PDBsum entry 2seb

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Complex (mhc class ii/superantigen) PDB id
Protein chains
180 a.a. *
177 a.a. *
217 a.a. *
12 a.a. *
Waters ×62
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Complex (mhc class ii/superantigen)
Title: X-ray crystal structure of hla-dr4 complexed with a peptide collagen ii
Structure: Hla class ii histocompatibility antigen. Chain: a. Fragment: extracellular domain. Synonym: hla-dr4. Engineered: yes. Hla class ii histocompatibility antigen. Chain: b. Fragment: extracellular domain. Synonym: hla-dr4.
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Expressed in: drosophila. Expression_system_taxid: 7215. Staphylococcus aureus. Organism_taxid: 1280. Organism_taxid: 9606
Biol. unit: Tetramer (from PQS)
2.50Å     R-factor:   0.229     R-free:   0.280
Authors: A.Dessen,C.M.Lawrence,S.Cupo,D.M.Zaller,D.C.Wiley
Key ref:
A.Dessen et al. (1997). X-ray crystal structure of HLA-DR4 (DRA*0101, DRB1*0401) complexed with a peptide from human collagen II. Immunity, 7, 473-481. PubMed id: 9354468 DOI: 10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80369-6
16-Oct-97     Release date:   28-Jan-98    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01903  (DRA_HUMAN) -  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain
254 a.a.
180 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P13760  (2B14_HUMAN) -  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-4 beta chain
266 a.a.
177 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01552  (ETXB_STAAU) -  Enterotoxin type B
266 a.a.
217 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P02458  (CO2A1_HUMAN) -  Collagen alpha-1(II) chain
1487 a.a.
12 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 3 residue positions (black crosses)

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     extracellular region   3 terms 
  Biological process     immune response   3 terms 


DOI no: 10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80369-6 Immunity 7:473-481 (1997)
PubMed id: 9354468  
X-ray crystal structure of HLA-DR4 (DRA*0101, DRB1*0401) complexed with a peptide from human collagen II.
A.Dessen, C.M.Lawrence, S.Cupo, D.M.Zaller, D.C.Wiley.
Genetic predisposition to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is linked to the MHC class II allele HLA-DR4. The charge of the amino acid at DRbeta71 in the peptide-binding site appears to be critical in discriminating DR molecules linked to increased disease susceptibility. We have determined the 2.5 A x-ray structure of the DR4 molecule with the strongest linkage to RA (DRB1*0401) complexed with a human collagen II peptide. Details of a predicted salt bridge between lysine DRbeta71 and aspartic acid at the P4 peptide position suggest how it may participate in both antigen binding and TCR activation. A model is proposed for the DR4 recognition of collagen II (261-273), an antigen immunodominant in human-transgenic mouse models of RA.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 2.
Figure 2. CII(1168–1180) Peptide in the HLA-DR4 Binding Site Overlaid with an Fo-Fc Omit Map Contoured at 2.2 σCollagen peptide atoms were omitted from electron density map calculation. Gln at P −2, Gln at P5, and Leu at P10 were modeled as Ala.
Figure 6.
Figure 6. Conformations of Peptides in the Binding Sites of MHC Class II Molecules(A) Hypothetical model of CII(261–273) peptide in the HLA-DR4 binding cleft. Phe-263 fits into the P1 pocket, and Glu (P4) hydrogen bonds to β71.(B) The conformations of five peptides observed in complexes with human and murine class II MHC molecules: DR1/HA (green), DR3/CLIP (purple), DR4/CII(1168–1180) (yellow), Ie^k/HB (red), and Ie^k/HSP70 (blue). The MHC class II molecules were superimposed to reveal the superposition of the peptides. View is approximately with MHC to the left and TCR to the right.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Cell Press: Immunity (1997, 7, 473-481) copyright 1997.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21299528 B.E.Hansen, C.H.Nielsen, H.O.Madsen, L.P.Ryder, B.K.Jakobsen, and A.Svejgaard (2011).
The HLA-DP2 protein binds the immunodominant epitope from myelin basic protein, MBP85-99, with high affinity.
  Tissue Antigens, 77, 229-234.  
21306912 K.W.Wucherpfennig, and D.Sethi (2011).
T cell receptor recognition of self and foreign antigens in the induction of autoimmunity.
  Semin Immunol, 23, 84-91.  
