PDBsum entry 1znf

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Zinc finger DNA binding domain PDB id
Protein chain
27 a.a.
PDB id:
Name: Zinc finger DNA binding domain
Title: Three-dimensional solution structure of a single zinc finger DNA-binding domain
Structure: 31st zinc finger from xfin. Chain: a. Engineered: yes
Source: Xenopus laevis. African clawed frog. Organism_taxid: 8355
NMR struc: 37 models
Authors: M.S.Lee,G.P.Gippert,K.V.Soman,D.A.Case,P.E.Wright
Key ref: M.S.Lee et al. (1989). Three-dimensional solution structure of a single zinc finger DNA-binding domain. Science, 245, 635-637. PubMed id: 2503871 DOI: 10.1126/science.2503871
25-Sep-89     Release date:   15-Jul-91    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P08045  (XFIN_XENLA) -  Zinc finger protein Xfin
1350 a.a.
26 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 1 residue position (black cross)

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biochemical function     nucleic acid binding     2 terms  


DOI no: 10.1126/science.2503871 Science 245:635-637 (1989)
PubMed id: 2503871  
Three-dimensional solution structure of a single zinc finger DNA-binding domain.
M.S.Lee, G.P.Gippert, K.V.Soman, D.A.Case, P.E.Wright.
The three-dimensional solution structure of a zinc finger nucleic acid binding motif has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Spectra of a synthetic peptide corresponding to a single zinc finger from the Xenopus protein Xfin yielded distance and dihedral angle constraints that were used to generate structures from distance geometry and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. The zinc finger is an independently folded domain with a compact globular structure in which the zinc atom is bound by two cysteine and two histidine ligands. The polypeptide backbone fold consists of a well-defined helix, starting as alpha and ending as 3(10) helix, packed against two beta strands that are arranged in a hairpin structure. A high density of basic and polar amino acid side chains on the exposed face of the helix are probably involved in DNA binding.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21253649 S.M.Quintal, Q.A.dePaula, and N.P.Farrell (2011).
Zinc finger proteins as templates for metal ion exchange and ligand reactivity. Chemical and biological consequences.
  Metallomics, 3, 121-139.  
20478078 A.Klug (2010).
The discovery of zinc fingers and their development for practical applications in gene regulation and genome manipulation.
  Q Rev Biophys, 43, 1.  
20192761 A.Klug (2010).
The discovery of zinc fingers and their applications in gene regulation and genome manipulation.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 79, 213-231.  
20197039 D.Jantz, and J.M.Berg (2010).
Probing the DNA-binding affinity and specificity of designed zinc finger proteins.
  Biophys J, 98, 852-860.  
20553501 J.Jorda, B.Xue, V.N.Uversky, and A.V.Kajava (2010).
Protein tandem repeats - the more perfect, the less structured.
  FEBS J, 277, 2673-2682.  
20922471 X.Tang, P.J.Chueh, Z.Jiang, S.Layman, B.Martin, C.Kim, D.M.Morré, and D.J.Morré (2010).
Essential role of copper in the activity and regular periodicity of a recombinant, tumor-associated, cell surface, growth-related and time-keeping hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity (ENOX2).
  J Bioenerg Biomembr, 42, 355-360.  
19413955 A.Verma, and W.Wenzel (2009).
A free-energy approach for all-atom protein simulation.
  Biophys J, 96, 3483-3494.  
19015240 K.M.Viiri, J.Jänis, T.Siggers, T.Y.Heinonen, J.Valjakka, M.L.Bulyk, M.Mäki, and O.Lohi (2009).
DNA-binding and -bending activities of SAP30L and SAP30 are mediated by a zinc-dependent module and monophosphoinositides.
  Mol Cell Biol, 29, 342-356.  
19701937 S.Sakkhachornphop, S.Jiranusornkul, K.Kodchakorn, S.Nangola, T.Sirisanthana, and C.Tayapiwatana (2009).
Designed zinc finger protein interacting with the HIV-1 integrase recognition sequence at 2-LTR-circle junctions.
  Protein Sci, 18, 2219-2230.  
19527468 T.Fukushima, H.Horike, S.Fujiki, S.Kitada, T.Sasaki, and N.Kashihara (2009).
Zinc deficiency anemia and effects of zinc therapy in maintenance hemodialysis patients.
  Ther Apher Dial, 13, 213-219.  
19297420 Y.Xue, S.Wang, and X.Feng (2009).
Influence of magnesium ion on the binding of p53 DNA-binding domain to DNA-response elements.
  J Biochem, 146, 77-85.  
18559114 H.D.Tadepally, G.Burger, and M.Aubry (2008).
Evolution of C2H2-zinc finger genes and subfamilies in mammals: species-specific duplication and loss of clusters, genes and effector domains.
