PDBsum entry 3bwn

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Transferase PDB id
Protein chains
(+ 0 more) 362 a.a. *
PMP ×4
Waters ×592
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Transferase
Title: L-tryptophan aminotransferase
Structure: L-tryptophan aminotransferase. Chain: a, b, d, e, f. Synonym: at1g70560. Engineered: yes. L-tryptophan aminotransferase. Chain: c. Engineered: yes
Source: Arabidopsis thaliana. Thale cress. Organism_taxid: 3702. Gene: at1g70560/f5a18_26, f5a18.26. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 511693.
2.25Å     R-factor:   0.225     R-free:   0.253
Authors: J.-L.Ferrer,J.P.Noel,F.Pojer,M.Bowman,J.Chory,Y.Tao
Key ref:
Y.Tao et al. (2008). Rapid synthesis of auxin via a new tryptophan-dependent pathway is required for shade avoidance in plants. Cell, 133, 164-176. PubMed id: 18394996 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.049
10-Jan-08     Release date:   29-Apr-08    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q9S7N2  (TAA1_ARATH) -  L-tryptophan--pyruvate aminotransferase 1
391 a.a.
362 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class 1: E.C.  - Tryptophan transaminase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: L-tryptophan + 2-oxoglutarate = (indol-3-yl)pyruvate + L-glutamate
+ 2-oxoglutarate
= (indol-3-yl)pyruvate
+ L-glutamate
      Cofactor: Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
   Enzyme class 2: E.C.  - L-tryptophan--pyruvate aminotransferase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: L-tryptophan + pyruvate = indole-3-pyruvate + L-alanine
+ pyruvate
= indole-3-pyruvate
+ L-alanine
Note, where more than one E.C. class is given (as above), each may correspond to a different protein domain or, in the case of polyprotein precursors, to a different mature protein.
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     cytoplasm   1 term 
  Biological process     response to ethylene stimulus   18 terms 
  Biochemical function     catalytic activity     15 terms  


DOI no: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.049 Cell 133:164-176 (2008)
PubMed id: 18394996  
Rapid synthesis of auxin via a new tryptophan-dependent pathway is required for shade avoidance in plants.
Y.Tao, J.L.Ferrer, K.Ljung, F.Pojer, F.Hong, J.A.Long, L.Li, J.E.Moreno, M.E.Bowman, L.J.Ivans, Y.Cheng, J.Lim, Y.Zhao, C.L.Ballaré, G.Sandberg, J.P.Noel, J.Chory.
Plants grown at high densities perceive a decrease in the red to far-red (R:FR) ratio of incoming light, resulting from absorption of red light by canopy leaves and reflection of far-red light from neighboring plants. These changes in light quality trigger a series of responses known collectively as the shade avoidance syndrome. During shade avoidance, stems elongate at the expense of leaf and storage organ expansion, branching is inhibited, and flowering is accelerated. We identified several loci in Arabidopsis, mutations in which lead to plants defective in multiple shade avoidance responses. Here we describe TAA1, an aminotransferase, and show that TAA1 catalyzes the formation of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) from L-tryptophan (L-Trp), the first step in a previously proposed, but uncharacterized, auxin biosynthetic pathway. This pathway is rapidly deployed to synthesize auxin at the high levels required to initiate the multiple changes in body plan associated with shade avoidance.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 6.
Figure 6. TAA1 Is a Trp Aminotransferase Involved in Auxin Biosynthesis
(A) Schematic diagram of the proposed IAA biosynthetic pathways.
(B) Identification by LC/MS of indole pyruvic acid (IPA) as the product of TAA1 when L-Trp is used as substrate. Shown are the UV-chromatogram profiles of IPA control (1), reaction mixture (2), and reaction mixture without TAA1 (3). The number shown is the calculated mass of IPA.
Figure 7.
Figure 7. Enzymatic Characterization of TAA1
(A) Determination of Km and Vmax of TAA1 to L-Trp.
(B) sav3-2 is hypersensitive to 5-MT. Seedlings were grown on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 20 μM 5-MT for 9 days in Wc.
(C) Superimposed structure of TAA1 and alliinase active sites. TAA1 monomers are represented as green and cyan ribbons. Alliinase monomers are represented in grey and wheat ribbons (PDB code: 2hox). Labels are those of TAA1 residues. Pyridoxamine phosphate (PMP) as observed in TAA1 structure is represented by yellow sticks. aminoacrylate-PLP as observed in alliinase structure is represented by orange sticks. Trp-PLP from an in silico docking experiment is represented as magenta sticks.
  The above figures are reprinted from an Open Access publication published by Cell Press: Cell (2008, 133, 164-176) copyright 2008.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
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The shade avoidance syndrome in Arabidopsis: a fundamental role for atypical basic helix-loop-helix proteins as transcriptional cofactors.
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The Arabidopsis Myb genes MYR1 and MYR2 are redundant negative regulators of flowering time under decreased light intensity.
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AtCAST, a tool for exploring gene expression similarities among DNA microarray experiments using networks.
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Activity-dormancy transition in the cambial meristem involves stage-specific modulation of auxin response in hybrid aspen.
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21220341 K.Kim, J.Shin, S.H.Lee, H.S.Kweon, J.N.Maloof, and G.Choi (2011).
Phytochromes inhibit hypocotyl negative gravitropism by regulating the development of endodermal amyloplasts through phytochrome-interacting factors.
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21460806 M.Grebe (2011).
