PDBsum entry 1tnr

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protein Protein-protein interface(s) links
Complex(lymphokine/receptor) PDB id
Protein chains
144 a.a. *
139 a.a. *
Waters ×46
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Complex(lymphokine/receptor)
Title: Crystal structure of the soluble human 55 kd tnf receptor- human tnf-beta complex: implications for tnf receptor activation
Structure: Tumor necrosis factor beta. Chain: a. Engineered: yes. Tumor necrosis factor receptor p55. Chain: r. Engineered: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562. Expressed in: sf9 cells
Biol. unit: Hexamer (from PQS)
2.85Å     R-factor:   0.160    
Authors: D.W.Banner
Key ref: D.W.Banner et al. (1993). Crystal structure of the soluble human 55 kd TNF receptor-human TNF beta complex: implications for TNF receptor activation. Cell, 73, 431-445. PubMed id: 8387891 DOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90132-A
09-May-94     Release date:   31-Jul-94    
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Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01374  (TNFB_HUMAN) -  Lymphotoxin-alpha
205 a.a.
144 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P19438  (TNR1A_HUMAN) -  Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A
455 a.a.
139 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     membrane   1 term 
  Biological process     immune response   4 terms 
  Biochemical function     tumor necrosis factor receptor binding     2 terms  


DOI no: 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90132-A Cell 73:431-445 (1993)
PubMed id: 8387891  
Crystal structure of the soluble human 55 kd TNF receptor-human TNF beta complex: implications for TNF receptor activation.
D.W.Banner, A.D'Arcy, W.Janes, R.Gentz, H.J.Schoenfeld, C.Broger, H.Loetscher, W.Lesslauer.
The X-ray crystal structure of the complex of the extracellular domain of the human 55 kd tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor with human TNF beta has been determined at 2.85 A resolution. The complex has three receptor molecules bound symmetrically to one TNF beta trimer. The receptor fragment, a very elongated end to end assembly of four similar folding domains, binds in the groove between two adjacent TNF beta subunits. The structure of the complex defines the orientation of the ligand with respect to the cell membrane and provides a model for TNF receptor activation. The novel fold of the TNF receptor structure is likely to be representative of the nerve growth factor (NGF)/TNF receptor family as a whole.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
22543469 D.L.Lacey, W.J.Boyle, W.S.Simonet, P.J.Kostenuik, W.C.Dougall, J.K.Sullivan, J.San Martin, and R.Dansey (2012).
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19918265 G.Sondarva, C.N.Kundu, S.Mehrotra, R.Mishra, V.Rangasamy, P.Sathyanarayana, R.S.Ray, B.Rana, and A.Rana (2010).
TRAF2-MLK3 interaction is essential for TNF-alpha-induced MLK3 activation.
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21059944 H.M.Ta, G.T.Nguyen, H.M.Jin, J.Choi, H.Park, N.Kim, H.Y.Hwang, and K.K.Kim (2010).
Structure-based development of a receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) inhibitor peptide and molecular basis for osteopetrosis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 20281-20286.
PDB codes: 3nzy 3qbq
20018848 M.Thoh, P.Kumar, H.A.Nagarajaram, and S.K.Manna (2010).
Azadirachtin interacts with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding domain of its receptors and inhibits TNF-induced biological responses.
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21133840 N.Parameswaran, and S.Patial (2010).
Tumor necrosis factor-α signaling in macrophages.
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Molecular cell death platforms and assemblies.
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Unleashing cell death: the Fas-FADD complex.
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Low TNF-induced NF-kappaB and p38 phosphorylation levels in leucocytes in tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome.
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Creation of lysine-deficient mutant lymphotoxin-alpha with receptor selectivity by using a phage display system.
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Biochemical and structural characterization of the human TL1A ectodomain.
  Biochemistry, 48, 7636-7645.
PDB codes: 2qe3 2rjk 2rjl
19120372 E.J.Bodar, J.P.Drenth, J.W.van der Meer, and A.Simon (2009).
Dysregulation of innate immunity: hereditary periodic fever syndromes.
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Solution structure of the cysteine-rich domain in Fn14, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily.
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PDB code: 2rpj
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The CD160, BTLA, LIGHT/HVEM pathway: a bidirectional switch regulating T-cell activation.
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19309740 J.Pei, P.J.Lupardus, K.C.Garcia, and N.V.Grishin (2009).
CPDadh: a new peptidase family homologous to the cysteine protease domain in bacterial MARTX toxins.
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19956564 K.C.Oliveira, M.L.Carvalho, T.M.Venancio, P.A.Miyasato, T.Kawano, R.DeMarco, and S.Verjovski-Almeida (2009).
