PDBsum entry 2bbn

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protein metals Protein-protein interface(s) links
Calcium-binding protein PDB id
Protein chains
148 a.a. *
26 a.a. *
_CA ×4
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Calcium-binding protein
Title: Solution structure of a calmodulin-target peptide complex by multidimensional nmr
Structure: Calmodulin. Chain: a. Engineered: yes. Myosin light chain kinase. Chain: b. Engineered: yes
Source: Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly. Organism_taxid: 7227. Organ: skeletal.
NMR struc: 21 models
Authors: G.M.Clore,A.Bax,M.Ikura,A.M.Gronenborn
Key ref: M.Ikura et al. (1992). Solution structure of a calmodulin-target peptide complex by multidimensional NMR. Science, 256, 632-638. PubMed id: 1585175 DOI: 10.1126/science.1585175
16-Jul-92     Release date:   31-Jan-94    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P62152  (CALM_DROME) -  Calmodulin
149 a.a.
148 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P07313  (MYLK2_RABIT) -  Myosin light chain kinase 2, skeletal/cardiac muscle
608 a.a.
26 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: Chain B: E.C.  - [Myosin light-chain] kinase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: ATP + [myosin light-chain] = ADP + [myosin light-chain] phosphate
+ [myosin light-chain]
+ [myosin light-chain] phosphate
      Cofactor: Ca(2+)
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     midbody   9 terms 
  Biological process     photoreceptor cell axon guidance   20 terms 
  Biochemical function     myosin VI head/neck binding     7 terms  


    Added reference    
DOI no: 10.1126/science.1585175 Science 256:632-638 (1992)
PubMed id: 1585175  
Solution structure of a calmodulin-target peptide complex by multidimensional NMR.
M.Ikura, G.M.Clore, A.M.Gronenborn, G.Zhu, C.B.Klee, A.Bax.
The three-dimensional solution structure of the complex between calcium-bound calmodulin (Ca(2+)-CaM) and a 26-residue synthetic peptide comprising the CaM binding domain (residues 577 to 602) of skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase, has been determined using multidimensional heteronuclear filtered and separated nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The two domains of CaM (residues 6 to 73 and 83 to 146) remain essentially unchanged upon complexation. The long central helix (residues 65 to 93), however, which connects the two domains in the crystal structure of Ca(2+)-CaM, is disrupted into two helices connected by a long flexible loop (residues 74 to 82), thereby enabling the two domains to clamp residues 3 to 21 of the bound peptide, which adopt a helical conformation. The overall structure of the complex is globular, approximating an ellipsoid of dimensions 47 by 32 by 30 angstroms. The helical peptide is located in a hydrophobic channel that passes through the center of the ellipsoid at an angle of approximately 45 degrees with its long axis. The complex is mainly stabilized by hydrophobic interactions which, from the CaM side, involve an unusually large number of methionines. Key residues of the peptide are Trp4 and Phe17, which serve to anchor the amino- and carboxyl-terminal halves of the peptide to the carboxyl- and amino-terminal domains of CaM, respectively. Sequence comparisons indicate that a number of peptides that bind CaM with high affinity share this common feature containing either aromatic residues or long-chain hydrophobic ones separated by a stretch of 12 residues, suggesting that they interact with CaM in a similar manner.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21463585 M.Pfuhl, S.Al-Sarayreh, and M.El-Mezgueldi (2011).
The calponin regulatory region is intrinsically unstructured: novel insight into actin-calponin and calmodulin-calponin interfaces using NMR spectroscopy.
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Recognition of β-calcineurin by the domains of calmodulin: Thermodynamic and structural evidence for distinct roles.
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21312310 W.Ohashi, H.Hirota, and T.Yamazaki (2011).
Solution structure and fluctuation of the Mg(2+)-bound form of calmodulin C-terminal domain.
  Protein Sci, 20, 690-701.
PDB code: 2rrt
  21465563 X.Xu, R.Ishima, and J.B.Ames (2011).
Conformational dynamics of recoverin's Ca(2+) -myristoyl switch probed by (15) N NMR relaxation dispersion and chemical shift analysis.
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21262274 Z.Grabarek (2011).
Insights into modulation of calcium signaling by magnesium in calmodulin, troponin C and related EF-hand proteins.
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20734113 G.L.Butterfoss, E.F.DeRose, S.A.Gabel, L.Perera, J.M.Krahn, G.A.Mueller, X.Zheng, and R.E.London (2010).
Conformational dependence of 13C shielding and coupling constants for methionine methyl groups.
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20653564 H.Tokumitsu, N.Hatano, M.Tsuchiya, S.Yurimoto, T.Fujimoto, N.Ohara, R.Kobayashi, and H.Sakagami (2010).
Identification and characterization of PRG-1 as a neuronal calmodulin-binding protein.
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N-myristoylated proteins, key components in intracellular signal transduction systems enabling rapid and flexible cell responses.
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Calmodulin wraps around its binding domain in the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump anchored by a novel 18-1 motif.
  J Biol Chem, 285, 4015-4024.
PDB code: 2kne
20420519 S.Banta, I.R.Wheeldon, and M.Blenner (2010).
Protein engineering in the development of functional hydrogels.
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Use of amino acids as inducers for high-level protein expression in the single-protein production system.
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21081909 U.Olsson, and M.Wolf-Watz (2010).
Overlap between folding and functional energy landscapes for adenylate kinase conformational change.
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Phenothiazines inhibit S100A4 function by inducing protein oligomerization.
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PDB code: 3ko0
20544791 X.Li, T.Fekner, and M.K.Chan (2010).
N6-(2-(R)-propargylglycyl)lysine as a clickable pyrrolysine mimic.
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Investigating the disorder-order transition of calmodulin binding domain upon binding calmodulin using molecular dynamics simulation.
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Nitrile groups as vibrational probes of biomolecular structure and dynamics: an overview.
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19305019 D.A.Macdougall, S.Wachten, A.Ciruela, A.Sinz, and D.M.Cooper (2009).
Separate elements within a single IQ-like motif in adenylyl cyclase type 8 impart ca2+/calmodulin binding and autoinhibition.
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Thiol-reactive derivatives of the solvatochromic 4-N,N-dimethylamino-1,8-naphthalimide fluorophore: a highly sensitive toolset for the detection of biomolecular interactions.
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19179531 J.P.Junker, F.Ziegler, and M.Rief (2009).
Ligand-dependent equilibrium fluctuations of single calmodulin molecules.
  Science, 323, 633-637.  
19667195 J.P.Junker, and M.Rief (2009).
Single-molecule force spectroscopy distinguishes target binding modes of calmodulin.
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19180449 K.S.Keating, S.C.Flores, M.B.Gerstein, and L.A.Kuhn (2009).
StoneHinge: hinge prediction by network analysis of individual protein structures.
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19003998 M.Fromer, and C.Yanover (2009).
Accurate prediction for atomic-level protein design and its application in diversifying the near-optimal sequence space.
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20041208 M.Fromer, and J.M.Shifman (2009).
Tradeoff between stability and multispecificity in the design of promiscuous proteins.
  PLoS Comput Biol, 5, e1000627.  
19029295 N.Masada, A.Ciruela, D.A.Macdougall, and D.M.Cooper (2009).
Distinct mechanisms of regulation by Ca2+/calmodulin of type 1 and 8 adenylyl cyclases support their different physiological roles.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 4451-4463.  
19754893 P.B.Stathopulos, and M.Ikura (2009).
Structurally delineating stromal interaction molecules as the endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensors and regulators of calcium release-activated calcium entry.
