spacer
spacer

PDBsum entry 3hhr

Go to PDB code: 
protein Protein-protein interface(s) links
Hormone/receptor PDB id
3hhr
Jmol
Contents
Protein chains
185 a.a. *
197 a.a. *
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
3hhr
Name: Hormone/receptor
Title: Human growth hormone and extracellular domain of its receptor: crystal structure of the complex
Structure: Human growth hormone. Chain: a. Engineered: yes. Human growth hormone receptor (hghbp). Chain: b, c. Engineered: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Organism_taxid: 9606
Biol. unit: Trimer (from PQS)
Resolution:
2.80Å     R-factor:   0.221    
Authors: A.M.De Vos,M.Ultsch,A.A.Kossiakoff
Key ref: A.M.de Vos et al. (1992). Human growth hormone and extracellular domain of its receptor: crystal structure of the complex. Science, 255, 306-312. PubMed id: 1549776 DOI: 10.1126/science.1549776
Date:
30-Dec-93     Release date:   30-Apr-94    
Supersedes: 2hhr
PROCHECK
Go to PROCHECK summary
 Headers
 References

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01241  (SOMA_HUMAN) -  Somatotropin
Seq:
Struc:
217 a.a.
185 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P10912  (GHR_HUMAN) -  Growth hormone receptor
Seq:
Struc:
 
Seq:
Struc:
638 a.a.
197 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     extracellular region   3 terms 
  Biological process     bone maturation   16 terms 
  Biochemical function     protein binding     7 terms  

 

 
DOI no: 10.1126/science.1549776 Science 255:306-312 (1992)
PubMed id: 1549776  
 
 
Human growth hormone and extracellular domain of its receptor: crystal structure of the complex.
A.M.de Vos, M.Ultsch, A.A.Kossiakoff.
 
  ABSTRACT  
 
Binding of human growth hormone (hGH) to its receptor is required for regulation of normal human growth and development. Examination of the 2.8 angstrom crystal structure of the complex between the hormone and the extracellular domain of its receptor (hGHbp) showed that the complex consists of one molecule of growth hormone per two molecules of receptor. The hormone is a four-helix bundle with an unusual topology. The binding protein contains two distinct domains, similar in some respects to immunoglobulin domains. The relative orientation of these domains differs from that found between constant and variable domains in immunoglobulin Fab fragments. Both hGHbp domains contribute residues that participate in hGH binding. In the complex both receptors donate essentially the same residues to interact with the hormone, even though the two binding sites on hGH have no structural similarity. Generally, the hormone-receptor interfaces match those identified by previous mutational analyses. In addition to the hormone-receptor interfaces, there is also a substantial contact surface between the carboxyl-terminal domains of the receptors. The relative extents of the contact areas support a sequential mechanism for dimerization that may be crucial for signal transduction.
 

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
20575051 F.Mulinacci, S.E.Bell, M.A.Capelle, R.Gurny, and T.Arvinte (2011).
Oxidized recombinant human growth hormone that maintains conformational integrity.
  J Pharm Sci, 100, 110-122.  
21220115 P.J.Lupardus, G.Skiniotis, A.J.Rice, C.Thomas, S.Fischer, T.Walz, and K.C.Garcia (2011).
Structural snapshots of full-length Jak1, a transmembrane gp130/IL-6/IL-6Rα cytokine receptor complex, and the receptor-Jak1 holocomplex.
  Structure, 19, 45-55.  
21064130 S.K.Madala, M.A.Dolan, D.Sharma, T.R.Ramalingam, M.S.Wilson, M.M.Mentink-Kane, D.C.Masison, and T.A.Wynn (2011).
Mapping mouse IL-13 binding regions using structure modeling, molecular docking, and high-density peptide microarray analysis.
  Proteins, 79, 282-293.  
21166540 W.Ouyang, S.Rutz, N.K.Crellin, P.A.Valdez, and S.G.Hymowitz (2011).
Regulation and functions of the IL-10 family of cytokines in inflammation and disease.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 29, 71.  
20223207 A.A.Kossiakoff, and S.Rizk (2010).
Keeping signaling in check.
  Structure, 18, 275-276.  
20506260 A.D.Wilkins, R.Lua, S.Erdin, R.M.Ward, and O.Lichtarge (2010).
Sequence and structure continuity of evolutionary importance improves protein functional site discovery and annotation.
  Protein Sci, 19, 1296-1311.  
20664532 A.J.Brooks, and M.J.Waters (2010).
The growth hormone receptor: mechanism of activation and clinical implications.
  Nat Rev Endocrinol, 6, 515-525.  
20846897 A.Zdanov (2010).
Structural analysis of cytokines comprising the IL-10 family.
  Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 21, 325-330.  
19927328 D.Poger, and A.E.Mark (2010).
Turning the growth hormone receptor on: evidence that hormone binding induces subunit rotation.
  Proteins, 78, 1163-1174.  
20597861 E.Ferrandis, S.L.Pradhananga, C.Touvay, C.Kinoshita, I.R.Wilkinson, K.Stafford, Z.Wu, C.J.Strasburger, J.R.Sayers, P.J.Artymiuk, and R.J.Ross (2010).
Immunogenicity, toxicology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of growth hormone ligand-receptor fusions.
  Clin Sci (Lond), 119, 483-491.  
20974977 F.Rousseau, L.Basset, J.Froger, N.Dinguirard, S.Chevalier, and H.Gascan (2010).
IL-27 structural analysis demonstrates similarities with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and leads to the identification of antagonistic variants.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 19420-19425.  
20053995 I.Broutin, J.B.Jomain, E.Tallet, J.van Agthoven, B.Raynal, S.Hoos, B.B.Kragelund, P.A.Kelly, A.Ducruix, P.England, and V.Goffin (2010).
Crystal structure of an affinity-matured prolactin complexed to its dimerized receptor reveals the topology of hormone binding site 2.
  J Biol Chem, 285, 8422-8433.
PDB code: 3ew3
19651193 I.P.Rodríguez-Sánchez, M.E.Tejero, S.A.Cole, A.G.Comuzzie, P.W.Nathanielsz, M.Wallis, and H.A.Barrera-Saldaña (2010).
Growth hormone-related genes from baboon (Papio hamadryas): Characterization, placental expression and evolutionary aspects.
  Gene, 450, 1-7.  
20135224 J.Xu, S.Okada, L.Tan, K.J.Goodrum, J.J.Kopchick, and M.J.Kieliszewski (2010).
Human growth hormone expressed in tobacco cells as an arabinogalactan-protein fusion glycoprotein has a prolonged serum life.
  Transgenic Res, 19, 849-867.  
20852587 K.S.Alatzoglou, and M.T.Dattani (2010).
Genetic causes and treatment of isolated growth hormone deficiency-an update.
  Nat Rev Endocrinol, 6, 562-576.  
19919182 R.Batra-Safferling, J.Granzin, S.Mödder, S.Hoffmann, and D.Willbold (2010).
Structural studies of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) SH3 domain in complex with a peptide ligand: role of the anchor residue in ligand binding.
  Biol Chem, 391, 33-42.
PDB codes: 3i5r 3i5s
20462497 S.I.Yoon, B.C.Jones, N.J.Logsdon, B.D.Harris, A.Deshpande, S.Radaeva, B.A.Halloran, B.Gao, and M.R.Walter (2010).
Structure and mechanism of receptor sharing by the IL-10R2 common chain.
  Structure, 18, 638-648.
PDB code: 3lqm
19198769 A.L.Rosenbloom (2009).
Mecasermin (recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I).
  Adv Ther, 26, 40-54.  
20004161 F.Carafoli, D.Bihan, S.Stathopoulos, A.D.Konitsiotis, M.Kvansakul, R.W.Farndale, B.Leitinger, and E.Hohenester (2009).
Crystallographic insight into collagen recognition by discoidin domain receptor 2.
  Structure, 17, 1573-1581.
PDB code: 2wuh
19579232 J.J.Bustamante, L.Gonzalez, C.A.Carroll, S.T.Weintraub, R.M.Aguilar, J.Muñoz, A.O.Martinez, and L.S.Haro (2009).
O-Glycosylated 24 kDa human growth hormone has a mucin-like biantennary disialylated tetrasaccharide attached at Thr-60.
  Proteomics, 9, 3474-3488.  
19236917 L.DePalatis, C.M.Almgren, J.Patmastan, M.Troyer, T.Woodrich, and C.L.Brooks (2009).
Structure and function of a new class of human prolactin antagonists.
  Protein Expr Purif, 66, 121-130.  
19352505 R.Dey, K.Ji, Z.Liu, and L.Chen (2009).
A cytokine-cytokine interaction in the assembly of higher-order structure and activation of the interleukine-3:receptor complex.
  PLoS ONE, 4, e5188.  
19436055 T.R.Hercus, D.Thomas, M.A.Guthridge, P.G.Ekert, J.King-Scott, M.W.Parker, and A.F.Lopez (2009).
The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor: linking its structure to cell signaling and its role in disease.
  Blood, 114, 1289-1298.  
18622706 V.Birzniece, A.Sata, and K.K.Ho (2009).
Growth hormone receptor modulators.
  Rev Endocr Metab Disord, 10, 145-156.  
18817510 X.Wang, P.Lupardus, S.L.Laporte, and K.C.Garcia (2009).
Structural biology of shared cytokine receptors.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 27, 29-60.  
18400509 A.D.Panopoulos, and S.S.Watowich (2008).
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: molecular mechanisms of action during steady state and 'emergency' hematopoiesis.
  Cytokine, 42, 277-288.  
17916398 A.Fontana, B.Spolaore, A.Mero, and F.M.Veronese (2008).
Site-specific modification and PEGylation of pharmaceutical proteins mediated by transglutaminase.
  Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 60, 13-28.  
18335240 A.Hrabia, H.E.Paczoska-Eliasiewicz, L.R.Berghman, S.Harvey, and J.Rzasa (2008).
Expression and localization of growth hormone and its receptors in the chicken ovary during sexual maturation.
  Cell Tissue Res, 332, 317-328.  
18243092 A.Zdanov, and A.Wlodawer (2008).
A new look at cytokine signaling.
  Cell, 132, 179-181.  
18246318 C.V.Clevenger, J.Zheng, E.M.Jablonski, T.L.Galbaugh, and F.Fang (2008).
From bench to bedside: future potential for the translation of prolactin inhibitors as breast cancer therapeutics.
  J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 13, 147-156.  
18219565 E.Tallet, V.Rouet, J.B.Jomain, P.A.Kelly, S.Bernichtein, and V.Goffin (2008).
Rational design of competitive prolactin/growth hormone receptor antagonists.
  J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 13, 105-117.  
18407771 F.Roelfsema, N.R.Biermasz, A.M.Pereira, and J.A.Romijn (2008).
The role of pegvisomant in the treatment of acromegaly.
  Expert Opin Biol Ther, 8, 691-704.  
18728012 F.Rousseau, S.Chevalier, C.Guillet, E.Ravon, C.Diveu, J.Froger, F.Barbier, L.Grimaud, and H.Gascan (2008).
Ciliary neurotrophic factor, cardiotrophin-like cytokine, and neuropoietin share a conserved binding site on the ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha chain.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 30341-30350.  
18775332 G.Skiniotis, P.J.Lupardus, M.Martick, T.Walz, and K.C.Garcia (2008).
Structural organization of a full-length gp130/LIF-R cytokine receptor transmembrane complex.
  Mol Cell, 31, 737-748.
PDB code: 3e0g
18326494 M.Zaks-Zilberman, A.E.Harrington, T.Ishino, and I.M.Chaiken (2008).
Interleukin-5 receptor subunit oligomerization and rearrangement revealed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 13398-13406.  
18640841 P.De Meyts (2008).
The insulin receptor: a prototype for dimeric, allosteric membrane receptors?
  Trends Biochem Sci, 33, 376-384.  
18680750 P.J.Lupardus, and K.C.Garcia (2008).
The structure of interleukin-23 reveals the molecular basis of p40 subunit sharing with interleukin-12.
  J Mol Biol, 382, 931-941.
PDB code: 3duh
17705152 S.B.Joshi, T.J.Kamerzell, C.McNown, and C.R.Middaugh (2008).
The interaction of heparin/polyanions with bovine, porcine, and human growth hormone.
  J Pharm Sci, 97, 1368-1385.  
18345707 S.Benedini, I.Terruzzi, A.Lazzarin, and L.Luzi (2008).
Recombinant human growth hormone: rationale for use in the treatment of HIV-associated lipodystrophy.
  BioDrugs, 22, 101-112.  
18236142 S.J.Frank (2008).
Mechanistic aspects of crosstalk between GH and PRL and ErbB receptor family signaling.
  J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 13, 119-129.  
18243101 S.L.LaPorte, Z.S.Juo, J.Vaclavikova, L.A.Colf, X.Qi, N.M.Heller, A.D.Keegan, and K.C.Garcia (2008).
Molecular and structural basis of cytokine receptor pleiotropy in the interleukin-4/13 system.
  Cell, 132, 259-272.
PDB codes: 3bpl 3bpn 3bpo
18488018 S.W.Rowlinson, H.Yoshizato, J.L.Barclay, A.J.Brooks, S.N.Behncken, L.M.Kerr, K.Millard, K.Palethorpe, K.Nielsen, J.Clyde-Smith, J.F.Hancock, and M.J.Waters (2008).
An agonist-induced conformational change in the growth hormone receptor determines the choice of signalling pathway.
  Nat Cell Biol, 10, 740-747.  
18264710 T.G.Kim, M.Y.Baek, E.K.Lee, T.H.Kwon, and M.S.Yang (2008).
Expression of human growth hormone in transgenic rice cell suspension culture.
  Plant Cell Rep, 27, 885-891.  
18080174 V.Borromeo, J.Sereikaite, V.A.Bumelis, C.Secchi, A.Scirè, A.Ausili, S.D'Auria, and F.Tanfani (2008).
Mink growth hormone structural-functional relationships: effects of renaturing and storage conditions.
  Protein J, 27, 170-180.  
18434185 W.Jelkmann, J.Bohlius, M.Hallek, and A.J.Sytkowski (2008).
The erythropoietin receptor in normal and cancer tissues.
  Crit Rev Oncol Hematol, 67, 39-61.  
18252254 Z.Li, J.J.Strunk, P.Lamken, J.Piehler, and T.Walz (2008).
The EM structure of a type I interferon-receptor complex reveals a novel mechanism for cytokine signaling.
  J Mol Biol, 377, 715-724.  
18069884 A.Del Sol, and P.Carbonell (2007).
The Modular Organization of Domain Structures: Insights into Protein-Protein Binding.
  PLoS Comput Biol, 3, e239.  
17989799 C.Ruan, Z.Yang, and M.T.Rodgers (2007).
Influence of the d orbital occupation on the nature and strength of copper cation-pi interactions: threshold collision-induced dissociation and theoretical studies.
  Phys Chem Chem Phys, 9, 5902-5918.  
17572678 E.Latz, A.Verma, A.Visintin, M.Gong, C.M.Sirois, D.C.Klein, B.G.Monks, C.J.McKnight, M.S.Lamphier, W.P.Duprex, T.Espevik, and D.T.Golenbock (2007).
Ligand-induced conformational changes allosterically activate Toll-like receptor 9.
  Nat Immunol, 8, 772-779.  
17234711 G.N.Cox, M.S.Rosendahl, E.A.Chlipala, D.J.Smith, S.J.Carlson, and D.H.Doherty (2007).
A long-acting, mono-PEGylated human growth hormone analog is a potent stimulator of weight gain and bone growth in hypophysectomized rats.
  Endocrinology, 148, 1590-1597.  
18958714 H.Fujii (2007).
Mechanisms of Signal Transduction from Receptors of Type I and Type II Cytokines.
  J Immunotoxicol, 4, 69-76.  
17255936 H.Liu, X.Chen, P.J.Focia, and X.He (2007).
Structural basis for stem cell factor-KIT signaling and activation of class III receptor tyrosine kinases.
  EMBO J, 26, 891-901.
