PDBsum entry 2hnq

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Hydrolase(phosphorylation) PDB id
Protein chain
278 a.a. *
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Hydrolase(phosphorylation)
Title: Crystal structure of human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b
Structure: Protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1b. Chain: a. Engineered: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Cell_line: 293.
2.85Å     R-factor:   0.197    
Authors: D.Barford,A.J.Flint,N.K.Tonks
Key ref: D.Barford et al. (1994). Crystal structure of human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. Science, 263, 1397-1404. PubMed id: 8128219 DOI: 10.1126/science.8128219
28-Sep-94     Release date:   20-Dec-94    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P18031  (PTN1_HUMAN) -  Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 1
435 a.a.
278 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: Protein tyrosine phosphate + H2O = protein tyrosine + phosphate
Protein tyrosine phosphate
+ H(2)O
= protein tyrosine
+ phosphate
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     dephosphorylation   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     phosphatase activity     2 terms  


DOI no: 10.1126/science.8128219 Science 263:1397-1404 (1994)
PubMed id: 8128219  
Crystal structure of human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.
D.Barford, A.J.Flint, N.K.Tonks.
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) constitute a family of receptor-like and cytoplasmic signal transducing enzymes that catalyze the dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine residues and are characterized by homologous catalytic domains. The crystal structure of a representative member of this family, the 37-kilodalton form (residues 1 to 321) of PTP1B, has been determined at 2.8 A resolution. The enzyme consists of a single domain with the catalytic site located at the base of a shallow cleft. The phosphate recognition site is created from a loop that is located at the amino-terminus of an alpha helix. This site is formed from an 11-residue sequence motif that is diagnostic of PTPs and the dual specificity phosphatases, and that contains the catalytically essential cysteine and arginine residues. The position of the invariant cysteine residue within the phosphate binding site is consistent with its role as a nucleophile in the catalytic reaction. The structure of PTP1B should serve as a model for other members of the PTP family and as a framework for understanding the mechanism of tyrosine dephosphorylation.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
22562138 L.Liu, S.C.Kohout, Q.Xu, S.Müller, C.R.Kimberlin, E.Y.Isacoff, and D.L.Minor (2012).
A glutamate switch controls voltage-sensitive phosphatase function.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 19, 633-641.
PDB codes: 3v0d 3v0e 3v0f 3v0g 3v0h 3v0i 3v0j
20389282 A.Manford, T.Xia, A.K.Saxena, C.Stefan, F.Hu, S.D.Emr, and Y.Mao (2010).
Crystal structure of the yeast Sac1: implications for its phosphoinositide phosphatase function.
  EMBO J, 29, 1489-1498.
PDB code: 3lwt
20482862 C.Brandsch, T.Schmidt, D.Behn, K.Weisse, A.S.Mueller, and G.I.Stangl (2010).
Glutathione deficiency down-regulates hepatic lipogenesis in rats.
  Lipids Health Dis, 9, 50.  
20679247 C.W.Vander Kooi, A.O.Taylor, R.M.Pace, D.A.Meekins, H.F.Guo, Y.Kim, and M.S.Gentry (2010).
Structural basis for the glucan phosphatase activity of Starch Excess4.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 15379-15384.
PDB code: 3nme
20055703 J.M.Samet, and T.L.Tal (2010).
Toxicological disruption of signaling homeostasis: tyrosine phosphatases as targets.
  Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 50, 215-235.  
20018849 J.P.Li, Y.N.Fu, Y.R.Chen, and T.H.Tan (2010).
JNK pathway-associated phosphatase dephosphorylates focal adhesion kinase and suppresses cell migration.
  J Biol Chem, 285, 5472-5478.  
20047958 R.C.Edgar (2010).
Quality measures for protein alignment benchmarks.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 38, 2145-2153.  
20381358 S.C.Yip, S.Saha, and J.Chernoff (2010).
PTP1B: a double agent in metabolism and oncogenesis.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 35, 442-449.  
21113129 S.Yalcin, D.Marinkovic, S.K.Mungamuri, X.Zhang, W.Tong, R.Sellers, and S.Ghaffari (2010).
ROS-mediated amplification of AKT/mTOR signalling pathway leads to myeloproliferative syndrome in Foxo3(-/-) mice.
  EMBO J, 29, 4118-4131.  
  20957214 T.Scior, J.A.Guevara-García, F.J.Melendez, H.H.Abdallah, Q.T.Do, and P.Bernard (2010).
Chimeric design, synthesis, and biological assays of a new nonpeptide insulin-mimetic vanadium compound to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.
  Drug Des Devel Ther, 4, 231-242.  
19167335 A.J.Barr, E.Ugochukwu, W.H.Lee, O.N.King, P.Filippakopoulos, I.Alfano, P.Savitsky, N.A.Burgess-Brown, S.Müller, and S.Knapp (2009).
Large-scale structural analysis of the classical human protein tyrosine phosphatome.
  Cell, 136, 352-363.
PDB codes: 2ahs 2b49 2cfv 2cjz 2gjt 2h4v 2i75 2jjd 2nlk 2nz6 2oc3 2ooq 2p6x 2pa5 2qep 3b7o
19712109 A.Trümpler, B.Schlott, P.Herrlich, P.A.Greer, and F.D.Böhmer (2009).
Calpain-mediated degradation of reversibly oxidized protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B.
  FEBS J, 276, 5622-5633.  