  Immunol Rev, 231, 113-131.  
19358819 P.F.Chen, and K.K.Wu (2009).
Two synthetic peptides corresponding to the proximal heme-binding domain and CD1 domain of human endothelial nitric-oxide synthase inhibit the oxygenase activity by interacting with CaM.
  Arch Biochem Biophys, 486, 132-140.  
19179519 R.B.Best, and G.Hummer (2009).
Biochemistry. Unfolding the secrets of calmodulin.
  Science, 323, 593-594.  
19757782 la Rica, and H.Matsui (2009).
Biomimetic conformation-specific assembly of proteins at artificial binding sites nanopatterned on silicon.
  J Am Chem Soc, 131, 14180-14181.  
19751682 V.Borsi, C.Luchinat, and G.Parigi (2009).
Global and local mobility of apocalmodulin monitored through fast-field cycling relaxometry.
  Biophys J, 97, 1765-1771.  
19404396 V.Majava, and P.Kursula (2009).
Domain swapping and different oligomeric States for the complex between calmodulin and the calmodulin-binding domain of calcineurin a.
  PLoS ONE, 4, e5402.
PDB code: 2w73
19348766 Y.Zhou, W.Yang, M.M.Lurtz, Y.Chen, J.Jiang, Y.Huang, C.F.Louis, and J.J.Yang (2009).
Calmodulin mediates the Ca2+-dependent regulation of Cx44 gap junctions.
  Biophys J, 96, 2832-2848.  
18997366 A.Kaihara, Y.Umezawa, and T.Furukawa (2008).
Bioluminescent indicators for Ca2+ based on split Renilla luciferase complementation in living cells.
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19055326 B.Kim, and A.Chilkoti (2008).
Allosteric actuation of inverse phase transition of a stimulus-responsive fusion polypeptide by ligand binding.
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18326633 D.S.Libich, and G.Harauz (2008).
Backbone dynamics of the 18.5 kDa isoform of myelin basic protein reveals transient alpha-helices and a calmodulin-binding site.
  Biophys J, 94, 4847-4866.  
18673581 E.Hodis, J.Prilusky, E.Martz, I.Silman, J.Moult, and J.L.Sussman (2008).
Proteopedia - a scientific 'wiki' bridging the rift between three-dimensional structure and function of biomacromolecules.
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18808123 G.Loving, and B.Imperiali (2008).
A versatile amino acid analogue of the solvatochromic fluorophore 4-N,N-dimethylamino-1,8-naphthalimide: a powerful tool for the study of dynamic protein interactions.
  J Am Chem Soc, 130, 13630-13638.  
18809851 I.Paarmann, M.F.Lye, A.Lavie, and M.Konrad (2008).
Structural requirements for calmodulin binding to membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologs.
  Protein Sci, 17, 1946-1954.  
18854159 P.B.Stathopulos, L.Zheng, G.Y.Li, M.J.Plevin, and M.Ikura (2008).
Structural and mechanistic insights into STIM1-mediated initiation of store-operated calcium entry.
  Cell, 135, 110-122.
PDB code: 2k60
18384083 Q.Ye, H.Wang, J.Zheng, Q.Wei, and Z.Jia (2008).
The complex structure of calmodulin bound to a calcineurin peptide.
  Proteins, 73, 19-27.
PDB code: 2r28
18676375 R.Dodd, C.Peracchia, D.Stolady, and K.Török (2008).
Calmodulin association with connexin32-derived peptides suggests trans-domain interaction in chemical gating of gap junction channels.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 26911-26920.  
18587628 S.Pathmanathan, S.F.Elliott, S.McSwiggen, B.Greer, P.Harriott, G.B.Irvine, and D.J.Timson (2008).
IQ motif selectivity in human IQGAP1: binding of myosin essential light chain and S100B.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 318, 43-51.  
18370588 S.W.Sham, J.M.McDonald, K.J.Micoli, and N.R.Krishna (2008).
Solution structure of a calmodulin-binding domain in the carboxy-terminal region of HIV type 1 gp160.
  AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 24, 607-616.  
18853393 T.L.Pukala, T.Urathamakul, S.J.Watt, J.L.Beck, R.J.Jackway, and J.H.Bowie (2008).
Binding studies of nNOS-active amphibian peptides and Ca(2+) calmodulin, using negative ion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.
  Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, 22, 3501-3509.  
18284662 V.Majava, M.V.Petoukhov, N.Hayashi, P.Pirilä, D.I.Svergun, and P.Kursula (2008).
Interaction between the C-terminal region of human myelin basic protein and calmodulin: analysis of complex formation and solution structure.
  BMC Struct Biol, 8, 10.  
  18765912 X.Zhao, S.Wang, H.Pang, K.Yang, and M.Bartlam (2008).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the calcium-binding protein CalD from Streptomyces coelicolor.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 64, 816-818.  
18461636 Y.Zhang, H.Tan, Z.Jia, and G.Chen (2008).
Ligand-induced dimer formation of calmodulin.
  J Mol Recognit, 21, 267-274.  
17079729 A.Uttenweiler, H.Schwarz, H.Neumann, and A.Mayer (2007).
The vacuolar transporter chaperone (VTC) complex is required for microautophagy.
  Mol Biol Cell, 18, 166-175.  
17471460 C.Yanover, M.Fromer, and J.M.Shifman (2007).
Dead-end elimination for multistate protein design.
  J Comput Chem, 28, 2122-2129.  
17502097 E.Pham, J.Chiang, I.Li, W.Shum, and K.Truong (2007).
A computational tool for designing FRET protein biosensors by rigid-body sampling of their conformational space.
  Structure, 15, 515-523.  
17391016 H.Xie, S.Vucetic, L.M.Iakoucheva, C.J.Oldfield, A.K.Dunker, Z.Obradovic, and V.N.Uversky (2007).
Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 3. Ligands, post-translational modifications, and diseases associated with intrinsically disordered proteins.
  J Proteome Res, 6, 1917-1932.  
17567747 N.Juranić, E.Atanasova, J.H.Streiff, S.Macura, and F.G.Prendergast (2007).
Solvent-induced differentiation of protein backbone hydrogen bonds in calmodulin.
  Protein Sci, 16, 1329-1337.  
17269132 S.Kang, J.Kang, S.H.Yoo, and S.Park (2007).
Recombinant preparation and characterization of interactions for a calmodulin-binding chromogranin A peptide and calmodulin.
  J Pept Sci, 13, 237-244.  
17552906 S.L.Russell, N.V.McFerran, E.M.Hoey, A.Trudgett, and D.J.Timson (2007).
Characterisation of two calmodulin-like proteins from the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.
  Biol Chem, 388, 593-599.  
17313650 T.L.Pukala, J.R.Doyle, L.E.Llewellyn, L.Kuhn-Nentwig, M.A.Apponyi, F.Separovic, and J.H.Bowie (2007).
Cupiennin 1a, an antimicrobial peptide from the venom of the neotropical wandering spider Cupiennius salei, also inhibits the formation of nitric oxide by neuronal nitric oxide synthase.
  FEBS J, 274, 1778-1784.  
17473011 T.M.Lakowski, G.M.Lee, M.Okon, R.E.Reid, and L.P.McIntosh (2007).
Calcium-induced folding of a fragment of calmodulin composed of EF-hands 2 and 3.
  Protein Sci, 16, 1119-1132.
PDB code: 2hf5
17027503 A.A.Maximciuc, J.A.Putkey, Y.Shamoo, and K.R.Mackenzie (2006).
Complex of calmodulin with a ryanodine receptor target reveals a novel, flexible binding mode.