  BMC Evol Biol, 8, 176.  
18253864 K.J.Brayer, and D.J.Segal (2008).
Keep your fingers off my DNA: protein-protein interactions mediated by C2H2 zinc finger domains.
  Cell Biochem Biophys, 50, 111-131.  
18286240 K.J.Brayer, S.Kulshreshtha, and D.J.Segal (2008).
The protein-binding potential of C2H2 zinc finger domains.
  Cell Biochem Biophys, 51, 9.  
21202165 T.Shibahara, S.Ogasahara, and G.Sakane (2008).
  Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online, 64, m605-m606.  
18768963 W.J.Liu, Y.S.Chang, H.C.Wang, J.H.Leu, G.H.Kou, and C.F.Lo (2008).
Transactivation, dimerization, and DNA-binding activity of white spot syndrome virus immediate-early protein IE1.
  J Virol, 82, 11362-11373.  
18458062 Y.Li, T.Kimura, R.W.Huyck, J.H.Laity, and G.K.Andrews (2008).
Zinc-induced formation of a coactivator complex containing the zinc-sensing transcription factor MTF-1, p300/CBP, and Sp1.
  Mol Cell Biol, 28, 4275-4284.  
17335000 D.Lu, and A.Klug (2007).
Invariance of the zinc finger module: a comparison of the free structure with those in nucleic-acid complexes.
  Proteins, 67, 508-512.
PDB code: 2j7j
17710146 J.C.Shieh, Y.C.Cheng, M.C.Su, M.Moore, Y.Choo, and A.Klug (2007).
Tailor-made zinc-finger transcription factors activate FLO11 gene expression with phenotypic consequences in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  PLoS ONE, 2, e746.  
16734424 J.Liu, N.B.Perumal, C.J.Oldfield, E.W.Su, V.N.Uversky, and A.K.Dunker (2006).
Intrinsic disorder in transcription factors.
  Biochemistry, 45, 6873-6888.  
17061298 S.M.Gopal, and W.Wenzel (2006).
De novo folding of the DNA-binding ATF-2 zinc finger motif in an all-atom free-energy forcefield.
  Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 45, 7726-7728.  
16959962 S.MacPherson, M.Larochelle, and B.Turcotte (2006).
A fungal family of transcriptional regulators: the zinc cluster proteins.
  Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 70, 583-604.  
16322571 T.Yamamoto, T.Matsuda, T.Inoue, H.Matsumura, M.Morikawa, S.Kanaya, and Y.Kai (2006).
Crystal structure of TBP-interacting protein (Tk-TIP26) and implications for its inhibition mechanism of the interaction between TBP and TATA-DNA.
  Protein Sci, 15, 152-161.
PDB code: 2czr
15692739 J.Chen, H.S.Won, W.Im, H.J.Dyson, and C.L.Brooks (2005).
Generation of native-like protein structures from limited NMR data, modern force fields and advanced conformational sampling.
  J Biomol NMR, 31, 59-64.  
15020707 A.Kozaki, S.Hake, and J.Colasanti (2004).
The maize ID1 flowering time regulator is a zinc finger protein with novel DNA binding properties.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 32, 1710-1720.  
15557258 M.J.Lachenmann, J.E.Ladbury, X.Qian, K.Huang, R.Singh, and M.A.Weiss (2004).
Solvation and the hidden thermodynamics of a zinc finger probed by nonstandard repair of a protein crevice.
  Protein Sci, 13, 3115-3126.
PDB code: 1xrz
15556993 S.L.Kazmirski, M.Podobnik, T.F.Weitze, M.O'Donnell, and J.Kuriyan (2004).
Structural analysis of the inactive state of the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase clamp-loader complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 16750-16755.
PDB codes: 1xxh 1xxi
14722285 W.Tan, K.Zhu, D.J.Segal, C.F.Barbas, and S.A.Chow (2004).
Fusion proteins consisting of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and the designed polydactyl zinc finger protein E2C direct integration of viral DNA into specific sites.
  J Virol, 78, 1301-1313.  
12750739 A.C.Jamieson, J.C.Miller, and C.O.Pabo (2003).
Drug discovery with engineered zinc-finger proteins.
  Nat Rev Drug Discov, 2, 361-368.  
12616630 C.Isernia, E.Bucci, M.Leone, L.Zaccaro, P.Di Lello, G.Digilio, S.Esposito, M.Saviano, B.Di Blasio, C.Pedone, P.V.Pedone, and R.Fattorusso (2003).
NMR structure of the single QALGGH zinc finger domain from the Arabidopsis thaliana SUPERMAN protein.
  Chembiochem, 4, 171-180.
PDB code: 1njq
12804117 H.R.Chrisman, and D.J.Tindall (2003).
Identification and characterization of a consensus DNA binding element for the zinc finger transcription factor TIEG/EGRalpha.
