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PDBsum entry 1ugh

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protein Protein-protein interface(s) links
Glycosylase PDB id
1ugh
Jmol
Contents
Protein chains
223 a.a. *
82 a.a. *
Waters ×185
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
1ugh
Name: Glycosylase
Title: Crystal structure of human uracil-DNA glycosylase in complex with a protein inhibitor: protein mimicry of DNA
Structure: Protein (uracil-DNA glycosylase). Chain: e. Synonym: udg. Engineered: yes. Mutation: yes. Protein (uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitor). Chain: i. Synonym: ugi. Engineered: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562. Bacillus phage pbs2. Organism_taxid: 10684. Expression_system_taxid: 562
Biol. unit: Monomer (from PDB file)
Resolution:
1.90Å     R-factor:   0.198     R-free:   0.255
Authors: C.D.Mol,A.S.Arvai,R.J.Sanderson,G.Slupphaug,B.Kavli, H.E.Krokan,D.W.Mosbaugh,J.A.Tainer
Key ref: C.D.Mol et al. (1995). Crystal structure of human uracil-DNA glycosylase in complex with a protein inhibitor: protein mimicry of DNA. Cell, 82, 701-708. PubMed id: 7671300 DOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(95)90467-0
Date:
05-Feb-99     Release date:   16-Feb-99    
PROCHECK
Go to PROCHECK summary
 Headers
 References

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P13051  (UNG_HUMAN) -  Uracil-DNA glycosylase
Seq:
Struc:
313 a.a.
223 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam  
P14739  (UNGI_BPPB2) -  Uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitor
Seq:
Struc:
84 a.a.
82 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 3 residue positions (black crosses)

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: Chain E: E.C.3.2.2.27  - Uracil-DNA glycosylase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     DNA repair   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     protein binding     3 terms  

 

 
DOI no: 10.1016/0092-8674(95)90467-0 Cell 82:701-708 (1995)
PubMed id: 7671300  
 
 
Crystal structure of human uracil-DNA glycosylase in complex with a protein inhibitor: protein mimicry of DNA.
C.D.Mol, A.S.Arvai, R.J.Sanderson, G.Slupphaug, B.Kavli, H.E.Krokan, D.W.Mosbaugh, J.A.Tainer.
 
  ABSTRACT  
 
Uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitor (Ugi) is a B. subtilis bacteriophage protein that protects the uracil-containing phage DNA by irreversibly inhibiting the key DNA repair enzyme uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG). The 1.9 A crystal structure of Ugi complexed to human UDG reveals that the Ugi structure, consisting of a twisted five-stranded antiparallel beta sheet and two alpha helices, binds by inserting a beta strand into the conserved DNA-binding groove of the enzyme without contacting the uracil specificity pocket. The resulting interface, which buries over 1200 A2 on Ugi and involves the entire beta sheet and an alpha helix, is polar and contains 22 water molecules. Ugi binds the sequence-conserved DNA-binding groove of UDG via shape and electrostatic complementarity, specific charged hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic packing enveloping Leu-272 from a protruding UDG loop. The apparent mimicry by Ugi of DNA interactions with UDG provides both a structural mechanism for UDG binding to DNA, including the enzyme-assisted expulsion of uracil from the DNA helix, and a crystallographic basis for the design of inhibitors with scientific and therapeutic applications.
 

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
20876689 E.Fadda, and R.Pomès (2011).
On the molecular basis of uracil recognition in DNA: comparative study of T-A versus U-A structure, dynamics and open base pair kinetics.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 39, 767-780.  
19909758 D.O.Zharkov, G.V.Mechetin, and G.A.Nevinsky (2010).
Uracil-DNA glycosylase: Structural, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of lesion search and recognition.
  Mutat Res, 685, 11-20.  
20008065 E.D.Brutinel, C.A.Vakulskas, and T.L.Yahr (2010).
ExsD inhibits expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system by disrupting ExsA self-association and DNA binding activity.
  J Bacteriol, 192, 1479-1486.  