Identification of the Schistosoma mansoni TNF-alpha receptor gene and the effect of human TNF-alpha on the parasite gene expression profile.
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19274442 Y.Cao, Z.Wang, X.Bu, S.Tang, Z.Mei, and P.Liu (2009).
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19386778 Y.Mukai, T.Nakamura, Y.Yoshioka, H.Shibata, Y.Abe, T.Nomura, M.Taniai, T.Ohta, S.Nakagawa, S.Tsunoda, H.Kamada, Y.Yamagata, and Y.Tsutsumi (2009).
Fast binding kinetics and conserved 3D structure underlie the antagonistic activity of mutant TNF: useful information for designing artificial proteo-antagonists.
  J Biochem, 146, 167-172.
PDB code: 2zpx
  19255488 Y.Mukai, T.Nakamura, Y.Yoshioka, S.Tsunoda, H.Kamada, S.Nakagawa, Y.Yamagata, and Y.Tsutsumi (2009).
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19838188 Z.Yang, A.P.West, and P.J.Bjorkman (2009).
Crystal structure of TNFalpha complexed with a poxvirus MHC-related TNF binding protein.
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PDB code: 2e7a
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18317365 R.E.Kontermann, S.Münkel, J.Neumeyer, D.Müller, M.Branschädel, P.Scheurich, and K.Pfizenmaier (2008).
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18676814 S.L.Werner, J.D.Kearns, V.Zadorozhnaya, C.Lynch, E.O'Dea, M.P.Boldin, A.Ma, D.Baltimore, and A.Hoffmann (2008).
Encoding NF-kappaB temporal control in response to TNF: distinct roles for the negative regulators IkappaBalpha and A20.
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18370924 T.D.Randall, D.M.Carragher, and J.Rangel-Moreno (2008).
Development of secondary lymphoid organs.
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18976466 T.Richens, A.D.Palmer, J.Prescott, and T.Schountz (2008).
Genomic organization and phylogenetic utility of deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) lymphotoxin-alpha and lymphotoxin-beta.
  BMC Immunol, 9, 62.  
18596692 Y.Gong, P.Cao, H.J.Yu, and T.Jiang (2008).
Crystal structure of the neurotrophin-3 and p75NTR symmetrical complex.
  Nature, 454, 789-793.
PDB code: 3buk
18175929 Y.Kho, S.Kim, B.S.Yoon, J.H.Moon, B.Kim, S.Kwak, J.Woo, S.Oh, K.Hong, S.Kim, H.Kim, S.You, and Y.Choi (2008).
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  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 72, 70-81.  
18282173 Y.Shirota, G.G.Illei, and N.P.Nikolov (2008).
Biologic treatments for systemic rheumatic diseases.
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Falling into TRAPS--receptor misfolding in the TNF receptor 1-associated periodic fever syndrome.
  Arthritis Res Ther, 9, 217.  
17449269 F.K.Chan (2007).
Three is better than one: pre-ligand receptor assembly in the regulation of TNF receptor signaling.
  Cytokine, 37, 101-107.  
17201679 H.H.Park, Y.C.Lo, S.C.Lin, L.Wang, J.K.Yang, and H.Wu (2007).
The death domain superfamily in intracellular signaling of apoptosis and inflammation.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 25, 561-586.  
17393436 H.Saito, T.Kojima, M.Takahashi, W.C.Horne, R.Baron, T.Amagasa, K.Ohya, and K.Aoki (2007).
A tumor necrosis factor receptor loop peptide mimic inhibits bone destruction to the same extent as anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody in murine collagen-induced arthritis.
  Arthritis Rheum, 56, 1164-1174.  
17665435 I.Todd, P.M.Radford, N.Daffa, S.E.Bainbridge, R.J.Powell, and P.J.Tighe (2007).
Mutant tumor necrosis factor receptor associated with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome is altered antigenically and is retained within patients' leukocytes.
  Arthritis Rheum, 56, 2765-2773.  
18040044 K.Chattopadhyay, U.A.Ramagopal, A.Mukhopadhaya, V.N.Malashkevich, T.P.Dilorenzo, M.Brenowitz, S.G.Nathenson, and S.C.Almo (2007).
Assembly and structural properties of glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand: Implications for function.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 19452-19457.
PDB codes: 2q1m 2r30 2r32
17352649 M.P.Whyte, P.N.Singhellakis, M.B.Petersen, M.Davies, W.G.Totty, and S.Mumm (2007).
Juvenile Paget's disease: the second reported, oldest patient is homozygous for the TNFRSF11B "Balkan" mutation (966_969delTGACinsCTT), which elevates circulating immunoreactive osteoprotegerin levels.
