PDBsum entry 1yrn

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protein dna_rna Protein-protein interface(s) links
DNA binding protein/DNA PDB id
Protein chains
49 a.a. *
78 a.a. *
Waters ×58
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: DNA binding protein/DNA
Title: Crystal structure of the mata1/matalpha2 homeodomain heterodimer bound to DNA
Structure: DNA (5'- d( Tp Ap Cp Ap Tp Gp Tp Ap Ap Tp Tp Tp Ap Tp Tp Ap C p Ap Tp Cp A)-3'). Chain: c. Engineered: yes. DNA (5'- d( Tp Ap Tp Gp Ap Tp Gp Tp Ap Ap Tp Ap Ap Ap Tp Tp A p Cp Ap Tp G)-3'). Chain: d.
Source: Synthetic: yes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Baker's yeast. Organism_taxid: 4932. Gene: mat a1 residue 66-126. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562. Other_details: t7 promoter. Gene: mat alpha2 residue 128-210.
Biol. unit: Dimer (from PQS)
2.50Å     R-factor:   0.225     R-free:   0.298
Authors: T.Li,M.R.Stark,A.D.Johnson,C.Wolberger
Key ref: T.Li et al. (1995). Crystal structure of the MATa1/MAT alpha 2 homeodomain heterodimer bound to DNA. Science, 270, 262-269. PubMed id: 7569974 DOI: 10.1126/science.270.5234.262
02-Nov-95     Release date:   29-Jan-96    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P0CY10  (MATA1_YEASX) -  Mating-type protein A1
126 a.a.
49 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P0CY08  (MTAL2_YEAST) -  Mating-type protein ALPHA2
210 a.a.
78 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     nucleus   1 term 
  Biological process     regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent   1 term 
  Biochemical function     DNA binding     3 terms  


DOI no: 10.1126/science.270.5234.262 Science 270:262-269 (1995)
PubMed id: 7569974  
Crystal structure of the MATa1/MAT alpha 2 homeodomain heterodimer bound to DNA.
T.Li, M.R.Stark, A.D.Johnson, C.Wolberger.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MATa1 and MAT alpha 2 homeodomain proteins, which play a role in determining yeast cell type, form a heterodimer that binds DNA and represses transcription in a cell type-specific manner. Whereas the alpha 2 and a1 proteins on their own have only modest affinity for DNA, the a1/alpha 2 heterodimer binds DNA with high specificity and affinity. The three-dimensional crystal structure of the a1/alpha 2 homeodomain heterodimer bound to DNA was determined at a resolution of 2.5 A. The a1 and alpha 2 homeodomains bind in a head-to-tail orientation, with heterodimer contacts mediated by a 16-residue tail located carboxyl-terminal to the alpha 2 homeodomain. This tail becomes ordered in the presence of a1, part of it forming a short amphipathic helix that packs against the a1 homeodomain between helices 1 and 2. A pronounced 60 degree bend is induced in the DNA, which makes possible protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts that could not take place in a straight DNA fragment. Complex formation mediated by flexible protein-recognition peptides attached to stably folded DNA binding domains may prove to be a general feature of the architecture of other classes of eukaryotic transcriptional regulators.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
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PDB codes: 3a01 3a02 3a03 3lnq
19486297 B.C.Stanton, S.S.Giles, E.K.Kruzel, C.L.Warren, A.Z.Ansari, and C.M.Hull (2009).
Cognate Site Identifier analysis reveals novel binding properties of the Sex Inducer homeodomain proteins of Cryptococcus neoformans.
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18761670 K.Omagari, H.Yoshimura, T.Suzuki, M.Takano, M.Ohmori, and A.Sarai (2008).
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17981120 R.Joshi, J.M.Passner, R.Rohs, R.Jain, A.Sosinsky, M.A.Crickmore, V.Jacob, A.K.Aggarwal, B.Honig, and R.S.Mann (2007).
Functional specificity of a Hox protein mediated by the recognition of minor groove structure.
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PDB codes: 2r5y 2r5z
18059448 S.C.Harrison (2007).
Three-dimensional intricacies in protein-DNA recognition and transcriptional control.
