PDBsum entry 1bor

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Transcription regulation PDB id
Protein chain
56 a.a. *
_ZN ×2
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Transcription regulation
Title: Transcription factor pml, a proto-oncoprotein, nmr, 1 representative structure at ph 7.5, 30 c, in the presence of zinc
Structure: Transcription factor pml. Chain: a. Fragment: ring finger domain, residues 49 - 104. Engineered: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606
NMR struc: 1 models
Authors: K.L.B.Borden,P.S.Freemont
Key ref: K.L.Borden et al. (1995). The solution structure of the RING finger domain from the acute promyelocytic leukaemia proto-oncoprotein PML. EMBO J, 14, 1532-1541. PubMed id: 7729428
27-Sep-95     Release date:   01-Apr-97    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P29590  (PML_HUMAN) -  Protein PML
882 a.a.
56 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biochemical function     zinc ion binding     1 term  


EMBO J 14:1532-1541 (1995)
PubMed id: 7729428  
The solution structure of the RING finger domain from the acute promyelocytic leukaemia proto-oncoprotein PML.
K.L.Borden, M.N.Boddy, J.Lally, N.J.O'Reilly, S.Martin, K.Howe, E.Solomon, P.S.Freemont.
Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) has been ascribed to a chromosomal translocation event which results in a fusion protein comprising the PML protein and the retinoic acid receptor alpha. PML is normally a component of a nuclear multiprotein complex (termed ND10, Kr bodies, nuclear bodies, PML oncogenic domains or PODs) which is disrupted in the APL disease state. PML contains a number of characterized motifs including a Zn2+ binding domain called the RING or C3HC4 finger. Here we describe the solution structure of the PML RING finger as solved by 1H NMR methods at physiological pH with r.m.s. deviations for backbone atoms of 0.88 and 1.39 A for all atoms. Additional biophysical studies including CD and optical spectroscopy, show that the PML RING finger requires Zn2+ for autonomous folding and that cysteines are used in metal ligation. A comparison of the structure with the previously solved equine herpes virus IE110 RING finger, shows significant differences suggesting that the RING motif is structurally diverse. The role of the RING domain in PML nuclear body formation was tested in vivo, by using site-directed mutagenesis and immunofluorescence on transiently transfected NIH 3T3 cells. Independently mutating two pairs of cysteines in each of the Zn2+ binding sites prevents PML nuclear body formation, suggesting that a fully folded RING domain is necessary for this process. These results suggest that the PML RING domain is probably involved in protein-protein interactions, a feature which may be common to other RING finger domains.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21161613 P.Salomoni, and J.Betts-Henderson (2011).
The role of PML in the nervous system.
  Mol Neurobiol, 43, 114-123.  
20689703 C.T.Chasapis, A.K.Loutsidou, M.G.Orkoula, and G.A.Spyroulias (2010).
Zinc Binding Properties of Engineered RING Finger Domain of Arkadia E3 Ubiquitin Ligase.
  Bioinorg Chem Appl, (), 0.  
20212144 L.Volpon, M.J.Osborne, A.A.Capul, la Torre, and K.L.Borden (2010).
Structural characterization of the Z RING-eIF4E complex reveals a distinct mode of control for eIF4E.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 5441-5446.
PDB codes: 2ko5 2m1s
19373563 Q.L.Du, W.Z.Cui, C.H.Zhang, and D.Y.Yu (2010).
GmRFP1 encodes a previously unknown RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase in Soybean (Glycine max).
  Mol Biol Rep, 37, 685-693.  
19957018 S.D.Lim, W.C.Yim, J.C.Moon, D.S.Kim, B.M.Lee, and C.S.Jang (2010).
A gene family encoding RING finger proteins in rice: their expansion, expression diversity, and co-expressed genes.
  Plant Mol Biol, 72, 369-380.  
20378816 X.W.Zhang, X.J.Yan, Z.R.Zhou, F.F.Yang, Z.Y.Wu, H.B.Sun, W.X.Liang, A.X.Song, V.Lallemand-Breitenbach, M.Jeanne, Q.Y.Zhang, H.Y.Yang, Q.H.Huang, G.B.Zhou, J.H.Tong, Y.Zhang, J.H.Wu, H.Y.Hu, Thé, S.J.Chen, and Z.Chen (2010).