  DNA Cell Biol, 22, 187-199.  
12808046 K.B.Mercer, D.B.Flaherty, R.K.Miller, H.Qadota, T.L.Tinley, D.G.Moerman, and G.M.Benian (2003).
Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-98, a C2H2 Zn finger protein, is a novel partner of UNC-97/PINCH in muscle adhesion complexes.
  Mol Biol Cell, 14, 2492-2507.  
14674754 W.Nomura, and Y.Sugiura (2003).
Effects of length and position of an extended linker on sequence-selective DNA recognition of zinc finger peptides.
  Biochemistry, 42, 14805-14813.  
12077294 A.B.Dean, M.J.Stanger, J.T.Dansereau, P.Van Roey, V.Derbyshire, and M.Belfort (2002).
Zinc finger as distance determinant in the flexible linker of intron endonuclease I-TevI.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 8554-8561.  
11554449 A.Hartwig (2001).
Zinc finger proteins as potential targets for toxic metal ions: differential effects on structure and function.
  Antioxid Redox Signal, 3, 625-634.  
11395410 C.O.Pabo, E.Peisach, and R.A.Grant (2001).
Design and selection of novel Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 70, 313-340.  
11554444 D.E.Wilcox, A.D.Schenk, B.M.Feldman, and Y.Xu (2001).
Oxidation of zinc-binding cysteine residues in transcription factor proteins.
  Antioxid Redox Signal, 3, 549-564.  
11554446 D.P.Giedroc, X.Chen, and J.L.Apuy (2001).
Metal response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1): structure, function, and regulation.
  Antioxid Redox Signal, 3, 577-596.  
11179890 J.H.Laity, B.M.Lee, and P.E.Wright (2001).
Zinc finger proteins: new insights into structural and functional diversity.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 11, 39-46.  
11679714 K.Harata, W.D.Schubert, and M.Muraki (2001).
Structure of Urtica dioica agglutinin isolectin I: dimer formation mediated by two zinc ions bound at the sugar-binding site.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 57, 1513-1517.
PDB code: 1iqb
11171969 M.Moore, A.Klug, and Y.Choo (2001).
Improved DNA binding specificity from polyzinc finger peptides by using strings of two-finger units.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 1437-1441.  
11171968 M.Moore, Y.Choo, and A.Klug (2001).
Design of polyzinc finger peptides with structured linkers.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 1432-1436.  
11583159 W.Schüler, K.Kloiber, T.Matt, K.Bister, and R.Konrat (2001).
Application of cross-correlated NMR spin relaxation to the zinc-finger protein CRP2(LIM2): evidence for collective motions in LIM domains.
  Biochemistry, 40, 9596-9604.
PDB code: 1ibi
11121477 A.R.McNamara, and K.G.Ford (2000).
A novel four zinc-finger protein targeted against p190(BcrAbl) fusion oncogene cDNA: utilisation of zinc-finger recognition codes.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 28, 4865-4872.  
  10898790 L.Zhu, J.Wilken, N.B.Phillips, U.Narendra, G.Chan, S.M.Stratton, S.B.Kent, and M.A.Weiss (2000).
Sexual dimorphism in diverse metazoans is regulated by a novel class of intertwined zinc fingers.
  Genes Dev, 14, 1750-1764.
PDB code: 1lpv
10773080 M.Schaub, A.Krol, and P.Carbon (2000).
Structural organization of Staf-DNA complexes.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 28, 2114-2121.  
10757981 M.Thompson, and N.W.Woodbury (2000).
Fluorescent and photochemical properties of a single zinc finger conjugated to a fluorescent DNA-binding probe.
  Biochemistry, 39, 4327-4338.  
10940247 S.A.Wolfe, L.Nekludova, and C.O.Pabo (2000).
DNA recognition by Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 29, 183-212.  
10449725 D.J.McColl, C.D.Honchell, and A.D.Frankel (1999).
Structure-based design of an RNA-binding zinc finger.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 9521-9526.  
10077584 D.J.Segal, B.Dreier, R.R.Beerli, and C.F.Barbas (1999).
Toward controlling gene expression at will: selection and design of zinc finger domains recognizing each of the 5'-GNN-3' DNA target sequences.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 2758-2763.  
10564481 G.D.Tribble, A.C.Parker, and C.J.Smith (1999).
Transposition genes of the Bacteroides mobilizable transposon Tn4555: role of a novel targeting gene.
  Mol Microbiol, 34, 385-394.  
9537424 L.E.Warner, P.Mancias, I.J.Butler, C.M.McDonald, L.Keppen, K.G.Koob, and J.R.Lupski (1998).
Mutations in the early growth response 2 (EGR2) gene are associated with hereditary myelinopathies.