PDB codes: 2o26 2o27
17721547 I.R.Wilkinson, E.Ferrandis, P.J.Artymiuk, M.Teillot, C.Soulard, C.Touvay, S.L.Pradhananga, S.Justice, Z.Wu, K.C.Leung, C.J.Strasburger, J.R.Sayers, and R.J.Ross (2007).
A ligand-receptor fusion of growth hormone forms a dimer and is a potent long-acting agonist.
  Nat Med, 13, 1108-1113.  
  17909291 J.Wickham, and S.T.Walsh (2007).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of human interleukin-7 bound to unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of its alpha-receptor.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 63, 865-869.  
17927666 K.Kannenberg, N.E.Wittekindt, S.Tippmann, H.Wolburg, M.B.Ranke, and G.Binder (2007).
Mutant and misfolded human growth hormone is rapidly degraded through the proteasomal degradation pathway in a cellular model for isolated growth hormone deficiency type II.
  J Neuroendocrinol, 19, 882-890.  
17541149 K.Ohkura (2007).
Exploring unique structures: flexibility is a significant factor in biological activity.
  Biol Pharm Bull, 30, 1025-1036.  
17391978 R.G.Rosenfeld, A.Belgorosky, C.Camacho-Hubner, M.O.Savage, J.M.Wit, and V.Hwa (2007).
Defects in growth hormone receptor signaling.
  Trends Endocrinol Metab, 18, 134-141.  
17917757 S.Fukamachi, and A.Meyer (2007).
Evolution of receptors for growth hormone and somatolactin in fish and land vertebrates: lessons from the lungfish and sturgeon orthologues.
  J Mol Evol, 65, 359-372.  
17652170 T.Huyton, J.G.Zhang, C.S.Luo, M.Z.Lou, D.J.Hilton, N.A.Nicola, and T.P.Garrett (2007).
An unusual cytokine:Ig-domain interaction revealed in the crystal structure of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in complex with the LIF receptor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 12737-12742.
PDB code: 2q7n
17630824 Y.Ofran, and B.Rost (2007).
Protein-Protein Interaction Hotspots Carved into Sequences.
  PLoS Comput Biol, 3, e119.  
16208769 A.A.Saboury, M.S.Atri, M.H.Sanati, A.A.Moosavi-Movahedi, G.H.Hakimelahi, and M.Sadeghi (2006).
A thermodynamic study on the interaction between magnesium ion and human growth hormone.
  Biopolymers, 81, 120-126.  
16819820 C.S.Lisenbee, and L.J.Miller (2006).
Secretin receptor oligomers form intracellularly during maturation through receptor core domains.
  Biochemistry, 45, 8216-8226.  
16477002 D.J.Stauber, E.W.Debler, P.A.Horton, K.A.Smith, and I.A.Wilson (2006).
Crystal structure of the IL-2 signaling complex: paradigm for a heterotrimeric cytokine receptor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 2788-2793.
PDB code: 2erj
17722273 F.Roelfsema, N.R.Biermasz, A.M.Pereira, and J.Romijn (2006).
Nanomedicines in the treatment of acromegaly: focus on pegvisomant.
  Int J Nanomedicine, 1, 385-398.  
16397076 J.Ayuk, and M.C.Sheppard (2006).
Growth hormone and its disorders.
  Postgrad Med J, 82, 24-30.  
16269515 J.F.Langenheim, D.Tan, A.M.Walker, and W.Y.Chen (2006).
Two wrongs can make a right: dimers of prolactin and growth hormone receptor antagonists behave as agonists.
  Mol Endocrinol, 20, 661-674.  
16674581 L.Buggiotti, and C.R.Primmer (2006).
Molecular evolution of the avian growth hormone gene and comparison with its mammalian counterpart.
  J Evol Biol, 19, 844-854.  
16737824 L.Deng, and R.A.Mariuzza (2006).
Structural basis for recognition of MHC and MHC-like ligands by natural killer cell receptors.
  Semin Immunol, 18, 159-166.  
16572267 M.Horan, V.Newsway, Yasmin, M.D.Lewis, T.E.Easter, D.A.Rees, A.Mahto, D.S.Millar, A.M.Procter, M.F.Scanlon, I.B.Wilkinson, I.P.Hall, A.Wheatley, J.Blakey, P.M.Bath, J.R.Cockcroft, M.Krawczak, and D.N.Cooper (2006).
Genetic variation at the growth hormone (GH1) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) loci as a risk factor for hypertension and stroke.
  Hum Genet, 119, 527-540.  
17009125 O.C.Wallis, and M.Wallis (2006).
Evolution of growth hormone in primates: the GH gene clusters of the New World monkeys marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons).
  J Mol Evol, 63, 591-601.  
16807684 S.Beranova-Giorgianni, Y.Zhao, D.M.Desiderio, and F.Giorgianni (2006).
Phosphoproteomic analysis of the human pituitary.
  Pituitary, 9, 109-120.  
15834923 A.Schreiber, M.Humbert, A.Benz, and U.Dietrich (2005).
3D-Epitope-Explorer (3DEX): localization of conformational epitopes within three-dimensional structures of proteins.
  J Comput Chem, 26, 879-887.  
16131663 G.Pál, S.Y.Fong, A.A.Kossiakoff, and S.S.Sidhu (2005).
Alternative views of functional protein binding epitopes obtained by combinatorial shotgun scanning mutagenesis.
  Protein Sci, 14, 2405-2413.  
15895091 G.Skiniotis, M.J.Boulanger, K.C.Garcia, and T.Walz (2005).
Signaling conformations of the tall cytokine receptor gp130 when in complex with IL-6 and IL-6 receptor.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 12, 545-551.  
16045607 I.Barák, and A.J.Wilkinson (2005).
Where asymmetry in gene expression originates.
  Mol Microbiol, 57, 611-620.  
16043704 J.K.Bell, I.Botos, P.R.Hall, J.Askins, J.Shiloach, D.M.Segal, and D.R.Davies (2005).
The molecular structure of the Toll-like receptor 3 ligand-binding domain.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 10976-10980.
PDB code: 2a0z
15772949 J.Persson, D.C.Andersen, and P.M.Lester (2005).
Evaluation of different primary recovery methods for E. coli-derived recombinant human growth hormone and compatibility with further down-stream purification.
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 90, 442-451.  
15565576 M.Fokkens, C.Jasper, T.Schrader, F.Koziol, C.Ochsenfeld, J.Polkowska, M.Lobert, B.Kahlert, and F.G.Klärner (2005).
Selective complexation of N-alkylpyridinium salts: binding of NAD+ in water.
  Chemistry, 11, 477-494.  
15863029 M.Mohammadi, S.K.Olsen, and O.A.Ibrahimi (2005).
Structural basis for fibroblast growth factor receptor activation.
  Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 16, 107-137.  
15906175 M.Sukumar, S.M.Storms, and M.R.De Felippis (2005).
Non-native intermediate conformational states of human growth hormone in the presence of organic solvents.
  Pharm Res, 22, 789-796.  
16084384 R.A.Frank, J.V.Pratap, X.Y.Pei, R.N.Perham, and B.F.Luisi (2005).
The molecular origins of specificity in the assembly of a multienzyme complex.
  Structure, 13, 1119-1130.
PDB code: 2bp7
16116438 R.J.Brown, J.J.Adams, R.A.Pelekanos, Y.Wan, W.J.McKinstry, K.Palethorpe, R.M.Seeber, T.A.Monks, K.A.Eidne, M.W.Parker, and M.J.Waters (2005).
Model for growth hormone receptor activation based on subunit rotation within a receptor dimer.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 12, 814-821.
PDB code: 2aew
15985167 S.Pletnev, E.Magracheva, A.Wlodawer, and A.Zdanov (2005).
A model of the ternary complex of interleukin-10 with its soluble receptors.
  BMC Struct Biol, 5, 10.  
15983417 T.Xu, N.J.Logsdon, and M.R.Walter (2005).
Structure of insect-cell-derived IL-22.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 61, 942-950.
PDB code: 1ykb
16124025 Y.Sakurai, T.Mizuno, H.Hiroaki, K.Gohda, J.Oku, and T.Tanaka (2005).
High thermal stability imparted by a designed tandem Arg-Trp stretch in an alpha-helical coiled coil.
  Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 44, 6180-6183.  
15208626 C.Dos Santos, L.Essioux, C.Teinturier, M.Tauber, V.Goffin, and P.Bougnères (2004).
A common polymorphism of the growth hormone receptor is associated with increased responsiveness to growth hormone.
  Nat Genet, 36, 720-724.  
15653425 E.J.Helmreich (2004).
Structural flexibility of small GTPases. Can it explain their functional versatility?
  Biol Chem, 385, 1121-1136.  
15500374 J.Ayuk, and M.C.Sheppard (2004).
The role of growth hormone-receptor antagonism in relation to acromegaly.
  Expert Opin Pharmacother, 5, 2279-2285.  
15292580 J.F.Moura, L.DeLacerda, R.Sandrini, F.M.Borba, D.N.Castelo, E.R.Sade, S.Sella, J.C.Minozzo, L.G.Callefe, and B.C.Figueiredo (2004).
ELISA for Determination of Human Growth Hormone: Recognition of Helix 4 Epitopes.
  J Biomed Biotechnol, 2004, 143-149.  
15167892 J.Stamos, R.A.Lazarus, X.Yao, D.Kirchhofer, and C.Wiesmann (2004).
Crystal structure of the HGF beta-chain in complex with the Sema domain of the Met receptor.
  EMBO J, 23, 2325-2335.
PDB code: 1shy
15049825 M.Banerjee, J.Copp, D.Vuga, M.Marino, T.Chapman, P.van der Geer, and P.Ghosh (2004).
GW domains of the Listeria monocytogenes invasion protein InlB are required for potentiation of Met activation.
  Mol Microbiol, 52, 257-271.  
14769915 M.D.Feese, T.Tamada, Y.Kato, Y.Maeda, M.Hirose, Y.Matsukura, H.Shigematsu, T.Muto, A.Matsumoto, H.Watarai, K.Ogami, T.Tahara, T.Kato, H.Miyazaki, and R.Kuroki (2004).
Structure of the receptor-binding domain of human thrombopoietin determined by complexation with a neutralizing antibody fragment.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 1816-1821.
PDB codes: 1v7m 1v7n
15355350 P.Hermand, P.Gane, I.Callebaut, N.Kieffer, J.P.Cartron, and P.Bailly (2004).
Integrin receptor specificity for human red cell ICAM-4 ligand. Critical residues for alphaIIbeta3 binding.
  Eur J Biochem, 271, 3729-3740.  
15064755 S.Keller, J.Nickel, J.L.Zhang, W.Sebald, and T.D.Mueller (2004).
Molecular recognition of BMP-2 and BMP receptor IA.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 11, 481-488.
PDB codes: 1reu 1rew
15162489 S.Liu, C.Zhang, H.Zhou, and Y.Zhou (2004).
A physical reference state unifies the structure-derived potential of mean force for protein folding and binding.
  Proteins, 56, 93.  
15032600 S.Pestka, C.D.Krause, D.Sarkar, M.R.Walter, Y.Shi, and P.B.Fisher (2004).
Interleukin-10 and related cytokines and receptors.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 22, 929-979.  
15563602 S.T.Walsh, J.E.Sylvester, and A.A.Kossiakoff (2004).
The high- and low-affinity receptor binding sites of growth hormone are allosterically coupled.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 17078-17083.  
15049831 T.Sato, and Y.Shimonishi (2004).
Structural features of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin that activates membrane-associated guanylyl cyclase.
  J Pept Res, 63, 200-206.  
15583394 W.J.McKinstry, Y.Wan, J.J.Adams, R.J.Brown, M.J.Waters, and M.W.Parker (2004).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the unliganded human growth hormone receptor.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 60, 2380-2382.  
15449706 W.Sebald, J.Nickel, J.L.Zhang, and T.D.Mueller (2004).
Molecular recognition in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/receptor interaction.
  Biol Chem, 385, 697-710.  
14527402 A.W.Burgess, H.S.Cho, C.Eigenbrot, K.M.Ferguson, T.P.Garrett, D.J.Leahy, M.A.Lemmon, M.X.Sliwkowski, C.W.Ward, and S.Yokoyama (2003).
An open-and-shut case? Recent insights into the activation of EGF/ErbB receptors.
  Mol Cell, 12, 541-552.  
12552121 B.Bernat, G.Pal, M.Sun, and A.A.Kossiakoff (2003).
Determination of the energetics governing the regulatory step in growth hormone-induced receptor homodimerization.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 952-957.  
12655557 D.S.Millar, M.D.Lewis, M.Horan, V.Newsway, T.E.Easter, J.W.Gregory, L.Fryklund, M.Norin, E.C.Crowne, S.J.Davies, P.Edwards, J.Kirk, K.Waldron, P.J.Smith, J.A.Phillips, M.F.Scanlon, M.Krawczak, D.N.Cooper, and A.M.Procter (2003).
Novel mutations of the growth hormone 1 (GH1) gene disclosed by modulation of the clinical selection criteria for individuals with short stature.
  Hum Mutat, 21, 424-440.  
14528000 E.Gherardi, M.E.Youles, R.N.Miguel, T.L.Blundell, L.Iamele, J.Gough, A.Bandyopadhyay, G.Hartmann, and P.J.Butler (2003).
Functional map and domain structure of MET, the product of the c-met protooncogene and receptor for hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 12039-12044.  
14517972 G.M.Verkhivker, D.Bouzida, D.K.Gehlhaar, P.A.Rejto, S.T.Freer, and P.W.Rose (2003).
Computational detection of the binding-site hot spot at the remodeled human growth hormone-receptor interface.
  Proteins, 53, 201-219.  
14596651 I.Shimon (2003).
Growth hormone replacement for adult growth hormone deficiency.
  Expert Opin Pharmacother, 4, 1977-1983.  
12667445 J.Greenwald, J.Groppe, P.Gray, E.Wiater, W.Kwiatkowski, W.Vale, and S.Choe (2003).
The BMP7/ActRII extracellular domain complex provides new insights into the cooperative nature of receptor assembly.
  Mol Cell, 11, 605-617.
PDB codes: 1lx5 1lxi
12842042 J.H.Chill, S.R.Quadt, R.Levy, G.Schreiber, and J.Anglister (2003).
The human type I interferon receptor: NMR structure reveals the molecular basis of ligand binding.
  Structure, 11, 791-802.
PDB codes: 1n6u 1n6v
12620237 K.M.Ferguson, M.B.Berger, J.M.Mendrola, H.S.Cho, D.J.Leahy, and M.A.Lemmon (2003).
EGF activates its receptor by removing interactions that autoinhibit ectodomain dimerization.
  Mol Cell, 11, 507-517.
PDB code: 1nql
12791136 M.P.Machner, S.Frese, W.D.Schubert, V.Orian-Rousseau, E.Gherardi, J.Wehland, H.H.Niemann, and D.W.Heinz (2003).
Aromatic amino acids at the surface of InlB are essential for host cell invasion by Listeria monocytogenes.
  Mol Microbiol, 48, 1525-1536.  
12869697 M.Sagermann, L.Gay, and B.W.Matthews (2003).
Long-distance conformational changes in a protein engineered by modulated sequence duplication.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 9191-9195.
PDB code: 1oyu
12649439 S.D.Emerson, R.Palermo, C.M.Liu, J.W.Tilley, L.Chen, W.Danho, V.S.Madison, D.N.Greeley, G.Ju, and D.C.Fry (2003).
NMR characterization of interleukin-2 in complexes with the IL-2Ralpha receptor component, and with low molecular weight compounds that inhibit the IL-2/IL-Ralpha interaction.
  Protein Sci, 12, 811-822.  
12469114 S.Davis, N.Papadopoulos, T.H.Aldrich, P.C.Maisonpierre, T.Huang, L.Kovac, A.Xu, R.Leidich, E.Radziejewska, A.Rafique, J.Goldberg, V.Jain, K.Bailey, M.Karow, J.Fandl, S.J.Samuelsson, E.Ioffe, J.S.Rudge, T.J.Daly, C.Radziejewski, and G.D.Yancopoulos (2003).