  Structure, 14, 1547-1556.
PDB code: 2bcx
16844751 A.Ganoth, R.Friedman, E.Nachliel, and M.Gutman (2006).
A molecular dynamics study and free energy analysis of complexes between the Mlc1p protein and two IQ motif peptides.
  Biophys J, 91, 2436-2450.  
16967519 A.O.Omoni, and R.E.Aluko (2006).
Effect of cationic flaxseed protein hydrolysate fractions on the in vitro structure and activity of calmodulin-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase.
  Mol Nutr Food Res, 50, 958-966.  
17029410 D.F.Green, A.T.Dennis, P.S.Fam, B.Tidor, and A.Jasanoff (2006).
Rational design of new binding specificity by simultaneous mutagenesis of calmodulin and a target peptide.
  Biochemistry, 45, 12547-12559.  
17060916 D.Kajihara, R.Abe, I.Iijima, C.Komiyama, M.Sisido, and T.Hohsaka (2006).
FRET analysis of protein conformational change through position-specific incorporation of fluorescent amino acids.
  Nat Methods, 3, 923-929.  
16877506 G.Fiorin, A.Pastore, P.Carloni, and M.Parrinello (2006).
Using metadynamics to understand the mechanism of calmodulin/target recognition at atomic detail.
  Biophys J, 91, 2768-2777.  
16839194 J.Gu, M.Gribskov, and P.E.Bourne (2006).
Wiggle-predicting functionally flexible regions from primary sequence.
  PLoS Comput Biol, 2, e90.  
16721661 K.Chen, J.Ruan, and L.A.Kurgan (2006).
Prediction of three dimensional structure of calmodulin.
  Protein J, 25, 57-70.  
16432210 M.Ikura, and J.B.Ames (2006).
Genetic polymorphism and protein conformational plasticity in the calmodulin superfamily: two ways to promote multifunctionality.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 1159-1164.  
16917881 M.J.Tucker, R.Oyola, and F.Gai (2006).
A novel fluorescent probe for protein binding and folding studies: p-cyano-phenylalanine.
  Biopolymers, 83, 571-576.  
17003117 T.Atanasijevic, M.Shusteff, P.Fam, and A.Jasanoff (2006).
Calcium-sensitive MRI contrast agents based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and calmodulin.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 14707-14712.  
16741585 T.L.Pukala, J.H.Bowie, V.M.Maselli, I.F.Musgrave, and M.J.Tyler (2006).
Host-defence peptides from the glandular secretions of amphibians: structure and activity.
  Nat Prod Rep, 23, 368-393.  
16246579 A.Sinz, S.Kalkhof, and C.Ihling (2005).
Mapping protein interfaces by a trifunctional cross-linker combined with MALDI-TOF and ESI-FTICR mass spectrometry.
  J Am Soc Mass Spectrom, 16, 1921-1931.  
  16511158 C.L.Chyan, P.C.Huang, T.H.Lin, J.W.Huang, S.S.Lin, H.B.Huang, and Y.C.Chen (2005).
Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a calmodulin-OLFp hybrid molecule.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 61, 785-787.  
16351311 D.Abergel, and G.Bodenhausen (2005).
Predicting internal protein dynamics from structures using coupled networks of hindered rotators.
  J Chem Phys, 123, 204901.  
15937283 D.V.Venkitaramani, D.B.Fulton, A.H.Andreotti, K.M.Johansen, and J.Johansen (2005).
Solution structure and backbone dynamics of Calsensin, an invertebrate neuronal calcium-binding protein.
  Protein Sci, 14, 1894-1901.
PDB codes: 1yx7 1yx8
15720383 E.Carafoli (2005).
Calcium--a universal carrier of biological signals. Delivered on 3 July 2003 at the Special FEBS Meeting in Brussels.
  FEBS J, 272, 1073-1089.  
16193483 G.Fiorin, R.R.Biekofsky, A.Pastore, and P.Carloni (2005).
Unwinding the helical linker of calcium-loaded calmodulin: a molecular dynamics study.
  Proteins, 61, 829-839.  
15894636 G.Larsson, J.Schleucher, J.Onions, S.Hermann, T.Grundström, and S.S.Wijmenga (2005).
Backbone dynamics of a symmetric calmodulin dimer in complex with the calmodulin-binding domain of the basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor SEF2-1/E2-2: a highly dynamic complex.
  Biophys J, 89, 1214-1226.  
15803393 G.M.Contessa, M.Orsale, S.Melino, V.Torre, M.Paci, A.Desideri, and D.O.Cicero (2005).
Structure of calmodulin complexed with an olfactory CNG channel fragment and role of the central linker: residual dipolar couplings to evaluate calmodulin binding modes outside the kinase family.
  J Biomol NMR, 31, 185-199.
PDB code: 1sy9
16022604 G.Miesenböck, and I.G.Kevrekidis (2005).
Optical imaging and control of genetically designated neurons in functioning circuits.
  Annu Rev Neurosci, 28, 533-563.  
15686475 H.Jin, D.Sha, J.Wei, K.M.Davis, H.Wu, Y.Jin, and J.Y.Wu (2005).
Effect of apocalmodulin on recombinant human brain glutamic acid decarboxylase.
  J Neurochem, 92, 739-748.  
15694772 J.W.Wong, S.D.Maleknia, and K.M.Downard (2005).
Hydroxyl radical probe of the calmodulin-melittin complex interface by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
  J Am Soc Mass Spectrom, 16, 225-233.  
15576568 N.Uchikoga, S.Y.Takahashi, R.Ke, M.Sonoyama, and S.Mitaku (2005).
Electric charge balance mechanism of extended soluble proteins.
  Protein Sci, 14, 74-80.  
16138079 Q.Guo, Y.Shen, Y.S.Lee, C.S.Gibbs, M.Mrksich, and W.J.Tang (2005).
Structural basis for the interaction of Bordetella pertussis adenylyl cyclase toxin with calmodulin.
  EMBO J, 24, 3190-3201.
PDB codes: 1yrt 1yru 1zot 2col
15964821 R.Nishi, Y.Okuda, E.Watanabe, T.Mori, S.Iwai, C.Masutani, K.Sugasawa, and F.Hanaoka (2005).
Centrin 2 stimulates nucleotide excision repair by interacting with xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein.
  Mol Cell Biol, 25, 5664-5674.  
16849206 S.Shirran, P.Garnaud, S.Daff, D.McMillan, and P.Barran (2005).
The formation of a complex between calmodulin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase is determined by ESI-MS.
  J R Soc Interface, 2, 465-476.  
15629924 T.M.Adams, A.Wentzel, and H.Kolmar (2005).
Intimin-mediated export of passenger proteins requires maintenance of a translocation-competent conformation.
  J Bacteriol, 187, 522-533.  
15608373 W.T.Heller (2005).
Influence of multiple well defined conformations on small-angle scattering of proteins in solution.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 61, 33-44.  
15585581 A.E.Palmer, C.Jin, J.C.Reed, and R.Y.Tsien (2004).
Bcl-2-mediated alterations in endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ analyzed with an improved genetically encoded fluorescent sensor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 17404-17409.  
14695278 B.B.Adhikari, and K.Wang (2004).
Interplay of troponin- and Myosin-based pathways of calcium activation in skeletal and cardiac muscle: the use of W7 as an inhibitor of thin filament activation.
  Biophys J, 86, 359-370.  