  Nat Genet, 18, 382-384.  
9512553 N.Bardeesy, and J.Pelletier (1998).
Overlapping RNA and DNA binding domains of the wt1 tumor suppressor gene product.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 26, 1784-1792.  
9853673 P.L.Gadhavi (1998).
Structural dissection of the DNA-binding domain of the yeast transcriptional activator GAL4 reveals an alpha-helical region responsible for dimerization.
  J Protein Chem, 17, 591-598.  
9843940 R.R.Beerli, D.J.Segal, B.Dreier, and C.F.Barbas (1998).
Toward controlling gene expression at will: specific regulation of the erbB-2/HER-2 promoter by using polydactyl zinc finger proteins constructed from modular building blocks.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 14628-14633.  
9501194 R.T.Nolte, R.M.Conlin, S.C.Harrison, and R.S.Brown (1998).
Differing roles for zinc fingers in DNA recognition: structure of a six-finger transcription factor IIIA complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 2938-2943.
PDB code: 1tf6
  9632807 S.Okabe, T.Fukuda, K.Ishibashi, S.Kojima, S.Okada, M.Hatano, M.Ebara, H.Saisho, and T.Tokuhisa (1998).
BAZF, a novel Bcl6 homolog, functions as a transcriptional repressor.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 4235-4244.  
9421515 Y.Choo (1998).
End effects in DNA recognition by zinc finger arrays.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 26, 554-557.  
9155026 B.Morgan, L.Sun, N.Avitahl, K.Andrikopoulos, T.Ikeda, E.Gonzales, P.Wu, S.Neben, and K.Georgopoulos (1997).
Aiolos, a lymphoid restricted transcription factor that interacts with Ikaros to regulate lymphocyte differentiation.
  EMBO J, 16, 2004-2013.  
  9154812 F.Payre, P.Buono, N.Vanzo, and A.Vincent (1997).
Two types of zinc fingers are required for dimerization of the serendipity delta transcriptional activator.
  Mol Cell Biol, 17, 3137-3145.  
9241421 G.Patikoglou, and S.K.Burley (1997).
Eukaryotic transcription factor-DNA complexes.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 26, 289-325.  
9253405 M.P.Foster, D.S.Wuttke, I.Radhakrishnan, D.A.Case, J.M.Gottesfeld, and P.E.Wright (1997).
Domain packing and dynamics in the DNA complex of the N-terminal zinc fingers of TFIIIA.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 605-608.
PDB code: 1tf3
8917505 A.C.Jamieson, H.Wang, and S.H.Kim (1996).
A zinc finger directory for high-affinity DNA recognition.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 12834-12839.  
8700901 J.A.Gogos, J.Jin, H.Wan, M.Kokkinidis, and F.C.Kafatos (1996).
Recognition of diverse sequences by class I zinc fingers: asymmetries and indirect effects on specificity in the interaction between CF2II and A+T-rich elements.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 2159-2164.  
  8895580 L.Sun, A.Liu, and K.Georgopoulos (1996).
Zinc finger-mediated protein interactions modulate Ikaros activity, a molecular control of lymphocyte development.
  EMBO J, 15, 5358-5369.  
8679640 M.Nagaoka, and Y.Sugiura (1996).
Distinct phosphate backbone contacts revealed by some mutant peptides of zinc finger protein Spl: effect of protein-induced bending on DNA recognition.
  Biochemistry, 35, 8761-8768.  
8610125 P.V.Pedone, R.Ghirlando, G.M.Clore, A.M.Gronenborn, G.Felsenfeld, and J.G.Omichinski (1996).
The single Cys2-His2 zinc finger domain of the GAGA protein flanked by basic residues is sufficient for high-affinity specific DNA binding.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 2822-2826.  
8736557 R.N.Dutnall, D.Neuhaus, and D.Rhodes (1996).
The solution structure of the first zinc finger domain of SWI5: a novel structural extension to a common fold.
  Structure, 4, 599-611.
PDB code: 1ncs
8692697 S.J.McBryant, B.Gedulin, K.R.Clemens, P.E.Wright, and J.M.Gottesfeld (1996).
Assessment of major and minor groove DNA interactions by the zinc fingers of Xenopus transcription factor IIIA.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 24, 2567-2574.  
8620007 S.P.Lee, and M.K.Han (1996).
Zinc stimulates Mg2+-dependent 3'-processing activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase in vitro.
  Biochemistry, 35, 3837-3844.  
  7891721 A.H.Swirnoff, and J.Milbrandt (1995).
DNA-binding specificity of NGFI-A and related zinc finger transcription factors.
  Mol Cell Biol, 15, 2275-2287.  
7625690 A.Klug (1995).
Gene regulatory proteins and their interaction with DNA.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 758, 143-160.  