Arsenic trioxide controls the fate of the PML-RARalpha oncoprotein by directly binding PML.
  Science, 328, 240-243.  
19150978 Q.Wu, H.Hu, J.Lan, C.Emenari, Z.Wang, K.S.Chang, H.Huang, and X.Yao (2009).
PML3 Orchestrates the Nuclear Dynamics and Function of TIP60.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 8747-8759.  
19489725 R.J.Deshaies, and C.A.Joazeiro (2009).
RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligases.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 78, 399-434.  
18391071 B.Culjkovic, K.Tan, S.Orolicki, A.Amri, S.Meloche, and K.L.Borden (2008).
The eIF4E RNA regulon promotes the Akt signaling pathway.
  J Cell Biol, 181, 51-63.  
18403209 J.J.Perry, J.A.Tainer, and M.N.Boddy (2008).
A SIM-ultaneous role for SUMO and ubiquitin.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 33, 201-208.  
18616965 K.L.Borden (2008).
Pondering the puzzle of PML (promyelocytic leukemia) nuclear bodies: can we fit the pieces together using an RNA regulon?
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1783, 2145-2154.  
18673550 M.Sardiello, S.Cairo, B.Fontanella, A.Ballabio, and G.Meroni (2008).
Genomic analysis of the TRIM family reveals two groups of genes with distinct evolutionary properties.
  BMC Evol Biol, 8, 225.  
18504460 P.Salomoni, B.J.Ferguson, A.H.Wyllie, and T.Rich (2008).
New insights into the role of PML in tumour suppression.
  Cell Res, 18, 622-640.  
18799578 X.Li, and J.Sodroski (2008).
The TRIM5alpha B-box 2 domain promotes cooperative binding to the retroviral capsid by mediating higher-order self-association.
  J Virol, 82, 11495-11502.  
17261593 B.Beenders, P.L.Jones, and M.Bellini (2007).
The tripartite motif of nuclear factor 7 is required for its association with transcriptional units.
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17146439 M.Buschbeck, I.Uribesalgo, A.Ledl, A.Gutierrez, S.Minucci, S.Muller, and L.Di Croce (2007).
PML4 induces differentiation by Myc destabilization.
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16404572 A.Boisramé, M.Chasles, A.Babour, and J.M.Beckerich (2006).
Two Hrd1p homologues in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica which act in different pathways.
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16603524 C.C.García, M.Djavani, I.Topisirovic, K.L.Borden, M.S.Salvato, and E.B.Damonte (2006).
Arenavirus Z protein as an antiviral target: virus inactivation and protein oligomerization by zinc finger-reactive compounds.
  J Gen Virol, 87, 1217-1228.  
16835227 S.Yang, J.H.Jeong, A.L.Brown, C.H.Lee, P.P.Pandolfi, J.H.Chung, and M.K.Kim (2006).
Promyelocytic leukemia activates Chk2 by mediating Chk2 autophosphorylation.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 26645-26654.  
15837800 B.Culjkovic, I.Topisirovic, L.Skrabanek, M.Ruiz-Gutierrez, and K.L.Borden (2005).
eIF4E promotes nuclear export of cyclin D1 mRNAs via an element in the 3'UTR.
  J Cell Biol, 169, 245-256.  
16247770 B.R.Schulman, A.Esquela-Kerscher, and F.J.Slack (2005).
Reciprocal expression of lin-41 and the microRNAs let-7 and mir-125 during mouse embryogenesis.
  Dev Dyn, 234, 1046-1054.  
16051811 C.M.Ulane, A.Kentsis, C.D.Cruz, J.P.Parisien, K.L.Schneider, and C.M.Horvath (2005).
Composition and assembly of STAT-targeting ubiquitin ligase complexes: paramyxovirus V protein carboxyl terminus is an oligomerization domain.
  J Virol, 79, 10180-10189.  
16237670 G.Meroni, and G.Diez-Roux (2005).
TRIM/RBCC, a novel class of 'single protein RING finger' E3 ubiquitin ligases.
  Bioessays, 27, 1147-1157.  
15964842 J.Hennig, L.Ottosson, C.Andrésen, L.Horvath, V.K.Kuchroo, K.Broo, M.Wahren-Herlenius, and M.Sunnerhagen (2005).
Structural organization and Zn2+-dependent subdomain interactions involving autoantigenic epitopes in the Ring-B-box-coiled-coil (RBCC) region of Ro52.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 33250-33261.  