15213382 C.H.Yun, J.Bai, D.Y.Sun, D.F.Cui, W.R.Chang, and D.C.Liang (2004).
Structure of potato calmodulin PCM6: the first report of the three-dimensional structure of a plant calmodulin.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 60, 1214-1219.
PDB code: 1rfj
15298887 C.M.Shepherd, and H.J.Vogel (2004).
A molecular dynamics study of Ca(2+)-calmodulin: evidence of interdomain coupling and structural collapse on the nanosecond timescale.
  Biophys J, 87, 780-791.  
15345569 I.André, T.Kesvatera, B.Jönsson, K.S.Akerfeldt, and S.Linse (2004).
The role of electrostatic interactions in calmodulin-peptide complex formation.
  Biophys J, 87, 1929-1938.  
15100408 I.Bertini, C.Del Bianco, I.Gelis, N.Katsaros, C.Luchinat, G.Parigi, M.Peana, A.Provenzani, and M.A.Zoroddu (2004).
Experimentally exploring the conformational space sampled by domain reorientation in calmodulin.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 6841-6846.
PDB code: 1sw8
14764099 J.Gallay, M.Vincent, I.M.Li de la Sierra, H.Munier-Lehmann, M.Renouard, H.Sakamoto, O.Bârzu, and A.M.Gilles (2004).
Insight into the activation mechanism of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase by calmodulin using fluorescence spectroscopy.
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Human general transcription factor TFIIB: conformational variability and interaction with VP16 activation domain.
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9649337 J.Gao, D.Yin, Y.Yao, T.D.Williams, and T.C.Squier (1998).
Progressive decline in the ability of calmodulin isolated from aged brain to activate the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase.
  Biochemistry, 37, 9536-9548.  
9760234 J.K.Krueger, G.Zhi, J.T.Stull, and J.Trewhella (1998).
Neutron-scattering studies reveal further details of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent activation mechanism of myosin light chain kinase.
  Biochemistry, 37, 13997-14004.  
9922147 J.K.Krueger, N.A.Bishop, D.K.Blumenthal, G.Zhi, K.Beckingham, J.T.Stull, and J.Trewhella (1998).
Calmodulin binding to myosin light chain kinase begins at substoichiometric Ca2+ concentrations: a small-angle scattering study of binding and conformational transitions.
  Biochemistry, 37, 17810-17817.  
9920409 J.Krebs (1998).
Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV: regulation of function and expression.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1448, 183-189.  
9465056 J.W.Walker, S.H.Gilbert, R.M.Drummond, M.Yamada, R.Sreekumar, R.E.Carraway, M.Ikebe, and F.S.Fay (1998).
Signaling pathways underlying eosinophil cell motility revealed by using caged peptides.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 1568-1573.  
9519412 M.Sastry, R.R.Ketchem, O.Crescenzi, C.Weber, M.J.Lubienski, H.Hidaka, and W.J.Chazin (1998).
The three-dimensional structure of Ca(2+)-bound calcyclin: implications for Ca(2+)-signal transduction by S100 proteins.
  Structure, 6, 223-231.
PDB code: 1a03
  9725829 M.Sekiya-Kawasaki, D.Botstein, and Y.Ohya (1998).
Identification of functional connections between calmodulin and the yeast actin cytoskeleton.
  Genetics, 150, 43-58.  
9548926 R.Gilli, D.Lafitte, C.Lopez, M.Kilhoffer, A.Makarov, C.Briand, and J.Haiech (1998).
Thermodynamic analysis of calcium and magnesium binding to calmodulin.
  Biochemistry, 37, 5450-5456.  
9695947 R.J.Keenan, D.M.Freymann, P.Walter, and R.M.Stroud (1998).
Crystal structure of the signal sequence binding subunit of the signal recognition particle.
  Cell, 94, 181-191.
PDB code: 2ffh
9585577 R.R.Biekofsky, S.R.Martin, J.P.Browne, P.M.Bayley, and J.Feeney (1998).
Ca2+ coordination to backbone carbonyl oxygen atoms in calmodulin and other EF-hand proteins: 15N chemical shifts as probes for monitoring individual-site Ca2+ coordination.
  Biochemistry, 37, 7617-7629.  
9730814 R.T.McKay, J.R.Pearlstone, D.C.Corson, S.M.Gagné, L.B.Smillie, and B.D.Sykes (1998).
Structure and interaction site of the regulatory domain of troponin-C when complexed with the 96-148 region of troponin-I.
  Biochemistry, 37, 12419-12430.
PDB code: 1blq
9519411 S.P.Smith, and G.S.Shaw (1998).
A novel calcium-sensitive switch revealed by the structure of human S100B in the calcium-bound form.
  Structure, 6, 211-222.
PDB code: 1uwo
9822599 S.Paoluzi, L.Castagnoli, I.Lauro, A.E.Salcini, L.Coda, S.Fre', S.Confalonieri, P.G.Pelicci, P.P.Di Fiore, and G.Cesareni (1998).
Recognition specificity of individual EH domains of mammals and yeast.
  EMBO J, 17, 6541-6550.  
9628486 S.Wang, W.R.Trumble, H.Liao, C.R.Wesson, A.K.Dunker, and C.H.Kang (1998).
Crystal structure of calsequestrin from rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 476-483.
PDB code: 1a8y
10076799 T.Wolf, B.Solomon, D.Ivnitski, J.Rishpon, and G.Fleminger (1998).
Interactions of calmodulin with metal ions and with its target proteins revealed by conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibodies.
  J Mol Recognit, 11, 14-19.  
9485473 T.Yuan, A.M.Weljie, and H.J.Vogel (1998).
Tryptophan fluorescence quenching by methionine and selenomethionine residues of calmodulin: orientation of peptide and protein binding.
  Biochemistry, 37, 3187-3195.  
9545028 W.Wriggers, E.Mehler, F.Pitici, H.Weinstein, and K.Schulten (1998).
Structure and dynamics of calmodulin in solution.
  Biophys J, 74, 1622-1639.  
9635764 Y.Luo, J.L.Wu, J.Gergely, and T.Tao (1998).
Localization of Cys133 of rabbit skeletal troponin-I with respect to troponin-C by resonance energy transfer.
  Biophys J, 74, 3111-3119.  
9284326 A.M.Filenko, V.M.Danilova, and A.Sobieszek (1997).
Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase, supramolecular organization, modulation of activity, and related conformational changes.
  Biophys J, 73, 1593-1606.  
9037719 A.R.Khan, K.A.Johnson, J.Braam, and M.N.James (1997).
Comparative modeling of the three-dimensional structure of the calmodulin-related TCH2 protein from Arabidopsis.
  Proteins, 27, 144-153.
PDB code: 1avj
9144798 B.G.Vertessy, Z.Böcskei, V.Harmath, G.Náray-Szabó, and J.Ovádi (1997).
Crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of Ca(2+)-calmodulin-drug and apocalmodulin-drug complexes.
  Proteins, 28, 131-134.  
9063877 B.J.Newbell, J.T.Anderson, and H.W.Jarrett (1997).
Ca2+-calmodulin binding to mouse alpha1 syntrophin: syntrophin is also a Ca2+-binding protein.
  Biochemistry, 36, 1295-1305.  
9329088 Groot, D.M.van Aalten, R.M.Scheek, A.Amadei, G.Vriend, and H.J.Berendsen (1997).
Prediction of protein conformational freedom from distance constraints.
  Proteins, 29, 240-251.  
9208920 D.T.Crane, B.Bolgiano, and C.Jones (1997).
Comparison of the diphtheria mutant toxin, CRM197, with a Haemophilus influenzae type-b polysaccharide-CRM197 conjugate by optical spectroscopy.