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17646310 S.Mahony, P.E.Auron, and P.V.Benos (2007).
Inferring protein-DNA dependencies using motif alignments and mutual information.
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PDB code: 2hzd
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Decoding transcriptional regulatory interactions.
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15869395 A.Sarai, and H.Kono (2005).
Protein-DNA recognition patterns and predictions.
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15634343 M.F.Tioni, I.L.Viola, R.L.Chan, and D.H.Gonzalez (2005).
Site-directed mutagenesis and footprinting analysis of the interaction of the sunflower KNOX protein HAKN1 with DNA.
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Structural and energetic origins of sequence-specific DNA bending: Monte Carlo simulations of papillomavirus E2-DNA binding sites.
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15853794 Y.Chen, and G.Varani (2005).
Protein families and RNA recognition.
  FEBS J, 272, 2088-2097.  
15247345 M.D.Simon, K.Sato, G.A.Weiss, and K.M.Shokat (2004).
A phage display selection of engrailed homeodomain mutants and the importance of residue Q50.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 32, 3623-3631.  
15388867 R.Schleif, and C.Wolberger (2004).
Arm-domain interactions can provide high binding cooperativity.
  Protein Sci, 13, 2829-2831.  
15331021 V.H.Nagaraj, R.A.O'Flanagan, A.R.Bruning, J.R.Mathias, A.K.Vershon, and A.M.Sengupta (2004).
Combined analysis of expression data and transcription factor binding sites in the yeast genome.
  BMC Genomics, 5, 59.  
12538894 A.Ke, and C.Wolberger (2003).
Insights into binding cooperativity of MATa1/MATalpha2 from the crystal structure of a MATa1 homeodomain-maltose binding protein chimera.
  Protein Sci, 12, 306-312.
PDB codes: 1mh3 1mh4
12612071 I.Saadi, A.Kuburas, J.J.Engle, and A.F.Russo (2003).
Dominant negative dimerization of a mutant homeodomain protein in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome.
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12784213 J.Aishima, and C.Wolberger (2003).
Insights into nonspecific binding of homeodomains from a structure of MATalpha2 bound to DNA.
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14580198 K.J.Hwang, B.Xiang, J.M.Gruschus, K.Y.Nam, K.T.No, M.Nirenberg, and J.A.Ferretti (2003).
Distortion of the three-dimensional structure of the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain bound to DNA induced by an embryonically lethal A35T point mutation.
  Biochemistry, 42, 12522-12531.
PDB code: 1qry
12684382 T.Srikantha, S.A.Lachke, and D.R.Soll (2003).
Three mating type-like loci in Candida glabrata.
  Eukaryot Cell, 2, 328-340.  
12121651 A.Ke, J.R.Mathias, A.K.Vershon, and C.Wolberger (2002).
Structural and thermodynamic characterization of the DNA binding properties of a triple alanine mutant of MATalpha2.
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PDB code: 1le8
12464634 C.M.Hull, R.C.Davidson, and J.Heitman (2002).
Cell identity and sexual development in Cryptococcus neoformans are controlled by the mating-type-specific homeodomain protein Sxi1alpha.
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11906605 C.Y.Ho, M.Smith, M.E.Houston, J.G.Adamson, and R.S.Hodges (2002).
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A Hoogsteen base pair embedded in undistorted B-DNA.
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PDB code: 1k61
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Structure of the DNA binding region of prospero reveals a novel homeo-prospero domain.
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PDB code: 1mij
11847127 T.K.Chiu, C.Sohn, R.E.Dickerson, and R.C.Johnson (2002).
Testing water-mediated DNA recognition by the Hin recombinase.
  EMBO J, 21, 801-814.
PDB codes: 1ijw 1jj6 1jj8 1jko 1jkp 1jkq 1jkr
11861910 Z.Morávek, S.Neidle, and B.Schneider (2002).
Protein and drug interactions in the minor groove of DNA.
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11741530 C.W.Garvie, and C.Wolberger (2001).
Recognition of specific DNA sequences.
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11779502 C.W.Garvie, J.Hagman, and C.Wolberger (2001).