21219178 V.Abadie, L.M.Sollid, L.B.Barreiro, and B.Jabri (2011).
Integration of genetic and immunological insights into a model of celiac disease pathogenesis.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 29, 493-525.  
21297580 Y.Yin, Y.Li, M.C.Kerzic, R.Martin, and R.A.Mariuzza (2011).
Structure of a TCR with high affinity for self-antigen reveals basis for escape from negative selection.
  EMBO J, 30, 1137-1148.
PDB code: 3o6f
20533291 E.A.James, A.K.Moustakas, J.Bui, G.K.Papadopoulos, G.Bondinas, J.H.Buckner, and W.W.Kwok (2010).
HLA-DR1001 presents "altered-self" peptides derived from joint-associated proteins by accepting citrulline in three of its binding pockets.
  Arthritis Rheum, 62, 2909-2918.  
20333301 M.A.Patarroyo, A.Bermúdez, C.López, G.Yepes, and M.E.Patarroyo (2010).
3D analysis of the TCR/pMHCII complex formation in monkeys vaccinated with the first peptide inducing sterilizing immunity against human malaria.
  PLoS One, 5, e9771.  
20644721 M.C.De Rosa, B.Giardina, C.Bianchi, C.Carelli Alinovi, D.Pirolli, G.Ferraccioli, M.De Santis, G.Di Sante, and F.Ria (2010).
Modeling the ternary complex TCR-Vbeta/CollagenII(261-273)/HLA-DR4 associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
  PLoS One, 5, e11550.  
  20536985 R.A.Ettinger, E.A.James, W.W.Kwok, A.R.Thompson, and K.P.Pratt (2010).
HLA-DR-restricted T-cell responses to factor VIII epitopes in a mild haemophilia A family with missense substitution A2201P.
  Haemophilia, 16, 44-55.  
20661469 S.Ling, A.Cheng, P.Pumpens, M.Michalak, and J.Holoshitz (2010).
Identification of the rheumatoid arthritis shared epitope binding site on calreticulin.
  PLoS One, 5, e11703.  
19174762 I.Gjertsson, K.L.Laurie, J.Devitt, S.J.Howe, A.J.Thrasher, R.Holmdahl, and K.Gustafsson (2009).
Tolerance induction using lentiviral gene delivery delays onset and severity of collagen II arthritis.
  Mol Ther, 17, 632-640.  
18954286 J.B.Imboden (2009).
The immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.
  Annu Rev Pathol, 4, 417-434.  
18767126 R.Yaneva, S.Springer, and M.Zacharias (2009).
Flexibility of the MHC class II peptide binding cleft in the bound, partially filled, and empty states: A molecular dynamics simulation study.
  Biopolymers, 91, 14-27.  
19036163 C.O'Brien, D.R.Flower, and C.Feighery (2008).
Peptide length significantly influences in vitro affinity for MHC class II molecules.
  Immunome Res, 4, 6.  
18854049 C.S.Parry, and B.R.Brooks (2008).
A new model defines the minimal set of polymorphism in HLA-DQ and -DR that determines susceptibility and resistance to autoimmune diabetes.
  Biol Direct, 3, 42.  
18512783 I.Alvarez, J.Collado, X.Daura, N.Colomé, M.Rodríguez-García, T.Gallart, F.Canals, and D.Jaraquemada (2008).
The rheumatoid arthritis-associated allele HLA-DR10 (DRB1*1001) shares part of its repertoire with HLA-DR1 (DRB1*0101) and HLA-DR4 (DRB*0401).
  Arthritis Rheum, 58, 1630-1639.  
  18713991 K.Kawamura, K.A.McLaughlin, R.Weissert, and T.G.Forsthuber (2008).
Myelin-reactive type B T cells and T cells specific for low-affinity MHC-binding myelin peptides escape tolerance in HLA-DR transgenic mice.
  J Immunol, 181, 3202-3211.  
19072440 A.J.Czaja (2007).
Autoimmune hepatitis. Part A: pathogenesis.
  Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 1, 113-128.  
17645792 A.M.Boots, H.Hubers, M.Kouwijzer, L.den Hoed-van Zandbrink, B.M.Westrek-Esselink, C.van Doorn, R.Stenger, E.S.Bos, M.J.van Lierop, G.F.Verheijden, C.M.Timmers, and C.J.van Staveren (2007).