7831288 H.Wu, W.P.Yang, and C.F.Barbas (1995).
Building zinc fingers by selection: toward a therapeutic application.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 344-348.  
7703375 H.Zaima, N.Ueyama, H.Adachi, and A.Nakamura (1995).
1H-, 13C-, and 113Cd-NMR study of the Cd(II) complex of a blocked peptide, Z-Cys-Ala-Pro-His-OMe, in organic solvents.
  Biopolymers, 35, 319-329.  
8597114 R.Kaptein, M.Slijper, and R.Boelens (1995).
Structure and dynamics of the lac repressor-operator complex as determined by NMR.
  Toxicol Lett, 82, 591-599.  
8065901 G.Pengue, V.Calabrò, P.C.Bartoli, A.Pagliuca, and L.Lania (1994).
Repression of transcriptional activity at a distance by the evolutionarily conserved KRAB domain present in a subfamily of zinc finger proteins.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 22, 2908-2914.  
8250005 J.Brandão-Néto, and W.R.Bell (1994).
Characteristics of zinc binding to human red blood cell membranes.
  Am J Hematol, 45, 1-9.  
7517158 J.P.Van Wouwe, and I.Waser (1994).
Comparison between total and ultrafiltrable serum zinc as test to diagnose zinc deficiency in infants and children.
  Biol Trace Elem Res, 40, 203-211.  
7812718 M.F.Jeng, A.P.Campbell, T.Begley, A.Holmgren, D.A.Case, P.E.Wright, and H.J.Dyson (1994).
High-resolution solution structures of oxidized and reduced Escherichia coli thioredoxin.
  Structure, 2, 853-868.
PDB codes: 1xoa 1xob
7984421 M.L.Nedved, and G.R.Moe (1994).
Cooperative, non-specific binding of a zinc finger peptide to DNA.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 22, 4705-4711.  
8078776 M.Suzuki, M.Gerstein, and N.Yagi (1994).
Stereochemical basis of DNA recognition by Zn fingers.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 22, 3397-3405.  
7527150 Q.Zheng, and D.J.Kyle (1994).
Multiple copy sampling: rigid versus flexible protein.
  Proteins, 19, 324-329.  
  7905822 R.P.Kühnlein, G.Frommer, M.Friedrich, M.Gonzalez-Gaitan, A.Weber, J.F.Wagner-Bernholz, W.J.Gehring, H.Jäckle, and R.Schuh (1994).
spalt encodes an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger protein of novel structure which provides homeotic gene function in the head and tail region of the Drosophila embryo.
  EMBO J, 13, 168-179.  
7664052 U.Hommel, M.Zurini, and M.Luyten (1994).
Solution structure of a cysteine rich domain of rat protein kinase C.
  Nat Struct Biol, 1, 383-387.  
7972027 Y.Choo, and A.Klug (1994).
Toward a code for the interactions of zinc fingers with DNA: selection of randomized fingers displayed on phage.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 11163-11167.  
8400034 A.Otter, P.G.Scott, and G.Kotovych (1993).
Conformational analysis of the type II and type III collagen alpha-1 chain N-telopeptides by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and restrained molecular mechanics calculations.
  Biopolymers, 33, 1443-1459.  
8223628 A.Sakamoto, M.Minami, G.H.Huh, and M.Iwabuchi (1993).
The putative zinc-finger protein WZF1 interacts with a cis-acting element of wheat histone genes.
  Eur J Biochem, 217, 1049-1056.  
  8401216 B.A.Krizek, L.E.Zawadzke, and J.M.Berg (1993).
Independence of metal binding between tandem Cys2His2 zinc finger domains.
  Protein Sci, 2, 1313-1319.  
  8350412 C.B.Jonsson, and M.J.Roth (1993).
Role of the His-Cys finger of Moloney murine leukemia virus integrase protein in integration and disintegration.
  J Virol, 67, 5562-5571.  
  8384241 D.D.Doyle, Y.Guo, S.L.Lustig, J.Satin, R.B.Rogart, and H.A.Fozzard (1993).
Divalent cation competition with [3H]saxitoxin binding to tetrodotoxin-resistant and -sensitive sodium channels. A two-site structural model of ion/toxin interaction.
  J Gen Physiol, 101, 153-182.  
8506279 J.W.Michelsen, K.L.Schmeichel, M.C.Beckerle, and D.R.Winge (1993).
The LIM motif defines a specific zinc-binding protein domain.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 90, 4404-4408.  
8221895 J.W.Schwabe, L.Chapman, J.T.Finch, and D.Rhodes (1993).
The crystal structure of the estrogen receptor DNA-binding domain bound to DNA: how receptors discriminate between their response elements.
  Cell, 75, 567-578.