Structural studies of Ets-1/Pax5 complex formation on DNA.
  Mol Cell, 8, 1267-1276.
PDB codes: 1k78 1k79 1k7a
11406412 S.Khorasanizadeh, and F.Rastinejad (2001).
Nuclear-receptor interactions on DNA-response elements.
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PDB code: 1hlv
10856250 E.Gillitzer, G.Chen, and A.Stenlund (2000).
Separate domains in E1 and E2 proteins serve architectural and productive roles for cooperative DNA binding.
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10627562 G.Chen, and A.Stenlund (2000).
Two patches of amino acids on the E2 DNA binding domain define the surface for interaction with E1.
  J Virol, 74, 1506-1512.  
10940257 L.D.Williams, and L.J.Maher (2000).
Electrostatic mechanisms of DNA deformation.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 29, 497-521.  
10733977 L.Pardo, M.Campillo, D.Bosch, N.Pastor, and H.Weinstein (2000).
Binding mechanisms of TATA box-binding proteins: DNA kinking is stabilized by specific hydrogen bonds.
  Biophys J, 78, 1988-1996.  
10759558 R.L.Smith, and A.D.Johnson (2000).
A sequence resembling a peroxisomal targeting sequence directs the interaction between the tetratricopeptide repeats of Ssn6 and the homeodomain of alpha 2.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 3901-3906.  
10629049 S.S.Mahajan, and A.C.Wilson (2000).
Mutations in host cell factor 1 separate its role in cell proliferation from recruitment of VP16 and LZIP.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 919-928.  
10931305 T.Romeis, A.Brachmann, R.Kahmann, and J.Kämper (2000).
Identification of a target gene for the bE-bW homeodomain protein complex in Ustilago maydis.
  Mol Microbiol, 37, 54-66.  
11003663 V.Dave, C.Zhao, F.Yang, C.S.Tung, and J.Ma (2000).
Reprogrammable recognition codes in bicoid homeodomain-DNA interaction.
  Mol Cell Biol, 20, 7673-7684.  
10813836 V.Nanda, and L.Brand (2000).
Aromatic interactions in homeodomains contribute to the low quantum yield of a conserved, buried tryptophan.
  Proteins, 40, 112-125.  
  10567520 A.Ravindra, K.Weiss, and R.T.Simpson (1999).
High-resolution structural analysis of chromatin at specific loci: Saccharomyces cerevisiae silent mating-type locus HMRa.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 7944-7950.  
10449733 B.S.Wang, and C.O.Pabo (1999).
Dimerization of zinc fingers mediated by peptides evolved in vitro from random sequences.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 9568-9573.  
10410794 C.Wolberger (1999).
Multiprotein-DNA complexes in transcriptional regulation.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 28, 29-56.  
10541551 D.Chasman, K.Cepek, P.A.Sharp, and C.O.Pabo (1999).
Crystal structure of an OCA-B peptide bound to an Oct-1 POU domain/octamer DNA complex: specific recognition of a protein-DNA interface.
  Genes Dev, 13, 2650-2657.
PDB code: 1cqt
10052460 D.E.Piper, A.H.Batchelor, C.P.Chang, M.L.Cleary, and C.Wolberger (1999).
Structure of a HoxB1-Pbx1 heterodimer bound to DNA: role of the hexapeptide and a fourth homeodomain helix in complex formation.
  Cell, 96, 587-597.
PDB code: 1b72
10090291 H.Kono, and A.Sarai (1999).
Structure-based prediction of DNA target sites by regulatory proteins.
  Proteins, 35, 114-131.  
  10082522 J.J.Tremblay, and J.Drouin (1999).
Egr-1 is a downstream effector of GnRH and synergizes by direct interaction with Ptx1 and SF-1 to enhance luteinizing hormone beta gene transcription.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 2567-2576.  
10026283 K.Nadassy, S.J.Wodak, and J.Janin (1999).
Structural features of protein-nucleic acid recognition sites.
  Biochemistry, 38, 1999-2017.  
10047576 L.Chen (1999).
Combinatorial gene regulation by eukaryotic transcription factors.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 9, 48-55.  