19810703 D.Vidović, and S.C.Schürer (2009).
Knowledge-based characterization of similarity relationships in the human protein-tyrosine phosphatase family for rational inhibitor design.
  J Med Chem, 52, 6649-6659.  
19380334 J.F.Wang, K.Gong, D.Q.Wei, Y.X.Li, and K.C.Chou (2009).
Molecular dynamics studies on the interactions of PTP1B with inhibitors: from the first phosphate-binding site to the second one.
  Protein Eng Des Sel, 22, 349-355.  
19290937 K.M.Doody, A.Bourdeau, and M.L.Tremblay (2009).
T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase is a key regulator in immune cell signaling: lessons from the knockout mouse model and implications in human disease.
  Immunol Rev, 228, 325-341.  
19167325 M.L.Tremblay (2009).
The PTP family photo album.
  Cell, 136, 213-214.  
19818631 M.S.Gentry, J.E.Dixon, and C.A.Worby (2009).
Lafora disease: insights into neurodegeneration from plant metabolism.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 34, 628-639.  
18999917 N.Brandes, S.Schmitt, and U.Jakob (2009).
Thiol-based redox switches in eukaryotic proteins.
  Antioxid Redox Signal, 11, 997.  
19754155 S.Hsu, Y.Kim, S.Li, E.S.Durrant, R.M.Pace, V.L.Woods, and M.S.Gentry (2009).
Structural insights into glucan phosphatase dynamics using amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.
  Biochemistry, 48, 9891-9902.  
19140798 T.A.Brandão, H.Robinson, S.J.Johnson, and A.C.Hengge (2009).
Impaired acid catalysis by mutation of a protein loop hinge residue in a YopH mutant revealed by crystal structures.
  J Am Chem Soc, 131, 778-786.
PDB codes: 3f99 3f9a 3f9b
  19920909 T.Scior, H.G.Mack, J.A.García, and W.Koch (2009).
Antidiabetic Bis-Maltolato-OxoVanadium(IV): Conversion of inactive trans- to bioactive cis-BMOV for possible binding to target PTP-1B.
  Drug Des Devel Ther, 2, 221-231.  
17646950 A.M.Ibrahim, and Y.Kim (2008).
Transient expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus inhibits insect cellular immune responses.
  Naturwissenschaften, 95, 25-32.  
18632564 B.Boivin, S.Zhang, J.L.Arbiser, Z.Y.Zhang, and N.K.Tonks (2008).
A modified cysteinyl-labeling assay reveals reversible oxidation of protein tyrosine phosphatases in angiomyolipoma cells.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 9959-9964.  
17975835 C.Madhurantakam, V.R.Chavali, and A.K.Das (2008).
Analyzing the catalytic mechanism of MPtpA: a low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis through site-directed mutagenesis.
  Proteins, 71, 706-714.  
18851975 J.G.Zalatan, T.D.Fenn, and D.Herschlag (2008).
Comparative enzymology in the alkaline phosphatase superfamily to determine the catalytic role of an active-site metal ion.
  J Mol Biol, 384, 1174-1189.
PDB code: 3dyc
18685809 K.Bharatham, N.Bharatham, Y.J.Kwon, and K.W.Lee (2008).
Molecular dynamics simulation study of PTP1B with allosteric inhibitor and its application in receptor based pharmacophore modeling.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 22, 925-933.  
18454177 K.Lei, D.M.Townsend, and K.D.Tew (2008).
Protein cysteine sulfinic acid reductase (sulfiredoxin) as a regulator of cell proliferation and drug response.
  Oncogene, 27, 4877-4887.  
18298793 L.Tabernero, A.R.Aricescu, E.Y.Jones, and S.E.Szedlacsek (2008).
Protein tyrosine phosphatases: structure-function relationships.
  FEBS J, 275, 867-882.  
18430232 M.Grunt, V.Zárský, and F.Cvrcková (2008).
Roots of angiosperm formins: the evolutionary history of plant FH2 domain-containing proteins.
  BMC Evol Biol, 8, 115.  
19012396 S.Liu, L.F.Zeng, L.Wu, X.Yu, T.Xue, A.M.Gunawan, Y.Q.Long, and Z.Y.Zhang (2008).
Targeting inactive enzyme conformation: aryl diketoacid derivatives as a new class of PTP1B inhibitors.
  J Am Chem Soc, 130, 17075-17084.
PDB codes: 3eax 3eb1
18678493 X.Y.Zhang, V.L.Chen, M.S.Rosen, E.R.Blair, A.M.Lone, and A.C.Bishop (2008).
Allele-specific inhibition of divergent protein tyrosine phosphatases with a single small molecule.
  Bioorg Med Chem, 16, 8090-8097.  
17567745 A.A.Puhl, R.J.Gruninger, R.Greiner, T.W.Janzen, S.C.Mosimann, and L.B.Selinger (2007).
Kinetic and structural analysis of a bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase-like myo-inositol polyphosphatase.
  Protein Sci, 16, 1368-1378.
PDB codes: 2b4o 2b4p 2b4u
17186149 B.A.Nakashima, T.A.McAllister, R.Sharma, and L.B.Selinger (2007).
Diversity of phytases in the rumen.
  Microb Ecol, 53, 82-88.  
17473844 K.L.Jeffrey, M.Camps, C.Rommel, and C.R.Mackay (2007).
Targeting dual-specificity phosphatases: manipulating MAP kinase signalling and immune responses.
  Nat Rev Drug Discov, 6, 391-403.  