  Eur J Biochem, 246, 320-327.  
9228946 G.D.Lin, D.Chattopadhyay, M.Maki, K.K.Wang, M.Carson, L.Jin, P.W.Yuen, E.Takano, M.Hatanaka, L.J.DeLucas, and S.V.Narayana (1997).
Crystal structure of calcium bound domain VI of calpain at 1.9 A resolution and its role in enzyme assembly, regulation, and inhibitor binding.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 539-547.
PDB codes: 1alv 1alw
9116020 H.Duewel, E.Daub, V.Robinson, and J.F.Honek (1997).
Incorporation of trifluoromethionine into a phage lysozyme: implications and a new marker for use in protein 19F NMR.
  Biochemistry, 36, 3404-3416.  
9335539 H.Tokumitsu, G.A.Wayman, M.Muramatsu, and T.R.Soderling (1997).
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase: identification of regulatory domains.
  Biochemistry, 36, 12823-12827.  
9033593 J.G.Omichinski, P.V.Pedone, G.Felsenfeld, A.M.Gronenborn, and G.M.Clore (1997).
The solution structure of a specific GAGA factor-DNA complex reveals a modular binding mode.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 122-132.
PDB codes: 1yui 1yuj
9166772 J.K.Krueger, G.A.Olah, S.E.Rokop, G.Zhi, J.T.Stull, and J.Trewhella (1997).
Structures of calmodulin and a functional myosin light chain kinase in the activated complex: a neutron scattering study.
  Biochemistry, 36, 6017-6023.  
9154919 J.M.Gruschus, D.H.Tsao, L.H.Wang, M.Nirenberg, and J.A.Ferretti (1997).
Interactions of the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain with DNA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: basis of binding specificity.
  Biochemistry, 36, 5372-5380.
PDB codes: 1nk2 1nk3
9236001 J.P.Browne, M.Strom, S.R.Martin, and P.M.Bayley (1997).
The role of beta-sheet interactions in domain stability, folding, and target recognition reactions of calmodulin.
  Biochemistry, 36, 9550-9561.  
9257192 J.P.Williams, J.M.McDonald, M.A.McKenna, S.E.Jordan, W.Radding, and H.C.Blair (1997).
Differential effects of tamoxifen-like compounds on osteoclastic bone degradation, H(+)-ATPase activity, calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity, and calmodulin binding.
  J Cell Biochem, 66, 358-369.  
9345630 J.Trewhella (1997).
Insights into biomolecular function from small-angle scattering.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 702-708.  
9236009 J.Zurdo, J.M.Sanz, C.González, M.Rico, and J.P.Ballesta (1997).
The exchangeable yeast ribosomal acidic protein YP2beta shows characteristics of a partly folded state under physiological conditions.
  Biochemistry, 36, 9625-9635.  
9265627 L.D.Goodrich, T.C.Lin, E.K.Spicer, C.Jones, and W.H.Konigsberg (1997).
Residues at the carboxy terminus of T4 DNA polymerase are important determinants for interaction with the polymerase accessory proteins.
  Biochemistry, 36, 10474-10481.  
9195880 L.Tabernero, D.A.Taylor, R.J.Chandross, M.F.VanBerkum, A.R.Means, F.A.Quiocho, and J.S.Sack (1997).
The structure of a calmodulin mutant with a deletion in the central helix: implications for molecular recognition and protein binding.
  Structure, 5, 613-622.
PDB code: 1ahr
9062109 N.Zhou, T.Yuan, A.S.Mak, and H.J.Vogel (1997).
NMR studies of caldesmon-calmodulin interactions.
  Biochemistry, 36, 2817-2825.  
  9041633 P.Groves, S.Linse, E.Thulin, and S.Forsén (1997).
A calbindin D9k mutant containing a novel structural extension: 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies.
  Protein Sci, 6, 323-330.  
9315874 R.Stevens-Truss, K.Beckingham, and M.A.Marletta (1997).
Calcium binding sites of calmodulin and electron transfer by neuronal nitric oxide synthase.
  Biochemistry, 36, 12337-12345.  
9100027 S.Ohki, M.Ikura, and M.Zhang (1997).
Identification of Mg2+-binding sites and the role of Mg2+ on target recognition by calmodulin.
  Biochemistry, 36, 4309-4316.  
9132012 X.Wu, and R.E.Reid (1997).
Conservative D133E mutation of calmodulin site IV drastically alters calcium binding and phosphodiesterase regulation.
  Biochemistry, 36, 3608-3616.  
8647105 A.Bouhss, M.Vincent, H.Munier, A.M.Gilles, M.Takahashi, O.Bârzu, A.Danchin, and J.Gallay (1996).
Conformational transitions within the calmodulin-binding site of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase studied by time-resolved fluorescence of Trp242 and circular dichroism.
  Eur J Biochem, 237, 619-628.  
8994973 A.Houdusse, M.Silver, and C.Cohen (1996).
A model of Ca(2+)-free calmodulin binding to unconventional myosins reveals how calmodulin acts as a regulatory switch.
  Structure, 4, 1475-1490.
PDB code: 1aji
8768898 A.J.Wand, and S.W.Englander (1996).
Protein complexes studied by NMR spectroscopy.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 7, 403-408.  
8807882 A.J.Wilkinson (1996).
Accommodating structurally diverse peptides in proteins.
  Chem Biol, 3, 519-524.  
8555178 A.Persechini, K.J.Gansz, and R.J.Paresi (1996).
Activation of myosin light chain kinase and nitric oxide synthase activities by engineered calmodulins with duplicated or exchanged EF hand pairs.
  Biochemistry, 35, 224-228.  
8810907 B.C.Yoo, and A.C.Harmon (1996).
Intramolecular binding contributes to the activation of CDPK, a protein kinase with a calmodulin-like domain.
  Biochemistry, 35, 12029-12037.  
  9003756 B.Kobe, J.Heierhorst, S.C.Feil, M.W.Parker, G.M.Benian, K.R.Weiss, and B.E.Kemp (1996).
Giant protein kinases: domain interactions and structural basis of autoregulation.
  EMBO J, 15, 6810-6821.
PDB codes: 1koa 1kob
8756684 C.J.Craven, B.Whitehead, S.K.Jones, E.Thulin, G.M.Blackburn, and J.P.Waltho (1996).
Complexes formed between calmodulin and the antagonists J-8 and TFP in solution.
  Biochemistry, 35, 10287-10299.  
8706725 D.B.Sacks, M.M.Lopez, Z.Li, and D.Kosk-Kosicka (1996).
Analysis of phosphorylation and mutation of tyrosine residues of calmodulin on its activation of the erythrocyte Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase.
  Eur J Biochem, 239, 98.  
8689236 D.C.Horwell, W.Howson, G.S.Ratcliffe, and H.M.Willems (1996).
The design of dipeptide helical mimetics: the synthesis, tachykinin receptor affinity and conformational analysis of 1,1,6-trisubstituted indanes.
  Bioorg Med Chem, 4, 33-42.  
8547271 D.Kosk-Kosicka, I.Fomitcheva, and M.M.Lopez (1996).
Mechanism of inhibition of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase by barbiturates.
  Biochemistry, 35, 900-905.  
  8897605 D.van der Spoel, Groot, S.Hayward, H.J.Berendsen, and H.J.Vogel (1996).
Bending of the calmodulin central helix: a theoretical study.
  Protein Sci, 5, 2044-2053.  