16335786 J.Lin, M.T.Friesen, P.Bocangel, D.Cheung, K.Rawszer, and J.T.Wigle (2005).
Characterization of Mesenchyme Homeobox 2 (MEOX2) transcription factor binding to RING finger protein 10.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 275, 75-84.  
16175175 S.Nisole, J.P.Stoye, and A.Saïb (2005).
TRIM family proteins: retroviral restriction and antiviral defence.
  Nat Rev Microbiol, 3, 799-808.  
14970191 J.Wang, C.Shiels, P.Sasieni, P.J.Wu, S.A.Islam, P.S.Freemont, and D.Sheer (2004).
Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies associate with transcriptionally active genomic regions.
  J Cell Biol, 164, 515-526.  
15503302 K.P.Smith, M.Byron, B.C.O'Connell, R.Tam, C.Schorl, I.Guney, L.L.Hall, P.Agrawal, J.M.Sedivy, and J.B.Lawrence (2004).
c-Myc localization within the nucleus: evidence for association with the PML nuclear body.
  J Cell Biochem, 93, 1282-1296.  
15242397 P.De, and K.K.Rodgers (2004).
Putting the pieces together: identification and characterization of structural domains in the V(D)J recombination protein RAG1.
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12642121 A.R.Mistry, E.W.Pedersen, E.Solomon, and D.Grimwade (2003).
The molecular pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukaemia: implications for the clinical management of the disease.
  Blood Rev, 17, 71-97.  
12533418 H.A.Zarsky, H.A.Tarnasky, M.Cheng, and F.A.van der Hoorn (2003).
Novel RING finger protein OIP1 binds to conserved amino acid repeats in sperm tail protein ODF1.
  Biol Reprod, 68, 543-552.  
12554669 I.Topisirovic, B.Culjkovic, N.Cohen, J.M.Perez, L.Skrabanek, and K.L.Borden (2003).
The proline-rich homeodomain protein, PRH, is a tissue-specific inhibitor of eIF4E-dependent cyclin D1 mRNA transport and growth.
  EMBO J, 22, 689-703.  
12766161 S.D.Dyall, D.C.Lester, R.E.Schneider, M.G.Delgadillo-Correa, E.Plümper, A.Martinez, C.M.Koehler, and P.J.Johnson (2003).
Trichomonas vaginalis Hmp35, a putative pore-forming hydrogenosomal membrane protein, can form a complex in yeast mitochondria.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 30548-30561.  
11792829 A.Kentsis, R.E.Gordon, and K.L.Borden (2002).
Self-assembly properties of a model RING domain.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 667-672.  
12438698 A.Kentsis, R.E.Gordon, and K.L.Borden (2002).
Control of biochemical reactions through supramolecular RING domain self-assembly.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 15404-15409.  
12123283 C.H.Eskiw, and D.P.Bazett-Jones (2002).
The promyelocytic leukemia nuclear body: sites of activity?
  Biochem Cell Biol, 80, 301-310.  
12466024 C.Yi, H.Wang, N.Wei, and X.W.Deng (2002).
An initial biochemical and cell biological characterization of the mammalian homologue of a central plant developmental switch, COP1.
  BMC Cell Biol, 3, 30.  
12167712 I.Topisirovic, A.D.Capili, and K.L.Borden (2002).
Gamma interferon and cadmium treatments modulate eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-dependent mRNA transport of cyclin D1 in a PML-dependent manner.
  Mol Cell Biol, 22, 6183-6198.  
12101223 K.L.Borden (2002).
Pondering the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) puzzle: possible functions for PML nuclear bodies.
  Mol Cell Biol, 22, 5259-5269.  
11861641 M.Furukawa, T.Ohta, and Y.Xiong (2002).
Activation of UBC5 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme by the RING finger of ROC1 and assembly of active ubiquitin ligases by all cullins.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 15758-15765.  
  11983057 P.Kosarev, K.F.Mayer, and C.S.Hardtke (2002).
Evaluation and classification of RING-finger domains encoded by the Arabidopsis genome.
  Genome Biol, 3, RESEARCH0016.  