  J Bone Miner Res, 22, 938-946.  
17501952 M.Tariq, N.Wasif, and W.Ahmad (2007).
A novel deletion mutation in the EDAR gene in a Pakistani family with autosomal recessive hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.
  Br J Dermatol, 157, 207-209.  
17360426 T.Muto, D.Tsuchiya, K.Morikawa, and H.Jingami (2007).
Structures of the extracellular regions of the group II/III metabotropic glutamate receptors.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 3759-3764.
PDB codes: 2e4u 2e4v 2e4w 2e4x 2e4y 2e4z
16684962 A.A.Lobito, F.C.Kimberley, J.R.Muppidi, H.Komarow, A.J.Jackson, K.M.Hull, D.L.Kastner, G.R.Screaton, and R.M.Siegel (2006).
Abnormal disulfide-linked oligomerization results in ER retention and altered signaling by TNFR1 mutants in TNFR1-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS).
  Blood, 108, 1320-1327.  
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Mapping the domains of CD134 as a functional receptor for feline immunodeficiency virus.
  J Virol, 80, 7744-7747.  
16537606 B.J.Willett, E.L.McMonagle, S.Ridha, and M.J.Hosie (2006).
Differential utilization of CD134 as a functional receptor by diverse strains of feline immunodeficiency virus.
  J Virol, 80, 3386-3394.  
16547002 C.Bossen, K.Ingold, A.Tardivel, J.L.Bodmer, O.Gaide, S.Hertig, C.Ambrose, J.Tschopp, and P.Schneider (2006).
Interactions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor family members in the mouse and human.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 13964-13971.  
16491292 C.Middleton-Hardie, Q.Zhu, H.Cundy, J.M.Lin, K.Callon, P.C.Tong, J.Xu, A.Grey, J.Cornish, and D.Naot (2006).
Deletion of aspartate 182 in OPG causes juvenile Paget's disease by impairing both protein secretion and binding to RANKL.
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FADD self-association is required for stable interaction with an activated death receptor.
  Cell Death Differ, 13, 2052-2061.  
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Death receptor-3 mediates apoptosis in human osteoblasts under narrowly regulated conditions.
  J Cell Physiol, 209, 1021-1028.  
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The CARMA1 signalosome links the signalling machinery of adaptive and innate immunity in lymphocytes.
  Nat Rev Immunol, 6, 799-812.  
16905106 D.M.Compaan, and S.G.Hymowitz (2006).
The crystal structure of the costimulatory OX40-OX40L complex.
  Structure, 14, 1321-1330.
PDB codes: 2hev 2hew 2hey
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A TNF receptor loop peptide mimic blocks RANK ligand-induced signaling, bone resorption, and bone loss.
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16932752 K.M.Murphy, C.A.Nelson, and J.R.Sedý (2006).
Balancing co-stimulation and inhibition with BTLA and HVEM.
  Nat Rev Immunol, 6, 671-681.  
16782791 P.J.Kundrotas, and E.Alexov (2006).
Electrostatic properties of protein-protein complexes.
  Biophys J, 91, 1724-1736.  
16871532 S.L.Rebelo, S.E.Bainbridge, M.R.Amel-Kashipaz, P.M.Radford, R.J.Powell, I.Todd, and P.J.Tighe (2006).
Modeling of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 1A mutants associated with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome indicates misfolding consistent with abnormal function.
  Arthritis Rheum, 54, 2674-2687.  
16310864 T.N.Wells, C.A.Power, J.P.Shaw, and A.E.Proudfoot (2006).
Chemokine blockers--therapeutics in the making?
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15592478 Parseval, U.Chatterji, G.Morris, P.Sun, A.J.Olson, and J.H.Elder (2005).
Structural mapping of CD134 residues critical for interaction with feline immunodeficiency virus.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 12, 60-66.  
16204238 C.Rabu, A.Quéméner, Y.Jacques, K.Echasserieau, P.Vusio, and F.Lang (2005).
Production of recombinant human trimeric CD137L (4-1BBL). Cross-linking is essential to its T cell co-stimulation activity.
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16135095 D.Bao, Z.Pang, and J.I.Morgan (2005).
The structure and proteolytic processing of Cbln1 complexes.
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16169851 D.M.Compaan, L.C.Gonzalez, I.Tom, K.M.Loyet, D.Eaton, and S.G.Hymowitz (2005).
Attenuating lymphocyte activity: the crystal structure of the BTLA-HVEM complex.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 39553-39561.