17291189 L.I.Pao, K.Badour, K.A.Siminovitch, and B.G.Neel (2007).
Nonreceptor protein-tyrosine phosphatases in immune cell signaling.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 25, 473-523.  
17673310 L.Yu, U.Kelly, J.N.Ebright, G.Malek, P.Saloupis, D.W.Rickman, B.S.McKay, V.Y.Arshavsky, and C.Bowes Rickman (2007).
Oxidative stress-induced expression and modulation of Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver-1 (PRL-1) in mammalian retina.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1773, 1473-1482.  
17044055 S.J.Kim, D.G.Jeong, T.S.Yoon, J.H.Son, S.K.Cho, S.E.Ryu, and J.H.Kim (2007).
Crystal structure of human TMDP, a testis-specific dual specificity protein phosphatase: implications for substrate specificity.
  Proteins, 66, 239-245.
PDB code: 2gwo
17546659 T.S.Girish, and B.Gopal (2007).
The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the chick retinal neurite inhibitor-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase CRYP-2/cPTPRO.
  Proteins, 68, 1011-1015.
PDB code: 2pi7
16534812 A.J.Barr, J.E.Debreczeni, J.Eswaran, and S.Knapp (2006).
Crystal structure of human protein tyrosine phosphatase 14 (PTPN14) at 1.65-A resolution.
  Proteins, 63, 1132-1136.
PDB code: 2bzl
16919785 A.J.Barr, and S.Knapp (2006).
MAPK-specific tyrosine phosphatases: new targets for drug discovery?
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 27, 525-530.  
16364216 G.X.Liu, J.Z.Tan, C.Y.Niu, J.H.Shen, X.M.Luo, X.Shen, K.X.Chen, and H.L.Jiang (2006).
Molecular dynamics simulations of interaction between protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B and a bidentate inhibitor.
  Acta Pharmacol Sin, 27, 100-110.  
16672235 J.Eswaran, J.E.Debreczeni, E.Longman, A.J.Barr, and S.Knapp (2006).
The crystal structure of human receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa phosphatase domain 1.
  Protein Sci, 15, 1500-1505.
PDB codes: 2a3k 2c7s
15890001 A.Salmeen, and D.Barford (2005).
Functions and mechanisms of redox regulation of cysteine-based phosphatases.
  Antioxid Redox Signal, 7, 560-577.  
16271885 C.Grundner, H.L.Ng, and T.Alber (2005).
Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpB structure reveals a diverged fold and a buried active site.
  Structure, 13, 1625-1634.
PDB code: 1ywf
15743966 C.Madhurantakam, E.Rajakumara, P.A.Mazumdar, B.Saha, D.Mitra, H.G.Wiker, R.Sankaranarayanan, and A.K.Das (2005).
Crystal structure of low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis at 1.9-A resolution.
  J Bacteriol, 187, 2175-2181.
PDB codes: 1u2p 1u2q
15684325 H.J.Nam, F.Poy, H.Saito, and C.A.Frederick (2005).
Structural basis for the function and regulation of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45.
  J Exp Med, 201, 441-452.
PDB codes: 1ygr 1ygu
15715684 I.Gouni-Berthold, E.Giannakidou, D.Müller-Wieland, M.Faust, J.Kotzka, H.K.Berthold, and W.Krone (2005).
The Pro387Leu variant of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B is not associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 in a German population.
  J Intern Med, 257, 272-280.  
15670209 K.Hamada, M.Kato, T.Shimizu, K.Ihara, T.Mizuno, and T.Hakoshima (2005).
Crystal structure of the protein histidine phosphatase SixA in the multistep His-Asp phosphorelay.
  Genes Cells, 10, 1.
PDB codes: 1ujb 1ujc
15900534 L.Bialy, and H.Waldmann (2005).
Inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatases: next-generation drugs?
  Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 44, 3814-3839.  
16235263 R.G.Coleman, M.A.Burr, D.L.Souvaine, and A.C.Cheng (2005).
An intuitive approach to measuring protein surface curvature.
  Proteins, 61, 1068-1074.  
16271887 S.Li, R.S.Depetris, D.Barford, J.Chernoff, and S.R.Hubbard (2005).
Crystal structure of a complex between protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B and the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.
  Structure, 13, 1643-1651.
PDB code: 2b4s
15333922 A.K.Pedersen, G.H.Peters G, K.B.Møller, L.F.Iversen, and J.S.Kastrup (2004).
Water-molecule network and active-site flexibility of apo protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 60, 1527-1534.
PDB code: 1sug
15542661 B.Provost, P.Varricchio, E.Arana, E.Espagne, P.Falabella, E.Huguet, R.La Scaleia, L.Cattolico, M.Poirié, C.Malva, J.A.Olszewski, F.Pennacchio, and J.M.Drezen (2004).
Bracoviruses contain a large multigene family coding for protein tyrosine phosphatases.
  J Virol, 78, 13090-13103.  
15258570 C.Wiesmann, K.J.Barr, J.Kung, J.Zhu, D.A.Erlanson, W.Shen, B.J.Fahr, M.Zhong, L.Taylor, M.Randal, R.S.McDowell, and S.K.Hansen (2004).
Allosteric inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 11, 730-737.
PDB codes: 1t48 1t49 1t4j
15256004 F.Cvrcková, M.Novotný, D.Pícková, and V.Zárský (2004).
Formin homology 2 domains occur in multiple contexts in angiosperms.