12186918 P.Lopez, R.J.Jacob, and B.Roizman (2002).
Overexpression of promyelocytic leukemia protein precludes the dispersal of ND10 structures and has no effect on accumulation of infectious herpes simplex virus 1 or its proteins.
  J Virol, 76, 9355-9367.  
11963652 S.Strudwick, and K.L.Borden (2002).
The emerging roles of translation factor eIF4E in the nucleus.
  Differentiation, 70, 10-22.  
11823428 T.K.Albert, H.Hanzawa, Y.I.Legtenberg, Ruwe, F.A.van den Heuvel, M.A.Collart, R.Boelens, and H.T.Timmers (2002).
Identification of a ubiquitin-protein ligase subunit within the CCR4-NOT transcription repressor complex.
  EMBO J, 21, 355-364.  
11226167 A.D.Capili, D.C.Schultz, F.J.RauscherIII, and K.L.Borden (2001).
Solution structure of the PHD domain from the KAP-1 corepressor: structural determinants for PHD, RING and LIM zinc-binding domains.
  EMBO J, 20, 165-177.
PDB code: 1fp0
11296130 K.K.Mann, W.Shao, and W.H.Miller (2001).
The biology of acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  Curr Oncol Rep, 3, 209-216.  
11222676 M.L.Nogal, G.González de Buitrago, C.Rodríguez, B.Cubelos, A.L.Carrascosa, M.L.Salas, and Y.Revilla (2001).
African swine fever virus IAP homologue inhibits caspase activation and promotes cell survival in mammalian cells.
  J Virol, 75, 2535-2543.  
11428128 M.Torok, and L.D.Etkin (2001).
Two B or not two B? Overview of the rapidly expanding B-box family of proteins.
  Differentiation, 67, 63-71.  
11500381 N.Cohen, M.Sharma, A.Kentsis, J.M.Perez, S.Strudwick, and K.L.Borden (2001).
PML RING suppresses oncogenic transformation by reducing the affinity of eIF4E for mRNA.
  EMBO J, 20, 4547-4559.  
11292843 N.V.Grishin (2001).
Treble clef finger--a functionally diverse zinc-binding structural motif.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 29, 1703-1714.  
11573085 P.S.Brzovic, P.Rajagopal, D.W.Hoyt, M.C.King, and R.E.Klevit (2001).
Structure of a BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimeric RING-RING complex.
  Nat Struct Biol, 8, 833-837.
PDB code: 1jm7
11573079 R.Baer (2001).
With the ends in sight: images from the BRCA1 tumor suppressor.
  Nat Struct Biol, 8, 822-824.  
11533204 T.I.Cornu, and la Torre (2001).
RING finger Z protein of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) inhibits transcription and RNA replication of an LCMV S-segment minigenome.
  J Virol, 75, 9415-9426.  
10967548 A.Nawa, K.Nishimori, P.Lin, Y.Maki, K.Moue, H.Sawada, Y.Toh, K.Fumitaka, and G.L.Nicolson (2000).
Tumor metastasis-associated human MTA1 gene: its deduced protein sequence, localization, and association with breast cancer cell proliferation using antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides.
  J Cell Biochem, 79, 202-212.  
10935642 D.M.Scolnick, and T.D.Halazonetis (2000).
Chfr defines a mitotic stress checkpoint that delays entry into metaphase.
  Nature, 406, 430-435.  
10708446 E.J.Campbell Dwyer, H.Lai, R.C.MacDonald, M.S.Salvato, and K.L.Borden (2000).
The lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus RING protein Z associates with eukaryotic initiation factor 4E and selectively represses translation in a RING-dependent manner.
  J Virol, 74, 3293-3300.  
10669754 H.Li, C.Leo, J.Zhu, X.Wu, J.O'Neil, E.J.Park, and J.D.Chen (2000).
Sequestration and inhibition of Daxx-mediated transcriptional repression by PML.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 1784-1796.  
  10888670 J.D.Leverson, C.A.Joazeiro, A.M.Page, H.Huang, P.Hieter, and T.Hunter (2000).
The APC11 RING-H2 finger mediates E2-dependent ubiquitination.
  Mol Biol Cell, 11, 2315-2325.  
10799597 L.C.van Dinten, H.van Tol, A.E.Gorbalenya, and E.J.Snijder (2000).
The predicted metal-binding region of the arterivirus helicase protein is involved in subgenomic mRNA synthesis, genome replication, and virion biogenesis.