PDB code: 2aw2
16212486 N.Yan, and Y.Shi (2005).
Mechanisms of apoptosis through structural biology.
  Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 21, 35-56.  
16142754 N.Yousaf, D.J.Gould, E.Aganna, L.Hammond, R.M.Mirakian, M.D.Turner, G.A.Hitman, M.F.McDermott, and Y.Chernajovsky (2005).
Tumor necrosis factor receptor I from patients with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome interacts with wild-type tumor necrosis factor receptor I and induces ligand-independent NF-kappaB activation.
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15701642 N.Zampieri, C.F.Xu, T.A.Neubert, and M.V.Chao (2005).
Cleavage of p75 neurotrophin receptor by alpha-secretase and gamma-secretase requires specific receptor domains.
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15520016 R.F.Kelley, K.Totpal, S.H.Lindstrom, M.Mathieu, K.Billeci, L.Deforge, R.Pai, S.G.Hymowitz, and A.Ashkenazi (2005).
Receptor-selective mutants of apoptosis-inducing ligand 2/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand reveal a greater contribution of death receptor (DR) 5 than DR4 to apoptosis signaling.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 2205-2212.  
16043718 R.Murali, X.Cheng, A.Berezov, X.Du, A.Schön, E.Freire, X.Xu, Y.H.Chen, and M.I.Greene (2005).
Disabling TNF receptor signaling by induced conformational perturbation of tryptophan-107.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 10970-10975.  
15711921 S.Bouralexis, D.M.Findlay, and A.Evdokiou (2005).
Death to the bad guys: targeting cancer via Apo2L/TRAIL.
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15542592 S.G.Hymowitz, D.R.Patel, H.J.Wallweber, S.Runyon, M.Yan, J.Yin, S.K.Shriver, N.C.Gordon, B.Pan, N.J.Skelton, R.F.Kelley, and M.A.Starovasnik (2005).
Structures of APRIL-receptor complexes: like BCMA, TACI employs only a single cysteine-rich domain for high affinity ligand binding.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 7218-7227.
PDB codes: 1xu1 1xu2 1xut
16131544 T.C.Cheung, I.R.Humphreys, K.G.Potter, P.S.Norris, H.M.Shumway, B.R.Tran, G.Patterson, R.Jean-Jacques, M.Yoon, P.G.Spear, K.M.Murphy, N.S.Lurain, C.A.Benedict, and C.F.Ware (2005).
Evolutionarily divergent herpesviruses modulate T cell activation by targeting the herpesvirus entry mediator cosignaling pathway.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 13218-13223.  
15549374 X.Cao, K.Li, S.G.Suh, T.Guo, and P.W.Becraft (2005).
Molecular analysis of the CRINKLY4 gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  Planta, 220, 645-657.  
15312132 A.Al-Shamkhani (2004).
CD137: costimulator turns suppressor?
  Immunology, 113, 23-25.  
15084739 A.Hasegawa, X.Cheng, K.Kajino, A.Berezov, K.Murata, T.Nakayama, H.Yagita, R.Murali, and M.I.Greene (2004).
Fas-disabling small exocyclic peptide mimetics limit apoptosis by an unexpected mechanism.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 6599-6604.  
15450251 G.Eissner, W.Kolch, and P.Scheurich (2004).
Ligands working as receptors: reverse signaling by members of the TNF superfamily enhance the plasticity of the immune system.
  Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 15, 353-366.  
15093829 G.Zhang (2004).
Tumor necrosis factor family ligand-receptor binding.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 14, 154-160.  
15029242 H.J.Yeo, S.E.Cotter, S.Laarmann, T.Juehne, J.W.St Geme, and G.Waksman (2004).
Structural basis for host recognition by the Haemophilus influenzae Hia autotransporter.
  EMBO J, 23, 1245-1256.
PDB code: 1s7m
15312137 I.Todd, P.M.Radford, K.A.Draper-Morgan, R.McIntosh, S.Bainbridge, P.Dickinson, L.Jamhawi, M.Sansaridis, M.L.Huggins, P.J.Tighe, and R.J.Powell (2004).
Mutant forms of tumour necrosis factor receptor I that occur in TNF-receptor-associated periodic syndrome retain signalling functions but show abnormal behaviour.
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15131296 N.Zampieri, and M.V.Chao (2004).
Structural biology. The p75 NGF receptor exposed.
  Science, 304, 833-834.  
15557123 R.M.Siegel, J.R.Muppidi, M.Sarker, A.Lobito, M.Jen, D.Martin, S.E.Straus, and M.J.Lenardo (2004).
SPOTS: signaling protein oligomeric transduction structures are early mediators of death receptor-induced apoptosis at the plasma membrane.