  BMC Genomics, 5, 44.  
15013940 S.D.Taylor, and B.Hill (2004).
Recent advances in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors.
  Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 13, 199-214.  
14617173 A.M.Ah Fong, and H.S.Judelson (2003).
Cell cycle regulator Cdc14 is expressed during sporulation but not hyphal growth in the fungus-like oomycete Phytophthora infestans.
  Mol Microbiol, 50, 487-494.  
12802338 A.Salmeen, J.N.Andersen, M.P.Myers, T.C.Meng, J.A.Hinks, N.K.Tonks, and D.Barford (2003).
Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B involves a sulphenyl-amide intermediate.
  Nature, 423, 769-773.
PDB codes: 1oem 1oeo
14624760 M.Bearzatto, V.Lampasona, C.Belloni, and E.Bonifacio (2003).
Fine mapping of diabetes-associated IA-2 specific autoantibodies.
  J Autoimmun, 21, 377-382.  
12802339 R.L.van Montfort, M.Congreve, D.Tisi, R.Carr, and H.Jhoti (2003).
Oxidation state of the active-site cysteine in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.
  Nature, 423, 773-777.
PDB codes: 1oes 1oet 1oeu 1oev
12612081 S.Galic, M.Klingler-Hoffmann, M.T.Fodero-Tavoletti, M.A.Puryer, T.C.Meng, N.K.Tonks, and T.Tiganis (2003).
Regulation of insulin receptor signaling by the protein tyrosine phosphatase TCPTP.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 2096-2108.  
11909961 L.Wu, J.Fu, and S.H.Shen (2002).
SKAP55 coupled with CD45 positively regulates T-cell receptor-mediated gene transcription.
  Mol Cell Biol, 22, 2673-2686.  
12461518 M.A.Lyon, A.P.Ducruet, P.Wipf, and J.S.Lazo (2002).
Dual-specificity phosphatases as targets for antineoplastic agents.
  Nat Rev Drug Discov, 1, 961-976.  
11863439 M.A.Schumacher, J.L.Todd, A.E.Rice, K.G.Tanner, and J.M.Denu (2002).
Structural basis for the recognition of a bisphosphorylated MAP kinase peptide by human VHR protein Phosphatase.
  Biochemistry, 41, 3009-3017.
PDB code: 1j4x
12209150 T.O.Johnson, J.Ermolieff, and M.R.Jirousek (2002).
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors for diabetes.
  Nat Rev Drug Discov, 1, 696-709.  
11782565 T.P.Shanley (2002).
Phosphatases: counterregulatory role in inflammatory cell signaling.
  Crit Care Med, 30, S80-S88.  
11350947 A.Changela, C.K.Ho, A.Martins, S.Shuman, and A.Mondragón (2001).
Structure and mechanism of the RNA triphosphatase component of mammalian mRNA capping enzyme.
  EMBO J, 20, 2575-2586.
PDB codes: 1i9s 1i9t
11468356 G.Scapin, S.Patel, V.Patel, B.Kennedy, and E.Asante-Appiah (2001).
The structure of apo protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B C215S mutant: more than just an S --> O change.
  Protein Sci, 10, 1596-1605.
PDB code: 1i57
11585896 J.N.Andersen, O.H.Mortensen, G.H.Peters, P.G.Drake, L.F.Iversen, O.H.Olsen, P.G.Jansen, H.S.Andersen, N.K.Tonks, and N.P.Møller (2001).
Structural and evolutionary relationships among protein tyrosine phosphatase domains.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 7117-7136.  
11500950 J.Yang, Z.Cheng, T.Niu, X.Liang, Z.J.Zhao, and G.W.Zhou (2001).
Protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 specifically recognizes C-terminal residues of its substrates via helix alpha0.
  J Cell Biochem, 83, 14-20.  
11401727 L.G.Tertoolen, C.Blanchetot, G.Jiang, J.Overvoorde, T.W.Gadella, T.Hunter, and J.den Hertog (2001).
Dimerization of receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha in living cells.
  BMC Cell Biol, 2, 8.  
11698660 M.S.Bennett, Z.Guan, M.Laurberg, and X.D.Su (2001).
Bacillus subtilis arsenate reductase is structurally and functionally similar to low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 13577-13582.
PDB code: 1jl3
11248552 N.K.Tonks, and B.G.Neel (2001).
Combinatorial control of the specificity of protein tyrosine phosphatases.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 13, 182-195.  
11392533 T.R.Burke, Z.J.Yao, B.Ye, K.Miyoshi, A.Otaka, L.Wu, and Z.Y.Zhang (2001).
Phospho-Azatyrosine, a less effective protein-tyrosine phosphatase substrate than phosphotyrosine.
  Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 11, 1265-1268.  
  11574689 V.G.Metelev, O.A.Borisova, E.M.Volkov, T.S.Oretskaya, and N.G.Dolinnaya (2001).
New chemically reactive dsDNAs containing single internucleotide monophosphoryldithio links: reactivity of 5'-mercapto-oligodeoxyribonucleotides.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 29, 4062-4069.  
11717427 Y.Shen, R.Luche, B.Wei, M.L.Gordon, C.D.Diltz, and N.K.Tonks (2001).
Activation of the Jnk signaling pathway by a dual-specificity phosphatase, JSP-1.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 13613-13618.  
10980500 A.E.Clausen, and A.Bernkop-Schnürch (2000).
In vitro evaluation of the permeation-enhancing effect of thiolated polycarbophil.