8548457 E.Hohenester, P.Maurer, C.Hohenadl, R.Timpl, J.N.Jansonius, and J.Engel (1996).
Structure of a novel extracellular Ca(2+)-binding module in BM-40.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 67-73.
PDB code: 1sra
8951648 E.V.Curto, H.N.Moseley, and N.R.Krishna (1996).
CORCEMA evaluation of the potential role of intermolecular transferred NOESY in the characterization of ligand-receptor complexes.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 10, 361-371.  
8601600 H.A.Sundberg, L.Goetsch, B.Byers, and T.N.Davis (1996).
Role of calmodulin and Spc110p interaction in the proper assembly of spindle pole body compenents.
  J Cell Biol, 133, 111-124.  
9237217 H.H.Pierce, N.Adey, and B.K.Kay (1996).
Identification of cyclized calmodulin antagonists from a phage display random peptide library.
  Mol Divers, 1, 259-265.  
8930101 H.J.Dyson, and P.E.Wright (1996).
Insights into protein folding from NMR.
  Annu Rev Phys Chem, 47, 369-395.  
  8745404 H.S.Cho, C.W.Liu, F.F.Damberger, J.G.Pelton, H.C.Nelson, and D.E.Wemmer (1996).
Yeast heat shock transcription factor N-terminal activation domains are unstructured as probed by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy.
  Protein Sci, 5, 262-269.  
8652581 H.Yoshino, Y.Izumi, K.Sakai, H.Takezawa, I.Matsuura, H.Maekawa, and M.Yazawa (1996).
Solution X-ray scattering data show structural differences between yeast and vertebrate calmodulin: implications for structure/function.
  Biochemistry, 35, 2388-2393.  
8855961 J.F.Huang, L.Teyton, J.F.Harper, and M.L.Evans (1996).
Activation of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase involves intramolecular binding of a calmodulin-like regulatory domain.
  Biochemistry, 35, 13222-13230.  
8601311 J.Goldberg, A.C.Nairn, and J.Kuriyan (1996).
Structural basis for the autoinhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I.
  Cell, 84, 875-887.
PDB code: 1a06
9027340 J.W.Lustbader, S.Pollak, L.Lobel, I.Trakht, S.Homans, J.M.Brown, and R.E.Canfield (1996).
Three-dimensional structures of gonadotropins.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 125, 21-31.  
8611552 K.Nakashima, H.Maekawa, and M.Yazawa (1996).
Chimeras of yeast and chicken calmodulin demonstrate differences in activation mechanisms of target enzymes.
  Biochemistry, 35, 5602-5610.  
8608132 M.A.Shea, A.S.Verhoeven, and S.Pedigo (1996).
Calcium-induced interactions of calmodulin domains revealed by quantitative thrombin footprinting of Arg37 and Arg106.
  Biochemistry, 35, 2943-2957.  
8646534 M.B.Swindells, and M.Ikura (1996).
Pre-formation of the semi-open conformation by the apo-calmodulin C-terminal domain and implications binding IQ-motifs.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 501-504.  
8848832 M.Ikura (1996).
Calcium binding and conformational response in EF-hand proteins.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 21, 14-17.  
8931564 M.Matsubara, K.Titani, and H.Taniguchi (1996).
Interaction of calmodulin-binding domain peptides of nitric oxide synthase with membrane phospholipids: regulation by protein phosphorylation and Ca(2+)-calmodulin.
  Biochemistry, 35, 14651-14658.  
8634291 M.R.Ehrhardt, L.Erijman, G.Weber, and A.J.Wand (1996).
Molecular recognition by calmodulin: pressure-induced reorganization of a novel calmodulin-peptide complex.
  Biochemistry, 35, 1599-1605.  
8679637 M.Zoche, M.Bienert, M.Beyermann, and K.W.Koch (1996).
Distinct molecular recognition of calmodulin-binding sites in the neuronal and macrophage nitric oxide synthases: a surface plasmon resonance study.
  Biochemistry, 35, 8742-8747.  
  8819155 P.M.Bayley, W.A.Findlay, and S.R.Martin (1996).
Target recognition by calmodulin: dissecting the kinetics and affinity of interaction using short peptide sequences.
  Protein Sci, 5, 1215-1228.  
8679587 S.E.George, Z.Su, D.Fan, S.Wang, and J.D.Johnson (1996).
The fourth EF-hand of calmodulin and its helix-loop-helix components: impact on calcium binding and enzyme activation.
  Biochemistry, 35, 8307-8313.  
8639501 S.R.Martin, P.M.Bayley, S.E.Brown, T.Porumb, M.Zhang, and M.Ikura (1996).
Spectroscopic characterization of a high-affinity calmodulin-target peptide hybrid molecule.
  Biochemistry, 35, 3508-3517.  
8611584 Y.Yao, D.Yin, G.S.Jas, K.Kuczer, T.D.Williams, C.Schöneich, and T.C.Squier (1996).
Oxidative modification of a carboxyl-terminal vicinal methionine in calmodulin by hydrogen peroxide inhibits calmodulin-dependent activation of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase.
  Biochemistry, 35, 2767-2787.  
8639633 Y.Yao, and T.C.Squier (1996).
Variable conformation and dynamics of calmodulin complexed with peptides derived from the autoinhibitory domains of target proteins.
  Biochemistry, 35, 6815-6827.  
7479857 A.Houdusse, and C.Cohen (1995).
Target sequence recognition by the calmodulin superfamily: implications from light chain binding to the regulatory domain of scallop myosin.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 10644-10647.  
  8575189 A.M.Gronenborn, and G.M.Clore (1995).
Structures of protein complexes by multidimensional heteronuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
  Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol, 30, 351-385.  
7552749 B.E.Finn, J.Evenäs, T.Drakenberg, J.P.Waltho, E.Thulin, and S.Forsén (1995).
Calcium-induced structural changes and domain autonomy in calmodulin.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 777-783.
PDB codes: 1cmf 1cmg
7743133 B.E.Finn, and S.Forsén (1995).
The evolving model of calmodulin structure, function and activation.
  Structure, 3, 7.  
7664116 C.M.Dobson (1995).
Finding the right fold.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 513-517.  
  7791792 D.A.Fruman, S.Y.Pai, S.J.Burakoff, and B.E.Bierer (1995).
Characterization of a mutant calcineurin A alpha gene expressed by EL4 lymphoma cells.
  Mol Cell Biol, 15, 3857-3863.  
9634779 D.Neri, Lalla, H.Petrul, P.Neri, and G.Winter (1995).
Calmodulin as a versatile tag for antibody fragments.
  Biotechnology (N Y), 13, 373-377.  
7851407 G.Travé, A.Pastore, M.Hyvönen, and M.Saraste (1995).
The C-terminal domain of alpha-spectrin is structurally related to calmodulin.
  Eur J Biochem, 227, 35-42.  
  7588621 G.Travé, P.J.Lacombe, M.Pfuhl, M.Saraste, and A.Pastore (1995).
Molecular mechanism of the calcium-induced conformational change in the spectrin EF-hands.
  EMBO J, 14, 4922-4931.  
8569745 H.J.Vogel, and M.Zhang (1995).
Protein engineering and NMR studies of calmodulin.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 149, 3.  
7552748 H.Kuboniwa, N.Tjandra, S.Grzesiek, H.Ren, C.B.Klee, and A.Bax (1995).
Solution structure of calcium-free calmodulin.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 768-776.
PDB codes: 1cfc 1cfd
8521832 J.Anagli, F.Hofmann, M.Quadroni, T.Vorherr, and E.Carafoli (1995).
The calmodulin-binding domain of the inducible (macrophage) nitric oxide synthase.