20410074 E.León, G.Navarro-Avilés, C.M.Santiveri, C.Flores-Flores, M.Rico, C.González, F.J.Murillo, M.Elías-Arnanz, M.A.Jiménez, and S.Padmanabhan (2010).
A bacterial antirepressor with SH3 domain topology mimics operator DNA in sequestering the repressor DNA recognition helix.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 38, 5226-5241.
PDB code: 2kss
20412059 G.Merényi, E.Kónya, and B.G.Vértessy (2010).
Drosophila proteins involved in metabolism of uracil-DNA possess different types of nuclear localization signals.
  FEBS J, 277, 2142-2156.  
19202054 N.A.Begum, A.Stanlie, T.Doi, Y.Sasaki, H.W.Jin, Y.S.Kim, H.Nagaoka, and T.Honjo (2009).
Further evidence for involvement of a noncanonical function of uracil DNA glycosylase in class switch recombination.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 2752-2757.  
19374445 S.Fortier, X.Yang, Y.Wang, R.A.Bennett, and P.R.Strauss (2009).
Base excision repair in early zebrafish development: evidence for DNA polymerase switching and standby AP endonuclease activity.
  Biochemistry, 48, 5396-5404.  
19016300 V.L.Mendoza, and R.W.Vachet (2009).
Probing protein structure by amino acid-specific covalent labeling and mass spectrometry.
  Mass Spectrom Rev, 28, 785-815.  
18196298 M.Olufsen, A.O.Smalås, and B.O.Brandsdal (2008).
Electrostatic interactions play an essential role in DNA repair and cold-adaptation of Uracil DNA glycosylase.
  J Mol Model, 14, 201-213.  
18227135 O.N.Yogurtcu, S.B.Erdemli, R.Nussinov, M.Turkay, and O.Keskin (2008).
Restricted mobility of conserved residues in protein-protein interfaces in molecular simulations.
  Biophys J, 94, 3475-3485.  
18453691 P.S.Kaushal, R.K.Talawar, P.D.Krishna, U.Varshney, and M.Vijayan (2008).
Unique features of the structure and interactions of mycobacterial uracil-DNA glycosylase: structure of a complex of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme in comparison with those from other sources.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 64, 551-560.
PDB code: 2zhx
17942376 Y.Luo, M.Walla, and M.D.Wyatt (2008).
Uracil incorporation into genomic DNA does not predict toxicity caused by chemotherapeutic inhibition of thymidylate synthase.
  DNA Repair (Amst), 7, 162-169.  
17108049 C.C.Lu, H.T.Huang, J.T.Wang, G.Slupphaug, T.K.Li, M.C.Wu, Y.C.Chen, C.P.Lee, and M.R.Chen (2007).
Characterization of the uracil-DNA glycosylase activity of Epstein-Barr virus BKRF3 and its role in lytic viral DNA replication.
  J Virol, 81, 1195-1208.  
17922649 G.B.Zavilgelsky, and S.M.Rastorguev (2007).
DNA mimicry by proteins as effective mechanism for regulation of activity of DNA-dependent enzymes.
  Biochemistry (Mosc), 72, 913.  
17921255 G.Chen, P.D.Jeffrey, C.Fuqua, Y.Shi, and L.Chen (2007).
Structural basis for antiactivation in bacterial quorum sensing.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 16474-16479.
PDB code: 2q0o
17233828 G.Navarro-Avilés, M.A.Jiménez, M.C.Pérez-Marín, C.González, M.Rico, F.J.Murillo, M.Elías-Arnanz, and S.Padmanabhan (2007).
Structural basis for operator and antirepressor recognition by Myxococcus xanthus CarA repressor.
  Mol Microbiol, 63, 980-994.
PDB code: 2jml
17698500 G.Serrano-Heras, J.A.Ruiz-Masó, G.del Solar, M.Espinosa, A.Bravo, and M.Salas (2007).
Protein p56 from the Bacillus subtilis phage phi29 inhibits DNA-binding ability of uracil-DNA glycosylase.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 35, 5393-5401.  