  J Pharm Sci, 89, 1253-1261.  
11163217 C.E.Stebbins, and J.E.Galán (2000).
Modulation of host signaling by a bacterial mimic: structure of the Salmonella effector SptP bound to Rac1.
  Mol Cell, 6, 1449-1460.
PDB codes: 1g4u 1g4w
11079556 C.Pasquali, F.Vilbois, M.L.Curchod, R.Hooft van Huijsduijnen, and F.Arigoni (2000).
Mapping and identification of protein-protein interactions by two-dimensional far-Western immunoblotting.
  Electrophoresis, 21, 3357-3368.  
10777720 G.H.Peters, T.M.Frimurer, J.N.Andersen, and O.H.Olsen (2000).
Molecular dynamics simulations of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B. II. substrate-enzyme interactions and dynamics.
  Biophys J, 78, 2191-2200.  
11108659 J.Liu, D.C.Babaian, M.Liebert, P.A.Steck, and J.Kagan (2000).
Inactivation of MMAC1 in bladder transitional-cell carcinoma cell lines and specimens.
  Mol Carcinog, 29, 143-150.  
10723800 L.Li, and J.E.Dixon (2000).
Form, function, and regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatases and their involvement in human diseases.
  Semin Immunol, 12, 75-84.  
10889023 M.Sarmiento, Y.A.Puius, S.W.Vetter, Y.F.Keng, L.Wu, Y.Zhao, D.S.Lawrence, S.C.Almo, and Z.Y.Zhang (2000).
Structural basis of plasticity in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B substrate recognition.
  Biochemistry, 39, 8171-8179.
PDB codes: 1een 1eeo
10684639 S.Wang, L.Tabernero, M.Zhang, E.Harms, R.L.Van Etten, and C.V.Stauffacher (2000).
Crystal structures of a low-molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its complex with the substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate.
  Biochemistry, 39, 1903-1914.
PDB codes: 1d1p 1d1q
9893986 A.Buist, Y.L.Zhang, Y.F.Keng, L.Wu, Z.Y.Zhang, and J.den Hertog (1999).
Restoration of potent protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity into the membrane-distal domain of receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha.
  Biochemistry, 38, 914-922.  
10388775 G.H.Peters, T.M.Frimurer, J.N.Andersen, and O.H.Olsen (1999).
Molecular dynamics simulations of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B. I. ligand-induced changes in the protein motions.
  Biophys J, 77, 505-515.  
10338209 H.J.Nam, F.Poy, N.X.Krueger, H.Saito, and C.A.Frederick (1999).
Crystal structure of the tandem phosphatase domains of RPTP LAR.
  Cell, 97, 449-457.
PDB code: 1lar
10555148 J.O.Lee, H.Yang, M.M.Georgescu, A.Di Cristofano, T.Maehama, Y.Shi, J.E.Dixon, P.Pandolfi, and N.P.Pavletich (1999).
Crystal structure of the PTEN tumor suppressor: implications for its phosphoinositide phosphatase activity and membrane association.
  Cell, 99, 323-334.
PDB code: 1d5r
10409830 K.Kolmodin, P.Nordlund, and J.Aqvist (1999).
Mechanism of substrate dephosphorylation in low Mr protein tyrosine phosphatase.
  Proteins, 36, 370-379.  
10090769 M.Taing, Y.F.Keng, K.Shen, L.Wu, D.S.Lawrence, and Z.Y.Zhang (1999).
Potent and highly selective inhibitors of the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.
  Biochemistry, 38, 3793-3803.  
10213634 N.R.Glover, and A.S.Tracey (1999).
Nuclear magnetic resonance and restrained molecular dynamics studies of the interaction of an epidermal growth factor-derived peptide with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.
  Biochemistry, 38, 5256-5271.  
10336608 P.Tailor, J.Gilman, S.Williams, and T.Mustelin (1999).
A novel isoform of the low molecular weight phosphotyrosine phosphatase, LMPTP-C, arising from alternative mRNA splicing.
  Eur J Biochem, 262, 277-282.  
10087273 S.M.Burden-Gulley, and S.M.Brady-Kalnay (1999).
PTPmu regulates N-cadherin-dependent neurite outgrowth.
  J Cell Biol, 144, 1323-1336.  
10025675 T.Niu, X.Liang, J.Yang, Z.Zhao, and G.W.Zhou (1999).
Kinetic comparison of the catalytic domains of SHP-1 and SHP-2.
  J Cell Biochem, 72, 145-150.  
10350489 W.C.Barrett, J.P.DeGnore, S.König, H.M.Fales, Y.F.Keng, Z.Y.Zhang, M.B.Yim, and P.B.Chock (1999).
Regulation of PTP1B via glutathionylation of the active site cysteine 215.
  Biochemistry, 38, 6699-6705.  
10092868 Y.F.Keng, L.Wu, and Z.Y.Zhang (1999).
Probing the function of the conserved tryptophan in the flexible loop of the Yersinia protein-tyrosine phosphatase.
  Eur J Biochem, 259, 809-814.  
10318897 Y.J.Sun, C.C.Chou, W.S.Chen, R.T.Wu, M.Meng, and C.D.Hsiao (1999).
The crystal structure of a multifunctional protein: phosphoglucose isomerase/autocrine motility factor/neuroleukin.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 5412-5417.