Identification of an altered peptide ligand based on the endogenously presented, rheumatoid arthritis-associated, human cartilage glycoprotein-39(263-275) epitope: an MHC anchor variant peptide for immune modulation.
  Arthritis Res Ther, 9, R71.  
17657565 E.Evensen, D.Joseph-McCarthy, G.A.Weiss, S.L.Schreiber, and M.Karplus (2007).
Ligand design by a combinatorial approach based on modeling and experiment: application to HLA-DR4.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 21, 395-418.  
17497145 G.P.Bondinas, A.K.Moustakas, and G.K.Papadopoulos (2007).
The spectrum of HLA-DQ and HLA-DR alleles, 2006: a listing correlating sequence and structure with function.
  Immunogenetics, 59, 539-553.  
17560121 K.Choudhuri, and P.A.van der Merwe (2007).
Molecular mechanisms involved in T cell receptor triggering.
  Semin Immunol, 19, 255-261.  
17211830 K.Y.Chang, A.Suri, and E.R.Unanue (2007).
Predicting peptides bound to I-Ag7 class II histocompatibility molecules using a novel expectation-maximization alignment algorithm.
  Proteomics, 7, 367-377.  
17428256 T.Tawara, K.Hasegawa, Y.Sugiura, T.Tahara, I.Ishida, and S.Kataoka (2007).
Fully human antibody exhibits pan-human leukocyte antigen-DR recognition and high in vitro/vivo efficacy against human leukocyte antigen-DR-positive lymphomas.
  Cancer Sci, 98, 921-928.  
17850683 V.Lutzky, S.Hannawi, and R.Thomas (2007).
Cells of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. Dendritic cells.
  Arthritis Res Ther, 9, 219.  
16565072 C.Parra-López, J.M.Calvo-Calle, T.O.Cameron, L.E.Vargas, L.M.Salazar, M.E.Patarroyo, E.Nardin, and L.J.Stern (2006).
Major histocompatibility complex and T cell interactions of a universal T cell epitope from Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 14907-14917.  
16557259 E.Y.Jones, L.Fugger, J.L.Strominger, and C.Siebold (2006).
MHC class II proteins and disease: a structural perspective.
  Nat Rev Immunol, 6, 271-282.  
16791622 M.E.Patarroyo, G.Cifuentes, and J.Baquero (2006).
Comparative molecular and three-dimensional analysis of the peptide-MHC II binding region in both human and Aotus MHC-DRB molecules confirms their usefulness in antimalarial vaccine development.
  Immunogenetics, 58, 598-606.  
20476978 N.Mehra, and G.Kaur (2006).
HLA genetics and disease with particular reference to Type 1 diabetes and HIV infection in Asian Indians.
  Expert Rev Clin Immunol, 2, 901-913.  
16982003 Y.Sakurai, D.D.Brand, B.Tang, E.F.Rosloniec, J.M.Stuart, A.H.Kang, and L.K.Myers (2006).
Analog peptides of type II collagen can suppress arthritis in HLA-DR4 (DRB1*0401) transgenic mice.
  Arthritis Res Ther, 8, R150.  
16530013 ..Molberg, and L.M.Sollid (2006).
A gut feeling for joint inflammation - using coeliac disease to understand rheumatoid arthritis.
  Trends Immunol, 27, 188-194.  
15826953 E.Bergseng, J.Xia, C.Y.Kim, C.Khosla, and L.M.Sollid (2005).
Main chain hydrogen bond interactions in the binding of proline-rich gluten peptides to the celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ2 molecule.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 21791-21796.  
16121403 F.Juhasz, L.Kozma, V.Stenszky, F.Gyory, G.Luckas, and N.R.Farid (2005).
Well differentiated thyroid carcinoma is associated with human lymphocyte antigen D-related 11 in Eastern Hungarians: a case of changing circumstances.
  Cancer, 104, 1603-1608.  
16260763 H.Li, S.Van Vranken, Y.Zhao, Z.Li, Y.Guo, L.Eisele, and Y.Li (2005).
Crystal structures of T cell receptor (beta) chains related to rheumatoid arthritis.
  Protein Sci, 14, 3025-3038.
PDB codes: 2axh 2axj
15643650 J.Dengjel, H.G.Rammensee, and S.Stevanovic (2005).
Glycan side chains on naturally presented MHC class II ligands.
  J Mass Spectrom, 40, 100-104.  