17174478 J.J.Perry, L.Fan, and J.A.Tainer (2007).
Developing master keys to brain pathology, cancer and aging from the structural biology of proteins controlling reactive oxygen species and DNA repair.
  Neuroscience, 145, 1280-1299.  
16815576 D.T.Dryden (2006).
DNA mimicry by proteins and the control of enzymatic activity on DNA.
  Trends Biotechnol, 24, 378-382.  
16421108 G.Serrano-Heras, M.Salas, and A.Bravo (2006).
A uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitor encoded by a non-uracil containing viral DNA.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 7068-7074.  
  17142904 P.Singh, R.K.Talawar, P.D.Krishna, U.Varshney, and M.Vijayan (2006).
Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of uracil N-glycosylase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in complex with a proteinaceous inhibitor.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 62, 1231-1234.  
16000409 A.J.Schumacher, D.V.Nissley, and R.S.Harris (2005).
APOBEC3G hypermutates genomic DNA and inhibits Ty1 retrotransposition in yeast.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 9854-9859.  
15970468 C.Y.Chen, D.W.Mosbaugh, and S.E.Bennett (2005).
Mutations at Arginine 276 transform human uracil-DNA glycosylase into a single-stranded DNA-specific uracil-DNA glycosylase.
  DNA Repair (Amst), 4, 793-805.  
15959518 D.Baba, N.Maita, J.G.Jee, Y.Uchimura, H.Saitoh, K.Sugasawa, F.Hanaoka, H.Tochio, H.Hiroaki, and M.Shirakawa (2005).
Crystal structure of thymine DNA glycosylase conjugated to SUMO-1.
  Nature, 435, 979-982.
PDB code: 1wyw
16041069 I.Leiros, E.Moe, A.O.Smalås, and S.McSweeney (2005).
Structure of the uracil-DNA N-glycosylase (UNG) from Deinococcus radiodurans.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 61, 1049-1056.
PDB code: 2boo
15339922 C.Y.Chen, D.W.Mosbaugh, and S.E.Bennett (2004).
Mutational analysis of arginine 276 in the leucine-loop of human uracil-DNA glycosylase.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 48177-48188.  
15163666 M.C.Pérez-Marín, J.J.López-Rubio, F.J.Murillo, M.Elías-Arnanz, and S.Padmanabhan (2004).
The N terminus of Myxococcus xanthus CarA repressor is an autonomously folding domain that mediates physical and functional interactions with both operator DNA and antirepressor protein.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 33093-33103.  
15326357 N.A.Begum, K.Kinoshita, N.Kakazu, M.Muramatsu, H.Nagaoka, R.Shinkura, D.Biniszkiewicz, L.A.Boyer, R.Jaenisch, and T.Honjo (2004).
Uracil DNA glycosylase activity is dispensable for immunoglobulin class switch.
  Science, 305, 1160-1163.  
15096517 R.Chen, E.Le Rouzic, J.A.Kearney, L.M.Mansky, and S.Benichou (2004).
Vpr-mediated incorporation of UNG2 into HIV-1 particles is required to modulate the virus mutation rate and for replication in macrophages.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 28419-28425.  
15096615 S.E.Bennett, C.Y.Chen, and D.W.Mosbaugh (2004).
Escherichia coli nucleoside diphosphate kinase does not act as a uracil-processing DNA repair nuclease.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 6391-6396.  
15326342 S.Unniraman, S.D.Fugmann, and D.G.Schatz (2004).
Immunology. UNGstoppable switching.
  Science, 305, 1113-1114.  
15189732 T.Honjo, M.Muramatsu, and S.Fagarasan (2004).
AID: how does it aid antibody diversity?
  Immunity, 20, 659-668.  
12477821 F.S.De Silva, and B.Moss (2003).
Vaccinia virus uracil DNA glycosylase has an essential role in DNA synthesis that is independent of its glycosylase activity: catalytic site mutations reduce virulence but not virus replication in cultured cells.
  J Virol, 77, 159-166.  
12820976 J.E.Wibley, T.R.Waters, K.Haushalter, G.L.Verdine, and L.H.Pearl (2003).
Structure and specificity of the vertebrate anti-mutator uracil-DNA glycosylase SMUG1.