PDB code: 1hcq
  8318898 M.J.Sutcliffe (1993).
Representing an ensemble of NMR-derived protein structures by a single structure.
  Protein Sci, 2, 936-944.  
8272423 M.W.MacArthur, and J.M.Thornton (1993).
Conformational analysis of protein structures derived from NMR data.
  Proteins, 17, 232-251.  
  8318900 R.C.Hoffman, S.J.Horvath, and R.E.Klevit (1993).
Structures of DNA-binding mutant zinc finger domains: implications for DNA binding.
  Protein Sci, 2, 951-965.
PDB codes: 1ard 1are 1arf
  8321231 R.Delwel, T.Funabiki, B.L.Kreider, K.Morishita, and J.N.Ihle (1993).
Four of the seven zinc fingers of the Evi-1 myeloid-transforming gene are required for sequence-specific binding to GA(C/T)AAGA(T/C)AAGATAA.
  Mol Cell Biol, 13, 4291-4300.  
  8355698 R.M.Brazas, and D.J.Stillman (1993).
Identification and purification of a protein that binds DNA cooperatively with the yeast SWI5 protein.
  Mol Cell Biol, 13, 5524-5537.  
8378326 X.Tao, and J.R.Murphy (1993).
Cysteine-102 is positioned in the metal binding activation site of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae regulatory element DtxR.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 90, 8524-8528.  
8346014 Y.Choo, and A.Klug (1993).
A role in DNA binding for the linker sequences of the first three zinc fingers of TFIIIA.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 21, 3341-3346.  
  1569931 A.D.Keller, and T.Maniatis (1992).
Only two of the five zinc fingers of the eukaryotic transcriptional repressor PRDI-BF1 are required for sequence-specific DNA binding.
  Mol Cell Biol, 12, 1940-1949.  
  1425585 G.H.Jacobs (1992).
Determination of the base recognition positions of zinc fingers from sequence analysis.
  EMBO J, 11, 4507-4517.  
1332044 H.Tseng, and H.Green (1992).
Basonuclin: a keratinocyte protein with multiple paired zinc fingers.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 89, 10311-10315.  
  1280325 J.G.Kim, and L.D.Hudson (1992).
Novel member of the zinc finger superfamily: A C2-HC finger that recognizes a glia-specific gene.
  Mol Cell Biol, 12, 5632-5639.  
1454785 J.M.Berg (1992).
Sp1 and the subfamily of zinc finger proteins with guanine-rich binding sites.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 89, 11109-11110.  
1508708 J.Nardelli, T.Gibson, and P.Charnay (1992).
Zinc finger-DNA recognition: analysis of base specificity by site-directed mutagenesis.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 20, 4137-4144.  
  1309593 J.R.Flanagan, K.G.Becker, D.L.Ennist, S.L.Gleason, P.H.Driggers, B.Z.Levi, E.Appella, and K.Ozato (1992).
Cloning of a negative transcription factor that binds to the upstream conserved region of Moloney murine leukemia virus.
  Mol Cell Biol, 12, 38-44.  
1408784 L.Fairall, and D.Rhodes (1992).
A new approach to the analysis of DNase I footprinting data and its application to the TFIIIA/5S DNA complex.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 20, 4727-4731.  
  1516821 M.Crozatier, K.Kongsuwan, P.Ferrer, J.R.Merriam, J.A.Lengyel, and A.Vincent (1992).
Single amino acid exchanges in separate domains of the Drosophila serendipity delta zinc finger protein cause embryonic and sex biased lethality.
  Genetics, 131, 905-916.  
  1304355 M.F.Summers, L.E.Henderson, M.R.Chance, J.W.Bess, T.L.South, P.R.Blake, I.Sagi, G.Perez-Alvarado, R.C.Sowder, and D.R.Hare (1992).
Nucleocapsid zinc fingers detected in retroviruses: EXAFS studies of intact viruses and the solution-state structure of the nucleocapsid protein from HIV-1.
  Protein Sci, 1, 563-574.
PDB code: 1aaf
1324755 M.S.Lee, A.G.Palmer, and P.E.Wright (1992).
Relationship between 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts and the secondary and tertiary structure of a zinc finger peptide.
  J Biomol NMR, 2, 307-322.  
1511742 M.S.Lee, R.J.Mortishire-Smith, and P.E.Wright (1992).
The zinc finger motif. Conservation of chemical shifts and correlation with structure.
  FEBS Lett, 309, 29-32.  
1570325 N.A.Woychik, and R.A.Young (1992).
Genes encoding transcription factor IIIA and the RNA polymerase common subunit RPB6 are divergently transcribed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 89, 3999-4003.  