  J Cell Biol, 167, 735-744.  
15375637 S.Long, M.Wilson, E.Bengtén, L.W.Clem, N.W.Miller, and V.G.Chinchar (2004).
Identification and characterization of a FasL-like protein and cDNAs encoding the channel catfish death-inducing signaling complex.
  Immunogenetics, 56, 518-530.  
15158769 S.Shankar, and R.K.Srivastava (2004).
Enhancement of therapeutic potential of TRAIL by cancer chemotherapy and irradiation: mechanisms and clinical implications.
  Drug Resist Updat, 7, 139-156.  
15562003 T.Mori, A.Oguro, T.Ohtsu, and Y.Nakamura (2004).
RNA aptamers selected against the receptor activator of NF-kappaB acquire general affinity to proteins of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 32, 6120-6128.  
15364058 U.Kishore, C.Gaboriaud, P.Waters, A.K.Shrive, T.J.Greenhough, K.B.Reid, R.B.Sim, and G.J.Arlaud (2004).
C1q and tumor necrosis factor superfamily: modularity and versatility.
  Trends Immunol, 25, 551-561.  
14679212 X.Cheng, M.Kinosaki, M.Takami, Y.Choi, H.Zhang, and R.Murali (2004).
Disabling of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK) receptor complex by novel osteoprotegerin-like peptidomimetics restores bone loss in vivo.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 8269-8277.  
15131306 X.L.He, and K.C.Garcia (2004).
Structure of nerve growth factor complexed with the shared neurotrophin receptor p75.
  Science, 304, 870-875.
PDB code: 1sg1
14709891 Y.Nakanishi, and A.Shiratsuchi (2004).
Phagocytic removal of apoptotic spermatogenic cells by Sertoli cells: mechanisms and consequences.
  Biol Pharm Bull, 27, 13-16.  
12867412 A.L.Gavin, D.Aït-Azzouzene, C.F.Ware, and D.Nemazee (2003).
DeltaBAFF, an alternate splice isoform that regulates receptor binding and biopresentation of the B cell survival cytokine, BAFF.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 38220-38228.  
14672344 B.Chong, M.Hegde, M.Fawkner, S.Simonet, H.Cassinelli, M.Coker, J.Kanis, J.Seidel, C.Tau, B.Tüysüz, B.Yüksel, and D.Love (2003).
Idiopathic hyperphosphatasia and TNFRSF11B mutations: relationships between phenotype and genotype.
  J Bone Miner Res, 18, 2095-2104.  
12939259 C.Pantano, P.Shrivastava, B.McElhinney, and Y.Janssen-Heininger (2003).
Hydrogen peroxide signaling through tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 leads to selective activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 44091-44096.  
13130484 E.Aganna, L.Hammond, P.N.Hawkins, A.Aldea, S.A.McKee, H.K.van Amstel, C.Mischung, K.Kusuhara, F.T.Saulsbury, H.J.Lachmann, A.Bybee, E.M.McDermott, M.La Regina, J.I.Arostegui, J.M.Campistol, S.Worthington, K.P.High, M.G.Molloy, N.Baker, J.L.Bidwell, J.L.Castañer, M.L.Whiteford, P.L.Janssens-Korpola, R.Manna, R.J.Powell, P.Woo, P.Solis, K.Minden, J.Frenkel, J.Yagüe, R.M.Mirakian, G.A.Hitman, and M.F.McDermott (2003).
Heterogeneity among patients with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome phenotypes.
  Arthritis Rheum, 48, 2632-2644.  
12427767 F.Mackay, P.Schneider, P.Rennert, and J.Browning (2003).
BAFF AND APRIL: a tutorial on B cell survival.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 21, 231-264.  
  12875968 H.A.Iocca, and H.C.Isom (2003).
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha acts as a complete mitogen for primary rat hepatocytes.
  Am J Pathol, 163, 465-476.  
12715002 H.M.Kim, K.S.Yu, M.E.Lee, D.R.Shin, Y.S.Kim, S.G.Paik, O.J.Yoo, H.Lee, and J.O.Lee (2003).
Crystal structure of the BAFF-BAFF-R complex and its implications for receptor activation.
  Nat Struct Biol, 10, 342-348.
PDB codes: 1otz 1p0t
12485619 H.Wajant, K.Pfizenmaier, and P.Scheurich (2003).
Non-apoptotic Fas signaling.
  Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 14, 53-66.  