  Mol Cell, 11, 1647-1659.
PDB codes: 1oe4 1oe5 1oe6
12679366 J.Venkatesh, P.Kumar, P.S.Krishna, R.Manjunath, and U.Varshney (2003).
Importance of uracil DNA glycosylase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycobacterium smegmatis, G+C-rich bacteria, in mutation prevention, tolerance to acidified nitrite, and endurance in mouse macrophages.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 24350-24358.  
12907738 N.Scaramozzino, G.Sanz, J.M.Crance, M.Saparbaev, R.Drillien, J.Laval, B.Kavli, and D.Garin (2003).
Characterisation of the substrate specificity of homogeneous vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 4950-4957.  
12711670 U.Hardeland, M.Bentele, J.Jiricny, and P.Schär (2003).
The versatile thymine DNA-glycosylase: a comparative characterization of the human, Drosophila and fission yeast orthologs.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 2261-2271.  
12575998 Y.Nakamura, and K.Ito (2003).
Making sense of mimic in translation termination.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 28, 99.  
11907039 I.Wong, A.J.Lundquist, A.S.Bernards, and D.W.Mosbaugh (2002).
Presteady-state analysis of a single catalytic turnover by Escherichia coli uracil-DNA glycosylase reveals a "pinch-pull-push" mechanism.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 19424-19432.  
12214226 J.Di Noia, and M.S.Neuberger (2002).
Altering the pathway of immunoglobulin hypermutation by inhibiting uracil-DNA glycosylase.
  Nature, 419, 43-48.  
12136137 K.Saikrishnan, M.Bidya Sagar, R.Ravishankar, S.Roy, K.Purnapatre, P.Handa, U.Varshney, and M.Vijayan (2002).
Domain closure and action of uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG): structures of new crystal forms containing the Escherichia coli enzyme and a comparative study of the known structures involving UDG.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 58, 1269-1276.
PDB codes: 1lqg 1lqj 1lqm
12379653 L.F.Rezende, T.Hollis, T.Ellenberger, and C.C.Richardson (2002).
Essential amino acid residues in the single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage T7. Identification of the dimer interface.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 50643-50653.  
12136091 P.Handa, N.Acharya, and U.Varshney (2002).
Effects of mutations at tyrosine 66 and asparagine 123 in the active site pocket of Escherichia coli uracil DNA glycosylase on uracil excision from synthetic DNA oligomers: evidence for the occurrence of long-range interactions between the enzyme and substrate.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 30, 3086-3095.  
11452031 C.Atanasiu, O.Byron, H.McMiken, S.S.Sturrock, and D.T.Dryden (2001).
Characterisation of the structure of ocr, the gene 0.3 protein of bacteriophage T7.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 29, 3059-3068.  
11590016 C.Kleanthous, and D.Walker (2001).
Immunity proteins: enzyme inhibitors that avoid the active site.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 26, 624-631.  
11266557 M.E.Fárez-Vidal, C.Gallego, L.M.Ruiz-Pérez, and D.González-Pacanowska (2001).
Characterization of uracil-DNA glycosylase activity from Trypanosoma cruzi and its stimulation by AP endonuclease.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 29, 1549-1555.  
11551933 S.E.Bennett, J.S.Sung, and D.W.Mosbaugh (2001).
Fidelity of uracil-initiated base excision DNA repair in DNA polymerase beta-proficient and -deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast cell extracts.
  J Biol Chem, 276, 42588-42600.  
11679734 S.S.Sturrock, D.T.Dryden, C.Atanasiu, J.Dornan, S.Bruce, A.Cronshaw, P.Taylor, and M.D.Walkinshaw (2001).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ocr, the product of gene 0.3 of bacteriophage T7.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 57, 1652-1654.  
12762049 Y.Nakamura, M.Uno, T.Toyoda, T.Fujiwara, and K.Ito (2001).
Protein tRNA mimicry in translation termination.
  Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 66, 469-475.  