1614869 P.S.Burke, and D.J.Wolgemuth (1992).
Zfp-37, a new murine zinc finger encoding gene, is expressed in a developmentally regulated pattern in the male germ line.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 20, 2827-2834.  
1438276 R.J.Sommer, M.Retzlaff, K.Goerlich, K.Sander, and D.Tautz (1992).
Evolutionary conservation pattern of zinc-finger domains of Drosophila segmentation genes.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 89, 10782-10786.  
  1448103 S.Camier, N.Kacherovsky, and E.T.Young (1992).
A mutation outside the two zinc fingers of ADR1 can suppress defects in either finger.
  Mol Cell Biol, 12, 5758-5767.  
1594580 S.F.Michael, V.J.Kilfoil, M.H.Schmidt, B.T.Amann, and J.M.Berg (1992).
Metal binding and folding properties of a minimalist Cys2His2 zinc finger peptide.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 89, 4796-4800.  
1302008 W.Bruening, N.Bardeesy, B.L.Silverman, R.A.Cohn, G.A.Machin, A.J.Aronson, D.Housman, and J.Pelletier (1992).
Germline intronic and exonic mutations in the Wilms' tumour gene (WT1) affecting urogenital development.
  Nat Genet, 1, 144-148.  
1379318 W.T.Miller, and P.Schimmel (1992).
A metal-binding motif implicated in RNA recognition by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and by a retroviral gene product.
  Mol Microbiol, 6, 1259-1262.  
1549561 W.T.Miller, and P.Schimmel (1992).
A retroviral-like metal binding motif in an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase is important for tRNA recognition.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 89, 2032-2035.  
2040012 A.D.Frankel, and P.S.Kim (1991).
Modular structure of transcription factors: implications for gene regulation.
  Cell, 65, 717-719.  
1648217 A.Pastore, R.A.Atkinson, V.Saudek, and R.J.Williams (1991).
Topological mirror images in protein structure computation: an underestimated problem.
  Proteins, 10, 22-32.  
  2017172 A.S.Perkins, R.Fishel, N.A.Jenkins, and N.G.Copeland (1991).
Evi-1, a murine zinc finger proto-oncogene, encodes a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein.
  Mol Cell Biol, 11, 2665-2674.  
1846973 B.L.Vallee, J.E.Coleman, and D.S.Auld (1991).
Zinc fingers, zinc clusters, and zinc twists in DNA-binding protein domains.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 88, 999.  
1901405 C.Mitchelmore, C.Traboni, and R.Cortese (1991).
Isolation of two cDNAs encoding zinc finger proteins which bind to the alpha 1-antitrypsin promoter and to the major histocompatibility complex class I enhancer.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 19, 141-147.  
15336141 D.Neuhaus, and D.Rhodes (1991).
Putting the finger on DNA.
  Curr Biol, 1, 268-270.  
2011525 G.P.Schroth, J.M.Gottesfeld, and E.M.Bradbury (1991).
TFIIIA induced DNA bending: effect of low ionic strength electrophoresis buffer conditions.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 19, 511-516.  
1713475 G.S.Makowski, S.M.Lin, S.M.Brennan, H.M.Smilowitz, S.M.Hopfer, and F.W.Sunderman (1991).
Detection of two Zn-finger proteins of Xenopus laevis, TFIIIA, and p43, by probing western blots of ovary cytosol with 65Zn2+, 63Ni2+, or 109Cd2+.
  Biol Trace Elem Res, 29, 93.  
1367679 J.A.Tainer, V.A.Roberts, and E.D.Getzoff (1991).
Metal-binding sites in proteins.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 2, 582-591.  
1762917 J.F.Smith, J.Hawkins, R.E.Leonard, and J.S.Hanas (1991).
Structural elements in the N-terminal half of transcription factor IIIA required for factor binding to the 5S RNA gene internal control region.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 19, 6871-6876.  
1907665 J.Lanfear, and P.W.Holland (1991).
The molecular evolution of ZFY-related genes in birds and mammals.
  J Mol Evol, 32, 310-315.  
1367678 J.R.Coggins (1991).
Deletions, fusions and domain rearrangements.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 2, 576-581.  
1957350 J.W.Schwabe, and D.Rhodes (1991).
Beyond zinc fingers: steroid hormone receptors have a novel structural motif for DNA recognition.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 16, 291-296.  
  2014798 K.Huebner, T.Druck, C.M.Croce, and H.J.Thiesen (1991).
Twenty-seven nonoverlapping zinc finger cDNAs from human T cells map to nine different chromosomes with apparent clustering.
  Am J Hum Genet, 48, 726-740.  
1835093 L.C.Webster, K.Zhang, B.Chance, I.Ayene, J.S.Culp, W.J.Huang, F.Y.Wu, and R.P.Ricciardi (1991).
Conversion of the E1A Cys4 zinc finger to a nonfunctional His2,Cys2 zinc finger by a single point mutation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 88, 9989-9993.  
