PDBsum entry 3csh

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protein ligands metals Protein-protein interface(s) links
Transferase PDB id
Protein chain
209 a.a. *
MES ×2
LZ6 ×2
GSH ×2
_CL ×2
Waters ×627
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Transferase
Title: Crystal structure of glutathione transferase pi in complex w chlorambucil-glutathione conjugate
Structure: Glutathione s-transferase p. Chain: a, b. Synonym: gst class-pi, gstp1-1. Engineered: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Gene: gstp1, faees3, gst3. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562.
1.55Å     R-factor:   0.171     R-free:   0.200
Authors: L.J.Parker
Key ref: L.J.Parker et al. (2008). The anti-cancer drug chlorambucil as a substrate for the human polymorphic enzyme glutathione transferase P1-1: kinetic properties and crystallographic characterisation of allelic variants. J Mol Biol, 380, 131-144. PubMed id: 18511072 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2008.04.066
09-Apr-08     Release date:   01-Jul-08    
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Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P09211  (GSTP1_HUMAN) -  Glutathione S-transferase P
210 a.a.
209 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Glutathione transferase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: RX + glutathione = HX + R-S-glutathione
Bound ligand (Het Group name = LZ6)
matches with 52.63% similarity
= HX
+ R-S-glutathione
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     TRAF2-GSTP1 complex   9 terms 
  Biological process     metabolic process   31 terms 
  Biochemical function     S-nitrosoglutathione binding     8 terms  


DOI no: 10.1016/j.jmb.2008.04.066 J Mol Biol 380:131-144 (2008)
PubMed id: 18511072  
The anti-cancer drug chlorambucil as a substrate for the human polymorphic enzyme glutathione transferase P1-1: kinetic properties and crystallographic characterisation of allelic variants.
L.J.Parker, S.Ciccone, L.C.Italiano, A.Primavera, A.J.Oakley, C.J.Morton, N.C.Hancock, M.L.Bello, M.W.Parker.
The commonly used anti-cancer drug chlorambucil is the primary treatment for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Chlorambucil has been shown to be detoxified by human glutathione transferase Pi (GST P1-1), an enzyme that is often found over-expressed in cancer tissues. The allelic variants of GST P1-1 are associated with differing susceptibilities to leukaemia and differ markedly in their efficiency in catalysing glutathione (GSH) conjugation reactions. Here, we perform detailed kinetic studies of the allelic variants with the aid of three representative co-substrates. We show that the differing catalytic properties of the variants are highly substrate-dependent. We show also that all variants exhibit the same temperature stability in the range 10 degrees C to 45 degrees C. We have determined the crystal structures of GST P1-1 in complex with chlorambucil and its GSH conjugate for two of these allelic variants that have different residues at positions 104 and 113. Chlorambucil is found to bind in a non-productive mode to the substrate-binding site (H-site) in the absence of GSH. This result suggests that under certain stress conditions where GSH levels are low, GST P1-1 can inactivate the drug by sequestering it from the surrounding medium. However, in the presence of GSH, chlorambucil binds in the H-site in a productive mode and undergoes a conjugation reaction with GSH present in the crystal. The crystal structure of the GSH-chlorambucil complex bound to the *C variant is identical with the *A variant ruling out the hypothesis that primary structure differences between the variants cause structural changes at the active site. Finally, we show that chlorambucil is a very poor inhibitor of the enzyme in contrast to ethacrynic acid, which binds to the enzyme in a similar fashion but can act as both substrate and inhibitor.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
  21428697 A.Oakley (2011).
Glutathione transferases: a structural perspective.
  Drug Metab Rev, 43, 138-151.  
21295006 N.Fedulova, and B.Mannervik (2011).
Experimental conditions affecting functional comparison of highly active glutathione transferases.
  Anal Biochem, 413, 16-23.  
19780048 I.Quesada-Soriano, L.J.Parker, A.Primavera, J.M.Casas-Solvas, A.Vargas-Berenguel, C.Barón, C.J.Morton, A.Paola Mazzetti, M.Lo Bello, M.W.Parker, and L.García-Fuentes (2009).
Influence of the H-site residue 108 on human glutathione transferase P1-1 ligand binding: Structure-thermodynamic relationships and thermal stability.
  Protein Sci, 18, 2454-2470.
PDB codes: 3hjm 3hjo 3hkr
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