  J Virol, 74, 5213-5223.  
  10898790 L.Zhu, J.Wilken, N.B.Phillips, U.Narendra, G.Chan, S.M.Stratton, S.B.Kent, and M.A.Weiss (2000).
Sexual dimorphism in diverse metazoans is regulated by a novel class of intertwined zinc fingers.
  Genes Dev, 14, 1750-1764.
PDB code: 1lpv
  10880484 M.Aguilera, M.Oliveros, M.Martínez-Padrón, J.A.Barbas, and A.Ferrús (2000).
Ariadne-1: a vital Drosophila gene is required in development and defines a new conserved family of ring-finger proteins.
  Genetics, 155, 1231-1244.  
10822263 N.Galili, S.Nayak, J.A.Epstein, and C.A.Buck (2000).
Rnf4, a RING protein expressed in the developing nervous and reproductive systems, interacts with Gscl, a gene within the DiGeorge critical region.
  Dev Dyn, 218, 102-111.  
10677297 P.Björses, M.Halonen, J.J.Palvimo, M.Kolmer, J.Aaltonen, P.Ellonen, J.Perheentupa, I.Ulmanen, and L.Peltonen (2000).
Mutations in the AIRE gene: effects on subcellular location and transactivation function of the autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy protein.
  Am J Hum Genet, 66, 378-392.  
10722742 S.Fang, J.P.Jensen, R.L.Ludwig, K.H.Vousden, and A.M.Weissman (2000).
Mdm2 is a RING finger-dependent ubiquitin protein ligase for itself and p53.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 8945-8951.  
  10924472 S.L.Page, K.S.McKim, B.Deneen, T.L.Van Hook, and R.S.Hawley (2000).
Genetic studies of mei-P26 reveal a link between the processes that control germ cell proliferation in both sexes and those that control meiotic exchange in Drosophila.
  Genetics, 155, 1757-1772.  
10617633 S.Ota, K.Hazeki, N.Rao, M.L.Lupher, C.E.Andoniou, B.Druker, and H.Band (2000).
The RING finger domain of Cbl is essential for negative regulation of the Syk tyrosine kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 414-422.  
10608892 D.A.Sharp, S.A.Kratowicz, M.J.Sank, and D.L.George (1999).
Stabilization of the MDM2 oncoprotein by interaction with the structurally related MDMX protein.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 38189-38196.  
  9858595 G.Hu, and E.R.Fearon (1999).
Siah-1 N-terminal RING domain is required for proteolysis function, and C-terminal sequences regulate oligomerization and binding to target proteins.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 724-732.  
10085091 H.Y.Kang, S.Yeh, N.Fujimoto, and C.Chang (1999).
Cloning and characterization of human prostate coactivator ARA54, a novel protein that associates with the androgen receptor.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 8570-8576.  
10026184 J.E.Meza, P.S.Brzovic, M.C.King, and R.E.Klevit (1999).
Mapping the functional domains of BRCA1. Interaction of the ring finger domains of BRCA1 and BARD1.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 5659-5665.  
10367894 S.Misra, and J.H.Hurley (1999).
Crystal structure of a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-specific membrane-targeting motif, the FYVE domain of Vps27p.
  Cell, 97, 657-666.
PDB code: 1vfy
10394369 T.G.Kutateladze, K.D.Ogburn, W.T.Watson, Beer, S.D.Emr, C.G.Burd, and M.Overduin (1999).
Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate recognition by the FYVE domain.
  Mol Cell, 3, 805-811.  
  9710597 A.M.Moilanen, H.Poukka, U.Karvonen, M.Häkli, O.A.Jänne, and J.J.Palvimo (1998).
Identification of a novel RING finger protein as a coregulator in steroid receptor-mediated gene transcription.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 5128-5139.  
  9742105 C.J.Chang, Y.L.Chen, and S.C.Lee (1998).
Coactivator TIF1beta interacts with transcription factor C/EBPbeta and glucocorticoid receptor to induce alpha1-acid glycoprotein gene expression.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 5880-5887.  
  9418907 C.S.Duckett, F.Li, Y.Wang, K.J.Tomaselli, C.B.Thompson, and R.C.Armstrong (1998).
Human IAP-like protein regulates programmed cell death downstream of Bcl-xL and cytochrome c.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 608-615.  