  Eur J Biochem, 233, 701-708.  
7788295 J.Qin, G.M.Clore, W.M.Kennedy, J.R.Huth, and A.M.Gronenborn (1995).
Solution structure of human thioredoxin in a mixed disulfide intermediate complex with its target peptide from the transcription factor NF kappa B.
  Structure, 3, 289-297.
PDB codes: 1mdi 1mdj 1mdk
  7613465 J.W.Howarth, G.A.Krudy, X.Lin, J.A.Putkey, and P.R.Rosevear (1995).
An NMR and spin label study of the effects of binding calcium and troponin I inhibitory peptide to cardiac troponin C.
  Protein Sci, 4, 671-680.  
7826640 M.F.VanBerkum, and C.S.Goodman (1995).
Targeted disruption of Ca(2+)-calmodulin signaling in Drosophila growth cones leads to stalls in axon extension and errors in axon guidance.
  Neuron, 14, 43-56.  
  7796810 M.Tanaka, R.Ikebe, M.Matsuura, and M.Ikebe (1995).
Pseudosubstrate sequence may not be critical for autoinhibition of smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase.
  EMBO J, 14, 2839-2846.  
7552747 M.Zhang, T.Tanaka, and M.Ikura (1995).
Calcium-induced conformational transition revealed by the solution structure of apo calmodulin.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 758-767.
PDB code: 1dmo
7567957 N.M.el-Sayed, P.C.Harkins, R.O.Fox, K.Anderson, and C.L.Patton (1995).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray investigation of the recombinant Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense calmodulin.
  Proteins, 21, 354-357.  
7601131 N.Tjandra, H.Kuboniwa, H.Ren, and A.Bax (1995).
Rotational dynamics of calcium-free calmodulin studied by 15N-NMR relaxation measurements.
  Eur J Biochem, 230, 1014-1024.  
7878743 P.James, T.Vorherr, and E.Carafoli (1995).
Calmodulin-binding domains: just two faced or multi-faceted?
  Trends Biochem Sci, 20, 38-42.  
7894084 R.T.Clowes, A.Crawford, A.R.Raine, B.O.Smith, and E.D.Laue (1995).
Improved methods for structural studies of proteins using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 6, 81-88.  
  7609094 S.B.Tencza, M.A.Miller, K.Islam, T.A.Mietzner, and R.C.Montelaro (1995).
Effect of amino acid substitutions on calmodulin binding and cytolytic properties of the LLP-1 peptide segment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmembrane protein.
  J Virol, 69, 5199-5202.  
8618911 S.Feng, C.Kasahara, R.J.Rickles, and S.L.Schreiber (1995).
Specific interactions outside the proline-rich core of two classes of Src homology 3 ligands.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 12408-12415.
PDB codes: 1qwe 1qwf
  7787054 S.Lowey, and K.M.Trybus (1995).
Role of skeletal and smooth muscle myosin light chains.
  Biophys J, 68, 120S.  
7552750 S.M.Gagné, S.Tsuda, M.X.Li, L.B.Smillie, and B.D.Sykes (1995).
Structures of the troponin C regulatory domains in the apo and calcium-saturated states.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 784-789.
PDB codes: 1tnp 1tnq
  8563635 W.A.Findlay, M.J.Gradwell, and P.M.Bayley (1995).
Role of the N-terminal region of the skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase target sequence in its interaction with calmodulin.
  Protein Sci, 4, 2375-2382.  
7583665 W.E.Meador, S.E.George, A.R.Means, and F.A.Quiocho (1995).
X-ray analysis reveals conformational adaptation of the linker in functional calmodulin mutants.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 943-945.  
8090720 A.Jancso, and A.G.Szent-Györgyi (1994).
Regulation of scallop myosin by the regulatory light chain depends on a single glycine residue.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 8762-8766.  
7664043 B.A.Seaton, and J.F.Head (1994).
Shaking hands with yourself.
  Nat Struct Biol, 1, 350-351.  
7985229 B.G.Allen, and M.P.Walsh (1994).
The biochemical basis of the regulation of smooth-muscle contraction.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 19, 362-368.  
7528142 C.F.Edman, S.E.George, A.R.Means, H.Schulman, and P.Yaswen (1994).
Selective activation and inhibition of calmodulin-dependent enzymes by a calmodulin-like protein found in human epithelial cells.
  Eur J Biochem, 226, 725-730.  
9383374 D.A.Erlanson, and G.L.Verdine (1994).
Falling out of the fold: tumorigenic mutations and p53.
  Chem Biol, 1, 79-84.  
  7925277 D.A.Stirling, K.A.Welch, and M.J.Stark (1994).
Interaction with calmodulin is required for the function of Spc110p, an essential component of the yeast spindle pole body.
  EMBO J, 13, 4329-4342.  
  8022655 D.Ram, B.Romano, and I.Schechter (1994).
Immunochemical studies on the cercarial-specific calcium binding protein of Schistosoma mansoni.
  Parasitology, 108, 289-300.  
  8306963 D.W.Hoffman, C.Davies, S.E.Gerchman, J.H.Kycia, S.J.Porter, S.W.White, and V.Ramakrishnan (1994).
Crystal structure of prokaryotic ribosomal protein L9: a bi-lobed RNA-binding protein.
  EMBO J, 13, 205-212.
PDB code: 1div
7840763 F.Friedberg, and A.R.Rhoads (1994).
Calmodulin's warm embrace.
  Bioessays, 16, 853-855.  
  7756987 F.L.Wills, W.D.McCubbin, M.Gimona, P.Strasser, and C.M.Kay (1994).
Two domains of interaction with calcium binding proteins can be mapped using fragments of calponin.
  Protein Sci, 3, 2311-2321.  
  8019409 G.M.Clore, and A.M.Gronenborn (1994).
Young Investigator Award Lecture. Structures of larger proteins, protein-ligand and protein-DNA complexes by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR.
  Protein Sci, 3, 372-390.  
7773778 H.Terasawa, D.Kohda, H.Hatanaka, S.Tsuchiya, K.Ogura, K.Nagata, S.Ishii, V.Mandiyan, A.Ullrich, and J.Schlessinger (1994).
Structure of the N-terminal SH3 domain of GRB2 complexed with a peptide from the guanine nucleotide releasing factor Sos.
  Nat Struct Biol, 1, 891-897.  
8203020 I.Rayment, and H.M.Holden (1994).
The three-dimensional structure of a molecular motor.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 19, 129-134.  
7857402 J.Chant (1994).
Multifunctional proteins. Calmodulin clarified.
  Curr Biol, 4, 433-435.  
7899550 J.J.Falke, S.K.Drake, A.L.Hazard, and O.B.Peersen (1994).
Molecular tuning of ion binding to calcium signaling proteins.
  Q Rev Biophys, 27, 219-290.  
  8003981 J.R.Lakowicz, I.Gryczynski, G.Laczko, W.Wiczk, and M.L.Johnson (1994).
Distribution of distances between the tryptophan and the N-terminal residue of melittin in its complex with calmodulin, troponin C, and phospholipids.
  Protein Sci, 3, 628-637.  
7706415 K.M.Trybus (1994).
Role of myosin light chains.
  J Muscle Res Cell Motil, 15, 587-594.  
8031297 K.Török, and M.Whitaker (1994).
Taking a long, hard look at calmodulin's warm embrace.
  Bioessays, 16, 221-224.  