Angiopoietins have distinct modular domains essential for receptor binding, dimerization and superclustering.
  Nat Struct Biol, 10, 38-44.  
12512072 S.S.Sidhu, W.J.Fairbrother, and K.Deshayes (2003).
Exploring protein-protein interactions with phage display.
  Chembiochem, 4, 14-25.  
12930995 S.T.Walsh, L.M.Jevitts, J.E.Sylvester, and A.A.Kossiakoff (2003).
Site2 binding energetics of the regulatory step of growth hormone-induced receptor homodimerization.
  Protein Sci, 12, 1960-1970.  
12843579 Y.Kurihara, T.Watanabe, H.Nojima, M.Takeda-Shitaka, H.Sumikawa, K.Kamiya, and H.Umeyama (2003).
Dynamic character of human growth hormone and its receptor: normal mode analysis.
  Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 51, 754-758.  
14528293 Z.Kato, J.Jee, H.Shikano, M.Mishima, I.Ohki, H.Ohnishi, A.Li, K.Hashimoto, E.Matsukuma, K.Omoya, Y.Yamamoto, T.Yoneda, T.Hara, N.Kondo, and M.Shirakawa (2003).
The structure and binding mode of interleukin-18.
  Nat Struct Biol, 10, 966-971.
PDB code: 1j0s
12047380 A.Timmermann, A.Küster, I.Kurth, P.C.Heinrich, and G.Müller-Newen (2002).
A functional role of the membrane-proximal extracellular domains of the signal transducer gp130 in heterodimerization with the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 2716-2726.  
12021444 A.V.Filikov, R.J.Hayes, P.Luo, D.M.Stark, C.Chan, A.Kundu, and B.I.Dahiyat (2002).
Computational stabilization of human growth hormone.
  Protein Sci, 11, 1452-1461.  
12390682 B.E.Willcox, L.M.Thomas, T.L.Chapman, A.P.Heikema, A.P.West, and P.J.Bjorkman (2002).
Crystal structure of LIR-2 (ILT4) at 1.8 A: differences from LIR-1 (ILT2) in regions implicated in the binding of the Human Cytomegalovirus class I MHC homolog UL18.
  BMC Struct Biol, 2, 6.
PDB code: 2gw5
11914482 C.K.Vaughan, P.Harryson, A.M.Buckle, and A.R.Fersht (2002).
A structural double-mutant cycle: estimating the strength of a buried salt bridge in barnase.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 58, 591-600.
PDB codes: 1b20 1b21 1b2x 1b2z
  12099386 G.Piwien-Pilipuk, J.S.Huo, and J.Schwartz (2002).
Growth hormone signal transduction.
  J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 15, 771-786.  
11991991 H.Li, and J.Nicholas (2002).
Identification of amino acid residues of gp130 signal transducer and gp80 alpha receptor subunit that are involved in ligand binding and signaling by human herpesvirus 8-encoded interleukin-6.
  J Virol, 76, 5627-5636.  
12297050 H.Ogiso, R.Ishitani, O.Nureki, S.Fukai, M.Yamanaka, J.H.Kim, K.Saito, A.Sakamoto, M.Inoue, M.Shirouzu, and S.Yokoyama (2002).
Crystal structure of the complex of human epidermal growth factor and receptor extracellular domains.
  Cell, 110, 775-787.
PDB code: 1ivo
12105275 J.Gent, P.van Kerkhof, M.Roza, G.Bu, and G.J.Strous (2002).
Ligand-independent growth hormone receptor dimerization occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and is required for ubiquitin system-dependent endocytosis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 9858-9863.  
11874464 J.L.Zhang, M.Buehner, and W.Sebald (2002).
Functional epitope of common gamma chain for interleukin-4 binding.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 1490-1499.  
12419245 J.M.Alexander, C.A.Nelson, V.van Berkel, E.K.Lau, J.M.Studts, T.J.Brett, S.H.Speck, T.M.Handel, H.W.Virgin, and D.H.Fremont (2002).
Structural basis of chemokine sequestration by a herpesvirus decoy receptor.
  Cell, 111, 343-356.
PDB codes: 1mkf 1ml0
12461182 J.N.Varghese, R.L.Moritz, M.Z.Lou, A.Van Donkelaar, H.Ji, N.Ivancic, K.M.Branson, N.E.Hall, and R.J.Simpson (2002).
Structure of the extracellular domains of the human interleukin-6 receptor alpha -chain.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 15959-15964.
PDB codes: 1n26 1n2q
12134000 J.S.Gatot, I.Callebaut, C.Van Lint, D.Demonté, P.Kerkhofs, D.Portetelle, A.Burny, L.Willems, and R.Kettmann (2002).
Bovine leukemia virus SU protein interacts with zinc, and mutations within two interacting regions differently affect viral fusion and infectivity in vivo.
  J Virol, 76, 7956-7967.  
12440146 K.Morikawa (2002).
[Ligand recognition mechanism of G-CSF receptor and metabotropic glutamate receptor]
  Yakugaku Zasshi, 122, 855-868.  
11861620 K.Natarajan, N.Dimasi, J.Wang, R.A.Mariuzza, and D.H.Margulies (2002).
Structure and function of natural killer cell receptors: multiple molecular solutions to self, nonself discrimination.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 20, 853-885.  
12391027 K.Tan, M.Duquette, J.H.Liu, Y.Dong, R.Zhang, A.Joachimiak, J.Lawler, and J.H.Wang (2002).
Crystal structure of the TSP-1 type 1 repeats: a novel layered fold and its biological implication.
  J Cell Biol, 159, 373-382.
PDB code: 1lsl
12513909 N.J.Logsdon, B.C.Jones, K.Josephson, J.Cook, and M.R.Walter (2002).
Comparison of interleukin-22 and interleukin-10 soluble receptor complexes.
  J Interferon Cytokine Res, 22, 1099-1112.  
12360255 P.De Meyts, and J.Whittaker (2002).
Structural biology of insulin and IGF1 receptors: implications for drug design.
  Nat Rev Drug Discov, 1, 769-783.  
11850637 P.J.Hart, S.Deep, A.B.Taylor, Z.Shu, C.S.Hinck, and A.P.Hinck (2002).
Crystal structure of the human TbetaR2 ectodomain--TGF-beta3 complex.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 203-208.
PDB code: 1ktz
12297049 T.P.Garrett, N.M.McKern, M.Lou, T.C.Elleman, T.E.Adams, G.O.Lovrecz, H.J.Zhu, F.Walker, M.J.Frenkel, P.A.Hoyne, R.N.Jorissen, E.C.Nice, A.W.Burgess, and C.W.Ward (2002).
Crystal structure of a truncated epidermal growth factor receptor extracellular domain bound to transforming growth factor alpha.
  Cell, 110, 763-773.
PDB code: 1mox
12089475 T.Venugopal, S.Mathavan, and T.J.Pandian (2002).
Molecular cloning of growth hormone encoding cDNA of Indian major carps by a modified rapid amplification of cDNA ends strategy.
  J Biosci, 27, 261-272.  
11345195 C.J.Bagley, J.M.Woodcock, M.A.Guthridge, F.C.Stomski, and A.F.Lopez (2001).
Structural and functional hot spots in cytokine receptors.
  Int J Hematol, 73, 299-307.  
11772281 C.Parkinson, and P.J.Trainer (2001).
The place of pegvisomant in the management of acromegaly.
  Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 10, 1725-1735.  
11376122 C.W.Ward, T.P.Garrett, N.M.McKern, M.Lou, L.J.Cosgrove, L.G.Sparrow, M.J.Frenkel, P.A.Hoyne, T.C.Elleman, T.E.Adams, G.O.Lovrecz, L.J.Lawrence, and P.A.Tulloch (2001).
The three dimensional structure of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor.
  Mol Pathol, 54, 125-132.  
11244571 G.Hellgren, K.Albertsson-Wikland, H.Billig, L.M.Carlsson, and B.Carlsson (2001).
Growth hormone receptor interaction with Jak proteins differs between tissues.
  J Interferon Cytokine Res, 21, 75-83.  
11285233 H.Plun-Favreau, G.Elson, M.Chabbert, J.Froger, O.deLapeyrière, E.Lelièvre, C.Guillet, J.Hermann, J.F.Gauchat, H.Gascan, and S.Chevalier (2001).
The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha component induces the secretion of and is required for functional responses to cardiotrophin-like cytokine.
  EMBO J, 20, 1692-1703.  
11167927 J.Kratzsch, Z.Wu, W.Kiess, B.Dehmel, A.Bosse-Henck, W.Reuter, C.D.Pflaum, and C.J.Strasburger (2001).
The exon 3-retaining and the exon 3-deleted forms of the growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP) in human serum are regulated differently.
  Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 54, 61-68.  
11526337 M.Hülsmeyer, C.Scheufler, and M.K.Dreyer (2001).
Structure of interleukin 4 mutant E9A suggests polar steering in receptor-complex formation.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 57, 1334-1336.
PDB code: 1hzi
11738045 M.J.Banfield, R.L.Naylor, A.G.Robertson, S.J.Allen, D.Dawbarn, and R.L.Brady (2001).
Specificity in Trk receptor:neurotrophin interactions: the crystal structure of TrkB-d5 in complex with neurotrophin-4/5.
  Structure, 9, 1191-1199.
PDB code: 1hcf
11250200 M.Randal, and A.A.Kossiakoff (2001).
The structure and activity of a monomeric interferon-gamma:alpha-chain receptor signaling complex.
  Structure, 9, 155-163.
PDB code: 1fyh
11207369 P.D.Carr, S.E.Gustin, A.P.Church, J.M.Murphy, S.C.Ford, D.A.Mann, D.M.Woltring, I.Walker, D.L.Ollis, and I.G.Young (2001).
Structure of the complete extracellular domain of the common beta subunit of the human GM-CSF, IL-3, and IL-5 receptors reveals a novel dimer configuration.
  Cell, 104, 291-300.
PDB code: 1gh7
11316794 P.Hidalgo, A.Z.Ansari, P.Schmidt, B.Hare, N.Simkovich, S.Farrell, E.J.Shin, M.Ptashne, and G.Wagner (2001).
Recruitment of the transcriptional machinery through GAL11P: structure and interactions of the GAL4 dimerization domain.
  Genes Dev, 15, 1007-1020.
PDB code: 1hbw
11358507 S.E.Gustin, A.P.Church, S.C.Ford, D.A.Mann, P.D.Carr, D.L.Ollis, and I.G.Young (2001).
Expression, crystallization and derivatization of the complete extracellular domain of the beta(c) subunit of the human IL-5, IL-3 and GM-CSF receptors.
  Eur J Biochem, 268, 2905-2911.  
11286784 S.Okada, and J.J.Kopchick (2001).
Biological effects of growth hormone and its antagonist.
  Trends Mol Med, 7, 126-132.  
11754823 S.Radaev, B.Rostro, A.G.Brooks, M.Colonna, and P.D.Sun (2001).
Conformational plasticity revealed by the cocrystal structure of NKG2D and its class I MHC-like ligand ULBP3.
  Immunity, 15, 1039-1049.
PDB code: 1kcg
10779412 A.G.Cochran (2000).
Antagonists of protein-protein interactions.
  Chem Biol, 7, R85-R94.  
10673425 C.C.Deivanayagam, R.L.Rich, M.Carson, R.T.Owens, S.Danthuluri, T.Bice, M.Höök, and S.V.Narayana (2000).
Novel fold and assembly of the repetitive B region of the Staphylococcus aureus collagen-binding surface protein.
  Structure, 8, 67-78.
PDB codes: 1d2o 1d2p
10796029 C.Hejase de Trad, Q.Fang, and I.Cosic (2000).
The resonant recognition model (RRM) predicts amino acid residues in highly conserved regions of the hormone prolactin (PRL).
  Biophys Chem, 84, 149-157.  
10899108 C.Yoon, S.C.Johnston, J.Tang, M.Stahl, J.F.Tobin, and W.S.Somers (2000).
Charged residues dominate a unique interlocking topography in the heterodimeric cytokine interleukin-12.
  EMBO J, 19, 3530-3541.
PDB codes: 1f42 1f45
10618369 D.J.Stauber, A.D.DiGabriele, and W.A.Hendrickson (2000).
Structural interactions of fibroblast growth factor receptor with its ligands.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 49-54.
PDB code: 1djs
10986460 D.J.Thiel, M.H.le Du, R.L.Walter, A.D'Arcy, C.Chène, M.Fountoulakis, G.Garotta, F.K.Winkler, and S.E.Ealick (2000).
Observation of an unexpected third receptor molecule in the crystal structure of human interferon-gamma receptor complex.
  Structure, 8, 927-936.
PDB code: 1fg9
10940245 D.S.Goodsell, and A.J.Olson (2000).
Structural symmetry and protein function.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 29, 105-153.  
11015214 E.J.Parkinson, M.B.Morris, and S.Bastiras (2000).
Acid denaturation of recombinant porcine growth hormone: formation and self-association of folding intermediates.
  Biochemistry, 39, 12345-12354.  
11112523 E.J.Sundberg, M.Urrutia, B.C.Braden, J.Isern, D.Tsuchiya, B.A.Fields, E.L.Malchiodi, J.Tormo, F.P.Schwarz, and R.A.Mariuzza (2000).
Estimation of the hydrophobic effect in an antigen-antibody protein-protein interface.
  Biochemistry, 39, 15375-15387.
PDB codes: 1g7h 1g7i 1g7j 1g7l 1g7m
10903952 E.J.Sundberg, and R.A.Mariuzza (2000).
Luxury accommodations: the expanding role of structural plasticity in protein-protein interactions.
  Structure, 8, R137-R142.  
11013068 F.Nyberg (2000).
Growth hormone in the brain: characteristics of specific brain targets for the hormone and their functional significance.
  Front Neuroendocrinol, 21, 330-348.  
10908667 G.A.Weiss, C.K.Watanabe, A.Zhong, A.Goddard, and S.S.Sidhu (2000).
Rapid mapping of protein functional epitopes by combinatorial alanine scanning.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 8950-8954.  
10835339 J.Bravo, and J.K.Heath (2000).
Receptor recognition by gp130 cytokines.
  EMBO J, 19, 2399-2411.  
11058786 K.J.Kallen, J.Grötzinger, and S.Rose-John (2000).
New perspectives on the design of cytokines and growth factors.
  Trends Biotechnol, 18, 455-461.  
10943824 K.M.Attie (2000).
Genetic studies in idiopathic short stature.
  Curr Opin Pediatr, 12, 400-404.  
10976521 K.Ohkura, and H.Hori (2000).
Analyses of insulin-potentiating fragments of human growth hormone by computative simulation; essential unit for insulin-involved biological responses.
  Bioorg Med Chem, 8, 1733-1740.  
  10850801 L.Cosenza, A.Rosenbach, J.V.White, J.R.Murphy, and T.Smith (2000).
Comparative model building of interleukin-7 using interleukin-4 as a template: a structural hypothesis that displays atypical surface chemistry in helix D important for receptor activation.
  Protein Sci, 9, 916-926.  
10704203 L.Runkel, C.deDios, M.Karpusas, M.Betzenhauser, C.Muldowney, M.Zafari, C.D.Benjamin, S.Miller, P.S.Hochman, and A.Whitty (2000).
Systematic mutational mapping of sites on human interferon-beta-1a that are important for receptor binding and functional activity.
  Biochemistry, 39, 2538-2551.  
10818353 M.Aritomi, N.Kunishima, N.Okitsu, M.Shimizu, Y.Ota, and K.Morikawa (2000).
Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a complex between granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and its soluble receptor.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 56, 751-753.  
10997905 M.C.Deller, K.R.Hudson, S.Ikemizu, J.Bravo, E.Y.Jones, and J.K.Heath (2000).
Crystal structure and functional dissection of the cytostatic cytokine oncostatin M.
  Structure, 8, 863-874.