10541438 M.L.Tejada, Z.Jia, D.May, and R.G.Deeley (1999).
Determinants of the DNA-binding specificity of the Avian homeodomain protein, AKR.
  DNA Cell Biol, 18, 791-804.  
10075932 M.R.Stark, D.Escher, and A.D.Johnson (1999).
A trans-acting peptide activates the yeast a1 repressor by raising its DNA-binding affinity.
  EMBO J, 18, 1621-1629.  
10336376 R.Schleif (1999).
Arm-domain interactions in proteins: a review.
  Proteins, 34, 1-3.  
10375516 S.Khorasanizadeh, and F.Rastinejad (1999).
Transcription factors: the right combination for the DNA lock.
  Curr Biol, 9, R456-R458.  
  10082571 T.Kophengnavong, A.S.Carroll, and T.K.Blackwell (1999).
The SKN-1 amino-terminal arm is a DNA specificity segment.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 3039-3050.  
  9858582 Y.Jin, H.Zhong, and A.K.Vershon (1999).
The yeast a1 and alpha2 homeodomain proteins do not contribute equally to heterodimeric DNA binding.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 585-593.  
  10398682 Y.Liu, W.Gong, C.C.Huang, W.Herr, and X.Cheng (1999).
Crystal structure of the conserved core of the herpes simplex virus transcriptional regulatory protein VP16.
  Genes Dev, 13, 1692-1703.
PDB code: 16vp
9636163 B.Xiang, S.Weiler, M.Nirenberg, and J.A.Ferretti (1998).
Structural basis of an embryonically lethal single Ala --> Thr mutation in the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 7412-7416.  
9794820 C.Wolberger (1998).
Combinatorial transcription factors.
  Curr Opin Genet Dev, 8, 552-559.  
9857196 F.X.Gomis-Rüth, M.Solá, P.Acebo, A.Párraga, A.Guasch, R.Eritja, A.González, M.Espinosa, G.del Solar, and M.Coll (1998).
The structure of plasmid-encoded transcriptional repressor CopG unliganded and bound to its operator.
  EMBO J, 17, 7404-7415.
PDB codes: 1b01 2cpg
9922128 J.C.Hansen, C.Tse, and A.P.Wolffe (1998).
Structure and function of the core histone N-termini: more than meets the eye.
  Biochemistry, 37, 17637-17641.  
9928492 J.E.Haber (1998).
Mating-type gene switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  Annu Rev Genet, 32, 561-599.  
9691271 J.K.Strauss-Soukup, P.D.Rodrigues, and L.J.Maher (1998).
Effect of base composition on DNA bending by phosphate neutralization.
  Biophys Chem, 72, 297-306.  
9565750 J.P.Schneider, A.Lombardi, and W.F.DeGrado (1998).
Analysis and design of three-stranded coiled coils and three-helix bundles.
  Fold Des, 3, R29-R40.  
  9529887 L.A.Casselton, and N.S.Olesnicky (1998).
Molecular genetics of mating recognition in basidiomycete fungi.
  Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 62, 55-70.  
9580678 L.A.Tomky, J.K.Strauss-Soukup, and L.J.Maher (1998).
Effects of phosphate neutralization on the shape of the AP-1 transcription factor binding site in duplex DNA.
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10384309 M.Wahi, K.Komachi, and A.D.Johnson (1998).
Gene regulation by the yeast Ssn6-Tup1 corepressor.
  Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 63, 447-457.  
9695950 P.R.Johnson, R.Swanson, L.Rakhilina, and M.Hochstrasser (1998).
Degradation signal masking by heterodimerization of MATalpha2 and MATa1 blocks their mutual destruction by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
  Cell, 94, 217-227.  
9518483 R.E.Dickerson (1998).
DNA bending: the prevalence of kinkiness and the virtues of normality.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 26, 1906-1926.  
9699631 S.A.Dames, R.A.Kammerer, R.Wiltscheck, J.Engel, and A.T.Alexandrescu (1998).
NMR structure of a parallel homotrimeric coiled coil.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 687-691.
PDB code: 1aq5
9519295 S.Tan, and T.J.Richmond (1998).
Eukaryotic transcription factors.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 8, 41-48.  