16098233 M.Amicosante, F.Berretta, M.Rossman, R.H.Butler, P.Rogliani, E.van den Berg-Loonen, and C.Saltini (2005).
Identification of HLA-DRPhebeta47 as the susceptibility marker of hypersensitivity to beryllium in individuals lacking the berylliosis-associated supratypic marker HLA-DPGlubeta69.
  Respir Res, 6, 94.  
15998789 N.N.Logunova, C.Viret, L.A.Pobezinsky, S.A.Miller, D.B.Kazansky, J.P.Sundberg, and A.V.Chervonsky (2005).
Restricted MHC-peptide repertoire predisposes to autoimmunity.
  J Exp Med, 202, 73-84.  
15787743 Y.J.Cheng, Q.Zhou, and Z.G.Li (2005).
The inhibitory effect of altered collagen II peptide on HLA-DRB1-restricted T-cell activation.
  Scand J Immunol, 61, 260-265.  
15020763 C.Y.Kim, H.Quarsten, E.Bergseng, C.Khosla, and L.M.Sollid (2004).
Structural basis for HLA-DQ2-mediated presentation of gluten epitopes in celiac disease.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 4175-4179.
PDB code: 1s9v
15501399 E.E.Drouin, L.J.Glickstein, and A.C.Steere (2004).
Molecular characterization of the OspA(161-175) T cell epitope associated with treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis: differences among the three pathogenic species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.
  J Autoimmun, 23, 281-292.  
15084912 E.F.Rosloniec, K.B.Whittington, X.He, J.M.Stuart, and A.H.Kang (2004).
Collagen-induced arthritis mediated by HLA-DR1 (*0101) and HLA-DR4 (*0401).
  Am J Med Sci, 327, 169-179.  
14748001 H.D.Schafroth, and C.A.Floudas (2004).
Predicting peptide binding to MHC pockets via molecular modeling, implicit solvation, and global optimization.
  Proteins, 54, 534-556.  
15104670 J.W.Gregersen, S.Holmes, and L.Fugger (2004).
Humanized animal models for autoimmune diseases.
  Tissue Antigens, 63, 383-394.  
15049778 K.Petersson, G.Forsberg, and B.Walse (2004).
Interplay between superantigens and immunoreceptors.
  Scand J Immunol, 59, 345-355.  
15084275 Z.Pu, S.B.Lovitch, E.K.Bikoff, and E.R.Unanue (2004).
T cells distinguish MHC-peptide complexes formed in separate vesicles and edited by H2-DM.
  Immunity, 20, 467-476.  
12571864 A.C.Steere, B.Falk, E.E.Drouin, L.A.Baxter-Lowe, J.Hammer, and G.T.Nepom (2003).
Binding of outer surface protein A and human lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 peptides to HLA-DR molecules associated with antibiotic treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis.
  Arthritis Rheum, 48, 534-540.  
12516093 C.C.Lu, J.C.Chen, Y.T.Jin, H.B.Yang, S.H.Chan, and S.T.Tsai (2003).
Genetic susceptibility to nasopharyngeal carcinoma within the HLA-A locus in Taiwanese.
  Int J Cancer, 103, 745-751.  
12753659 C.E.Voorter, B.G.Hepkema, S.P.Lems, and E.M.van den Berg-Loonen (2003).
Identification of three new DRB1 alleles, DRB1*0107, *0425 and *13012 and confirmation of DRB4*01033.
  Tissue Antigens, 61, 398-402.  
14617029 F.Berretta, R.H.Butler, G.Diaz, N.Sanarico, J.Arroyo, M.Fraziano, G.Aichinger, K.W.Wucherpfennig, V.Colizzi, C.Saltini, and M.Amicosante (2003).
Detailed analysis of the effects of Glu/Lys beta69 human leukocyte antigen-DP polymorphism on peptide-binding specificity.
  Tissue Antigens, 62, 459-471.  
12716452 J.A.Hill, D.Wang, A.M.Jevnikar, E.Cairns, and D.A.Bell (2003).
The relationship between predicted peptide-MHC class II affinity and T-cell activation in a HLA-DRbeta1*0401 transgenic mouse model.
  Arthritis Res Ther, 5, R40-R48.  
12674501 J.M.Lozano, M.P.Alba, M.Vanegas, Y.Silva, J.L.Torres-Castellanos, and M.E.Patarroyo (2003).
MSP-1 malaria pseudopeptide analogs: biological and immunological significance and three-dimensional structure.
