PDBsum entry 2dij

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Glycosyltransferase PDB id
Protein chain
686 a.a. *
_CA ×2
Waters ×126
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Glycosyltransferase
Title: Complex of a y195f mutant cgtase from b. Circulans strain 251 complexed with a maltononaose inhibitor at ph 9.8 obtained after soaking the crystal with acarbose and maltohexaose
Structure: Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase. Chain: a. Synonym: cgtase. Engineered: yes. Mutation: yes
Source: Bacillus circulans. Organism_taxid: 1397. Strain: 251. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562. Other_details: mutants of bacillus circulans strain 251 cgtase were constructed in e. Coli and afterwards expressed on plasmid pdp66s transformed to b. Subtilis strain db104a
2.60Å     R-factor:   0.159     R-free:   0.215
Authors: B.V.Strokopytov,R.M.A.Knegtel,J.C.M.Uitdehaag,B.W.Dijkstra
Key ref:
B.Strokopytov et al. (1996). Structure of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase complexed with a maltononaose inhibitor at 2.6 angstrom resolution. Implications for product specificity. Biochemistry, 35, 4241-4249. PubMed id: 8672460 DOI: 10.1021/bi952339h
27-May-98     Release date:   09-Dec-98    
Supersedes: 1dij
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P43379  (CDGT2_BACCI) -  Cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase
713 a.a.
686 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 1 residue position (black cross)

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: Degrades starch to cyclodextrins by formation of a 1,4-alpha-D- glucosidic bond.
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     extracellular region   1 term 
  Biological process     carbohydrate metabolic process   1 term 
  Biochemical function     catalytic activity     8 terms  


DOI no: 10.1021/bi952339h Biochemistry 35:4241-4249 (1996)
PubMed id: 8672460  
Structure of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase complexed with a maltononaose inhibitor at 2.6 angstrom resolution. Implications for product specificity.
B.Strokopytov, R.M.Knegtel, D.Penninga, H.J.Rozeboom, K.H.Kalk, L.Dijkhuizen, B.W.Dijkstra.
Crystals of the Y195F mutant of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans strain 251 were subjected to a double soaking procedure, in which they were first soaked in a solution containing the inhibitor acarbose and subsequently in a solution containing maltohexaose. The refined structure of the resulting protein-carbohydrate complex has final crystallographic and free R-factors for data in the 8-2.6 angstrom resolution range of 15.0% and 21.5%, respectively, and reveals that a new inhibitor, composed of nine saccharide residues, is bound in the active site. The first four residues correspond to acarbose and occupy the same subsites near the catalytic residues as observed in the previously reported acarbose-enzyme complex [Strokopytov et al. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 2234-2240]. An oliogosaccharide consisting of five glucose residues has been coupled to the nonreducing end of acarbose. At the fifth residue the polysaccharide chain makes a sharp turn, allowing it to interact with residues Tyr89, Phe195, and Asn193 and a flexible loop formed by residues 145-148. On the basis of the refined model of the complex an explanation is given for the product specificity of CGTases.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
19367403 R.M.Kelly, L.Dijkhuizen, and H.Leemhuis (2009).
The evolution of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase product specificity.
  Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 84, 119-133.  
19190904 Z.Li, J.Zhang, M.Wang, Z.Gu, G.Du, J.Li, J.Wu, and J.Chen (2009).
Mutations at subsite -3 in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Paenibacillus macerans enhancing alpha-cyclodextrin specificity.
  Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 83, 483-490.  
18703518 E.J.Woo, S.Lee, H.Cha, J.T.Park, S.M.Yoon, H.N.Song, and K.H.Park (2008).
Structural Insight into the Bifunctional Mechanism of the Glycogen-debranching Enzyme TreX from the Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 28641-28648.
PDB codes: 2vnc 2vr5 2vuy
17891389 Z.Li, M.Wang, F.Wang, Z.Gu, G.Du, J.Wu, and J.Chen (2007).
gamma-Cyclodextrin: a review on enzymatic production and applications.
  Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 77, 245-255.  
16012834 K.Hirano, T.Ishihara, S.Ogasawara, H.Maeda, K.Abe, T.Nakajima, and Y.Yamagata (2006).
Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel gamma-CGTase from alkalophilic Bacillus sp.
  Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 70, 193-201.  
16703471 L.L.Lin, P.J.Chen, J.S.Liu, W.C.Wang, and H.F.Lo (2006).
Identification of glutamate residues important for catalytic activity or thermostability of a truncated Bacillus sp. strain TS-23 alpha-amylase by site-directed mutagenesis.
  Protein J, 25, 232-239.  
14705029 H.Leemhuis, H.J.Rozeboom, B.W.Dijkstra, and L.Dijkhuizen (2004).
Improved thermostability of bacillus circulans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase by the introduction of a salt bridge.
  Proteins, 54, 128-134.
PDB code: 1pj9
12492486 H.Leemhuis, B.W.Dijkstra, and L.Dijkhuizen (2003).
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase.
  Eur J Biochem, 270, 155-162.  
14617662 M.Kagawa, Z.Fujimoto, M.Momma, K.Takase, and H.Mizuno (2003).
Crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase in complex with acarbose.
  J Bacteriol, 185, 6981-6984.
PDB code: 1ua7
12930991 N.Pinotsis, D.D.Leonidas, E.D.Chrysina, N.G.Oikonomakos, and I.M.Mavridis (2003).
The binding of beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins to glycogen phosphorylase b: kinetic and crystallographic studies.
  Protein Sci, 12, 1914-1924.
PDB codes: 1p29 1p2b 1p2d 1p2g
11790748 N.Rashid, J.Cornista, S.Ezaki, T.Fukui, H.Atomi, and T.Imanaka (2002).
Characterization of an archaeal cyclodextrin glucanotransferase with a novel C-terminal domain.
  J Bacteriol, 184, 777-784.  
11257505 E.A.MacGregor, S.Janecek, and B.Svensson (2001).
Relationship of sequence and structure to specificity in the alpha-amylase family of enzymes.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1546, 1.  
11288183 J.C.Uitdehaag, B.A.van der Veen, L.Dijkhuizen, R.Elber, and B.W.Dijkstra (2001).
Enzymatic circularization of a malto-octaose linear chain studied by stochastic reaction path calculations on cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase.
  Proteins, 43, 327-335.  
11443082 M.Hemker, A.Stratmann, K.Goeke, W.Schröder, J.Lenz, W.Piepersberg, and H.Pape (2001).
Identification, cloning, expression, and characterization of the extracellular acarbose-modifying glycosyltransferase, AcbD, from Actinoplanes sp. strain SE50.
  J Bacteriol, 183, 4484-4492.  
11330677 T.Yokota, T.Tonozuka, Y.Shimura, K.Ichikawa, S.Kamitori, and Y.Sakano (2001).
Structures of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 alpha-amylase II complexed with substrate analogues.
  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 65, 619-626.
PDB codes: 1jib 1jl8
11282590 Y.Terada, H.Sanbe, T.Takaha, S.Kitahata, K.Koizumi, and S.Okada (2001).
Comparative study of the cyclization reactions of three bacterial cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferases.
  Appl Environ Microbiol, 67, 1453-1460.  
10924103 A.M.Brzozowski, D.M.Lawson, J.P.Turkenburg, H.Bisgaard-Frantzen, A.Svendsen, T.V.Borchert, Z.Dauter, K.S.Wilson, and G.J.Davies (2000).
Structural analysis of a chimeric bacterial alpha-amylase. High-resolution analysis of native and ligand complexes.
  Biochemistry, 39, 9099-9107.
PDB codes: 1e3x 1e3z 1e40 1e43
10651801 B.A.van der Veen, G.J.van Alebeek, J.C.Uitdehaag, B.W.Dijkstra, and L.Dijkhuizen (2000).
The three transglycosylation reactions catalyzed by cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans (strain 251) proceed via different kinetic mechanisms.