  12646066 K.C.Hsiao, R.E.Brissette, P.Wang, P.W.Fletcher, V.Rodriguez, M.Lennick, A.J.Blume, and N.I.Goldstein (2003).
Peptides identify multiple hotspots within the ligand binding domain of the TNF receptor 2.
  Proteome Sci, 1, 1.  
12496512 K.M.Hull, N.Shoham, J.J.Chae, I.Aksentijevich, and D.L.Kastner (2003).
The expanding spectrum of systemic autoinflammatory disorders and their rheumatic manifestations.
  Curr Opin Rheumatol, 15, 61-69.  
12787558 K.Pfeffer (2003).
Biological functions of tumor necrosis factor cytokines and their receptors.
  Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 14, 185-191.  
12566458 M.C.Chen, M.J.Hwang, Y.C.Chou, W.H.Chen, G.Cheng, H.Nakano, T.Y.Luh, S.C.Mai, and S.L.Hsieh (2003).
The role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 in lymphotoxin-beta receptor-mediated cell death.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 16073-16081.  
14511234 M.I.Vega, L.Santos-Argumedo, S.Huerta-Yepez, R.Luría-Perez, V.Ortiz-Navarrete, A.Isibasi, and C.R.González-Bonilla (2003).
A Salmonella typhi OmpC fusion protein expressing the CD154 Trp140-Ser149 amino acid strand binds CD40 and activates a lymphoma B-cell line.
  Immunology, 110, 206-216.  
12661072 M.Xie, Z.Shahrokh, M.Kadkhodayan, W.J.Henzel, M.F.Powell, R.T.Borchardt, and R.L.Schowen (2003).
Asparagine deamidation in recombinant human lymphotoxin: hindrance by three-dimensional structures.
  J Pharm Sci, 92, 869-880.  
12645006 O.V.Moroz, G.G.Dodson, K.S.Wilson, E.Lukanidin, and I.B.Bronstein (2003).
Multiple structural states of S100A12: A key to its functional diversity.
  Microsc Res Tech, 60, 581-592.  
12716880 R.L.Schweickhardt, X.Jiang, L.M.Garone, and W.H.Brondyk (2003).
Structure-expression relationship of tumor necrosis factor receptor mutants that increase expression.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 28961-28967.  
14656435 S.G.Hymowitz, D.M.Compaan, M.Yan, H.J.Wallweber, V.M.Dixit, M.A.Starovasnik, and Vos (2003).
The crystal structures of EDA-A1 and EDA-A2: splice variants with distinct receptor specificity.
  Structure, 11, 1513-1520.
PDB codes: 1rj7 1rj8
12787562 S.R.Wiley, and J.A.Winkles (2003).
TWEAK, a member of the TNF superfamily, is a multifunctional cytokine that binds the TweakR/Fn14 receptor.
  Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 14, 241-249.  
12787566 S.W.Granger, and S.Rickert (2003).
LIGHT-HVEM signaling and the regulation of T cell-mediated immunity.
  Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 14, 289-296.  
13679377 T.Ikeda, M.Kasai, J.Suzuki, H.Kuroyama, S.Seki, M.Utsuyama, and K.Hirokawa (2003).
Multimerization of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) isoforms and regulation of osteoclastogenesis.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 47217-47222.  
12721620 Y.Liu, X.Hong, J.Kappler, L.Jiang, R.Zhang, L.Xu, C.H.Pan, W.E.Martin, R.C.Murphy, H.B.Shu, S.Dai, and G.Zhang (2003).
Ligand-receptor binding revealed by the TNF family member TALL-1.
  Nature, 423, 49-56.
PDB codes: 1oqd 1oqe
12189384 A.Ashkenazi (2002).
Targeting death and decoy receptors of the tumour-necrosis factor superfamily.
  Nat Rev Cancer, 2, 420-430.  
12011054 A.Berezov, J.Chen, Q.Liu, H.T.Zhang, M.I.Greene, and R.Murali (2002).
Disabling receptor ensembles with rationally designed interface peptidomimetics.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 28330-28339.  
11976496 A.Carfí, H.Gong, H.Lou, S.H.Willis, G.H.Cohen, R.J.Eisenberg, and D.C.Wiley (2002).
Crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of the ectodomain of the envelope glycoprotein D from herpes simplex virus 1 alone and in complex with the ectodomain of the human receptor HveA.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 58, 836-838.  
12070334 B.A.Kerwin, B.S.Chang, C.V.Gegg, M.Gonnelli, T.Li, and G.B.Strambini (2002).
Interactions between PEG and type I soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor: modulation by pH and by PEGylation at the N terminus.