  Biol Chem, 384, 71-82.  
12560454 M.A.Kelly, M.L.Rayner, C.H.Mijovic, and A.H.Barnett (2003).
Molecular aspects of type 1 diabetes.
  Mol Pathol, 56, 1.  
12676930 M.A.Langlois, Y.El Fakhry, and W.Mourad (2003).
Zinc-binding sites in the N terminus of Mycoplasma arthritidis-derived mitogen permit the dimer formation required for high affinity binding to HLA-DR and for T cell activation.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 22309-22315.  
11857638 B.J.McFarland, and C.Beeson (2002).
Binding interactions between peptides and proteins of the class II major histocompatibility complex.
  Med Res Rev, 22, 168-203.  
12190925 E.R.Unanue (2002).
Perspective on antigen processing and presentation.
  Immunol Rev, 185, 86.  
12119342 E.Stratikos, L.Mosyak, D.M.Zaller, and D.C.Wiley (2002).
Identification of the lateral interaction surfaces of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DM with HLA-DR1 by formation of tethered complexes that present enhanced HLA-DM catalysis.
  J Exp Med, 196, 173-183.  
12089323 J.Bäcklund, S.Carlsen, T.Höger, B.Holm, L.Fugger, J.Kihlberg, H.Burkhardt, and R.Holmdahl (2002).
Predominant selection of T cells specific for the glycosylated collagen type II epitope (263-270) in humanized transgenic mice and in rheumatoid arthritis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 9960-9965.  
11877480 J.Hennecke, and D.C.Wiley (2002).
Structure of a complex of the human alpha/beta T cell receptor (TCR) HA1.7, influenza hemagglutinin peptide, and major histocompatibility complex class II molecule, HLA-DR4 (DRA*0101 and DRB1*0401): insight into TCR cross-restriction and alloreactivity.
  J Exp Med, 195, 571-581.
PDB code: 1j8h
11985705 J.S.Murray, S.D.Fois, T.Schountz, S.R.Ford, M.D.Tawde, J.C.Brown, and T.J.Siahaan (2002).
Modeling alternative binding registers of a minimal immunogenic peptide on two class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC II) molecules predicts polarized T-cell receptor (TCR) contact positions.
  J Pept Res, 59, 115-122.  
12471156 O.Rötzschke, J.M.Lau, M.Hofstätter, K.Falk, and J.L.Strominger (2002).
A pH-sensitive histidine residue as control element for ligand release from HLA-DR molecules.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 16946-16950.  
12010576 P.E.Adrian, G.Rajaseger, V.S.Mathura, M.K.Sakharkar, and P.Kangueane (2002).
Types of inter-atomic interactions at the MHC-peptide interface: identifying commonality from accumulated data.
  BMC Struct Biol, 2, 2.  
12084926 X.Liu, S.Dai, F.Crawford, R.Fruge, P.Marrack, and J.Kappler (2002).
Alternate interactions define the binding of peptides to the MHC molecule IA(b).
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 8820-8825.
PDB code: 1lnu
11316174 A.J.Czaja (2001).
Understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis.
  Am J Gastroenterol, 96, 1224-1231.  
11172025 G.T.Nepom, J.D.Lippolis, F.M.White, S.Masewicz, J.A.Marto, A.Herman, C.J.Luckey, B.Falk, J.Shabanowitz, D.F.Hunt, V.H.Engelhard, and B.S.Nepom (2001).
Identification and modulation of a naturally processed T cell epitope from the diabetes-associated autoantigen human glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (hGAD65).
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 1763-1768.  
11580857 H.A.Elsner, K.Kotsch, and R.Blasczyk (2001).
Identification of the novel allele HLA-DRB1*1137 which probably originated from DRB1*11011: implications for mismatch with its ancestor allele at bone marrow transplantation.
  Tissue Antigens, 58, 47-49.  
11432818 K.Petersson, M.Håkansson, H.Nilsson, G.Forsberg, L.A.Svensson, A.Liljas, and B.Walse (2001).
Crystal structure of a superantigen bound to MHC class II displays zinc and peptide dependence.
  EMBO J, 20, 3306-3312.
PDB code: 1hxy
11334495 K.W.Wucherpfennig (2001).
Structural basis of molecular mimicry.
  J Autoimmun, 16, 293-302.  