PDB code: 1evs
10785357 M.L.Fernández, G.D.Cymes, L.M.Curto, and C.Wolfenstein-Todel (2000).
Ovine placental lactogen and ovine prolactin: partial proteolysis and conformational stability.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 32, 597-608.  
11027984 P.Reinemer, W.Sebald, and A.Duschl (2000).
The Interleukin-4-Receptor: From Recognition Mechanism to Pharmacological Target Structure.
  Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 39, 2834-2846.  
10696112 Q.X.Hua, M.Zhao, N.Narayana, S.H.Nakagawa, W.Jia, and M.A.Weiss (2000).
Diabetes-associated mutations in a beta-cell transcription factor destabilize an antiparallel "mini-zipper" in a dimerization interface.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 1999-2004.
PDB code: 1dt8
11564570 S.G.Miller (2000).
Discovery of cytokine mimics using cell-based systems.
  Drug Discov Today, 5, 77-83.  
10637647 S.I.Taylor (2000).
Rational design of peptide agonists of cell-surface receptors.
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 21, 9.  
11169919 S.Pestka (2000).
The human interferon alpha species and receptors.
  Biopolymers, 55, 254-287.  
11114384 T.L.Chapman, A.P.Heikema, A.P.West, and P.J.Bjorkman (2000).
Crystal structure and ligand binding properties of the D1D2 region of the inhibitory receptor LIR-1 (ILT2).
  Immunity, 13, 727-736.
PDB code: 1g0x
10449521 A.C.Ward, Y.M.van Aesch, J.Gits, A.M.Schelen, J.P.de Koning, D.van Leeuwen, M.H.Freedman, and I.P.Touw (1999).
Novel point mutation in the extracellular domain of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor in a case of severe congenital neutropenia hyporesponsive to G-CSF treatment.
  J Exp Med, 190, 497-507.  
10574803 C.Wiesmann, and A.M.de Vos (1999).
Putting two and two together: crystal structure of the FGF-receptor complex.
  Structure, 7, R251-R255.  
  10338012 D.K.Hendrix, T.E.Klein, I.D.Kuntz, and T.E.Klien (1999).
Macromolecular docking of a three-body system: the recognition of human growth hormone by its receptor.
  Protein Sci, 8, 1010-1022.  
10097129 G.A.Snyder, A.G.Brooks, and P.D.Sun (1999).
Crystal structure of the HLA-Cw3 allotype-specific killer cell inhibitory receptor KIR2DL2.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 3864-3869.
PDB codes: 2dl2 2dli
10215869 G.J.Allan, J.H.Shand, J.Beattie, and D.J.Flint (1999).
Identification of novel sites in the ovine growth hormone receptor involved in binding hormone and conferring species specificity.
  Eur J Biochem, 261, 555-562.  
10052934 H.M.Naylor, and M.E.Newcomer (1999).
The structure of human retinol-binding protein (RBP) with its carrier protein transthyretin reveals an interaction with the carboxy terminus of RBP.
  Biochemistry, 38, 2647-2653.
PDB code: 1qab
10607675 I.A.Wilson, and L.K.Jolliffe (1999).
The structure, organization, activation and plasticity of the erythropoietin receptor.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 9, 696-704.  
10504396 I.Tacken, H.Dahmen, O.Boisteau, S.Minvielle, Y.Jacques, J.Grötzinger, A.Küster, U.Horsten, C.Blanc, F.A.Montero-Julian, P.C.Heinrich, and G.Müller-Newen (1999).
Definition of receptor binding sites on human interleukin-11 by molecular modeling-guided mutagenesis.
  Eur J Biochem, 265, 645-655.  
15992055 J.Beattie, and D.J.Flint (1999).
Immunological manipulation of body composition.
  Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 8, 19-27.  
10520135 J.Bispham, L.Heasman, L.Clarke, P.M.Ingleton, T.Stephenson, and M.E.Symonds (1999).
Effect of maternal dexamethasone treatment and ambient temperature on prolactin receptor abundance in Brown adipose and hepatic tissue in the foetus and new-born lamb.
  J Neuroendocrinol, 11, 849-856.  
10023772 J.C.Boyington, A.N.Riaz, A.Patamawenu, J.E.Coligan, A.G.Brooks, and P.D.Sun (1999).
Structure of CD94 reveals a novel C-type lectin fold: implications for the NK cell-associated CD94/NKG2 receptors.
  Immunity, 10, 75-82.
PDB code: 1b6e
10494829 J.Grötzinger, T.Kernebeck, K.J.Kallen, and S.Rose-John (1999).
IL-6 type cytokine receptor complexes: hexamer, tetramer or both?
  Biol Chem, 380, 803-813.  
10583386 J.H.Shand, G.J.Allan, J.Beattie, and D.J.Flint (1999).
Generation of epitope-specific antibodies to rat GHBP in the sheep using an interspecies switching strategy involving site-directed mutagenesis of ovine GHBP.
  Eur J Biochem, 266, 917-923.  
10448532 J.J.Kopchick, L.L.Bellush, and K.T.Coschigano (1999).
Transgenic models of growth hormone action.
  Annu Rev Nutr, 19, 437-461.  
10582336 J.M.Woodcock, C.J.Bagley, and A.F.Lopez (1999).
The functional basis of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, interleukin-3 and interleukin-5 receptor activation, basic and clinical implications.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 31, 1017-1025.  
10547147 K.E.Mogensen, M.Lewerenz, J.Reboul, G.Lutfalla, and G.Uzé (1999).
The type I interferon receptor: structure, function, and evolution of a family business.
  J Interferon Cytokine Res, 19, 1069-1098.  
9890885 K.H.Pearce, B.C.Cunningham, G.Fuh, T.Teeri, and J.A.Wells (1999).
Growth hormone binding affinity for its receptor surpasses the requirements for cellular activity.
  Biochemistry, 38, 81-89.  
10358772 K.Nelms, A.D.Keegan, J.Zamorano, J.J.Ryan, and W.E.Paul (1999).
The IL-4 receptor: signaling mechanisms and biologic functions.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 17, 701-738.  
9888790 K.S.Misono, N.Sivasubramanian, K.Berkner, and X.Zhang (1999).
Expression and purification of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptor: monovalent binding with ANP induces 2:2 complexes.
  Biochemistry, 38, 516-523.  
10048764 L.A.Goldman, M.Zafari, E.C.Cutrone, A.Dang, M.Brickelmeier, L.Runkel, C.D.Benjamin, L.E.Ling, and J.A.Langer (1999).
Characterization of antihuman IFNAR-1 monoclonal antibodies: epitope localization and functional analysis.
  J Interferon Cytokine Res, 19, 15-26.  
10223295 M.H.Seto, H.L.Liu, D.A.Zajchowski, and M.Whitlow (1999).
Protein fold analysis of the B30.2-like domain.
  Proteins, 35, 235-249.  
10404599 M.T.Huhtala, O.T.Pentikäinen, and M.S.Johnson (1999).
A dimeric ternary complex of FGFR [correction of FGFR1], heparin and FGF-1 leads to an 'electrostatic sandwich' model for heparin binding.
  Structure, 7, 699-709.
PDB code: 1qct
  10071797 R.C.Skoda (1999).
Specificity of signaling by hematopoietic cytokine receptors: instructive versus permissive effects.
  J Recept Signal Transduct Res, 19, 741-772.  
10557267 R.J.St John, J.F.Carpenter, and T.W.Randolph (1999).
High pressure fosters protein refolding from aggregates at high concentrations.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 13029-13033.  
  10493588 R.M.Arduini, K.L.Strauch, L.A.Runkel, M.M.Carlson, X.Hronowski, S.F.Foley, C.N.Young, W.Cheng, P.S.Hochman, and D.P.Baker (1999).
Characterization of a soluble ternary complex formed between human interferon-beta-1a and its receptor chains.
  Protein Sci, 8, 1867-1877.  
10545102 S.Eketjäll, M.Fainzilber, J.Murray-Rust, and C.F.Ibáñez (1999).
Distinct structural elements in GDNF mediate binding to GFRalpha1 and activation of the GFRalpha1-c-Ret receptor complex.
  EMBO J, 18, 5901-5910.  
10611645 S.N.Behncken, and M.J.Waters (1999).
Molecular recognition events involved in the activation of the growth hormone receptor by growth hormone.
  J Mol Recognit, 12, 355-362.  
10322390 S.N.Constantinescu, S.Ghaffari, and H.F.Lodish (1999).
The Erythropoietin Receptor: Structure, Activation and Intracellular Signal Transduction.
  Trends Endocrinol Metab, 10, 18-23.  
10369674 S.N.Constantinescu, X.Liu, W.Beyer, A.Fallon, S.Shekar, Y.I.Henis, S.O.Smith, and H.F.Lodish (1999).
Activation of the erythropoietin receptor by the gp55-P viral envelope protein is determined by a single amino acid in its transmembrane domain.
  EMBO J, 18, 3334-3347.  
10582340 S.S.Watowich (1999).
Activation of erythropoietin signaling by receptor dimerization.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 31, 1075-1088.  
10219247 T.Hage, W.Sebald, and P.Reinemer (1999).
Crystal structure of the interleukin-4/receptor alpha chain complex reveals a mosaic binding interface.
  Cell, 97, 271-281.
PDB code: 1iar
  10210178 T.Kernebeck, S.Pflanz, G.Müller-Newen, G.Kurapkat, R.M.Scheek, K.Dijkstra, P.C.Heinrich, A.Wollmer, S.Grzesiek, and J.Grötzinger (1999).
The signal transducer gp130: solution structure of the carboxy-terminal domain of the cytokine receptor homology region.
  Protein Sci, 8, 5.
PDB code: 1bj8
10377456 T.Naranda, K.Wong, R.I.Kaufman, A.Goldstein, and L.Olsson (1999).
Activation of erythropoietin receptor in the absence of hormone by a peptide that binds to a domain different from the hormone binding site.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 7569-7574.  
9629146 A.Gertler, J.Grosclaude, and J.Djiane (1998).
Interaction of lactogenic hormones with prolactin receptors.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 839, 177-181.  
9520450 A.L.Rothermel, and D.C.Altieri (1998).
High affinity cross-reacting mAb generated by minimal mimicry: implications for the pathogenesis of anti-nuclear autoantibodies and immunosuppression.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 3816-3820.  
  9470206 B.Bardsley, Y.R.Cho, M.S.Westwell, and D.H.Williams (1998).
Induction of asymmetry into homodimers.
  Chirality, 10, 14-23.  
9786342 C.F.Ibáñez (1998).
Emerging themes in structural biology of neurotrophic factors.
  Trends Neurosci, 21, 438-444.  
9739761 C.H.Heldin, A.Ostman, and L.Rönnstrand (1998).
Signal transduction via platelet-derived growth factor receptors.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1378, F79-113.  
9928202 C.Hammer (1998).
Physiological obstacles after xenotransplantation.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 862, 19-27.  
  9710621 C.L.Burke, and D.F.Stern (1998).
Activation of Neu (ErbB-2) mediated by disulfide bond-induced dimerization reveals a receptor tyrosine kinase dimer interface.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 5371-5379.  
9782056 C.M.Goll, A.Pastore, and M.Nilges (1998).
The three-dimensional structure of a type I module from titin: a prototype of intracellular fibronectin type III domains.
  Structure, 6, 1291-1302.
PDB code: 1bpv
9692947 D.Kitchen, R.C.Hoffman, F.J.Moy, and R.Powers (1998).
Homology model for oncostatin M based on NMR structural data.
  Biochemistry, 37, 10581-10588.  
9521688 D.L.Johnson, F.X.Farrell, F.P.Barbone, F.J.McMahon, J.Tullai, K.Hoey, O.Livnah, N.C.Wrighton, S.A.Middleton, D.A.Loughney, E.A.Stura, W.J.Dower, L.S.Mulcahy, I.A.Wilson, and L.K.Jolliffe (1998).
Identification of a 13 amino acid peptide mimetic of erythropoietin and description of amino acids critical for the mimetic activity of EMP1.
  Biochemistry, 37, 3699-3710.  
10837590 G.L.King, and E.P.Feener (1998).
The biochemical and physiological characteristics of receptors.
  Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 29, 197-213.  
9811499 H.R.Costantino, K.G.Carrasquillo, R.A.Cordero, M.Mumenthaler, C.C.Hsu, and K.Griebenow (1998).
Effect of excipients on the stability and structure of lyophilized recombinant human growth hormone.
  J Pharm Sci, 87, 1412-1420.  
10089521 H.W.Christinger, P.A.Elkins, Y.Sandowski, E.Sakal, A.Gertler, A.A.Kossiakoff, and A.M.de Vos (1998).
Crystallization of ovine placental lactogen in a 1:2 complex with the extracellular domain of the rat prolactin receptor.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 54, 1408-1411.  
  9655339 I.Gomez-Orellana, B.Variano, J.Miura-Fraboni, S.Milstein, and D.R.Paton (1998).
Thermodynamic characterization of an intermediate state of human growth hormone.
  Protein Sci, 7, 1352-1358.  
9501088 J.Bravo, D.Staunton, J.K.Heath, and E.Y.Jones (1998).
Crystal structure of a cytokine-binding region of gp130.
  EMBO J, 17, 1665-1674.
PDB code: 1bqu
9736704 J.Cárcamo, M.W.Ravera, R.Brissette, O.Dedova, J.R.Beasley, A.Alam-Moghé, C.Wan, A.Blume, and W.Mandecki (1998).
Unexpected frameshifts from gene to expressed protein in a phage-displayed peptide library.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 11146-11151.  
9783743 J.C.Cheetham, D.M.Smith, K.H.Aoki, J.L.Stevenson, T.J.Hoeffel, R.S.Syed, J.Egrie, and T.S.Harvey (1998).
NMR structure of human erythropoietin and a comparison with its receptor bound conformation.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 861-866.
PDB code: 1buy
9597142 J.D.Klemm, S.L.Schreiber, and G.R.Crabtree (1998).
Dimerization as a regulatory mechanism in signal transduction.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 16, 569-592.  
9843440 J.Greenwald, V.Le, A.Corrigan, W.Fischer, E.Komives, W.Vale, and S.Choe (1998).
Characterization of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the type II activin receptor.
  Biochemistry, 37, 16711-16718.  
  9505197 J.L.Taupin, V.Pitard, J.Dechanet, V.Miossec, N.Gualde, and J.F.Moreau (1998).
Leukemia inhibitory factor: part of a large ingathering family.
  Int Rev Immunol, 16, 397-426.  
9737881 L.A.Goldman, E.C.Cutrone, A.Dang, X.Hao, J.K.Lim, and J.A.Langer (1998).
Mapping human interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha 2) binding determinants of the type I interferon receptor subunit IFNAR-1 with human/bovine IFNAR-1 chimeras.
  Biochemistry, 37, 13003-13010.  
9860822 L.McFail-Isom, X.Shui, and L.D.Williams (1998).
Divalent cations stabilize unstacked conformations of DNA and RNA by interacting with base pi systems.
  Biochemistry, 37, 17105-17111.  
  9766809 M.A.Guthridge, F.C.Stomski, D.Thomas, J.M.Woodcock, C.J.Bagley, M.C.Berndt, and A.F.Lopez (1998).
Mechanism of activation of the GM-CSF, IL-3, and IL-5 family of receptors.
  Stem Cells, 16, 301-313.  
9501912 M.J.Parker, C.E.Dempsey, L.L.Hosszu, J.P.Waltho, and A.R.Clarke (1998).
Topology, sequence evolution and folding dynamics of an immunoglobulin domain.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 194-198.  
  10850350 M.R.Walter, R.Bordens, T.L.Nagabhushan, B.R.Williams, R.B.Herberman, C.A.Dinarello, E.C.Borden, P.P.Trotta, S.Pestka, and L.M.Pfeffer (1998).
Review of recent developments in the molecular characterization of recombinant alfa interferons on the 40th anniversary of the discovery of interferon.
  Cancer Biother Radiopharm, 13, 143-154.  