10912000 H.Nilsen, I.Rosewell, P.Robins, C.F.Skjelbred, S.Andersen, G.Slupphaug, G.Daly, H.E.Krokan, T.Lindahl, and D.E.Barnes (2000).
Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG)-deficient mice reveal a primary role of the enzyme during DNA replication.
  Mol Cell, 5, 1059-1065.  
10871356 H.Nilsen, K.S.Steinsbekk, M.Otterlei, G.Slupphaug, P.A.Aas, and H.E.Krokan (2000).
Analysis of uracil-DNA glycosylases from the murine Ung gene reveals differential expression in tissues and in embryonic development and a subcellular sorting pattern that differs from the human homologues.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 28, 2277-2285.  
12760026 K.P.Hopfner, S.S.Parikh, and J.A.Tainer (2000).
Envisioning the fourth dimension of the genetic code: the structural biology of macromolecular recognition and conformational switching in DNA repair.
  Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 65, 113-126.  
10675317 P.Nissen, M.Kjeldgaard, and J.Nyborg (2000).
Macromolecular mimicry.
  EMBO J, 19, 489-495.  
10872450 A.K.McCullough, M.L.Dodson, and R.S.Lloyd (1999).
Initiation of base excision repair: glycosylase mechanisms and structures.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 68, 255-285.  
10410797 C.D.Mol, S.S.Parikh, C.D.Putnam, T.P.Lo, and J.A.Tainer (1999).
DNA repair mechanisms for the recognition and removal of damaged DNA bases.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 28, 101-128.  
10600117 D.C.Carey, and P.R.Strauss (1999).
Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease is processive.
  Biochemistry, 38, 16553-16560.  
10458614 D.J.Hosfield, Y.Guan, B.J.Haas, R.P.Cunningham, and J.A.Tainer (1999).
Structure of the DNA repair enzyme endonuclease IV and its DNA complex: double-nucleotide flipping at abasic sites and three-metal-ion catalysis.
  Cell, 98, 397-408.
PDB codes: 1qtw 1qum
10215876 G.B.Reddy, K.Purnapatre, R.Lawrence, S.Roy, U.Varshney, and A.Surolia (1999).
Linear free-energy model description of the conformational stability of uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitor A thermodynamic characterization of interaction with denaturant and cold denaturation.
  Eur J Biochem, 261, 610-617.  
10200172 M.J.Shroyer, S.E.Bennett, C.D.Putnam, J.A.Tainer, and D.W.Mosbaugh (1999).
Mutation of an active site residue in Escherichia coli uracil-DNA glycosylase: effect on DNA binding, uracil inhibition and catalysis.
  Biochemistry, 38, 4834-4845.  
10413495 N.Luo, E.Mehler, and R.Osman (1999).
Specificity and catalysis of uracil DNA glycosylase. A molecular dynamics study of reactant and product complexes with DNA.
  Biochemistry, 38, 9209-9220.  
10417406 T.P.Ko, J.Day, A.J.Malkin, and A.McPherson (1999).
Structure of orthorhombic crystals of beef liver catalase.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 55, 1383-1394.
PDB code: 4blc
9520450 A.L.Rothermel, and D.C.Altieri (1998).
High affinity cross-reacting mAb generated by minimal mimicry: implications for the pathogenesis of anti-nuclear autoantibodies and immunosuppression.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 3816-3820.  
9741622 D.Liu, R.Ishima, K.I.Tong, S.Bagby, T.Kokubo, D.R.Muhandiram, L.E.Kay, Y.Nakatani, and M.Ikura (1998).
Solution structure of a TBP-TAF(II)230 complex: protein mimicry of the minor groove surface of the TATA box unwound by TBP.
  Cell, 94, 573-583.
PDB code: 1tba
9417045 G.Panayotou, T.Brown, T.Barlow, L.H.Pearl, and R.Savva (1998).
Direct measurement of the substrate preference of uracil-DNA glycosylase.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 45-50.  
9759487 R.J.Roberts, and X.Cheng (1998).
Base flipping.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 67, 181-198.  