  Eur J Biochem, 267, 658-665.  
10848958 B.A.van der Veen, J.C.Uitdehaag, B.W.Dijkstra, and L.Dijkhuizen (2000).
The role of arginine 47 in the cyclization and coupling reactions of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans strain 251 implications for product inhibition and product specificity.
  Eur J Biochem, 267, 3432-3441.  
  11082203 I.Przylas, Y.Terada, K.Fujii, T.Takaha, W.Saenger, and N.Sträter (2000).
X-ray structure of acarbose bound to amylomaltase from Thermus aquaticus. Implications for the synthesis of large cyclic glucans.
  Eur J Biochem, 267, 6903-6913.
PDB code: 1esw
10869182 J.C.Uitdehaag, G.J.van Alebeek, B.A.van Der Veen, L.Dijkhuizen, and B.W.Dijkstra (2000).
Structures of maltohexaose and maltoheptaose bound at the donor sites of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase give insight into the mechanisms of transglycosylation activity and cyclodextrin size specificity.
  Biochemistry, 39, 7772-7780.
PDB codes: 1eo5 1eo7
10574960 J.C.Uitdehaag, K.H.Kalk, B.A.van Der Veen, L.Dijkhuizen, and B.W.Dijkstra (1999).
The cyclization mechanism of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) as revealed by a gamma-cyclodextrin-CGTase complex at 1.8-A resolution.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 34868-34876.
PDB code: 1d3c
10220320 M.O'Reilly, K.A.Watson, and L.N.Johnson (1999).
The crystal structure of the Escherichia coli maltodextrin phosphorylase-acarbose complex.
  Biochemistry, 38, 5337-5345.
PDB code: 2ecp
10387084 Z.Dauter, M.Dauter, A.M.Brzozowski, S.Christensen, T.V.Borchert, L.Beier, K.S.Wilson, and G.J.Davies (1999).
X-ray structure of Novamyl, the five-domain "maltogenic" alpha-amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus: maltose and acarbose complexes at 1.7A resolution.
  Biochemistry, 38, 8385-8392.
PDB codes: 1qho 1qhp
9558324 A.K.Schmidt, S.Cottaz, H.Driguez, and G.E.Schulz (1998).
Structure of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase complexed with a derivative of its main product beta-cyclodextrin.
  Biochemistry, 37, 5909-5915.
PDB code: 3cgt
9488711 R.D.Wind, J.C.Uitdehaag, R.M.Buitelaar, B.W.Dijkstra, and L.Dijkhuizen (1998).
Engineering of cyclodextrin product specificity and pH optima of the thermostable cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 5771-5779.
PDB code: 1a47
9860832 R.Mosi, H.Sham, J.C.Uitdehaag, R.Ruiterkamp, B.W.Dijkstra, and S.G.Withers (1998).
Reassessment of acarbose as a transition state analogue inhibitor of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase.
  Biochemistry, 37, 17192-17198.  
9283074 A.M.Brzozowski, and G.J.Davies (1997).
Structure of the Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase complexed with the inhibitor acarbose at 2.0 A resolution.
  Biochemistry, 36, 10837-10845.
PDB code: 7taa
9345621 B.Henrissat, and G.Davies (1997).
Structural and sequence-based classification of glycoside hydrolases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 637-644.  
9648273 L.Bornaghi, J.P.Utille, Rekaï el-D, J.M.Mallet, P.Sinaÿ, and H.Driguez (1997).
Transfer reactions catalyzed by cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase using 4-thiomaltosyl and C-maltosyl fluorides as artificial donors.
  Carbohydr Res, 305, 561-568.  
9245426 R.Mosi, S.He, J.Uitdehaag, B.W.Dijkstra, and S.G.Withers (1997).
Trapping and characterization of the reaction intermediate in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase by use of activated substrates and a mutant enzyme.
  Biochemistry, 36, 9927-9934.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.