9808045 O.Livnah, D.L.Johnson, E.A.Stura, F.X.Farrell, F.P.Barbone, Y.You, K.D.Liu, M.A.Goldsmith, W.He, C.D.Krause, S.Pestka, L.K.Jolliffe, and I.A.Wilson (1998).
An antagonist peptide-EPO receptor complex suggests that receptor dimerization is not sufficient for activation.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 993.
PDB code: 1eba
  9418889 O.Rowland, and J.Segall (1998).
A hydrophobic segment within the 81-amino-acid domain of TFIIIA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for its transcription factor activity.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 420-432.  
9918122 P.E.Auron (1998).
The interleukin 1 receptor: ligand interactions and signal transduction.
  Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 9, 221-237.  
9475661 R.J.Duhé, and W.L.Farrar (1998).
Structural and mechanistic aspects of Janus kinases: how the two-faced god wields a double-edged sword.
  J Interferon Cytokine Res, 18, 1.  
9425068 R.Wallis, K.Y.Leung, M.J.Osborne, R.James, G.R.Moore, and C.Kleanthous (1998).
Specificity in protein-protein recognition: conserved Im9 residues are the major determinants of stability in the colicin E9 DNase-Im9 complex.
  Biochemistry, 37, 476-485.  
9762352 S.A.Benner, N.Trabesinger, D.Schreiber, and S.A.Benner (1998).
Post-genomic science: converting primary structure into physiological function.
  Adv Enzyme Regul, 38, 155-180.  
9875849 S.C.Garman, J.P.Kinet, and T.S.Jardetzky (1998).
Crystal structure of the human high-affinity IgE receptor.
  Cell, 95, 951-961.
PDB code: 1f2q
  9820589 S.J.McConnell, T.Dinh, M.H.Le, S.J.Brown, K.Becherer, K.Blumeyer, C.Kautzer, F.Axelrod, and D.G.Spinella (1998).
Isolation of erythropoietin receptor agonist peptides using evolved phage libraries.
  Biol Chem, 379, 1279-1286.  
9868364 T.D.Mulhern, G.W.Booker, and L.Cosgrove (1998).
A third fibronectin-type-III domain in the insulin-family receptors.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 23, 465-466.  
9691079 W.J.Dower (1998).
Targeting growth factor and cytokine receptors with recombinant peptide libraries.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 2, 328-334.  
9597132 W.J.Leonard, and J.J.O'Shea (1998).
Jaks and STATs: biological implications.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 16, 293-322.  
9753694 Y.A.Muller, Y.Chen, H.W.Christinger, B.Li, B.C.Cunningham, H.B.Lowman, and A.M.de Vos (1998).
VEGF and the Fab fragment of a humanized neutralizing antibody: crystal structure of the complex at 2.4 A resolution and mutational analysis of the interface.
  Structure, 6, 1153-1167.
PDB code: 1bj1
9359102 A.Braisted (1997).
Hormone peptidomimetics: seeing double.
  Nat Biotechnol, 15, 1244-1245.  
9311977 A.C.Papageorgiou, R.Shapiro, and K.R.Acharya (1997).
Molecular recognition of human angiogenin by placental ribonuclease inhibitor--an X-ray crystallographic study at 2.0 A resolution.
  EMBO J, 16, 5162-5177.
PDB code: 1a4y
9266165 B.C.Cunningham, and J.A.Wells (1997).
Minimized proteins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 457-462.  
9187648 C.Eigenbrot, and N.Gerber (1997).
X-ray structure of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor at 1.9 A resolution and implications for receptor binding.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 435-438.
PDB code: 1agq
  9309428 C.M.Cahill, A.T.Holder, T.L.Lawton, G.W.Butcher, and M.J.Taussig (1997).
Recognition of porcine growth hormone by a panel of monoclonal antibodies.
  Hybridoma, 16, 371-379.  
9566117 C.McInnes, and B.D.Sykes (1997).
Growth factor receptors: structure, mechanism, and drug discovery.
  Biopolymers, 43, 339-366.  
  9194183 D.C.Young, H.Zhan, Q.L.Cheng, J.Hou, and D.J.Matthews (1997).
Characterization of the receptor binding determinants of granulocyte colony stimulating factor.
  Protein Sci, 6, 1228-1236.  
9254611 D.H.Purvis, and B.C.Mabbutt (1997).
Solution dynamics and secondary structure of murine leukemia inhibitory factor: a four-helix cytokine with a rigid CD loop.
  Biochemistry, 36, 10146-10154.  
9442878 D.J.Leahy (1997).
Implications of atomic-resolution structures for cell adhesion.
  Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 13, 363-393.  
9195871 D.J.Underwood, and K.Prendergast (1997).
Getting it together: signal transduction in G-protein coupled receptors by association of receptor domains.
  Chem Biol, 4, 239-248.  
9166423 D.Rajotte, C.Cadieux, A.Haman, B.C.Wilkes, S.C.Clark, T.Hercus, J.A.Woodcock, A.Lopez, and T.Hoang (1997).
Crucial role of the residue R280 at the F'-G' loop of the human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor alpha chain for ligand recognition.
  J Exp Med, 185, 1939-1950.  
9380691 D.W.White, D.W.Wang, S.C.Chua, J.P.Morgenstern, R.L.Leibel, H.Baumann, and L.A.Tartaglia (1997).
Constitutive and impaired signaling of leptin receptors containing the Gln --> Pro extracellular domain fatty mutation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 10657-10662.  
9143700 E.A.Bach, M.Aguet, and R.D.Schreiber (1997).
The IFN gamma receptor: a paradigm for cytokine receptor signaling.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 15, 563-591.  
9238040 F.A.Goldbaum, C.A.Velikovsky, W.Dall'Acqua, C.A.Fossati, B.A.Fields, B.C.Braden, R.J.Poljak, and R.A.Mariuzza (1997).
Characterization of anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies that bind antigen and an anti-idiotype.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 8697-8701.  
9241425 H.B.Lowman (1997).
Bacteriophage display and discovery of peptide leads for drug development.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 26, 401-424.  
9166791 J.M.Matthews, L.D.Ward, A.Hammacher, R.S.Norton, and R.J.Simpson (1997).
Roles of histidine 31 and tryptophan 34 in the structure, self-association, and folding of murine interleukin-6.
  Biochemistry, 36, 6187-6196.  
9264112 J.M.Pell (1997).
Immunological manipulation of growth.
  Proc Nutr Soc, 56, 621-630.  
  9368330 J.N.Ihle, T.Nosaka, W.Thierfelder, F.W.Quelle, and K.Shimoda (1997).
Jaks and Stats in cytokine signaling.
  Stem Cells, 15, 105.  
9048553 J.Wang, Y.S.Balazs, and L.K.Thompson (1997).
Solid-state REDOR NMR distance measurements at the ligand site of a bacterial chemotaxis membrane receptor.
  Biochemistry, 36, 1699-1703.  
9620644 J.X.Lin, and W.J.Leonard (1997).
Signaling from the IL-2 receptor to the nucleus.
  Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 8, 313-332.  
9379075 K.D.Smith, Z.B.Kurago, and C.T.Lutz (1997).
Conformational changes in MHC class I molecules. Antibody, T-cell receptor, and NK cell recognition in an HLA-B7 model system.
  Immunol Res, 16, 243-259.  
8999999 K.L.Ball, S.Lain, R.Fâhraeus, C.Smythe, and D.P.Lane (1997).
Cell-cycle arrest and inhibition of Cdk4 activity by small peptides based on the carboxy-terminal domain of p21WAF1.
  Curr Biol, 7, 71-80.  
9288896 K.P.Locher, and J.P.Rosenbusch (1997).
Oligomeric states and siderophore binding of the ligand-gated FhuA protein that forms channels across Escherichia coli outer membranes.
  Eur J Biochem, 247, 770-775.  
9016723 K.S.Thorn, H.E.Christensen, R.Shigeta, D.Huddler, L.Shalaby, U.Lindberg, N.H.Chua, and C.E.Schutt (1997).
The crystal structure of a major allergen from plants.
  Structure, 5, 19-32.
PDB codes: 1a0k 1plm 3nul
  9144770 K.V.Soman, B.A.Hanks, H.Tien, M.V.Chari, K.D.O'Neal, and J.D.Morrisett (1997).
Template-based docking of a prolactin receptor proline-rich motif octapeptide to FKBP12: implications for cytokine receptor signaling.
  Protein Sci, 6, 999.  
9029149 M.A.Lemmon, Z.Bu, J.E.Ladbury, M.Zhou, D.Pinchasi, I.Lax, D.M.Engelman, and J.Schlessinger (1997).
Two EGF molecules contribute additively to stabilization of the EGFR dimer.
  EMBO J, 16, 281-294.  
9035138 M.Fischer, J.Goldschmitt, C.Peschel, J.P.Brakenhoff, K.J.Kallen, A.Wollmer, J.Grötzinger, and S.Rose-John (1997).
I. A bioactive designer cytokine for human hematopoietic progenitor cell expansion.
  Nat Biotechnol, 15, 142-145.  
  9225115 M.Hettiarachchi, A.Watkinson, K.C.Leung, Y.N.Sinha, K.K.Ho, and E.W.Kraegen (1997).
Human growth hormone fragment (hGH44-91) produces insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia but is less potent than 22 kDa hGH in the rat.
  Endocrine, 6, 47-52.  
9362499 M.K.Safo, W.Z.Yang, L.Corselli, S.E.Cramton, H.S.Yuan, and R.C.Johnson (1997).
The transactivation region of the fis protein that controls site-specific DNA inversion contains extended mobile beta-hairpin arms.
  EMBO J, 16, 6860-6873.
PDB code: 1f36
9342320 M.Karpusas, M.Nolte, C.B.Benton, W.Meier, W.N.Lipscomb, and S.Goelz (1997).
The crystal structure of human interferon beta at 2.2-A resolution.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 11813-11818.
PDB code: 1au1
9092813 M.Lohmeyer, P.M.Harrison, S.Kannan, M.DeSantis, N.J.O'Reilly, M.J.Sternberg, D.S.Salomon, and W.J.Gullick (1997).
Chemical synthesis, structural modeling, and biological activity of the epidermal growth factor-like domain of human cripto.
  Biochemistry, 36, 3837-3845.  
9359108 N.C.Wrighton, P.Balasubramanian, F.P.Barbone, A.K.Kashyap, F.X.Farrell, L.K.Jolliffe, R.W.Barrett, and W.J.Dower (1997).
Increased potency of an erythropoietin peptide mimetic through covalent dimerization.
  Nat Biotechnol, 15, 1261-1265.  
9284286 N.Grewal, S.Nagpal, G.B.Chavali, S.S.Majumdar, R.Pal, and D.M.Salunke (1997).
Ligand-induced receptor dimerization may be critical for signal transduction by choriogonadotropin.
  Biophys J, 73, 1190-1197.  
9391907 N.Noli, M.Gurrath, P.Rovero, S.Pegoraro, R.P.Revoltella, E.Schievano, S.Mammi, and E.Peggion (1997).
Design, synthesis and conformational analysis of hGM-CSF(13-31)-Gly-Pro-Gly-(103-116).
  J Pept Sci, 3, 323-335.  
9399950 N.Sharfe, M.Shahar, and C.M.Roifman (1997).
An interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain mutation with normal thymus morphology.
  J Clin Invest, 100, 3036-3043.  
9219271 P.H.Holden, V.Asopa, A.G.Robertson, A.R.Clarke, S.Tyler, G.S.Bennett, S.D.Brain, G.K.Wilcock, S.J.Allen, S.K.Smith, and D.Dawbarn (1997).
Immunoglobulin-like domains define the nerve growth factor binding site of the TrkA receptor.
  Nat Biotechnol, 15, 668-672.  
  9144766 R.J.Simpson, A.Hammacher, D.K.Smith, J.M.Matthews, and L.D.Ward (1997).
Interleukin-6: structure-function relationships.
  Protein Sci, 6, 929-955.  
9180079 S.E.Cwirla, P.Balasubramanian, D.J.Duffin, C.R.Wagstrom, C.M.Gates, S.C.Singer, A.M.Davis, R.L.Tansik, L.C.Mattheakis, C.M.Boytos, P.J.Schatz, D.P.Baccanari, N.C.Wrighton, R.W.Barrett, and W.J.Dower (1997).
Peptide agonist of the thrombopoietin receptor as potent as the natural cytokine.
  Science, 276, 1696-1699.  
9462485 S.Pestka, S.V.Kotenko, G.Muthukumaran, L.S.Izotova, J.R.Cook, and G.Garotta (1997).
The interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) receptor: a paradigm for the multichain cytokine receptor.
  Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 8, 189-206.  
9220971 T.Li, T.Horan, T.Osslund, G.Stearns, and T.Arakawa (1997).
Conformational changes in G-CSF/Receptor complex as investigated by isotope-edited FTIR spectroscopy.
  Biochemistry, 36, 8849-8857.  
9143707 T.Taga, and T.Kishimoto (1997).
Gp130 and the interleukin-6 family of cytokines.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 15, 797-819.  
  9073325 T.Taga (1997).
The signal transducer gp130 is shared by interleukin-6 family of haematopoietic and neurotrophic cytokines.
  Ann Med, 29, 63-72.  
8989321 V.M.Unger, N.M.Kumar, N.B.Gilula, and M.Yeager (1997).
Projection structure of a gap junction membrane channel at 7 A resolution.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 39-43.  
9118960 W.Somers, M.Stahl, and J.S.Seehra (1997).
1.9 A crystal structure of interleukin 6: implications for a novel mode of receptor dimerization and signaling.
  EMBO J, 16, 989-997.
PDB code: 1alu
9351807 Y.A.Muller, H.W.Christinger, B.A.Keyt, and A.M.de Vos (1997).
The crystal structure of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) refined to 1.93 A resolution: multiple copy flexibility and receptor binding.
  Structure, 5, 1325-1338.
PDB code: 2vpf
  9260293 Y.Feng, W.F.Hood, R.W.Forgey, A.L.Abegg, M.H.Caparon, B.R.Thiele, R.M.Leimgruber, and C.A.McWherter (1997).
Multiple conformations of a human interleukin-3 variant.
  Protein Sci, 6, 1777-1782.  
9200987 Y.Kato, K.Tomizawa, and T.Kato (1997).
Enhancement of the receptor binding and Nb2 proliferation activities of rat prolactin by site-directed mutagenesis.
  Zoolog Sci, 14, 147-152.  
9276733 Y.Takahashi, H.Shirono, O.Arisaka, K.Takahashi, T.Yagi, J.Koga, H.Kaji, Y.Okimura, H.Abe, T.Tanaka, and K.Chihara (1997).
Biologically inactive growth hormone caused by an amino acid substitution.
  J Clin Invest, 100, 1159-1165.  
9050834 Y.Wang, B.J.Shen, and W.Sebald (1997).
A mixed-charge pair in human interleukin 4 dominates high-affinity interaction with the receptor alpha chain.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 1657-1662.  
9371826 Y.Zhou, B.C.Xu, H.G.Maheshwari, L.He, M.Reed, M.Lozykowski, S.Okada, L.Cataldo, K.Coschigamo, T.E.Wagner, G.Baumann, and J.J.Kopchick (1997).
A mammalian model for Laron syndrome produced by targeted disruption of the mouse growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene (the Laron mouse).
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 13215-13220.  
  8947027 A.Bateman, M.Jouet, J.MacFarlane, J.S.Du, S.Kenwrick, and C.Chothia (1996).
Outline structure of the human L1 cell adhesion molecule and the sites where mutations cause neurological disorders.
  EMBO J, 15, 6050-6059.  
  8880920 A.Lombardo, Y.Wang, C.Z.Ni, X.Dai, C.D.Dickinson, R.Kodandapani, S.Chiang, C.A.White, F.Pio, N.H.Xuong, R.C.Hamlin, E.Ruoslahti, and K.R.Ely (1996).
Conformational flexibility and crystallization of tandemly linked type III modules of human fibronectin.
  Protein Sci, 5, 1934-1938.  