9864368 V.Kurvari, N.V.Grishin, and W.J.Snell (1998).
A gamete-specific, sex-limited homeodomain protein in Chlamydomonas.
  J Cell Biol, 143, 1971-1980.  
10384325 W.Herr (1998).
The herpes simplex virus VP16-induced complex: mechanisms of combinatorial transcriptional regulation.
  Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 63, 599-607.  
9254598 D.N.Paolella, Y.Liu, M.A.Fabian, and A.Schepartz (1997).
Electrostatic mechanism for DNA bending by bZIP proteins.
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9241421 G.Patikoglou, and S.K.Burley (1997).
Eukaryotic transcription factor-DNA complexes.
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9155030 H.C.van Leeuwen, M.J.Strating, M.Rensen, Laat, and P.C.van der Vliet (1997).
Linker length and composition influence the flexibility of Oct-1 DNA binding.
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  9144767 H.Li, R.Tejero, D.Monleon, D.Bassolino-Klimas, C.Abate-Shen, R.E.Bruccoleri, and G.T.Montelione (1997).
Homology modeling using simulated annealing of restrained molecular dynamics and conformational search calculations with CONGEN: application in predicting the three-dimensional structure of murine homeodomain Msx-1.
  Protein Sci, 6, 956-970.  
9012668 J.H.Carra, and P.L.Privalov (1997).
Energetics of folding and DNA binding of the MAT alpha 2 homeodomain.
  Biochemistry, 36, 526-535.  
9154919 J.M.Gruschus, D.H.Tsao, L.H.Wang, M.Nirenberg, and J.A.Ferretti (1997).
Interactions of the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain with DNA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: basis of binding specificity.
  Biochemistry, 36, 5372-5380.
PDB codes: 1nk2 1nk3
  9199328 J.S.Lai, and W.Herr (1997).
Interdigitated residues within a small region of VP16 interact with Oct-1, HCF, and DNA.
  Mol Cell Biol, 17, 3937-3946.  
9188697 L.Li, and K.S.Matthews (1997).
Differences in water release with DNA binding by ultrabithorax and deformed homeodomains.
  Biochemistry, 36, 7003-7011.  
9309220 L.Tucker-Kellogg, M.A.Rould, K.A.Chambers, S.E.Ades, R.T.Sauer, and C.O.Pabo (1997).
Engrailed (Gln50-->Lys) homeodomain-DNA complex at 1.9 A resolution: structural basis for enhanced affinity and altered specificity.
  Structure, 5, 1047-1054.
PDB code: 2hdd
9365251 M.C.Justice, B.P.Hogan, and A.K.Vershon (1997).
Homeodomain-DNA interactions of the Pho2 protein are promoter-dependent.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 25, 4730-4739.  
  9271414 M.Sánchez, P.A.Jennings, and C.Murre (1997).
Conformational changes induced in Hoxb-8/Pbx-1 heterodimers in solution and upon interaction with specific DNA.
  Mol Cell Biol, 17, 5369-5376.  
9782776 R.E.Dickerson, and T.K.Chiu (1997).
Helix bending as a factor in protein/DNA recognition.
  Biopolymers, 44, 361-403.  
9405381 S.Schumacher, R.T.Clubb, M.Cai, K.Mizuuchi, G.M.Clore, and A.M.Gronenborn (1997).
Solution structure of the Mu end DNA-binding ibeta subdomain of phage Mu transposase: modular DNA recognition by two tethered domains.
  EMBO J, 16, 7532-7541.
PDB codes: 2ezk 2ezl
9047333 T.Akiyama, and M.E.Hogan (1997).
Structural analysis of DNA bending induced by tethered triple helix forming oligonucleotides.
  Biochemistry, 36, 2307-2315.  
9184234 T.K.Kerppola, and T.Curran (1997).
The transcription activation domains of Fos and Jun induce DNA bending through electrostatic interactions.
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  9286672 Y.Asada, C.Yue, J.Wu, G.P.Shen, C.P.Novotny, and R.C.Ullrich (1997).
Schizophyllum commune A alpha mating-type proteins, Y and Z, form complexes in all combinations in vitro.