  9671498 J.H.Ahn, E.J.Brignole, and G.S.Hayward (1998).
Disruption of PML subnuclear domains by the acidic IE1 protein of human cytomegalovirus is mediated through interaction with PML and may modulate a RING finger-dependent cryptic transactivator function of PML.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 4899-4913.  
9736618 K.Copps, R.Richman, L.M.Lyman, K.A.Chang, J.Rampersad-Ammons, and M.I.Kuroda (1998).
Complex formation by the Drosophila MSL proteins: role of the MSL2 RING finger in protein complex assembly.
  EMBO J, 17, 5409-5417.  
  9420283 K.L.Borden, E.J.Campbell Dwyer, and M.S.Salvato (1998).
An arenavirus RING (zinc-binding) protein binds the oncoprotein promyelocyte leukemia protein (PML) and relocates PML nuclear bodies to the cytoplasm.
  J Virol, 72, 758-766.  
  9557665 K.L.Borden, E.J.Campbelldwyer, G.W.Carlile, M.Djavani, and M.S.Salvato (1998).
Two RING finger proteins, the oncoprotein PML and the arenavirus Z protein, colocalize with the nuclear fraction of the ribosomal P proteins.
  J Virol, 72, 3819-3826.  
9683622 M.Hodges, C.Tissot, K.Howe, D.Grimwade, and P.S.Freemont (1998).
Structure, organization, and dynamics of promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies.
  Am J Hum Genet, 63, 297-304.  
9525870 P.S.Brzovic, J.Meza, M.C.King, and R.E.Klevit (1998).
The cancer-predisposing mutation C61G disrupts homodimer formation in the NH2-terminal BRCA1 RING finger domain.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 7795-7799.  
9461607 R.Brink, and H.F.Lodish (1998).
Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 2A (TRAF2A), a TRAF2 splice variant with an extended RING finger domain that inhibits TNFR2-mediated NF-kappaB activation.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 4129-4134.  
9756909 T.Kamitani, K.Kito, H.P.Nguyen, H.Wada, T.Fukuda-Kamitani, and E.T.Yeh (1998).
Identification of three major sentrinization sites in PML.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 26675-26682.  
9488655 Z.G.Wang, L.Delva, M.Gaboli, R.Rivi, M.Giorgio, C.Cordon-Cardo, F.Grosveld, and P.P.Pandolfi (1998).
Role of PML in cell growth and the retinoic acid pathway.
  Science, 279, 1547-1551.  
9836595 Z.Lai, D.A.Freedman, A.J.Levine, and G.L.McLendon (1998).
Metal and RNA binding properties of the hdm2 RING finger domain.
  Biochemistry, 37, 7005-7015.  
9882094 Z.Lai, D.A.Freedman, A.J.Levine, and G.L.McLendon (1998).
Metal and RNA binding properties of the hdm2 RING finger domain.
  Biochemistry, 37, 17005-17015.  
9155026 B.Morgan, L.Sun, N.Avitahl, K.Andrikopoulos, T.Ikeda, E.Gonzales, P.Wu, S.Neben, and K.Georgopoulos (1997).
Aiolos, a lymphoid restricted transcription factor that interacts with Ikaros to regulate lymphocyte differentiation.
  EMBO J, 16, 2004-2013.  
9090384 C.C.Chang, W.H.Lee, H.Moser, D.Valle, and S.J.Gould (1997).
Isolation of the human PEX12 gene, mutated in group 3 of the peroxisome biogenesis disorders.
  Nat Genet, 15, 385-388.  
9343360 D.E.Griffin, and J.M.Hardwick (1997).
Regulators of apoptosis on the road to persistent alphavirus infection.
  Annu Rev Microbiol, 51, 565-592.  
  9001220 D.Vucic, S.Seshagiri, and L.K.Miller (1997).
Characterization of reaper- and FADD-induced apoptosis in a lepidopteran cell line.
  Mol Cell Biol, 17, 667-676.  
  9343218 E.K.Lium, and S.Silverstein (1997).
Mutational analysis of the herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0 C3HC4 zinc ring finger reveals a requirement for ICP0 in the expression of the essential alpha27 gene.
  J Virol, 71, 8602-8614.  