PDB code: 2pgi
  9418864 A.M.O'Reilly, and B.G.Neel (1998).
Structural determinants of SHP-2 function and specificity in Xenopus mesoderm induction.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 161-177.  
9699458 A.Stoker, and R.Dutta (1998).
Protein tyrosine phosphatases and neural development.
  Bioessays, 20, 463-472.  
9763224 B.L.Martin (1998).
Inhibition of calcineurin by the tyrphostin class of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
  Biochem Pharmacol, 56, 483-488.  
9646865 D.Barford, A.K.Das, and M.P.Egloff (1998).
The structure and mechanism of protein phosphatases: insights into catalysis and regulation.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 27, 133-164.  
9551546 D.Barford, and B.G.Neel (1998).
Revealing mechanisms for SH2 domain mediated regulation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2.
  Structure, 6, 249-254.  
9548920 G.H.Peters, T.M.Frimurer, and O.H.Olsen (1998).
Electrostatic evaluation of the signature motif (H/V)CX5R(S/T) in protein-tyrosine phosphatases.
  Biochemistry, 37, 5383-5393.  
9689104 I.De Vivo, X.Cui, J.Domen, and M.L.Cleary (1998).
Growth stimulation of primary B cell precursors by the anti-phosphatase Sbf1.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 9471-9476.  
  9632768 J.F.Timms, K.Carlberg, H.Gu, H.Chen, S.Kamatkar, M.J.Nadler, L.R.Rohrschneider, and B.G.Neel (1998).
Identification of major binding proteins and substrates for the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in macrophages.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 3838-3850.  
9818190 J.M.Denu, and J.E.Dixon (1998).
Protein tyrosine phosphatases: mechanisms of catalysis and regulation.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 2, 633-641.  
  9566916 K.R.LaMontagne, A.J.Flint, B.R.Franza, A.M.Pandergast, and N.K.Tonks (1998).
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B antagonizes signalling by oncoprotein tyrosine kinase p210 bcr-abl in vivo.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 2965-2975.  
9922143 M.R.Groves, Z.J.Yao, P.P.Roller, T.R.Burke, and D.Barford (1998).
Structural basis for inhibition of the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B by phosphotyrosine peptide mimetics.
  Biochemistry, 37, 17773-17783.
PDB codes: 1bzc 1bzh 1bzj
9491886 P.Hof, S.Pluskey, S.Dhe-Paganon, M.J.Eck, and S.E.Shoelson (1998).
Crystal structure of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2.
  Cell, 92, 441-450.
PDB code: 2shp
9817026 T.R.Burke, and Z.Y.Zhang (1998).
Protein-tyrosine phosphatases: structure, mechanism, and inhibitor discovery.
  Biopolymers, 47, 225-241.  
9537414 X.Cui, I.De Vivo, R.Slany, A.Miyamoto, R.Firestein, and M.L.Cleary (1998).
Association of SET domain and myotubularin-related proteins modulates growth control.
  Nat Genet, 18, 331-337.  
9050838 A.J.Flint, T.Tiganis, D.Barford, and N.K.Tonks (1997).
Development of "substrate-trapping" mutants to identify physiological substrates of protein tyrosine phosphatases.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 1680-1685.  
9069265 B.G.Neel, and N.K.Tonks (1997).
Protein tyrosine phosphatases in signal transduction.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 9, 193-204.  
9109666 D.L.Lohse, J.M.Denu, N.Santoro, and J.E.Dixon (1997).
Roles of aspartic acid-181 and serine-222 in intermediate formation and hydrolysis of the mammalian protein-tyrosine-phosphatase PTP1.
  Biochemistry, 36, 4568-4575.  
9389426 E.C.Hatfield, C.J.Hawkes, M.A.Payton, and M.R.Christie (1997).
Cross reactivity between IA-2 and phogrin/IA-2beta in binding of autoantibodies in IDDM.
  Diabetologia, 40, 1327-1333.  
9141461 G.Draetta, and J.Eckstein (1997).
Cdc25 protein phosphatases in cell proliferation.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1332, M53-M63.  
9200688 G.Gemmecker, M.Eberstadt, A.Buhr, R.Lanz, S.G.Grdadolnik, H.Kessler, and B.Erni (1997).
Glucose transporter of Escherichia coli: NMR characterization of the phosphocysteine form of the IIB(Glc) domain and its binding interface with the IIA(Glc) subunit.
  Biochemistry, 36, 7408-7417.  
9147129 G.Ramponi, and M.Stefani (1997).
Structural, catalytic, and functional properties of low M(r), phosphotyrosine protein phosphatases. Evidence of a long evolutionary history.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 29, 279-292.  
9062130 J.Wang, and C.T.Walsh (1997).
Mechanistic studies on full length and the catalytic domain of the tandem SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase: analysis of phosphoenzyme levels and Vmax stimulatory effects of glycerol and of a phosphotyrosyl peptide ligand.
  Biochemistry, 36, 2993-2999.  
9047324 L.J.Juszczak, Z.Y.Zhang, L.Wu, D.S.Gottfried, and D.D.Eads (1997).
Rapid loop dynamics of Yersinia protein tyrosine phosphatases.
  Biochemistry, 36, 2227-2236.  
9256433 M.P.Myers, J.P.Stolarov, C.Eng, J.Li, S.I.Wang, M.H.Wigler, R.Parsons, and N.K.Tonks (1997).
P-TEN, the tumor suppressor from human chromosome 10q23, is a dual-specificity phosphatase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 9052-9057.  