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9171356 Y.Ling, J.H.Lakey, C.E.Roberts, and A.D.Sharrocks (1997).
Molecular characterization of the B-box protein-protein interaction motif of the ETS-domain transcription factor Elk-1.
  EMBO J, 16, 2431-2440.  
8989317 Y.Xing, D.Guha Thakurta, and D.E.Draper (1997).
The RNA binding domain of ribosomal protein L11 is structurally similar to homeodomains.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 24-27.  
8768896 A.K.Vershon (1996).
Protein interactions of homeodomain proteins.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 7, 392-396.  
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Homeodomain interactions.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 6, 62-68.  
8692913 D.S.Wilson, G.Sheng, S.Jun, and C.Desplan (1996).
Conservation and diversification in homeodomain-DNA interactions: a comparative genetic analysis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 6886-6891.  
  8890172 G.Damante, L.Pellizzari, G.Esposito, F.Fogolari, P.Viglino, D.Fabbro, G.Tell, S.Formisano, and R.Di Lauro (1996).
A molecular code dictates sequence-specific DNA recognition by homeodomains.
  EMBO J, 15, 4992-5000.  
8807901 J.K.Strauss, T.P.Prakash, C.Roberts, C.Switzer, and L.J.Maher (1996).
DNA bending by a phantom protein.
  Chem Biol, 3, 671-678.  
  8628280 J.Mead, H.Zhong, T.B.Acton, and A.K.Vershon (1996).
The yeast alpha2 and Mcm1 proteins interact through a region similar to a motif found in homeodomain proteins of higher eukaryotes.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 2135-2143.  
8703957 L.Li, D.von Kessler, P.A.Beachy, and K.S.Matthews (1996).
pH-dependent enhancement of DNA binding by the ultrabithorax homeodomain.
  Biochemistry, 35, 9832-9839.  
  8698039 L.T.Peltenburg, and C.Murre (1996).
Engrailed and Hox homeodomain proteins contain a related Pbx interaction motif that recognizes a common structure present in Pbx.
  EMBO J, 15, 3385-3393.  
8901570 N.Y.Sidorova, and D.C.Rau (1996).
Differences in water release for the binding of EcoRI to specific and nonspecific DNA sequences.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 12272-12277.  
8620531 P.Konig, R.Giraldo, L.Chapman, and D.Rhodes (1996).
The crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of yeast RAP1 in complex with telomeric DNA.
  Cell, 85, 125-136.
PDB code: 1ign
8710498 P.S.Knoepfler, Q.Lu, and M.P.Kamps (1996).
Pbx-1 Hox heterodimers bind DNA on inseparable half-sites that permit intrinsic DNA binding specificity of the Hox partner at nucleotides 3' to a TAAT motif.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 24, 2288-2294.  
8612267 R.Kahmann, and M.Bölker (1996).
Self/nonself recognition in fungi: old mysteries and simple solutions.
  Cell, 85, 145-148.  
8763497 R.S.Mann, and S.K.Chan (1996).
Extra specificity from extradenticle: the partnership between HOX and PBX/EXD homeodomain proteins.
  Trends Genet, 12, 258-262.  
15157513 S.J.Hiscock, U.Kües, and H.G.Dickinson (1996).
Molecular mechanisms of self-incompatibility in flowering plants and fungi - different means to the same end.
  Trends Cell Biol, 6, 421-428.  
8643557 S.K.Chan, and R.S.Mann (1996).
A structural model for a homeotic protein-extradenticle-DNA complex accounts for the choice of HOX protein in the heterodimer.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 5223-5228.  
8901543 T.Akiyama, and M.E.Hogan (1996).
The design of an agent to bend DNA.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 12122-12127.  
  8890171 V.Zappavigna, L.Falciola, M.Helmer-Citterich, F.Mavilio, and M.E.Bianchi (1996).
HMG1 interacts with HOX proteins and enhances their DNA binding and transcriptional activation.
  EMBO J, 15, 4981-4991.  
8591025 T.Tullius (1995).
Homeodomains: together again for the first time.
  Structure, 3, 1143-1145.  
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