9414089 K.L.Borden, E.J.CampbellDwyer, and M.S.Salvato (1997).
The promyelocytic leukemia protein PML has a pro-apoptotic activity mediated through its RING domain.
  FEBS Lett, 418, 30-34.  
9254622 P.C.Roehm, and J.M.Berg (1997).
Sequential metal binding by the RING finger domain of BRCA1.
  Biochemistry, 36, 10240-10245.  
9380732 P.F.Ferrucci, F.Grignani, M.Pearson, M.Fagioli, I.Nicoletti, and P.G.Pelicci (1997).
Cell death induction by the acute promyelocytic leukemia-specific PML/RARalpha fusion protein.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 10901-10906.  
9228952 S.F.Bellon, K.K.Rodgers, D.G.Schatz, J.E.Coleman, and T.A.Steitz (1997).
Crystal structure of the RAG1 dimerization domain reveals multiple zinc-binding motifs including a novel zinc binuclear cluster.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 586-591.
PDB code: 1rmd
9365539 S.Kalantry, L.Delva, M.Gaboli, D.Gandini, M.Giorgio, N.Hawe, L.Z.He, D.Peruzzi, R.Rivi, C.Tribioli, Z.G.Wang, H.Zhang, and P.P.Pandolfi (1997).
Gene rearrangements in the molecular pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia.
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9388200 T.Léveillard, and B.Wasylyk (1997).
The MDM2 C-terminal region binds to TAFII250 and is required for MDM2 regulation of the cyclin A promoter.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 30651-30661.  
  9234711 V.Bailly, S.Prakash, and L.Prakash (1997).
Domains required for dimerization of yeast Rad6 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and Rad18 DNA binding protein.
  Mol Cell Biol, 17, 4536-4543.  
  8617207 A.G.Elefanty, M.Antoniou, N.Custodio, M.Carmo-Fonseca, and F.G.Grosveld (1996).
GATA transcription factors associate with a novel class of nuclear bodies in erythroblasts and megakaryocytes.
  EMBO J, 15, 319-333.  
  8827714 B.Elenbaas, M.Dobbelstein, J.Roth, T.Shenk, and A.J.Levine (1996).
The MDM2 oncoprotein binds specifically to RNA through its RING finger domain.
  Mol Med, 2, 439-451.  
  8654366 C.S.Duckett, V.E.Nava, R.W.Gedrich, R.J.Clem, J.L.Van Dongen, M.C.Gilfillan, H.Shiels, J.M.Hardwick, and C.B.Thompson (1996).
A conserved family of cellular genes related to the baculovirus iap gene and encoding apoptosis inhibitors.
  EMBO J, 15, 2685-2694.  
  8890168 F.Grignani, U.Testa, D.Rogaia, P.F.Ferrucci, P.Samoggia, A.Pinto, D.Aldinucci, V.Gelmetti, M.Fagioli, M.Alcalay, J.Seeler, F.Grignani, I.Nicoletti, C.Peschle, and P.G.Pelicci (1996).
Effects on differentiation by the promyelocytic leukemia PML/RARalpha protein depend on the fusion of the PML protein dimerization and RARalpha DNA binding domains.
  EMBO J, 15, 4949-4958.  
8791531 G.J.Bashaw, and B.S.Baker (1996).
Dosage compensation and chromatin structure in Drosophila.
  Curr Opin Genet Dev, 6, 496-501.  
8798641 H.Stenmark, R.Aasland, B.H.Toh, and A.D'Arrigo (1996).
Endosomal localization of the autoantigen EEA1 is mediated by a zinc-binding FYVE finger.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 24048-24054.  
  8670828 J.E.Kalish, G.A.Keller, J.C.Morrell, S.J.Mihalik, B.Smith, J.M.Cregg, and S.J.Gould (1996).
Characterization of a novel component of the peroxisomal protein import apparatus using fluorescent peroxisomal proteins.
  EMBO J, 15, 3275-3285.  
8643677 K.L.Borden, J.M.Lally, S.R.Martin, N.J.O'Reilly, E.Solomon, and P.S.Freemont (1996).
In vivo and in vitro characterization of the B1 and B2 zinc-binding domains from the acute promyelocytic leukemia protooncoprotein PML.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 1601-1606.  
8804826 K.L.Borden, and P.S.Freemont (1996).
The RING finger domain: a recent example of a sequence-structure family.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 6, 395-401.  