9399917 M.P.Myers, and N.K.Tonks (1997).
PTEN: sometimes taking it off can be better than putting it on.
  Am J Hum Genet, 61, 1234-1238.  
8993313 M.Zhang, M.Zhou, R.L.Van Etten, and C.V.Stauffacher (1997).
Crystal structure of bovine low molecular weight phosphotyrosyl phosphatase complexed with the transition state analog vanadate.
  Biochemistry, 36, 15-23.
PDB codes: 1dg9 1z12 1z13
9090379 P.A.Steck, M.A.Pershouse, S.A.Jasser, W.K.Yung, H.Lin, A.H.Ligon, L.A.Langford, M.L.Baumgard, T.Hattier, T.Davis, C.Frye, R.Hu, B.Swedlund, D.H.Teng, and S.V.Tavtigian (1997).
Identification of a candidate tumour suppressor gene, MMAC1, at chromosome 10q23.3 that is mutated in multiple advanced cancers.
  Nat Genet, 15, 356-362.  
9391040 Y.A.Puius, Y.Zhao, M.Sullivan, D.S.Lawrence, S.C.Almo, and Z.Y.Zhang (1997).
Identification of a second aryl phosphate-binding site in protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B: a paradigm for inhibitor design.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 13420-13425.
PDB codes: 1aax 1pty
9063884 Z.Y.Zhang, and L.Wu (1997).
The single sulfur to oxygen substitution in the active site nucleophile of the Yersinia protein-tyrosine phosphatase leads to substantial structural and functional perturbations.
  Biochemistry, 36, 1362-1369.  
  8887669 A.J.Garton, A.J.Flint, and N.K.Tonks (1996).
Identification of p130(cas) as a substrate for the cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 6408-6418.  
  9003755 A.K.Das, N.R.Helps, P.T.Cohen, and D.Barford (1996).
Crystal structure of the protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2C at 2.0 A resolution.
  EMBO J, 15, 6798-6809.
PDB code: 1a6q
  8976573 D.T.Haynie, and C.P.Ponting (1996).
The N-terminal domains of tensin and auxilin are phosphatase homologues.
  Protein Sci, 5, 2643-2646.  
8987394 E.B.Fauman, and M.A.Saper (1996).
Structure and function of the protein tyrosine phosphatases.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 21, 413-417.  
  8845750 E.S.Muise, A.Vrielink, M.A.Ennis, N.H.Lemieux, and M.L.Tremblay (1996).
Thermosensitive mutants of the MPTP and hPTP1B protein tyrosine phosphatases: isolation and structural analysis.
  Protein Sci, 5, 604-613.  
8637902 J.M.Denu, D.L.Lohse, J.Vijayalakshmi, M.A.Saper, and J.E.Dixon (1996).
Visualization of intermediate and transition-state structures in protein-tyrosine phosphatase catalysis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 2493-2498.  
8898189 J.M.Denu, J.A.Stuckey, M.A.Saper, and J.E.Dixon (1996).
Form and function in protein dephosphorylation.
  Cell, 87, 361-364.  
  8771191 J.W.Eckstein, P.Beer-Romero, and I.Berdo (1996).
Identification of an essential acidic residue in Cdc25 protein phosphatase and a general three-dimensional model for a core region in protein phosphatases.
  Protein Sci, 5, 5.  
  8670803 J.den Hertog, and T.Hunter (1996).
Tight association of GRB2 with receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha is mediated by the SH2 and C-terminal SH3 domains.
  EMBO J, 15, 3016-3027.  
8611532 L.Wu, and Z.Y.Zhang (1996).
Probing the function of Asp128 in the lower molecular weight protein-tyrosine phosphatase-catalyzed reaction. A pre-steady-state and steady-state kinetic investigation.
  Biochemistry, 35, 5426-5434.  
8784182 M.Eberstadt, S.G.Grdadolnik, G.Gemmecker, H.Kessler, A.Buhr, and B.Erni (1996).
Solution structure of the IIB domain of the glucose transporter of Escherichia coli.
  Biochemistry, 35, 11286-11292.
PDB code: 1iba
  8628311 M.Gamper, P.K.Howard, T.Hunter, and R.A.Firtel (1996).
Multiple roles of the novel protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP3 during Dictyostelium growth and development.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 2431-2444.  
8973169 T.R.Burke, B.Ye, X.Yan, S.Wang, Z.Jia, L.Chen, Z.Y.Zhang, and D.Barford (1996).
Small molecule interactions with protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B and their use in inhibitor design.
  Biochemistry, 35, 15989-15996.  
8794761 Y.Zhao, and Z.Y.Zhang (1996).
Reactivity of alcohols toward the phosphoenzyme intermediate in the protein-tyrosine phosphatase-catalyzed reaction: probing the transition state of the dephosphorylation step.
  Biochemistry, 35, 11797-11804.  
8927047 A.P.Bevan, P.G.Drake, J.F.Yale, A.Shaver, and B.I.Posner (1995).
Peroxovanadium compounds: biological actions and mechanism of insulin-mimesis.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 153, 49-58.  
7716171 A.S.Arvai, Y.Bourne, D.Williams, S.I.Reed, and J.A.Tainer (1995).
Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of human CksHs1: a cell cycle regulatory protein.
  Proteins, 21, 70-73.  
8927048 A.Shaver, J.B.Ng, D.A.Hall, and B.I.Posner (1995).
The chemistry of peroxovanadium compounds relevant to insulin mimesis.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 153, 5.  