9733786 R.J.Sanderson, and D.W.Mosbaugh (1998).
Fidelity and mutational specificity of uracil-initiated base excision DNA repair synthesis in human glioblastoma cell extracts.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 24822-24831.  
9741619 S.K.Burley, and R.G.Roeder (1998).
TATA box mimicry by TFIID: autoinhibition of pol II transcription.
  Cell, 94, 551-553.  
9705330 S.Muller-Weeks, B.Mastran, and S.Caradonna (1998).
The nuclear isoform of the highly conserved human uracil-DNA glycosylase is an Mr 36,000 phosphoprotein.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 21909-21917.  
9724657 S.S.Parikh, C.D.Mol, G.Slupphaug, S.Bharati, H.E.Krokan, and J.A.Tainer (1998).
Base excision repair initiation revealed by crystal structures and binding kinetics of human uracil-DNA glycosylase with DNA.
  EMBO J, 17, 5214-5226.
PDB codes: 1akz 1ssp 2ssp
9489705 T.E.Barrett, R.Savva, G.Panayotou, T.Barlow, T.Brown, J.Jiricny, and L.H.Pearl (1998).
Crystal structure of a G:T/U mismatch-specific DNA glycosylase: mismatch recognition by complementary-strand interactions.
  Cell, 92, 117-129.
PDB codes: 1mug 1mwi
9685178 Y.Nakamura, and K.Ito (1998).
How protein reads the stop codon and terminates translation.
  Genes Cells, 3, 265-278.  
9261156 A.J.Lundquist, R.D.Beger, S.E.Bennett, P.H.Bolton, and D.W.Mosbaugh (1997).
Site-directed mutagenesis and characterization of uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitor protein. Role of specific carboxylic amino acids in complex formation with Escherichia coli uracil-DNA glycosylase.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 21408-21419.  
9032058 D.G.Vassylyev, and K.Morikawa (1997).
DNA-repair enzymes.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 103-109.  
9016624 H.Nilsen, M.Otterlei, T.Haug, K.Solum, T.A.Nagelhus, F.Skorpen, and H.E.Krokan (1997).
Nuclear and mitochondrial uracil-DNA glycosylases are generated by alternative splicing and transcription from different positions in the UNG gene.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 25, 750-755.  
9076944 R.K.Andrews, J.A.López, and M.C.Berndt (1997).
Molecular mechanisms of platelet adhesion and activation.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 29, 91.  
9354758 R.S.Lloyd, and X.Cheng (1997).
Mechanistic link between DNA methyltransferases and DNA repair enzymes by base flipping.
  Biopolymers, 44, 139-151.  
9115419 T.Lindahl, P.Karran, and R.D.Wood (1997).
DNA excision repair pathways.
  Curr Opin Genet Dev, 7, 158-169.  
  8670846 B.Kavli, G.Slupphaug, C.D.Mol, A.S.Arvai, S.B.Peterson, J.A.Tainer, and H.E.Krokan (1996).
Excision of cytosine and thymine from DNA by mutants of human uracil-DNA glycosylase.
  EMBO J, 15, 3442-3447.  
8807880 J.D.Keene (1996).
RNA surfaces as functional mimetics of proteins.
  Chem Biol, 3, 505-513.  
8643594 K.Ito, K.Ebihara, M.Uno, and Y.Nakamura (1996).
Conserved motifs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic polypeptide release factors: tRNA-protein mimicry hypothesis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 5443-5448.  
  8892920 K.S.Ellison, W.Peng, and G.McFadden (1996).
Mutations in active-site residues of the uracil-DNA glycosylase encoded by vaccinia virus are incompatible with virus viability.
  J Virol, 70, 7965-7973.  
8646528 L.H.Pearl, and R.Savva (1996).
The problem with pyrimidines.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 485-487.  
8910574 R.J.Sanderson, and D.W.Mosbaugh (1996).
Identification of specific carboxyl groups on uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitor protein that are required for activity.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 29170-29181.  
8805547 X.Cheng, and R.M.Blumenthal (1996).
Finding a basis for flipping bases.
  Structure, 4, 639-645.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.