8666948 A.Muto, S.Watanabe, A.Miyajima, T.Yokota, and K.Arai (1996).
The beta subunit of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor forms a homodimer and is activated via association with the alpha subunit.
  J Exp Med, 183, 1911-1916.  
  8897595 A.Zdanov, C.Schalk-Hihi, and A.Wlodawer (1996).
Crystal structure of human interleukin-10 at 1.6 A resolution and a model of a complex with its soluble receptor.
  Protein Sci, 5, 1955-1962.
PDB code: 2ilk
  8797861 B.J.Shen, T.Hage, and W.Sebald (1996).
Global and local determinants for the kinetics of interleukin-4/interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain interaction. A biosensor study employing recombinant interleukin-4-binding protein.
  Eur J Biochem, 240, 252-261.  
8864349 C.H.Heldin, and A.Ostman (1996).
Ligand-induced dimerization of growth factor receptors: variations on the theme.
  Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 7, 3.  
8842243 C.M.Yip, and M.D.Ward (1996).
Atomic force microscopy of insulin single crystals: direct visualization of molecules and crystal growth.
  Biophys J, 71, 1071-1078.  
8555185 C.Nishimura, A.Watanabe, H.Gouda, I.Shimada, and Y.Arata (1996).
Folding topologies of human interleukin-6 and its mutants as studied by NMR spectroscopy.
  Biochemistry, 35, 273-281.  
  8654370 C.Toniatti, A.Cabibbo, E.Sporena, A.L.Salvati, M.Cerretani, S.Serafini, A.Lahm, R.Cortese, and G.Ciliberto (1996).
Engineering human interleukin-6 to obtain variants with strongly enhanced bioactivity.
  EMBO J, 15, 2726-2737.  
8953651 D.A.Rozwarski, K.Diederichs, R.Hecht, T.Boone, and P.A.Karplus (1996).
Refined crystal structure and mutagenesis of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.
  Proteins, 26, 304-313.
PDB code: 2gmf
  8976555 D.G.Myszka, P.R.Arulanantham, T.Sana, Z.Wu, T.A.Morton, and T.L.Ciardelli (1996).
Kinetic analysis of ligand binding to interleukin-2 receptor complexes created on an optical biosensor surface.
  Protein Sci, 5, 2468-2478.  
8548820 D.J.Leahy, I.Aukhil, and H.P.Erickson (1996).
2.0 A crystal structure of a four-domain segment of human fibronectin encompassing the RGD loop and synergy region.
  Cell, 84, 155-164.
PDB code: 1fnf
8790354 D.J.Matthews, R.S.Topping, R.T.Cass, and L.B.Giebel (1996).
A sequential dimerization mechanism for erythropoietin receptor activation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 9471-9476.  
8768895 D.Kirchhofer, and Y.Nemerson (1996).
Initiation of blood coagulation: the tissue factor/factor VIIa complex.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 7, 386-391.  
  8649415 F.C.Stomski, Q.Sun, C.J.Bagley, J.Woodcock, G.Goodall, R.K.Andrews, M.C.Berndt, and A.F.Lopez (1996).
Human interleukin-3 (IL-3) induces disulfide-linked IL-3 receptor alpha- and beta-chain heterodimerization, which is required for receptor activation but not high-affinity binding.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 3035-3046.  
8717525 G.A.Bentley, and R.A.Mariuzza (1996).
The structure of the T cell antigen receptor.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 14, 563-590.  
  8897607 G.D.Cymes, C.Grosman, J.M.Delfino, and C.Wolfenstein-Todel (1996).
Detection and characterization of an ovine placental lactogen stable intermediate in the urea-induced unfolding process.
  Protein Sci, 5, 2074-2079.  
  8670885 G.J.Strous, P.van Kerkhof, R.Govers, A.Ciechanover, and A.L.Schwartz (1996).
The ubiquitin conjugation system is required for ligand-induced endocytosis and degradation of the growth hormone receptor.
  EMBO J, 15, 3806-3812.  
  9107144 H.O.Chung, K.Tomizawa, T.Kato, K.Wakabayashi, and Y.Kato (1996).
Increased thermo-stability of rat prolactin after replacing glutamic acid at position 118 by lysine.
  Zoolog Sci, 13, 915-919.  
  8741846 H.de Nobel, P.N.Lipke, and J.Kurjan (1996).
Identification of a ligand-binding site in an immunoglobulin fold domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adhesion protein alpha-agglutinin.
  Mol Biol Cell, 7, 143-153.  
8987635 I.M.Chaiken, and W.V.Williams (1996).
Identifying structure-function relationships in four-helix bundle cytokines: towards de novo mimetics design.
  Trends Biotechnol, 14, 369-375.  
8673609 I.Tews, A.Perrakis, A.Oppenheim, Z.Dauter, K.S.Wilson, and C.E.Vorgias (1996).
Bacterial chitobiase structure provides insight into catalytic mechanism and the basis of Tay-Sachs disease.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 638-648.
PDB codes: 1qba 1qbb 1qbc 1qbd
8842489 I.Vlodavsky, H.Q.Miao, B.Medalion, P.Danagher, and D.Ron (1996).
Involvement of heparan sulfate and related molecules in sequestration and growth promoting activity of fibroblast growth factor.
  Cancer Metastasis Rev, 15, 177-186.  
8552582 J.A.Wells (1996).
Binding in the growth hormone receptor complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 1-6.  
8706757 J.Beattie, J.H.Shand, and D.J.Flint (1996).
An immobilised peptide array identifies antibodies to a discontinuous epitope in the extracellular domain of the bovine growth hormone receptor.
  Eur J Biochem, 239, 479-486.  
8703906 J.F.Reidhaar-Olson, J.A.De Souza-Hart, and H.E.Selick (1996).
Identification of residues critical to the activity of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.
  Biochemistry, 35, 9034-9041.  
8672465 J.H.Perlman, L.J.Laakkonen, F.Guarnieri, R.Osman, and M.C.Gershengorn (1996).
A refined model of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor binding pocket. Experimental analysis and energy minimization of the complex between TRH and TRH receptor.
  Biochemistry, 35, 7643-7650.  
9174908 J.Li, R.Cook, and I.Chaiken (1996).
Interleukin 5 interactions with soluble and cell surface forms of its receptor.
  J Mol Recognit, 9, 347-355.  
8639530 J.M.Sherrill, and J.Kyte (1996).
Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor by epidermal growth factor.
  Biochemistry, 35, 5705-5718.  
8981327 J.R.Potts, and I.D.Campbell (1996).
Structure and function of fibronectin modules.
  Matrix Biol, 15, 313.  
8634300 J.S.Philo, K.H.Aoki, T.Arakawa, L.O.Narhi, and J.Wen (1996).
Dimerization of the extracellular domain of the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor by EPO: one high-affinity and one low-affinity interaction.
  Biochemistry, 35, 1681-1691.  
8835862 J.Stock (1996).
Receptor signaling: dimerization and beyond.
  Curr Biol, 6, 825-827.  
8756685 K.H.Pearce, M.H.Ultsch, R.F.Kelley, A.M.de Vos, and J.A.Wells (1996).
Structural and mutational analysis of affinity-inert contact residues at the growth hormone-receptor interface.
  Biochemistry, 35, 10300-10307.  
  8887540 K.Luo, and H.F.Lodish (1996).
Signaling by chimeric erythropoietin-TGF-beta receptors: homodimerization of the cytoplasmic domain of the type I TGF-beta receptor and heterodimerization with the type II receptor are both required for intracellular signal transduction.
  EMBO J, 15, 4485-4496.  
8880928 M.C.Menziani, F.Fanelli, and P.G.De Benedetti (1996).
Computational simulations of stem-cell factor/c-kit receptor interaction.
  Proteins, 26, 42-54.  
8640234 M.C.Naski, Q.Wang, J.Xu, and D.M.Ornitz (1996).
Graded activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 by mutations causing achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia.
  Nat Genet, 13, 233-237.  
8877726 M.Ehlers, J.Grötzinger, M.Fischer, H.K.Bos, J.P.Brakenhoff, and S.Rose-John (1996).
Identification of single amino acid residues of human IL-6 involved in receptor binding and signal initiation.
  J Interferon Cytokine Res, 16, 569-576.  
8884748 M.Inoue, C.Nakayama, and H.Noguchi (1996).
Activating mechanism of CNTF and related cytokines.
  Mol Neurobiol, 12, 195-209.  
8706672 M.Kalai, F.A.Montero-Julian, J.Grötzinger, A.Wollmer, D.Morelle, J.Brochier, S.Rose-John, P.C.Heinrich, H.Brailly, and J.Content (1996).
Participation of two Ser-Ser-Phe-Tyr repeats in interleukin-6 (IL-6)-binding sites of the human IL-6 receptor.
  Eur J Biochem, 238, 714-723.  
8931561 M.O.Glocker, M.Kalkum, R.Yamamoto, and J.Schreurs (1996).
Selective biochemical modification of functional residues in recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor beta (rhM-CSF beta): identification by mass spectrometry.
  Biochemistry, 35, 14625-14633.  
8673096 M.S.Phillips, Q.Liu, H.A.Hammond, V.Dugan, P.J.Hey, C.J.Caskey, and J.F.Hess (1996).
Leptin receptor missense mutation in the fatty Zucker rat.
  Nat Genet, 13, 18-19.  
8728651 M.Yeager, and B.J.Nicholson (1996).
Structure of gap junction intercellular channels.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 6, 183-192.  
8605632 N.C.Strynadka, S.E.Jensen, P.M.Alzari, and M.N.James (1996).
A potent new mode of beta-lactamase inhibition revealed by the 1.7 A X-ray crystallographic structure of the TEM-1-BLIP complex.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 290-297.  
8841141 N.McNicoll, J.Gagnon, J.J.Rondeau, H.Ong, and A.De Léan (1996).
Localization by photoaffinity labeling of natriuretic peptide receptor-A binding domain.
  Biochemistry, 35, 12950-12956.  
8870072 P.Bork, A.K.Downing, B.Kieffer, and I.D.Campbell (1996).
Structure and distribution of modules in extracellular proteins.
  Q Rev Biophys, 29, 119-167.  
  8819159 P.R.Mittl, J.P.Priestle, D.A.Cox, G.McMaster, N.Cerletti, and M.G.Grütter (1996).
The crystal structure of TGF-beta 3 and comparison to TGF-beta 2: implications for receptor binding.
  Protein Sci, 5, 1261-1271.
PDB codes: 1tgj 1tgk
8917552 R.Brock, K.H.Wiesmüller, G.Jung, and P.Walden (1996).
Molecular basis for the recognition of two structurally different major histocompatibility complex/peptide complexes by a single T-cell receptor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 13108-13113.  
8942648 R.C.Hoffman, H.Andersen, K.Walker, J.D.Krakover, S.Patel, M.R.Stamm, and S.G.Osborn (1996).
Peptide, disulfide, and glycosylation mapping of recombinant human thrombopoietin from ser1 to Arg246.
  Biochemistry, 35, 14849-14861.  
8994971 R.Radhakrishnan, L.J.Walter, A.Hruza, P.Reichert, P.P.Trotta, T.L.Nagabhushan, and M.R.Walter (1996).
Zinc mediated dimer of human interferon-alpha 2b revealed by X-ray crystallography.
  Structure, 4, 1453-1463.
PDB code: 1rh2
9116059 S.Cholin, E.Bieth, C.Molinas, C.Cahoreau, C.Perals, M.Cerruti, G.Devauchelle, P.Rochiccioli, and M.Tauber (1996).
Expression of a recombinant human growth hormone binding protein in baculovirus/insect cell system.
  Biochimie, 78, 882-886.  
8693002 S.D.Yanofsky, D.N.Baldwin, J.H.Butler, F.R.Holden, J.W.Jacobs, P.Balasubramanian, J.P.Chinn, S.E.Cwirla, E.Peters-Bhatt, E.A.Whitehorn, E.H.Tate, A.Akeson, T.L.Bowlin, W.J.Dower, and R.W.Barrett (1996).
High affinity type I interleukin 1 receptor antagonists discovered by screening recombinant peptide libraries.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 7381-7386.  
8980223 S.Davis, T.H.Aldrich, P.F.Jones, A.Acheson, D.L.Compton, V.Jain, T.E.Ryan, J.Bruno, C.Radziejewski, P.C.Maisonpierre, and G.D.Yancopoulos (1996).
Isolation of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, by secretion-trap expression cloning.
  Cell, 87, 1161-1169.  
8970723 S.S.Watowich, H.Wu, M.Socolovsky, U.Klingmuller, S.N.Constantinescu, and H.F.Lodish (1996).
Cytokine receptor signal transduction and the control of hematopoietic cell development.
  Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 12, 91.  
8552611 S.Y.Lai, W.Xu, S.L.Gaffen, K.D.Liu, G.D.Longmore, W.C.Greene, and M.A.Goldsmith (1996).
The molecular role of the common gamma c subunit in signal transduction reveals functional asymmetry within multimeric cytokine receptor complexes.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 231-235.  
8961926 T.E.Gray, M.Eisenstein, A.Yayon, and D.Givol (1996).
Asparagine-344 is a key residue for ligand binding in keratinocyte growth factor receptor.
  Biochemistry, 35, 15640-15645.  
  8948019 T.Hara, and A.Miyajima (1996).
Function and signal transduction mediated by the interleukin 3 receptor system in hematopoiesis.
  Stem Cells, 14, 605-618.  
8664280 T.Horan, J.Wen, L.Narhi, V.Parker, A.Garcia, T.Arakawa, and J.Philo (1996).
Dimerization of the extracellular domain of granuloycte-colony stimulating factor receptor by ligand binding: a monovalent ligand induces 2:2 complexes.
  Biochemistry, 35, 4886-4896.  
  8771532 V.Di Bartolo, A.Danè, E.Cassano, S.Viganò, E.Chiello, D.Verniani, P.Beffy, S.Pegoraro, M.Hamdan, P.Rovero, and R.P.Revoltella (1996).
Binding of human GM-CSF to synthetic peptides of the alpha subunit of its receptor.
  J Recept Signal Transduct Res, 16, 77-92.  
  8786236 W.A.Hendrickson (1996).
Production of crystallizable fragments of membrane proteins.
  J Bioenerg Biomembr, 28, 35-40.  
  11012212 W.S.Alexander, A.W.Roberts, A.B.Maurer, N.A.Nicola, A.R.Dunn, and D.Metcalf (1996).
Studies of the c-Mpl thrombopoietin receptor through gene disruption and activation.
  Stem Cells, 14, 124-132.  
7777489 A.Gustchina, A.Zdanov, C.Schalk-Hihi, and A.Wlodawer (1995).
A model of the complex between interleukin-4 and its receptors.
  Proteins, 21, 140-148.
PDB code: 1ite
7568241 A.Jasanoff, S.J.Park, and D.C.Wiley (1995).
Direct observation of disordered regions in the major histocompatibility complex class II-associated invariant chain.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 9900-9904.  
7777500 A.L.Gurney, S.C.Wong, W.J.Henzel, and F.J.de Sauvage (1995).
Distinct regions of c-Mpl cytoplasmic domain are coupled to the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway and Shc phosphorylation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 5292-5296.  
  8521189 A.L.Rosenbloom, M.A.Berg, E.P.Kasatkina, T.N.Volkova, V.F.Skorobogatova, V.N.Sokolovskaya, and U.Francke (1995).
Severe growth hormone insensitivity (Laron syndrome) due to nonsense mutation of the GH receptor in brothers from Russia.
  J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 8, 159-165.  
8749361 A.M.Stock, and S.L.Mowbray (1995).
Bacterial chemotaxis: a field in motion.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 744-751.  
8846221 A.Weichsel, and W.R.Montfort (1995).
Ligand-induced distortion of an active site in thymidylate synthase upon binding anticancer drug 1843U89.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 1095-1101.
PDB code: 1tsd
9383463 B.A.Katz, R.M.Stroud, N.Collins, B.Liu, and R.Arze (1995).
Topochemistry for preparing ligands that dimerize receptors.