11677085 K.W.Wucherpfennig (2001).
Insights into autoimmunity gained from structural analysis of MHC-peptide complexes.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 13, 650-656.  
11263770 S.H.Park, D.J.Min, M.L.Cho, W.U.Kim, J.Youn, W.Park, C.S.Cho, and H.Y.Kim (2001).
Shift toward T helper 1 cytokines by type II collagen-reactive T cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
  Arthritis Rheum, 44, 561-569.  
10636922 A.K.Sato, J.A.Zarutskie, M.M.Rushe, A.Lomakin, S.K.Natarajan, S.Sadegh-Nasseri, G.B.Benedek, and L.J.Stern (2000).
Determinants of the peptide-induced conformational change in the human class II major histocompatibility complex protein HLA-DR1.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 2165-2173.  
10775108 A.L.Corper, T.Stratmann, V.Apostolopoulos, C.A.Scott, K.C.Garcia, A.S.Kang, I.A.Wilson, and L.Teyton (2000).
A structural framework for deciphering the link between I-Ag7 and autoimmune diabetes.
  Science, 288, 505-511.
PDB code: 1es0
11053110 A.Simon, Z.Dosztányi, E.Rajnavölgyi, and I.Simon (2000).
Function-related regulation of the stability of MHC proteins.
  Biophys J, 79, 2305-2313.  
10837054 C.Alfonso, and L.Karlsson (2000).
Nonclassical MHC class II molecules.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 18, 113-142.  
  10725708 C.E.Touloukian, W.W.Leitner, S.L.Topalian, Y.F.Li, P.F.Robbins, S.A.Rosenberg, and N.P.Restifo (2000).
Identification of a MHC class II-restricted human gp100 epitope using DR4-IE transgenic mice.
  J Immunol, 164, 3535-3542.  
11060013 J.Hennecke, A.Carfi, and D.C.Wiley (2000).
Structure of a covalently stabilized complex of a human alphabeta T-cell receptor, influenza HA peptide and MHC class II molecule, HLA-DR1.
  EMBO J, 19, 5611-5624.
PDB code: 1fyt
11094431 L.Fugger, and A.Svejgaard (2000).
Association of MHC and rheumatoid arthritis. HLA-DR4 and rheumatoid arthritis: studies in mice and men.
  Arthritis Res, 2, 208-211.  
11102775 L.Fugger (2000).
Human autoimmunity genes in mice.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 12, 698-703.  
10653650 P.M.Kasson, J.D.Rabinowitz, L.Schmitt, M.M.Davis, and H.M.McConnell (2000).
Kinetics of peptide binding to the class II MHC protein I-Ek.
  Biochemistry, 39, 1048-1058.  
10689356 P.V.Lehmann (2000).
Selective peptidomimetic blockers of autoantigen presentation: a novel therapeutic approach to autoimmune disease.
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 21, 79-80.  
10894169 R.R.Latek, A.Suri, S.J.Petzold, C.A.Nelson, O.Kanagawa, E.R.Unanue, and D.H.Fremont (2000).
Structural basis of peptide binding and presentation by the type I diabetes-associated MHC class II molecule of NOD mice.
  Immunity, 12, 699-710.
PDB code: 1f3j
10736175 R.V.Joshi, J.A.Zarutskie, and L.J.Stern (2000).
A three-step kinetic mechanism for peptide binding to MHC class II proteins.
  Biochemistry, 39, 3751-3762.  
  10833487 S.M.McKiernan, R.Hagan, M.Curry, G.S.McDonald, N.Nolan, J.Crowley, J.Hegarty, E.Lawlor, and D.Kelleher (2000).
The MHC is a major determinant of viral status, but not fibrotic stage, in individuals infected with hepatitis C.
  Gastroenterology, 118, 1124-1130.  
11056672 V.Malmström, J.Bäcklund, L.Jansson, J.Kihlberg, and R.Holmdahl (2000).
T cells that are naturally tolerant to cartilage-derived type II collagen are involved in the development of collagen-induced arthritis.
  Arthritis Res, 2, 315-326.  
10403279 A.P.Cope, S.D.Patel, F.Hall, M.Congia, H.A.Hubers, G.F.Verheijden, A.M.Boots, R.Menon, M.Trucco, A.W.Rijnders, and G.Sønderstrup (1999).
T cell responses to a human cartilage autoantigen in the context of rheumatoid arthritis-associated and nonassociated HLA-DR4 alleles.