8846213 D.Barford, Z.Jia, and N.K.Tonks (1995).
Protein tyrosine phosphatases take off.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 1043-1053.  
8749359 D.Barford (1995).
Protein phosphatases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 728-734.  
  7773170 D.MacLean, A.M.Sefler, G.Zhu, S.J.Decker, A.R.Saltiel, J.Singh, D.McNamara, E.M.Dobrusin, and T.K.Sawyer (1995).
Differentiation of peptide molecular recognition by phospholipase C gamma-1 Src homology-2 domain and a mutant Tyr phosphatase PTP1bC215S.
  Protein Sci, 4, 13-20.  
7737179 D.Peters, R.Frank, and W.Hengstenberg (1995).
Lactose-specific enzyme II of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system of Staphylococcus aureus. Purification of the histidine-tagged transmembrane component IICBLac and its hydrophilic IIB domain by metal-affinity chromatography, and functional characterization.
  Eur J Biochem, 228, 798-804.  
  8528087 H.L.Schubert, E.B.Fauman, J.A.Stuckey, J.E.Dixon, and M.A.Saper (1995).
A ligand-induced conformational change in the Yersinia protein tyrosine phosphatase.
  Protein Sci, 4, 1904-1913.
PDB code: 1yts
8577821 H.R.Matthews (1995).
Protein kinases and phosphatases that act on histidine, lysine, or arginine residues in eukaryotic proteins: a possible regulator of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade.
  Pharmacol Ther, 67, 323-350.  
7486654 J.E.Dixon (1995).
Structure and catalytic properties of protein tyrosine phosphatases.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 766, 18-22.  
7597052 J.M.Denu, and J.E.Dixon (1995).
A catalytic mechanism for the dual-specific phosphatases.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 5910-5914.  
8569721 K.Balendiran, Y.Tan, R.K.Sharma, and K.H.Murthy (1995).
Preliminary crystallization studies of calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase (calcineurin) from bovine brain.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 149, 127-130.  
8607984 N.Perrimon, X.Lu, X.S.Hou, J.C.Hsu, M.B.Melnick, T.B.Chou, and L.A.Perkins (1995).
Dissection of the Torso signal transduction pathway in Drosophila.
  Mol Reprod Dev, 42, 515-522.  
7538310 R.MacKinnon (1995).
Pore loops: an emerging theme in ion channel structure.
  Neuron, 14, 889-892.  
  7537849 T.A.Gustafson, W.He, A.Craparo, C.D.Schaub, and T.J.O'Neill (1995).
Phosphotyrosine-dependent interaction of SHC and insulin receptor substrate 1 with the NPEY motif of the insulin receptor via a novel non-SH2 domain.
  Mol Cell Biol, 15, 2500-2508.  
7716164 T.F.Jenny, D.L.Gerloff, M.A.Cohen, and S.A.Benner (1995).
Predicted secondary and supersecondary structure for the serine-threonine-specific protein phosphatase family.
  Proteins, 21, 1.  
  7769718 Y.Li, and L.K.Miller (1995).
Properties of a baculovirus mutant defective in the protein phosphatase gene.
  J Virol, 69, 4533-4537.  
8578591 Z.Songyang, and L.C.Cantley (1995).
Recognition and specificity in protein tyrosine kinase-mediated signalling.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 20, 470-475.  
  7520867 A.J.Garton, and N.K.Tonks (1994).
PTP-PEST: a protein tyrosine phosphatase regulated by serine phosphorylation.
  EMBO J, 13, 3763-3771.  
7521735 C.H.Lee, D.Kominos, S.Jacques, B.Margolis, J.Schlessinger, S.E.Shoelson, and J.Kuriyan (1994).
Crystal structures of peptide complexes of the amino-terminal SH2 domain of the Syp tyrosine phosphatase.
  Structure, 2, 423-438.
PDB codes: 1aya 1ayb 1ayc 1ayd
8055946 E.Hoppe, P.F.Berne, D.Stock, J.S.Rasmussen, N.P.Møller, A.Ullrich, and R.Huber (1994).
Expression, purification and crystallization of human phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1B.
  Eur J Biochem, 223, 1069-1077.  
7937842 G.Hannig, S.Ottilie, and R.L.Erikson (1994).
Negative regulation of mitosis in fission yeast by catalytically inactive pyp1 and pyp2 mutants.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 10084-10088.  
7545075 H.Yu, and S.L.Schreiber (1994).
Signalling an interest.
  Nat Struct Biol, 1, 417-420.  
7529177 J.Wagner, D.Boerboom, and M.L.Tremblay (1994).
Molecular cloning and tissue-specific RNA processing of a murine receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase.
  Eur J Biochem, 226, 773-782.  
7953546 P.R.Clarke (1994).
Signal transduction. Switching off MAP kinases.
  Curr Biol, 4, 647-650.  
7526385 T.Furukawa, M.Itoh, N.X.Krueger, M.Streuli, and H.Saito (1994).
Specific interaction of the CD45 protein-tyrosine phosphatase with tyrosine-phosphorylated CD3 zeta chain.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 10928-10932.  
  7935386 T.Noguchi, T.Matozaki, K.Horita, Y.Fujioka, and M.Kasuga (1994).
Role of SH-PTP2, a protein-tyrosine phosphatase with Src homology 2 domains, in insulin-stimulated Ras activation.
  Mol Cell Biol, 14, 6674-6682.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.