  Chem Biol, 2, 591-600.  
  7556069 B.J.Jenkins, R.D'Andrea, and T.J.Gonda (1995).
Activating point mutations in the common beta subunit of the human GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-5 receptors suggest the involvement of beta subunit dimerization and cell type-specific molecules in signalling.
  EMBO J, 14, 4276-4287.  
7834741 C.H.Heldin (1995).
Dimerization of cell surface receptors in signal transduction.
  Cell, 80, 213-223.  
7567962 C.W.Ward, P.A.Hoyne, and R.H.Flegg (1995).
Insulin and epidermal growth factor receptors contain the cysteine repeat motif found in the tumor necrosis factor receptor.
  Proteins, 22, 141-153.  
8749360 D.I.Stuart, and E.Y.Jones (1995).
Recognition at the cell surface: recent structural insights.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 735-743.  
7816815 D.J.Hilton, S.S.Watowich, P.J.Murray, and H.F.Lodish (1995).
Increased cell surface expression and enhanced folding in the endoplasmic reticulum of a mutant erythropoietin receptor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 190-194.  
9636295 E.A.Whitehorn, E.Tate, S.D.Yanofsky, L.Kochersperger, A.Davis, R.B.Mortensen, S.Yonkovich, K.Bell, W.J.Dower, and R.W.Barrett (1995).
A generic method for expression and use of "tagged" soluble versions of cell surface receptors.
  Biotechnology (N Y), 13, 1215-1219.  
7777515 F.Bazzoni, E.Alejos, and B.Beutler (1995).
Chimeric tumor necrosis factor receptors with constitutive signaling activity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 5376-5380.  
  7707501 G.Courtois, L.Bénit, Y.Mikaeloff, M.Pauchard, M.Charon, P.Varlet, and S.Gisselbrecht (1995).
Constitutive activation of a variant of the env-mpl oncogene product by disulfide-linked homodimerization.
  J Virol, 69, 2794-2800.  
  7744001 G.Paonessa, R.Graziani, A.De Serio, R.Savino, L.Ciapponi, A.Lahm, A.L.Salvati, C.Toniatti, and G.Ciliberto (1995).
Two distinct and independent sites on IL-6 trigger gp 130 dimer formation and signalling.
  EMBO J, 14, 1942-1951.  
7648431 G.Uzé, G.Lutfalla, and K.E.Mogensen (1995).
Alpha and beta interferons and their receptor and their friends and relations.
  J Interferon Cytokine Res, 15, 3.  
7773741 H.R.Mott, and I.D.Campbell (1995).
Four-helix bundle growth factors and their receptors: protein-protein interactions.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 114-121.  
9634801 J.A.Wells (1995).
Structural and functional epitopes in the growth hormone receptor complex.
  Biotechnology (N Y), 13, 647-651.  
7761472 J.Tavernier, T.Tuypens, A.Verhee, G.Plaetinck, R.Devos, J.Van der Heyden, Y.Guisez, and C.Oefner (1995).
Identification of receptor-binding domains on human interleukin 5 and design of an interleukin 5-derived receptor antagonist.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 5194-5198.  
7544230 L.E.Ling, M.Zafari, D.Reardon, M.Brickelmeier, S.E.Goelz, and C.D.Benjamin (1995).
Human type I interferon receptor, IFNAR, is a heavily glycosylated 120-130 kD membrane protein.
  J Interferon Cytokine Res, 15, 55-61.  
7494857 M.A.Horisberger, and S.Di Marco (1995).
Interferon-alpha hybrids.
  Pharmacol Ther, 66, 507-534.  
  7815553 M.E.Hoatlin, F.E.Ferro, R.W.Geib, M.T.Fox, S.L.Kozak, and D.Kabat (1995).
Deletions in one domain of the Friend virus-encoded membrane glycoprotein overcome host range restrictions for erythroleukemia.
  J Virol, 69, 856-863.  
  7613464 M.H.Seto, R.N.Harkins, M.Adler, M.Whitlow, W.B.Church, and E.Croze (1995).
Homology model of human interferon-alpha 8 and its receptor complex.
  Protein Sci, 4, 655-670.  
7567978 M.Inoue, C.Nakayama, K.Kikuchi, T.Kimura, Y.Ishige, A.Ito, M.Kanaoka, and H.Noguchi (1995).
D1 cap region involved in the receptor recognition and neural cell survival activity of human ciliary neurotrophic factor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 8579-8583.  
7613863 M.Raghavan, and P.J.Bjorkman (1995).
BIAcore: a microchip-based system for analyzing the formation of macromolecular complexes.
  Structure, 3, 331-333.  
7486668 N.A.Nicola (1995).
Structural aspects of cytokine/receptor interactions.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 766, 253-262.  
7743124 N.Q.McDonald, J.Murray-Rust, and T.L.Blundell (1995).
The first structure of a receptor tyrosine kinase domain: a further step in understanding the molecular basis of insulin action.
  Structure, 3, 1-6.  
  7796798 N.Q.McDonald, N.Panayotatos, and W.A.Hendrickson (1995).
Crystal structure of dimeric human ciliary neurotrophic factor determined by MAD phasing.
  EMBO J, 14, 2689-2699.
PDB code: 1cnt
7697352 P.A.van der Merwe, P.N.McNamee, E.A.Davies, A.N.Barclay, and S.J.Davis (1995).
Topology of the CD2-CD48 cell-adhesion molecule complex: implications for antigen recognition by T cells.
  Curr Biol, 5, 74-84.  
  8535258 P.D.Lyne, P.Bamborough, D.Duncan, and W.G.Richards (1995).
Molecular modeling of the GM-CSF and IL-3 receptor complexes.
  Protein Sci, 4, 2223-2233.  
7486684 P.De Meyts, B.Ursø, C.T.Christoffersen, and R.M.Shymko (1995).
Mechanism of insulin and IGF-I receptor activation and signal transduction specificity. Receptor dimer cross-linking, bell-shaped curves, and sustained versus transient signaling.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 766, 388-401.  
  8535254 P.N.Lipke, M.H.Chen, H.de Nobel, J.Kurjan, and P.C.Kahn (1995).
Homology modeling of an immunoglobulin-like domain in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adhesion protein alpha-agglutinin.
  Protein Sci, 4, 2168-2178.  
  7795521 R.C.Hoffman, B.J.Castner, M.Gerhart, M.G.Gibson, B.D.Rasmussen, C.J.March, J.Weatherbee, M.Tsang, A.Gustchina, and C.Schalk-Hihi (1995).
Direct evidence of a heterotrimeric complex of human interleukin-4 with its receptors.
  Protein Sci, 4, 382-386.  
7598957 S.A.Benner (1995).
Predicting the conformation of proteins from sequences. Progress and future progress.
  J Mol Recognit, 8, 9.  
7862673 S.C.Souza, G.P.Frick, X.Wang, J.J.Kopchick, R.B.Lobo, and H.M.Goodman (1995).
A single arginine residue determines species specificity of the human growth hormone receptor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 959-963.  
  7628440 S.Cornelis, G.Plaetinck, R.Devos, J.Van der Heyden, J.Tavernier, C.J.Sanderson, Y.Guisez, and W.Fiers (1995).
Detailed analysis of the IL-5-IL-5R alpha interaction: characterization of crucial residues on the ligand and the receptor.
  EMBO J, 14, 3395-3402.  
7542592 S.Cornelis, I.Fache, J.Van der Heyden, Y.Guisez, J.Tavernier, R.Devos, W.Fiers, and G.Plaetinck (1995).
Characterization of critical residues in the cytoplasmic domain of the human interleukin-5 receptor alpha chain required for growth signal transduction.
  Eur J Immunol, 25, 1857-1864.  
7880196 S.Doré, T.Abribat, N.Rousseau, P.Brazeau, G.Tardif, J.A.DiBattista, J.M.Cloutier, J.P.Pelletier, and J.Martel-Pelletier (1995).
Increased insulin-like growth factor 1 production by human osteoarthritic chondrocytes is not dependent on growth hormone action.
  Arthritis Rheum, 38, 413-419.  
7857960 T.Haltia, and E.Freire (1995).
Forces and factors that contribute to the structural stability of membrane proteins.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1228, 1.  
7479902 T.Morton, J.Li, R.Cook, and I.Chaiken (1995).
Mutagenesis in the C-terminal region of human interleukin 5 reveals a central patch for receptor alpha chain recognition.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 10879-10883.  
  8521814 W.S.Alexander, D.Metcalf, and A.R.Dunn (1995).
Point mutations within a dimer interface homology domain of c-Mpl induce constitutive receptor activity and tumorigenicity.
  EMBO J, 14, 5569-5578.  
  7849586 A.A.Kossiakoff, W.Somers, M.Ultsch, K.Andow, Y.A.Muller, and A.M.De Vos (1994).
Comparison of the intermediate complexes of human growth hormone bound to the human growth hormone and prolactin receptors.
  Protein Sci, 3, 1697-1705.  
8302836 A.De, D.G.Brown, M.A.Gorman, M.Carr, M.R.Sanderson, and P.S.Freemont (1994).
Crystal structure of a disulfide-linked "trefoil" motif found in a large family of putative growth factors.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 1084-1088.
PDB code: 1pos
  7908904 A.G.Klann, R.A.Hull, T.Palzkill, and S.I.Hull (1994).
Alanine-scanning mutagenesis reveals residues involved in binding of pap-3-encoded pili.
  J Bacteriol, 176, 2312-2317.  
7512815 A.H.Huber, Y.M.Wang, A.J.Bieber, and P.J.Bjorkman (1994).
Crystal structure of tandem type III fibronectin domains from Drosophila neuroglian at 2.0 A.
  Neuron, 12, 717-731.
PDB code: 1cfb
  7538847 A.Hammacher, L.D.Ward, J.Weinstock, H.Treutlein, K.Yasukawa, and R.J.Simpson (1994).
Structure-function analysis of human IL-6: identification of two distinct regions that are important for receptor binding.
  Protein Sci, 3, 2280-2293.  
7907421 A.Samanta, C.M.LeVea, W.C.Dougall, X.Qian, and M.I.Greene (1994).
Ligand and p185c-neu density govern receptor interactions and tyrosine kinase activation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 1711-1715.  
7656034 B.M.Brown, M.E.Milla, T.L.Smith, and R.T.Sauer (1994).
Scanning mutagenesis of the Arc repressor as a functional probe of operator recognition.
  Nat Struct Biol, 1, 164-168.  
8137429 C.A.Smith, T.Farrah, and R.G.Goodwin (1994).
The TNF receptor superfamily of cellular and viral proteins: activation, costimulation, and death.
  Cell, 76, 959-962.  
7957224 C.B.Brown, C.E.Pihl, and K.Kaushansky (1994).
Mapping of human granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor domains interacting with the human granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-receptor alpha-subunit.
  Eur J Biochem, 225, 873-880.  
8307040 C.J.Morton, R.J.Simpson, and R.S.Norton (1994).
Solution structure of synthetic peptides corresponding to the C-terminal helix of interleukin-6.
  Eur J Biochem, 219, 97.  
  8003972 C.L.Borders, J.A.Broadwater, P.A.Bekeny, J.E.Salmon, A.S.Lee, A.M.Eldridge, and V.B.Pett (1994).
A structural role for arginine in proteins: multiple hydrogen bonds to backbone carbonyl oxygens.
  Protein Sci, 3, 541-548.  
7922037 C.L.Verlinde, and W.G.Hol (1994).
Structure-based drug design: progress, results and challenges.
  Structure, 2, 577-587.  
8069631 D.A.Rozwarski, A.M.Gronenborn, G.M.Clore, J.F.Bazan, A.Bohm, A.Wlodawer, M.Hatada, and P.A.Karplus (1994).
Structural comparisons among the short-chain helical cytokines.
  Structure, 2, 159-173.  
9383382 D.J.Austin, G.R.Crabtree, and S.L.Schreiber (1994).
Proximity versus allostery: the role of regulated protein dimerization in biology.
  Chem Biol, 1, 131-136.  
9383367 D.J.Matthews, and J.A.Wells (1994).
Engineering an interfacial zinc site to increase hormone-receptor affinity.
  Chem Biol, 1, 25-30.  
9383393 D.J.Underwood, C.D.Strader, R.Rivero, A.A.Patchett, W.Greenlee, and K.Prendergast (1994).
Structural model of antagonist and agonist binding to the angiotensin II, AT1 subtype, G protein coupled receptor.
  Chem Biol, 1, 211-221.  
  8139531 D.L.Barber, J.C.DeMartino, M.O.Showers, and A.D.D'Andrea (1994).
A dominant negative erythropoietin (EPO) receptor inhibits EPO-dependent growth and blocks F-gp55-dependent transformation.
  Mol Cell Biol, 14, 2257-2265.  
  7520794 E.Demchuk, T.Mueller, H.Oschkinat, W.Sebald, and R.C.Wade (1994).
Receptor binding properties of four-helix-bundle growth factors deduced from electrostatic analysis.
  Protein Sci, 3, 920-935.  
7514305 F.Dong, L.H.Hoefsloot, A.M.Schelen, C.A.Broeders, Y.Meijer, A.J.Veerman, I.P.Touw, and B.Löwenberg (1994).
Identification of a nonsense mutation in the granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor receptor in severe congenital neutropenia.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 4480-4484.  
7515493 G.S.Campbell, L.S.Argetsinger, J.N.Ihle, P.A.Kelly, J.A.Rillema, and C.Carter-Su (1994).
Activation of JAK2 tyrosine kinase by prolactin receptors in Nb2 cells and mouse mammary gland explants.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 5232-5236.  
7712288 G.Wagner, and D.F.Wyss (1994).
Cell surface adhesion receptors.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 4, 841-851.  
7506412 H.Ohashi, K.Maruyama, Y.C.Liu, and A.Yoshimura (1994).
Ligand-induced activation of chimeric receptors between the erythropoietin receptor and receptor tyrosine kinases.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 158-162.  
7957181 H.P.Tony, B.J.Shen, P.Reusch, and W.Sebald (1994).
Design of human interleukin-4 antagonists inhibiting interleukin-4-dependent and interleukin-13-dependent responses in T-cells and B-cells with high efficiency.
  Eur J Biochem, 225, 659-665.  
8020478 I.Callebaut, D.Portetelle, A.Burny, and J.P.Mornon (1994).
Identification of functional sites on bovine leukemia virus envelope glycoproteins using structural and immunological data.
  Eur J Biochem, 222, 405-414.  
7764899 I.D.Campbell, and A.K.Downing (1994).
Building protein structure and function from modular units.
  Trends Biotechnol, 12, 168-172.  
8081748 I.D.Campbell, and C.Spitzfaden (1994).
Building proteins with fibronectin type III modules.
  Structure, 2, 333-337.  
8016072 J.A.Langer, A.Rashidbaigi, G.Garotta, and E.Kempner (1994).
Radiation inactivation of human gamma-interferon: cellular activation requires two dimers.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 5818-5822.  
8024806 J.A.Wells (1994).
Structural and functional basis for hormone binding and receptor oligomerization.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 6, 163-173.  
7539825 J.M.Von Feldt, C.Monfardini, T.Kieber-Emmons, D.Voet, D.B.Weiner, and W.V.Williams (1994).
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor mimicry and receptor interactions.
  Immunol Res, 13, 96.  
  7957082 J.M.Woodcock, B.Zacharakis, G.Plaetinck, C.J.Bagley, S.Qiyu, T.R.Hercus, J.Tavernier, and A.F.Lopez (1994).
Three residues in the common beta chain of the human GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-5 receptors are essential for GM-CSF and IL-5 but not IL-3 high affinity binding and interact with Glu21 of GM-CSF.
  EMBO J, 13, 5176-5185.  
7837289 K.Kullander, and T.Ebendal (1994).
Neurotrophin-3 acquires NGF-like activity after exchange to five NGF amino acid residues: molecular analysis of the sites in NGF mediating the specific interaction with the NGF high affinity receptor.
  J Neurosci Res, 39, 195-210.  