1846092 L.Fasano, L.Röder, N.Coré, E.Alexandre, C.Vola, B.Jacq, and S.Kerridge (1991).
The gene teashirt is required for the development of Drosophila embryonic trunk segments and encodes a protein with widely spaced zinc finger motifs.
  Cell, 64, 63-79.  
2005183 M.F.Summers (1991).
Zinc finger motif for single-stranded nucleic acids? Investigations by nuclear magnetic resonance.
  J Cell Biochem, 45, 41-48.  
1924304 M.Kochoyan, H.T.Keutmann, and M.A.Weiss (1991).
Architectural rules of the zinc-finger motif: comparative two-dimensional NMR studies of native and "aromatic-swap" domains define a "weakly polar switch".
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 88, 8455-8459.  
2041734 M.North, C.Sargent, J.O'Brien, K.Taylor, J.Wolfe, N.A.Affara, and M.A.Ferguson-Smith (1991).
Comparison of ZFY and ZFX gene structure and analysis of alternative 3' untranslated regions of ZFY.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 19, 2579-2586.  
1961749 P.W.Huber, T.Morii, H.Y.Mei, and J.K.Barton (1991).
Structural polymorphism in the major groove of a 5S RNA gene complements the zinc finger domains of transcription factor IIIA.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 88, 10801-10805.  
15336117 R.Kaptein (1991).
Distinguishing features.
  Curr Biol, 1, 336-338.  
1711675 R.Lovering, and J.Trowsdale (1991).
A gene encoding 22 highly related zinc fingers is expressed in lymphoid cell lines.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 19, 2921-2928.  
1924382 S.K.Thukral, M.L.Morrison, and E.T.Young (1991).
Alanine scanning site-directed mutagenesis of the zinc fingers of transcription factor ADR1: residues that contact DNA and that transactivate.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 88, 9188-9192.  
1873026 X.He, and M.G.Rosenfeld (1991).
Mechanisms of complex transcriptional regulation: implications for brain development.
  Neuron, 7, 183-196.  
  2167439 C.Buchman, P.Skroch, W.Dixon, T.D.Tullius, and M.Karin (1990).
A single amino acid change in CUP2 alters its mode of DNA binding.
  Mol Cell Biol, 10, 4778-4787.  
2186365 D.Ghosh (1990).
A relational database of transcription factors.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 18, 1749-1756.  
2104978 G.Párraga, S.Horvath, L.Hood, E.T.Young, and R.E.Klevit (1990).
Spectroscopic studies of wild-type and mutant "zinc finger" peptides: determinants of domain folding and structure.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 87, 137-141.  
2192357 H.J.Thiesen, and C.Bach (1990).
Target Detection Assay (TDA): a versatile procedure to determine DNA binding sites as demonstrated on SP1 protein.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 18, 3203-3209.  
2331751 K.E.Joho, M.K.Darby, E.T.Crawford, and D.D.Brown (1990).
A finger protein structurally similar to TFIIIA that binds exclusively to 5S RNA in Xenopus.
  Cell, 61, 293-300.  
2164687 M.E.Churchill, T.D.Tullius, and A.Klug (1990).
Mode of interaction of the zinc finger protein TFIIIA with a 5S RNA gene of Xenopus.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 87, 5528-5532.  
2308929 M.S.Palmer, P.Berta, A.H.Sinclair, B.Pym, and P.N.Goodfellow (1990).
Comparison of human ZFY and ZFX transcripts.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 87, 1681-1685.  
  1969796 P.Chavrier, C.Vesque, B.Galliot, M.Vigneron, P.Dollé, D.Duboule, and P.Charnay (1990).
The segment-specific gene Krox-20 encodes a transcription factor with binding sites in the promoter region of the Hox-1.4 gene.
  EMBO J, 9, 1209-1218.  
  2113174 P.Lemaire, C.Vesque, J.Schmitt, H.Stunnenberg, R.Frank, and P.Charnay (1990).
The serum-inducible mouse gene Krox-24 encodes a sequence-specific transcriptional activator.
  Mol Cell Biol, 10, 3456-3467.  
2204954 T.A.Steitz (1990).
Structural studies of protein-nucleic acid interaction: the sources of sequence-specific binding.
  Q Rev Biophys, 23, 205-280.  
  2106070 T.Matsugi, K.Morishita, and J.N.Ihle (1990).
Identification, nuclear localization, and DNA-binding activity of the zinc finger protein encoded by the Evi-1 myeloid transforming gene.
  Mol Cell Biol, 10, 1259-1264.  
2617666 F.J.Zeelen (1989).
Molecular biological techniques make an impact on medicinal chemistry.
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 10, 472.  
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