  Arthritis Rheum, 42, 1497-1507.  
10600129 B.J.McFarland, A.J.Sant, T.P.Lybrand, and C.Beeson (1999).
Ovalbumin(323-339) peptide binds to the major histocompatibility complex class II I-A(d) protein using two functionally distinct registers.
  Biochemistry, 38, 16663-16670.  
9874795 C.I.Pearson, A.M.Gautam, I.C.Rulifson, R.S.Liblau, and H.O.McDevitt (1999).
A small number of residues in the class II molecule I-Au confer the ability to bind the myelin basic protein peptide Ac1-11.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 197-202.  
10068910 C.Seidl, U.R.Kässer, B.Fischer, U.Koch, L.Meier, P.Fischer, H.M.Wisseler, G.Faust-Tinnefeldt, G.Bach, D.Maas, W.W.Bolten, K.Badenhoop, E.Seifried, and J.P.Kaltwasser (1999).
HLA-DR/DQ interaction in patients with erosive rheumatoid arthritis presenting articular and extraarticular disease manifestations.
  Eur J Immunogenet, 26, 19-27.  
10583947 E.L.Reinherz, K.Tan, L.Tang, P.Kern, J.Liu, Y.Xiong, R.E.Hussey, A.Smolyar, B.Hare, R.Zhang, A.Joachimiak, H.C.Chang, G.Wagner, and J.Wang (1999).
The crystal structure of a T cell receptor in complex with peptide and MHC class II.
  Science, 286, 1913-1921.
PDB code: 1d9k
10358765 H.Li, A.Llera, E.L.Malchiodi, and R.A.Mariuzza (1999).
The structural basis of T cell activation by superantigens.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 17, 435-466.  
10231540 J.A.Zarutskie, A.K.Sato, M.M.Rushe, I.C.Chan, A.Lomakin, G.B.Benedek, and L.J.Stern (1999).
A conformational change in the human major histocompatibility complex protein HLA-DR1 induced by peptide binding.
  Biochemistry, 38, 5878-5887.  
10358763 K.C.Garcia, L.Teyton, and I.A.Wilson (1999).
Structural basis of T cell recognition.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 17, 369-397.  
10607669 K.Maenaka, and E.Y.Jones (1999).
MHC superfamily structure and the immune system.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 9, 745-753.  
  10460187 M.Kurokawa, T.Kato, K.Masuko-Hongo, S.Ueda, T.Kobata, M.Okubo, T.Nishimaki, T.Akaza, S.Yoshino, R.Kasukawa, K.Nishioka, and K.Yamamoto (1999).
Characterisation of T cell clonotypes that accumulated in multiple joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
  Ann Rheum Dis, 58, 546-553.  
10229190 P.S.Andersen, P.M.Lavoie, R.P.Sékaly, H.Churchill, D.M.Kranz, P.M.Schlievert, K.Karjalainen, and R.A.Mariuzza (1999).
Role of the T cell receptor alpha chain in stabilizing TCR-superantigen-MHC class II complexes.
  Immunity, 10, 473-483.  
10450516 R.Holmdahl, E.C.Andersson, C.B.Andersen, A.Svejgaard, and L.Fugger (1999).
Transgenic mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis.
  Immunol Rev, 169, 161-173.  
10631948 R.R.Latek, and E.R.Unanue (1999).
Mechanisms and consequences of peptide selection by the I-Ak class II molecule.
  Immunol Rev, 172, 209-228.  
10551417 S.Djoulah, M.Busson, T.Sasazuki, B.Maillere, S.Yasunaga, A.Kimura, D.Charron, and J.Hors (1999).
A new predictive model for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus susceptibility based on combinations of molecular HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 pockets.
  Tissue Antigens, 54, 341-348.  
10323462 S.Hawke, H.Matsuo, M.Nicolle, P.Wordsworth, L.Corlett, E.Spack, S.Deshpande, P.C.Driscoll, and N.Willcox (1999).
Cross-restriction of a T cell clone to HLA-DR alleles associated with rheumatoid arthritis: clues to arthritogenic peptide motifs.
  Arthritis Rheum, 42, 1040-1050.  
9836367 A.P.Cope, and G.Sønderstrup (1998).
Evaluating candidate autoantigens in rheumatoid arthritis.
  Springer Semin Immunopathol, 20, 23-39.  