8020480 K.Y.Ling, M.E.Maley, R.R.Preston, Y.Saimi, and C.Kung (1994).
New non-lethal calmodulin mutations in Paramecium. A structural and functional bipartition hypothesis.
  Eur J Biochem, 222, 433-439.  
7816054 M.P.Walsh (1994).
Calmodulin and the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 135, 21-41.  
7634090 M.Vandonselaar, R.A.Hickie, J.W.Quail, and L.T.Delbaere (1994).
Trifluoperazine-induced conformational change in Ca(2+)-calmodulin.
  Nat Struct Biol, 1, 795-801.
PDB code: 1lin
7656053 N.J.Skelton, J.Kördel, M.Akke, S.Forsén, and W.J.Chazin (1994).
Signal transduction versus buffering activity in Ca(2+)-binding proteins.
  Nat Struct Biol, 1, 239-245.  
8185953 P.I.Hanson, T.Meyer, L.Stryer, and H.Schulman (1994).
Dual role of calmodulin in autophosphorylation of multifunctional CaM kinase may underlie decoding of calcium signals.
  Neuron, 12, 943-956.  
8183906 S.Bagby, T.S.Harvey, S.G.Eagle, S.Inouye, and M.Ikura (1994).
Structural similarity of a developmentally regulated bacterial spore coat protein to beta gamma-crystallins of the vertebrate eye lens.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 4308-4312.  
  7520795 S.Hayward, A.Kitao, and N.Go (1994).
Harmonic and anharmonic aspects in the dynamics of BPTI: a normal mode analysis and principal component analysis.
  Protein Sci, 3, 936-943.  
  7520312 S.J.Hubbard, F.Eisenmenger, and J.M.Thornton (1994).
Modeling studies of the change in conformation required for cleavage of limited proteolytic sites.
  Protein Sci, 3, 757-768.  
  7703843 S.M.Gagné, S.Tsuda, M.X.Li, M.Chandra, L.B.Smillie, and B.D.Sykes (1994).
Quantification of the calcium-induced secondary structural changes in the regulatory domain of troponin-C.
  Protein Sci, 3, 1961-1974.  
7696469 T.Wagenknecht, J.Berkowitz, R.Grassucci, A.P.Timerman, and S.Fleischer (1994).
Localization of calmodulin binding sites on the ryanodine receptor from skeletal muscle by electron microscopy.
  Biophys J, 67, 2286-2295.  
7773777 W.Lee, T.S.Harvey, Y.Yin, P.Yau, D.Litchfield, and C.H.Arrowsmith (1994).
Solution structure of the tetrameric minimum transforming domain of p53.
  Nat Struct Biol, 1, 877-890.
PDB codes: 1pes 1pet
  7703855 X.L.Ding, A.B.Akella, H.Su, and J.Gulati (1994).
The role of glycine (residue 89) in the central helix of EF-hand protein troponin-C exposed following amino-terminal alpha-helix deletion.
  Protein Sci, 3, 2089-2096.  
  7896089 Y.Ohya, and D.Botstein (1994).
Structure-based systematic isolation of conditional-lethal mutations in the single yeast calmodulin gene.
  Genetics, 138, 1041-1054.  
7763968 B.D.Sykes (1993).
Determination of the conformations of bound peptides using NMR-transferred nOe techniques.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 4, 392-396.  
8390354 C.Erneux, C.Moreau, A.Vandermeers, and K.Takazawa (1993).
Interaction of calmodulin with a putative calmodulin-binding domain of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate 3-kinase. Effects of synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenesis of Trp165.
  Eur J Biochem, 214, 497-501.  
  8518733 C.Y.Sekharudu, and M.Sundaralingam (1993).
A model for the calmodulin-peptide complex based on the troponin C crystal packing and its similarity to the NMR structure of the calmodulin-myosin light chain kinase peptide complex.
  Protein Sci, 2, 620-625.  
7935361 D.K.Blumenthal (1993).
Development and characterization of fluorescently-labeled myosin light chain kinase calmodulin-binding domain peptides.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 127, 45-50.  
7693462 H.Adachi, S.Iida, S.Oguchi, H.Ohshima, H.Suzuki, K.Nagasaki, H.Kawasaki, T.Sugimura, and H.Esumi (1993).
Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding an inducible calmodulin-dependent nitric-oxide synthase from rat liver and its expression in COS 1 cells.
  Eur J Biochem, 217, 37-43.  
8507497 H.Schulman (1993).
The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 5, 247-253.  
8335688 J.S.Wolenski, S.M.Hayden, P.Forscher, and M.S.Mooseker (1993).
Calcium-calmodulin and regulation of brush border myosin-I MgATPase and mechanochemistry.
  J Cell Biol, 122, 613-621.  
7935351 L.M.Heilmeyer, A.M.Gerschinski, H.E.Meyer, and H.P.Jennissen (1993).
Interaction sites on phosphorylase kinase for calmodulin.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 127, 19-30.  
8022970 M.J.Zvelebil, and J.M.Thornton (1993).
Peptide-protein interactions: an overview.
  Q Rev Biophys, 26, 333-363.  
  8268802 M.Zhang, T.Yuan, and H.J.Vogel (1993).
A peptide analog of the calmodulin-binding domain of myosin light chain kinase adopts an alpha-helical structure in aqueous trifluoroethanol.
  Protein Sci, 2, 1931-1937.  
8402892 R.E.Cheney, M.K.O'Shea, J.E.Heuser, M.V.Coelho, J.S.Wolenski, E.M.Espreafico, P.Forscher, R.E.Larson, and M.S.Mooseker (1993).
Brain myosin-V is a two-headed unconventional myosin with motor activity.
  Cell, 75, 13-23.  
8341712 S.Raghunathan, R.J.Chandross, B.P.Cheng, A.Persechini, S.E.Sobottka, and R.H.Kretsinger (1993).
The linker of des-Glu84-calmodulin is bent.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 90, 6869-6873.
PDB code: 1deg
  8453381 S.T.Rao, S.Wu, K.A.Satyshur, K.Y.Ling, C.Kung, and M.Sundaralingam (1993).
Structure of Paramecium tetraurelia calmodulin at 1.8 A resolution.
  Protein Sci, 2, 436-447.
PDB code: 1clm
7689377 S.W.Fesik (1993).
NMR structure-based drug design.
  J Biomol NMR, 3, 261-269.  
  1304891 C.M.Slupsky, G.S.Shaw, A.P.Campbell, and B.D.Sykes (1992).
A 1H NMR study of a ternary peptide complex that mimics the interaction between troponin C and troponin I.
  Protein Sci, 1, 1595-1603.  
  1429728 D.P.Fitzsimons, B.P.Herring, J.T.Stull, and P.J.Gallagher (1992).
Identification of basic residues involved in activation and calmodulin binding of rabbit smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 267, 23903-23909.  
1334558 F.H.Cruzalegui, M.S.Kapiloff, J.P.Morfin, B.E.Kemp, M.G.Rosenfeld, and A.R.Means (1992).
Regulation of intrasteric inhibition of the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 89, 12127-12131.  
1368439 J.A.Tainer, V.A.Roberts, and E.D.Getzoff (1992).
Protein metal-binding sites.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 3, 378-387.  
15336037 J.F.Head (1992).
A better grip on calmodulin.
  Curr Biol, 2, 609-611.  
1423614 T.N.Davis (1992).
What's new with calcium?
  Cell, 71, 557-564.  
  1464306 T.Rowe, and J.Kendrick-Jones (1992).
Chimeric myosin regulatory light chains identify the subdomain responsible for regulatory function.
  EMBO J, 11, 4715-4722.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.