  Protein Sci, 11, 1825-1833.  
11862220 D.A.Oren, Y.Li, Y.Volovik, T.S.Morris, C.Dharia, K.Das, O.Galperina, R.Gentz, and E.Arnold (2002).
Structural basis of BLyS receptor recognition.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 288-292.
PDB code: 1kxg
11953985 H.Nevala, L.Karenko, S.Stjernberg, M.Raatikainen, H.Suomalainen, A.Lagerstedt, J.Rauta, M.F.McDermott, P.Peterson, T.Pettersson, and A.Ranki (2002).
A novel mutation in the third extracellular domain of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in a Finnish family with autosomal-dominant recurrent fever.
  Arthritis Rheum, 46, 1061-1066.  
11796220 J.L.Bodmer, P.Schneider, and J.Tschopp (2002).
The molecular architecture of the TNF superfamily.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 27, 19-26.  
11751921 J.N.Shin, I.Kim, J.S.Lee, G.Y.Koh, Z.H.Lee, and H.H.Kim (2002).
A novel zinc finger protein that inhibits osteoclastogenesis and the function of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 8346-8353.  
12352631 K.M.Hull, E.Drewe, I.Aksentijevich, H.K.Singh, K.Wong, E.M.McDermott, J.Dean, R.J.Powell, and D.L.Kastner (2002).
The TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS): emerging concepts of an autoinflammatory disorder.
  Medicine (Baltimore), 81, 349-368.  
11909948 K.Miki, and E.M.Eddy (2002).
Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 is an ATPase regulated by silencer of death domain.
  Mol Cell Biol, 22, 2536-2543.  
11953838 N.Carbó, S.Busquets, M.van Royen, B.Alvarez, F.J.López-Soriano, and J.M.Argilés (2002).
TNF-alpha is involved in activating DNA fragmentation in skeletal muscle.
  Br J Cancer, 86, 1012-1016.  
11839302 O.Bogin, M.Kvansakul, E.Rom, J.Singer, A.Yayon, and E.Hohenester (2002).
Insight into Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia from the crystal structure of the collagen X NC1 domain trimer.
  Structure, 10, 165-173.
PDB code: 1gr3
11856825 O.V.Moroz, A.A.Antson, E.J.Dodson, H.J.Burrell, S.J.Grist, R.M.Lloyd, N.J.Maitland, G.G.Dodson, K.S.Wilson, E.Lukanidin, and I.B.Bronstein (2002).
The structure of S100A12 in a hexameric form and its proposed role in receptor signalling.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 58, 407-413.
PDB code: 1gqm
11754357 P.G.Hargreaves, and A.Al-Shamkhani (2002).
Soluble CD30 binds to CD153 with high affinity and blocks transmembrane signaling by CD30.
  Eur J Immunol, 32, 163-173.  
12368332 S.A.Connolly, D.J.Landsburg, A.Carfi, D.C.Wiley, R.J.Eisenberg, and G.H.Cohen (2002).
Structure-based analysis of the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D binding site present on herpesvirus entry mediator HveA (HVEM).
  J Virol, 76, 10894-10904.  
11733492 S.Ito, K.Wakabayashi, O.Ubukata, S.Hayashi, F.Okada, and T.Hata (2002).
Crystal structure of the extracellular domain of mouse RANK ligand at 2.2-A resolution.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 6631-6636.
PDB code: 1iqa
12165095 S.Mihara, N.Suzuki, Y.Takeba, K.Soejima, and S.Yamamoto (2002).
Combination of molecular mimicry and aberrant autoantigen expression is important for development of anti-Fas ligand autoantibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  Clin Exp Immunol, 129, 359-369.  
12297049 T.P.Garrett, N.M.McKern, M.Lou, T.C.Elleman, T.E.Adams, G.O.Lovrecz, H.J.Zhu, F.Walker, M.J.Frenkel, P.A.Hoyne, R.N.Jorissen, E.C.Nice, A.W.Burgess, and C.W.Ward (2002).
Crystal structure of a truncated epidermal growth factor receptor extracellular domain bound to transforming growth factor alpha.
  Cell, 110, 763-773.
PDB code: 1mox
11511370 A.Carfí, S.H.Willis, J.C.Whitbeck, C.Krummenacher, G.H.Cohen, R.J.Eisenberg, and D.C.Wiley (2001).
Herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D bound to the human receptor HveA.
  Mol Cell, 8, 169-179.
PDB codes: 1jma 1l2g
11562359 B.G.Werneburg, S.J.Zoog, T.T.Dang, M.R.Kehry, and J.J.Crute (2001).
Molecular characterization of CD40 signaling intermediates.
