav, and V.Pant (1999).
Differential regulation of E2F transcription factors by p53 tumor suppressor protein.
  DNA Cell Biol, 18, 911-922.  
9600920 B.F.Müller-Tiemann, T.D.Halazonetis, and J.J.Elting (1998).
Identification of an additional negative regulatory region for p53 sequence-specific DNA binding.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 6079-6084.  
9766574 C.Rollenhagen, and P.Chène (1998).
Characterization of p53 mutants identified in human tumors with a missense mutation in the tetramerization domain.
  Int J Cancer, 78, 372-376.  
9421473 E.Conseiller, L.Debussche, D.Landais, C.Venot, M.Maratrat, V.Sierra, B.Tocque, and L.Bracco (1998).
CTS1: a p53-derived chimeric tumor suppressor gene with enhanced in vitro apoptotic properties.
  J Clin Invest, 101, 120-127.  
  9819412 G.Chen, P.H.Nguyen, and A.J.Courey (1998).
A role for Groucho tetramerization in transcriptional repression.
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9628871 K.G.McLure, and P.W.Lee (1998).
How p53 binds DNA as a tetramer.
  EMBO J, 17, 3342-3350.  
  9525640 M.E.Martin, and A.J.Berk (1998).
Adenovirus E1B 55K represses p53 activation in vitro.
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9582268 M.G.Mateu, and A.R.Fersht (1998).
Nine hydrophobic side chains are key determinants of the thermodynamic stability and oligomerization status of tumour suppressor p53 tetramerization domain.
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  9632756 M.W.Frazier, X.He, J.Wang, Z.Gu, J.L.Cleveland, and G.P.Zambetti (1998).
Activation of c-myc gene expression by tumor-derived p53 mutants requires a discrete C-terminal domain.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 3735-3743.  
9761820 P.R.Mittl, P.Chène, and M.G.Grütter (1998).
Crystallization and structure solution of p53 (residues 326-356) by molecular replacement using an NMR model as template.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 54, 86-89.
PDB code: 1aie
  9708447 S.E.Bray, C.Schorl, and P.A.Hall (1998).
The challenge of p53: linking biochemistry, biology, and patient management.
  Stem Cells, 16, 248-260.  
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p53, the cellular gatekeeper for growth and division.
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  9154813 B.M.Fontoura, C.A.Atienza, E.A.Sorokina, T.Morimoto, and R.B.Carroll (1997).
Cytoplasmic p53 polypeptide is associated with ribosomes.
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9183006 C.Delphin, K.P.Huang, C.Scotto, A.Chapel, M.Vincon, E.Chambaz, J.Garin, and J.Baudier (1997).
The in vitro phosphorylation of p53 by calcium-dependent protein kinase C--characterization of a protein-kinase-C-binding site on p53.
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  9218725 J.M.Varley, D.G.Evans, and J.M.Birch (1997).
Li-Fraumeni syndrome--a molecular and clinical review.
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9667874 J.P.Wery, and R.W.Schevitz (1997).
New trends in macromolecular X-ray crystallography.
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9254608 K.Sakaguchi, H.Sakamoto, M.S.Lewis, C.W.Anderson, J.W.Erickson, E.Appella, and D.Xie (1997).
Phosphorylation of serine 392 stabilizes the tetramer formation of tumor suppressor protein p53.
  Biochemistry, 36, 10117-10124.  
9321402 M.McCoy, E.S.Stavridi, J.L.Waterman, A.M.Wieczorek, S.J.Opella, and T.D.Halazonetis (1997).
Hydrophobic side-chain size is a determinant of the three-dimensional structure of the p53 oligomerization domain.
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PDB code: 1a1u
  8972219 Q.Wang, G.P.Zambetti, and D.P.Suttle (1997).
Inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II alpha gene expression by the p53 tumor suppressor.
  Mol Cell Biol, 17, 389-397.  
9130695 S.Rüdiger, L.Germeroth, J.Schneider-Mergener, and B.Bukau (1997).
Substrate specificity of the DnaK chaperone determined by screening cellulose-bound peptide libraries.
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  8562328 C.C.Harris (1996).
The 1995 Walter Hubert Lecture--molecular epidemiology of human cancer: insights from the mutational analysis of the p53 tumour-suppressor gene.
  Br J Cancer, 73, 261-269.  
8772134 H.Oberleithner, S.Schneider, and J.O.Bustamante (1996).
Atomic force microscopy visualizes ATP-dependent dissociation of multimeric TATA-binding protein before translocation into the cell nucleus.
  Pflugers Arch, 432, 839-844.  
  8645583 K.Nylander, E.B.Schildt, M.Eriksson, A.Magnusson, C.Mehle, and G.Roos (1996).
A non-random deletion in the p53 gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
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8633039 L.T.Da Costa, J.Jen, T.C.He, T.A.Chan, K.W.Kinzler, and B.Vogelstein (1996).
Converting cancer genes into killer genes.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 4192-4196.  
  8612585 T.Léveillard, L.Andera, N.Bissonnette, L.Schaeffer, L.Bracco, J.M.Egly, and B.Wasylyk (1996).
Functional interactions between p53 and the TFIIH complex are affected by tumour-associated mutations.
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8672531 T.M.Gottlieb, and M.Oren (1996).
p53 in growth control and neoplasia.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1287, 77.  
  8575189 A.M.Gronenborn, and G.M.Clore (1995).
Structures of protein complexes by multidimensional heteronuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
  Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol, 30, 351-385.  
7600571 J.Jayaraman, and C.Prives (1995).
Activation of p53 sequence-specific DNA binding by short single strands of DNA requires the p53 C-terminus.
  Cell, 81, 1021-1029.  
7568153 M.Reed, B.Woelker, P.Wang, Y.Wang, M.E.Anderson, and P.Tegtmeyer (1995).
The C-terminal domain of p53 recognizes DNA damaged by ionizing radiation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 9455-9459.  
7567980 P.Balagurumoorthy, H.Sakamoto, M.S.Lewis, N.Zambrano, G.M.Clore, A.M.Gronenborn, E.Appella, and R.E.Harrington (1995).
Four p53 DNA-binding domain peptides bind natural p53-response elements and bend the DNA.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 8591-8595.  
  7651437 S.K.Thukral, Y.Lu, G.C.Blain, T.S.Harvey, and V.L.Jacobsen (1995).
Discrimination of DNA binding sites by mutant p53 proteins.
  Mol Cell Biol, 15, 5196-5202.  
  7565799 X.Liu, and A.J.Berk (1995).
Reversal of in vitro p53 squelching by both TFIIB and TFIID.
  Mol Cell Biol, 15, 6474-6478.  
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