Out of the shade and into the light.
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Engineering of red cells of Arabidopsis thaliana and comparative genome-wide gene expression analysis of red cells versus wild-type cells.
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PIN phosphorylation is sufficient to mediate PIN polarity and direct auxin transport.
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Arabidopsis PIS1 encodes the ABCG37 transporter of auxinic compounds including the auxin precursor indole-3-butyric acid.
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Auxin and monocot development.
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Auxin control of root development.
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Phytochrome regulation of branching in Arabidopsis.
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20298484 S.J.Himanen, J.D.Blande, T.Klemola, J.Pulkkinen, J.Heijari, and J.K.Holopainen (2010).
Birch (Betula spp.) leaves adsorb and re-release volatiles specific to neighbouring plants--a mechanism for associational herbivore resistance?
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20237017 S.LeCLere, E.A.Schmelz, and P.S.Chourey (2010).
Sugar levels regulate tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis in developing maize kernels.
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Plant nuclear hormone receptors: a role for small molecules in protein-protein interactions.
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21071851 T.Ishii, K.Soeno, T.Asami, S.Fujioka, and Y.Shimada (2010).
Arabidopsis seedlings over-accumulated indole-3-acetic acid in response to aminooxyacetic acid.
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20421476 T.Sakata, T.Oshino, S.Miura, M.Tomabechi, Y.Tsunaga, N.Higashitani, Y.Miyazawa, H.Takahashi, M.Watanabe, and A.Higashitani (2010).
Auxins reverse plant male sterility caused by high temperatures.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 8569-8574.  
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Auxin at the shoot apical meristem.
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New insights into the shikimate and aromatic amino acids biosynthesis pathways in plants.
  Mol Plant, 3, 956-972.  
20717140 W.Grunewald, and J.Friml (2010).
The march of the PINs: developmental plasticity by dynamic polar targeting in plant cells.
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20520656 Y.Jaillais, and J.Chory (2010).
Unraveling the paradoxes of plant hormone signaling integration.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 17, 642-645.  
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The AMI1 gene family: indole-3-acetamide hydrolase functions in auxin biosynthesis in plants.
  J Exp Bot, 61, 25-32.  
20192736 Y.Zhao (2010).
Auxin biosynthesis and its role in plant development.
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Auxin regulates distal stem cell differentiation in Arabidopsis roots.
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Recent advances and emerging trends in plant hormone signalling.
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A combinatorial interplay among the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate isoforms regulates ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.
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Auxin control of embryo patterning.
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18797999 B.Veit (2009).
Hormone mediated regulation of the shoot apical meristem.
  Plant Mol Biol, 69, 397-408.  
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Illuminated behaviour: phytochrome as a key regulator of light foraging and plant anti-herbivore defence.
  Plant Cell Environ, 32, 713-725.  
19392702 C.Sorin, M.Salla-Martret, J.Bou-Torrent, I.Roig-Villanova, and J.F.Martínez-García (2009).
ATHB4, a regulator of shade avoidance, modulates hormone response in Arabidopsis seedlings.
  Plant J, 59, 266-277.  
18797998 D.Alabadí, and M.A.Blázquez (2009).
Molecular interactions between light and hormone signaling to control plant growth.
  Plant Mol Biol, 69, 409-417.  
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Temperature-regulation of plant architecture.
  Plant Signal Behav, 4, 577-579.  
18807199 E.Benková, and J.Hejátko (2009).
Hormone interactions at the root apical meristem.
  Plant Mol Biol, 69, 383-396.  
19558423 F.F.Millenaar, M.van Zanten, M.C.Cox, R.Pierik, L.A.Voesenek, and A.J.Peeters (2009).
Differential petiole growth in Arabidopsis thaliana: photocontrol and hormonal regulation.
  New Phytol, 184, 141-152.  
19300494 G.Krouk, D.Tranchina, L.Lejay, A.A.Cruikshank, D.Shasha, G.M.Coruzzi, and R.A.Gutiérrez (2009).
A systems approach uncovers restrictions for signal interactions regulating genome-wide responses to nutritional cues in Arabidopsis.
  PLoS Comput Biol, 5, e1000326.  
19306104 H.Chen, and L.Xiong (2009).
The short-rooted vitamin B(6)-deficient mutant pdx1 has impaired local auxin biosynthesis.
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Localized auxin biosynthesis and postembryonic root development in Arabidopsis.
  Plant Signal Behav, 4, 752-754.  
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Survival of the flexible: hormonal growth control and adaptation in plant development.
  Nat Rev Genet, 10, 305-317.  
19251652 J.E.Moreno, Y.Tao, J.Chory, and C.L.Ballaré (2009).
Ecological modulation of plant defense via phytochrome control of jasmonate sensitivity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 4935-4940.  
19716335 J.Hua (2009).
From freezing to scorching, transcriptional responses to temperature variations in plants.
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19713425 J.Preston, K.Tatematsu, Y.Kanno, T.Hobo, M.Kimura, Y.Jikumaru, R.Yano, Y.Kamiya, and E.Nambara (2009).
Temporal expression patterns of hormone metabolism genes during imbibition of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds: a comparative study on dormant and non-dormant accessions.
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Local auxin production: a small contribution to a big field.
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Light and temperature signal crosstalk in plant development.
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Integration of light and auxin signaling.
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Cytokinin regulates root meristem activity via modulation of the polar auxin transport.
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The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time.