8913879 M.A.Grande, I.van der Kraan, B.van Steensel, W.Schul, Thé, H.T.van der Voort, Jong, and R.van Driel (1996).
PML-containing nuclear bodies: their spatial distribution in relation to other nuclear components.
  J Cell Biochem, 63, 280-291.  
  8654368 M.Altabef, M.Garcia, C.Lavau, S.C.Bae, A.Dejean, and J.Samarut (1996).
A retrovirus carrying the promyelocyte-retinoic acid receptor PML-RARalpha fusion gene transforms haematopoietic progenitors in vitro and induces acute leukaemias.
  EMBO J, 15, 2707-2716.  
  8952536 M.Gambacorta, L.Flenghi, M.Fagioli, S.Pileri, L.Leoncini, B.Bigerna, R.Pacini, L.N.Tanci, L.Pasqualucci, S.Ascani, A.Mencarelli, A.Liso, P.G.Pelicci, and B.Falini (1996).
Heterogeneous nuclear expression of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein in normal and neoplastic human tissues.
  Am J Pathol, 149, 2023-2035.  
8914520 M.Martínez-García, C.Garcidueñas-Piña, and P.Guzmán (1996).
Gene isolation in Arabidopsis thaliana by conditional overexpression of cDNAs toxic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae: identification of a novel early response zinc-finger gene.
  Mol Gen Genet, 252, 587-596.  
8945639 M.R.Digby, W.G.Kimpton, J.J.York, T.E.Connick, and J.W.Lowenthal (1996).
ITA, a vertebrate homologue of IAP that is expressed in T lymphocytes.
  DNA Cell Biol, 15, 981-988.  
8702708 M.Takeuchi, M.Rothe, and D.V.Goeddel (1996).
Anatomy of TRAF2. Distinct domains for nuclear factor-kappaB activation and association with tumor necrosis factor signaling proteins.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 19935-19942.  
  8892854 S.J.Spatz, E.C.Nordby, and P.C.Weber (1996).
Mutational analysis of ICP0R, a transrepressor protein created by alternative splicing of the ICP0 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1.
  J Virol, 70, 7360-7370.  
9023983 T.Cao, M.Shannon, M.A.Handel, and L.D.Etkin (1996).
Mouse ret finger protein (rfp) proto-oncogene is expressed at specific stages of mouse spermatogenesis.
  Dev Genet, 19, 309-320.  
9011178 V.Doucas, and R.M.Evans (1996).
The PML nuclear compartment and cancer.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1288, M25-M29.  
8550548 X.F.Le, P.Yang, and K.S.Chang (1996).
Analysis of the growth and transformation suppressor domains of promyelocytic leukemia gene, PML.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 130-135.  
7592751 C.H.Régnier, C.Tomasetto, C.Moog-Lutz, M.P.Chenard, C.Wendling, P.Basset, and M.C.Rio (1995).
Presence of a new conserved domain in CART1, a novel member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein family, which is expressed in breast carcinoma.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 25715-25721.  
  8521818 J.P.Tassan, M.Jaquenoud, A.M.Fry, S.Frutiger, G.J.Hughes, and E.A.Nigg (1995).
In vitro assembly of a functional human CDK7-cyclin H complex requires MAT1, a novel 36 kDa RING finger protein.
  EMBO J, 14, 5608-5617.  
  8846787 K.L.Borden, J.M.Lally, S.R.Martin, N.J.O'Reilly, L.D.Etkin, and P.S.Freemont (1995).
Novel topology of a zinc-binding domain from a protein involved in regulating early Xenopus development.
  EMBO J, 14, 5947-5956.
PDB code: 1fre
  7474166 R.Everett, P.O'Hare, D.O'Rourke, P.Barlow, and A.Orr (1995).
Point mutations in the herpes simplex virus type 1 Vmw110 RING finger helix affect activation of gene expression, viral growth, and interaction with PML-containing nuclear structures.
  J Virol, 69, 7339-7344.  
7781064 R.L.Kelley, I.Solovyeva, L.M.Lyman, R.Richman, V.Solovyev, and M.I.Kuroda (1995).
Expression of msl-2 causes assembly of dosage compensation regulators on the X chromosomes and female lethality in Drosophila.
  Cell, 81, 867-877.  
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