9707606 A.V.Chervonsky, R.M.Medzhitov, L.K.Denzin, A.K.Barlow, A.Y.Rudensky, and C.A.Janeway (1998).
Subtle conformational changes induced in major histocompatibility complex class II molecules by binding peptides.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 10094-10099.  
9811043 B.L.Kotzin, and J.Kappler (1998).
Targeting the T cell receptor in rheumatoid arthritis.
  Arthritis Rheum, 41, 1906-1910.  
9529149 C.A.Scott, P.A.Peterson, L.Teyton, and I.A.Wilson (1998).
Crystal structures of two I-Ad-peptide complexes reveal that high affinity can be achieved without large anchor residues.
  Immunity, 8, 319-329.
PDB codes: 1iao 2iad
9836366 C.M.Weyand, P.A.Klimiuk, and J.J.Goronzy (1998).
Heterogeneity of rheumatoid arthritis: from phenotypes to genotypes.
  Springer Semin Immunopathol, 20, 5.  
9636191 E.C.Andersson, B.E.Hansen, H.Jacobsen, L.S.Madsen, C.B.Andersen, J.Engberg, J.B.Rothbard, G.S.McDevitt, V.Malmström, R.Holmdahl, A.Svejgaard, and L.Fugger (1998).
Definition of MHC and T cell receptor contacts in the HLA-DR4restricted immunodominant epitope in type II collagen and characterization of collagen-induced arthritis in HLA-DR4 and human CD4 transgenic mice.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 7574-7579.  
9714471 G.Díaz, M.Catálfamo, M.T.Coiras, A.M.Alvarez, D.Jaraquemada, C.Nombela, M.Sánchez-Pérez, and J.Arroyo (1998).
HLA-DPbeta residue 69 plays a crucial role in allorecognition.
  Tissue Antigens, 52, 27-36.  
9639987 J.B.Kümmerle-Deschner, M.K.Hoffmann, D.Niethammer, and G.E.Dannecker (1998).
Pediatric rheumatology: autoimmune mechanisms and therapeutic strategies.
  Immunol Today, 19, 250-253.  
9806632 J.J.Boniface, J.D.Rabinowitz, C.Wülfing, J.Hampl, Z.Reich, J.D.Altman, R.M.Kantor, C.Beeson, H.M.McConnell, and M.M.Davis (1998).
Initiation of signal transduction through the T cell receptor requires the multivalent engagement of peptide/MHC ligands [corrected].
  Immunity, 9, 459-466.  
9782128 K.J.Smith, J.Pyrdol, L.Gauthier, D.C.Wiley, and K.W.Wucherpfennig (1998).
Crystal structure of HLA-DR2 (DRA*0101, DRB1*1501) complexed with a peptide from human myelin basic protein.
  J Exp Med, 188, 1511-1520.
PDB code: 1bx2
9751750 L.Gauthier, K.J.Smith, J.Pyrdol, A.Kalandadze, J.L.Strominger, D.C.Wiley, and K.W.Wucherpfennig (1998).
Expression and crystallization of the complex of HLA-DR2 (DRA, DRB1*1501) and an immunodominant peptide of human myelin basic protein.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 11828-11833.  
9768757 L.Mosyak, D.M.Zaller, and D.C.Wiley (1998).
The structure of HLA-DM, the peptide exchange catalyst that loads antigen onto class II MHC molecules during antigen presentation.
  Immunity, 9, 377-383.
PDB code: 1hdm
9860852 L.Schmitt, J.J.Boniface, M.M.Davis, and H.M.McConnell (1998).
Kinetic isomers of a class II MHC-peptide complex.
  Biochemistry, 37, 17371-17380.  
9741848 M.Bouvier, H.C.Guo, K.J.Smith, and D.C.Wiley (1998).
Crystal structures of HLA-A*0201 complexed with antigenic peptides with either the amino- or carboxyl-terminal group substituted by a methyl group.
  Proteins, 33, 97.
PDB code: 1b0r
9770519 M.Fridkis-Hareli, E.F.Rosloniec, L.Fugger, and J.L.Strominger (1998).
Synthetic amino acid copolymers that bind to HLA-DR proteins and inhibit type II collagen-reactive T cell clones.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 12528-12531.  
9809521 T.Rich, U.Grüneberg, and J.Trowsdale (1998).
Heat shock proteins, HLA-DR and rheumatoid arthritis.
  Nat Med, 4, 1210-1211.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.