7506411 L.Jin, F.E.Cohen, and J.A.Wells (1994).
Structure from function: screening structural models with functional data.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 113-117.  
  7538848 L.Jin, and J.A.Wells (1994).
Dissecting the energetics of an antibody-antigen interface by alanine shaving and molecular grafting.
  Protein Sci, 3, 2351-2357.  
8181471 L.Schäffer (1994).
A model for insulin binding to the insulin receptor.
  Eur J Biochem, 221, 1127-1132.  
7855887 M.A.Lemmon, and J.Schlessinger (1994).
Regulation of signal transduction and signal diversity by receptor oligomerization.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 19, 459-463.  
  8189542 M.E.Hoatlin, F.E.Ferro, S.L.Kozak, and D.Kabat (1994).
A Friend virus mutant encodes a small glycoprotein that causes erythroleukemia.
  J Virol, 68, 4053-4056.  
7937569 M.K.Thomsen, B.S.Hansen, P.Nilsson, J.Nowak, P.B.Johansen, P.D.Thomsen, and J.Christiansen (1994).
Pharmacological characterization of a biosynthetic trisulfide-containing hydrophobic derivative of human growth hormone: comparison with standard 22 K growth hormone.
  Pharmacol Toxicol, 74, 351-358.  
7889418 M.Raghavan, M.Y.Chen, L.N.Gastinel, and P.J.Bjorkman (1994).
Investigation of the interaction between the class I MHC-related Fc receptor and its immunoglobulin G ligand.
  Immunity, 1, 303-315.  
7852996 M.Sendtner, P.Carroll, B.Holtmann, R.A.Hughes, and H.Thoenen (1994).
Ciliary neurotrophic factor.
  J Neurobiol, 25, 1436-1453.  
7712286 M.T.Stubbs, and W.Bode (1994).
Coagulation factors and their inhibitors.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 4, 823-832.  
8170401 O.Mol, R.W.Visschers, F.K.de Graff, and B.Oudega (1994).
Escherichia coli periplasmic chaperone FaeE is a homodimer and the chaperone-K88 subunit complex is a heterotrimer.
  Mol Microbiol, 11, 391-402.  
8127870 P.A.Giblin, D.J.Leahy, J.Mennone, and P.B.Kavathas (1994).
The role of charge and multiple faces of the CD8 alpha/alpha homodimer in binding to major histocompatibility complex class I molecules: support for a bivalent model.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 1716-1720.  
7529123 P.Bamborough, C.J.Hedgecock, and W.G.Richards (1994).
The interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 receptors studied by molecular modelling.
  Structure, 2, 839-851.
PDB codes: 1ill 1ilm 1iln
  8137822 P.Duquesnoy, M.L.Sobrier, B.Duriez, F.Dastot, C.R.Buchanan, M.O.Savage, M.A.Preece, C.T.Craescu, Y.Blouquit, and M.Goossens (1994).
A single amino acid substitution in the exoplasmic domain of the human growth hormone (GH) receptor confers familial GH resistance (Laron syndrome) with positive GH-binding activity by abolishing receptor homodimerization.
  EMBO J, 13, 1386-1395.  
8278375 P.Lock, D.Metcalf, and N.A.Nicola (1994).
Histidine-367 of the human common beta chain of the receptor is critical for high-affinity binding of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 252-256.  
7517357 P.Reusch, S.Arnold, C.Heusser, K.Wagner, B.Weston, and W.Sebald (1994).
Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies define two different functional sites in human interleukin-4.
  Eur J Biochem, 222, 491-499.  
7531816 R.C.Aguilar, L.A.Retegui, M.C.Postel-Vinay, and L.P.Roguin (1994).
Allosteric effects of monoclonal antibodies on human growth hormone.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 136, 35-42.  
8041758 R.J.Goodson, M.V.Doyle, S.E.Kaufman, and S.Rosenberg (1994).
High-affinity urokinase receptor antagonists identified with bacteriophage peptide display.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 7129-7133.  
7994573 R.L.Malby, W.R.Tulip, V.R.Harley, J.L.McKimm-Breschkin, W.G.Laver, R.G.Webster, and P.M.Colman (1994).
The structure of a complex between the NC10 antibody and influenza virus neuraminidase and comparison with the overlapping binding site of the NC41 antibody.
  Structure, 2, 733-746.
PDB code: 1nmb
  7511100 R.Savino, A.Lahm, A.L.Salvati, L.Ciapponi, E.Sporeno, S.Altamura, G.Paonessa, C.Toniatti, and G.Ciliberto (1994).
Generation of interleukin-6 receptor antagonists by molecular-modeling guided mutagenesis of residues important for gp130 activation.
  EMBO J, 13, 1357-1367.  
  7813426 R.Savino, L.Ciapponi, A.Lahm, A.Demartis, A.Cabibbo, C.Toniatti, P.Delmastro, S.Altamura, and G.Ciliberto (1994).
Rational design of a receptor super-antagonist of human interleukin-6.
  EMBO J, 13, 5863-5870.  
8081747 S.E.Martinez, D.Huang, A.Szczepaniak, W.A.Cramer, and J.L.Smith (1994).
Crystal structure of chloroplast cytochrome f reveals a novel cytochrome fold and unexpected heme ligation.
  Structure, 2, 95.
PDB code: 1ctm
  8196600 S.S.Watowich, D.J.Hilton, and H.F.Lodish (1994).
Activation and inhibition of erythropoietin receptor function: role of receptor dimerization.
  Mol Cell Biol, 14, 3535-3549.  
  7935454 S.Takaki, H.Kanazawa, M.Shiiba, and K.Takatsu (1994).
A critical cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin-5 (IL-5) receptor alpha chain and its function in IL-5-mediated growth signal transduction.
  Mol Cell Biol, 14, 7404-7413.  
7809074 T.K.Chang, D.Y.Jackson, J.P.Burnier, and J.A.Wells (1994).
Subtiligase: a tool for semisynthesis of proteins.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 12544-12548.  
8293462 T.Kishimoto, T.Taga, and S.Akira (1994).
Cytokine signal transduction.
  Cell, 76, 253-262.  
7634067 T.Müller, W.Sebald, and H.Oschkinat (1994).
Antagonist design through forced electrostatic mismatch.
  Nat Struct Biol, 1, 674-676.  
8016076 T.R.Hercus, C.J.Bagley, B.Cambareri, M.Dottore, J.M.Woodcock, M.A.Vadas, M.F.Shannon, and A.F.Lopez (1994).
Specific human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antagonists.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 5838-5842.  
7528103 T.Spivak-Kroizman, M.A.Lemmon, I.Dikic, J.E.Ladbury, D.Pinchasi, J.Huang, M.Jaye, G.Crumley, J.Schlessinger, and I.Lax (1994).
Heparin-induced oligomerization of FGF molecules is responsible for FGF receptor dimerization, activation, and cell proliferation.
  Cell, 79, 1015-1024.  
7812719 W.G.Scott, and B.L.Stoddard (1994).
Transmembrane signalling and the aspartate receptor.
  Structure, 2, 877-887.  
7946053 W.J.Leonard (1994).
The defective gene in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency encodes a shared interleukin receptor subunit: implications for cytokine pleiotropy and redundancy.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 6, 631-635.  
7765067 W.M.Kazmierski (1994).
Recent advances in the design and synthesis of small-molecule mimetic drugs.
  Trends Biotechnol, 12, 216-218.  
  7920988 A.C.Herington (1993).
Growth hormone receptor and binding protein: distribution and function.
  J Pediatr Endocrinol, 6, 235-240.  
8248239 A.S.Ho, Y.Liu, T.A.Khan, D.H.Hsu, J.F.Bazan, and K.W.Moore (1993).
A receptor for interleukin 10 is related to interferon receptors.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 90, 11267-11271.  
  8401223 A.Wlodawer, A.Pavlovsky, and A.Gustchina (1993).
Hematopoietic cytokines: similarities and differences in the structures, with implications for receptor binding.
  Protein Sci, 2, 1373-1382.  
8343951 B.A.Witthuhn, F.W.Quelle, O.Silvennoinen, T.Yi, B.Tang, O.Miura, and J.N.Ihle (1993).
JAK2 associates with the erythropoietin receptor and is tyrosine phosphorylated and activated following stimulation with erythropoietin.
  Cell, 74, 227-236.  
  8390884 C.J.Jeffery, and D.E.Koshland (1993).
Three-dimensional structural model of the serine receptor ligand-binding domain.
  Protein Sci, 2, 559-566.  
  8253075 C.M.Owczarek, M.J.Layton, D.Metcalf, P.Lock, T.A.Willson, N.M.Gough, and N.A.Nicola (1993).
Inter-species chimeras of leukaemia inhibitory factor define a major human receptor-binding determinant.
  EMBO J, 12, 3487-3495.  
7685117 C.P.Hill, T.D.Osslund, and D.Eisenberg (1993).
The structure of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor and its relationship to other growth factors.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 90, 5167-5171.
PDB code: 1rhg
  8388289 C.R.Robinson, and S.G.Sligar (1993).
Electrostatic stabilization in four-helix bundle proteins.
  Protein Sci, 2, 826-837.  
8326954 C.Slingsby, O.A.Bateman, and A.Simpson (1993).
Motifs involved in protein-protein interactions.
  Mol Biol Rep, 17, 185-195.  
  8241949 D.M.Wojchowski, and T.C.He (1993).
Signal transduction in the erythropoietin receptor system.
  Stem Cells, 11, 381-392.  
8387891 D.W.Banner, A.D'Arcy, W.Janes, R.Gentz, H.J.Schoenfeld, C.Broger, H.Loetscher, and W.Lesslauer (1993).
Crystal structure of the soluble human 55 kd TNF receptor-human TNF beta complex: implications for TNF receptor activation.
  Cell, 73, 431-445.
PDB code: 1tnr
7678333 E.Ishizaka-Ikeda, R.Fukunaga, W.I.Wood, D.V.Goeddel, and S.Nagata (1993).
Signal transduction mediated by growth hormone receptor and its chimeric molecules with the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 90, 123-127.  
8253831 G.D.Longmore, S.S.Watowich, D.J.Hilton, and H.F.Lodish (1993).
The erythropoietin receptor: its role in hematopoiesis and myeloproliferative diseases.
  J Cell Biol, 123, 1305-1308.  
  8467812 H.Yawata, K.Yasukawa, S.Natsuka, M.Murakami, K.Yamasaki, M.Hibi, T.Taga, and T.Kishimoto (1993).
Structure-function analysis of human IL-6 receptor: dissociation of amino acid residues required for IL-6-binding and for IL-6 signal transduction through gp130.
  EMBO J, 12, 1705-1712.  
7678346 J.Borjigin, and J.Nathans (1993).
Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor-trypsin complex as a detection system for recombinant proteins.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 90, 337-341.  
8356059 J.F.Zagury, J.Bernard, A.Achour, A.Astgen, A.Lachgar, L.Fall, C.Carelli, W.Issing, J.P.Mbika, and O.Picard (1993).
Identification of CD4 and major histocompatibility complex functional peptide sites and their homology with oligopeptides from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp120: role in AIDS pathogenesis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 90, 7573-7577.  
8223586 J.G.Zhang, G.E.Reid, R.L.Moritz, L.D.Ward, and R.J.Simpson (1993).
Specific covalent modification of the tryptophan residues in murine interleukin-6. Effect on biological activity and conformational stability.
  Eur J Biochem, 217, 53-59.  
  7693831 J.K.Lim, and J.A.Langer (1993).
Generation and characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies recognizing the interferon-alpha receptor: implications for ligand-receptor interactions.
  J Interferon Res, 13, 295-301.  
15335670 J.L.Boulay, and W.E.Paul (1993).
Hematopoietin sub-family classification based on size, gene organization and sequence homology.
  Curr Biol, 3, 573-581.  
7692652 J.Liu (1993).
FK506 and ciclosporin: molecular probes for studying intracellular signal transduction.
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 14, 182-188.  
  8401231 L.D.Ward, A.Hammacher, J.G.Zhang, J.Weinstock, K.Yasukawa, C.J.Morton, R.S.Norton, and R.J.Simpson (1993).
Role of the C-terminus in the activity, conformation, and stability of interleukin-6.
  Protein Sci, 2, 1472-1481.  
  8488849 M.A.Berg, J.Argente, S.Chernausek, R.Gracia, J.Guevara-Aguirre, M.Hopp, L.Pérez-Jurado, A.Rosenbloom, S.P.Toledo, and U.Francke (1993).
Diverse growth hormone receptor gene mutations in Laron syndrome.
  Am J Hum Genet, 52, 998.  
  8401229 M.Haniu, L.O.Narhi, T.Arakawa, S.Elliott, and M.F.Rohde (1993).
Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO): cross-linking with disuccinimidyl esters and identification of the interfacing domains in EPO.
  Protein Sci, 2, 1441-1451.  
8290361 M.P.Laget, I.Callebaut, Y.de Launoit, D.Stehelin, and J.P.Mornon (1993).
Predicted common structural features of DNA-binding domains from Ets, Myb and HMG transcription factors.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 21, 5987-5996.  
8415879 M.R.Smith, N.T.Matthews, K.A.Jones, and H.F.Kung (1993).
Biological actions of oncogenes.
  Pharmacol Ther, 58, 211-236.  
  7507753 M.Rocco, B.Spotorno, and R.R.Hantgan (1993).
Modeling the alpha IIb beta 3 integrin solution conformation.
  Protein Sci, 2, 2154-2166.  
8234245 N.J.Murgolo, W.T.Windsor, A.Hruza, P.Reichert, A.Tsarbopoulos, S.Baldwin, E.Huang, B.Pramanik, S.Ealick, and P.P.Trotta (1993).
A homology model of human interferon alpha-2.
  Proteins, 17, 62-74.
PDB codes: 2hie 2hif
  8262056 N.Kruse, B.J.Shen, S.Arnold, H.P.Tony, T.Müller, and W.Sebald (1993).
Two distinct functional sites of human interleukin 4 are identified by variants impaired in either receptor binding or receptor activation.
  EMBO J, 12, 5121-5129.  
8490958 N.Q.McDonald, and W.A.Hendrickson (1993).
A structural superfamily of growth factors containing a cystine knot motif.
  Cell, 73, 421-424.  
8395346 N.Stahl, and G.D.Yancopoulos (1993).
The alphas, betas, and kinases of cytokine receptor complexes.
  Cell, 74, 587-590.  
8234241 P.Bamborough, G.H.Grant, C.J.Hedgecock, S.P.West, and W.G.Richards (1993).
A computer model of the interleukin-4/receptor complex.
  Proteins, 17, 11-19.  
  8358302 P.Bork, and R.F.Doolittle (1993).
Fibronectin type III modules in the receptor phosphatase CD45 and tapeworm antigens.
  Protein Sci, 2, 1185-1187.  
8258966 P.J.Ratcliffe (1993).
Molecular biology of erythropoietin.
  Kidney Int, 44, 887-904.  
8253172 P.Maharajan, and V.Maharajan (1993).
Growth hormone signal transduction.
  Experientia, 49, 980-987.  
8483922 R.Savino, A.Lahm, M.Giorgio, A.Cabibbo, A.Tramontano, and G.Ciliberto (1993).
Saturation mutagenesis of the human interleukin 6 receptor-binding site: implications for its three-dimensional structure.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 90, 4067-4071.  
  8262055 S.M.Zurawski, F.Vega, E.L.Doyle, B.Huyghe, K.Flaherty, D.B.McKay, and G.Zurawski (1993).
Definition and spatial location of mouse interleukin-2 residues that interact with its heterotrimeric receptor.
  EMBO J, 12, 5113-5119.  
8381121 S.Smith, and G.Blobel (1993).
The first membrane spanning region of the lamin B receptor is sufficient for sorting to the inner nuclear membrane.
  J Cell Biol, 120, 631-637.  
  8443604 S.Srinivasan, C.J.March, and S.Sudarsanam (1993).
An automated method for modeling proteins on known templates using distance geometry.
  Protein Sci, 2, 277-289.