  J Biol Chem, 276, 43334-43342.  
11762942 C.Morita, T.Horiuchi, H.Tsukamoto, N.Hatta, Y.Kikuchi, Y.Arinobu, T.Otsuka, T.Sawabe, S.Harashima, K.Nagasawa, and Y.Niho (2001).
Association of tumor necrosis factor receptor type II polymorphism 196R with Systemic lupus erythematosus in the Japanese: molecular and functional analysis.
  Arthritis Rheum, 44, 2819-2827.  
11376122 C.W.Ward, T.P.Garrett, N.M.McKern, M.Lou, L.J.Cosgrove, L.G.Sparrow, M.J.Frenkel, P.A.Hoyne, T.C.Elleman, T.E.Adams, G.O.Lovrecz, L.J.Lawrence, and P.A.Tulloch (2001).
The three dimensional structure of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor.
  Mol Pathol, 54, 125-132.  
11313471 E.C.Wang, A.Thern, A.Denzel, J.Kitson, S.N.Farrow, and M.J.Owen (2001).
DR3 regulates negative selection during thymocyte development.
  Mol Cell Biol, 21, 3451-3461.  
11178122 E.M.Gravallese, D.L.Galson, S.R.Goldring, and P.E.Auron (2001).
The role of TNF-receptor family members and other TRAF-dependent receptors in bone resorption.
  Arthritis Res, 3, 6.  
11684708 H.Inada, I.Izawa, M.Nishizawa, E.Fujita, T.Kiyono, T.Takahashi, T.Momoi, and M.Inagaki (2001).
Keratin attenuates tumor necrosis factor-induced cytotoxicity through association with TRADD.
  J Cell Biol, 155, 415-426.  
11167129 H.Wajant, and P.Scheurich (2001).
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 2 and its role in TNF signaling.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 33, 19-32.  
11443543 I.Aksentijevich, J.Galon, M.Soares, E.Mansfield, K.Hull, H.H.Oh, R.Goldbach-Mansky, J.Dean, B.Athreya, A.J.Reginato, M.Henrickson, B.Pons-Estel, J.J.O'Shea, and D.L.Kastner (2001).
The tumor-necrosis-factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome: new mutations in TNFRSF1A, ancestral origins, genotype-phenotype studies, and evidence for further genetic heterogeneity of periodic fevers.
  Am J Hum Genet, 69, 301-314.  
11119586 J.C.Whitbeck, S.A.Connolly, S.H.Willis, W.Hou, C.Krummenacher, M.Ponce de Leon, H.Lou, I.Baribaud, R.J.Eisenberg, and G.H.Cohen (2001).
Localization of the gD-binding region of the human herpes simplex virus receptor, HveA.
  J Virol, 75, 171-180.  
11503955 J.E.Parker, and G.J.Mufti (2001).
The role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of the myelodysplastic syndromes.
  Int J Hematol, 73, 416-428.  
  11581298 J.Lam, C.A.Nelson, F.P.Ross, S.L.Teitelbaum, and D.H.Fremont (2001).
Crystal structure of the TRANCE/RANKL cytokine reveals determinants of receptor-ligand specificity.
  J Clin Invest, 108, 971-979.
PDB code: 1jtz
11491660 J.Zhang, G.Johnston, B.Stebler, and E.T.Keller (2001).
Hydrogen peroxide activates NFkappaB and the interleukin-6 promoter through NFkappaB-inducing kinase.
  Antioxid Redox Signal, 3, 493-504.  
11525169 M.Karpusas, J.Lucci, J.Ferrant, C.Benjamin, F.R.Taylor, K.Strauch, E.Garber, and Y.M.Hsu (2001).
Structure of CD40 ligand in complex with the Fab fragment of a neutralizing humanized antibody.
  Structure, 9, 321-329.
PDB code: 1i9r
11376481 M.N.Prichard, M.E.Penfold, G.M.Duke, R.R.Spaete, and G.W.Kemble (2001).
A review of genetic differences between limited and extensively passaged human cytomegalovirus strains.
  Rev Med Virol, 11, 191-200.  
11119592 M.Saraiva, and A.Alcami (2001).
CrmE, a novel soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor encoded by poxviruses.
  J Virol, 75, 226-233.  
11592999 P.H.Carter, P.A.Scherle, J.K.Muckelbauer, M.E.Voss, R.Q.Liu, L.A.Thompson, A.J.Tebben, K.A.Solomon, Y.C.Lo, Z.Li, P.Strzemienski, G.Yang, N.Falahatpisheh, M.Xu, Z.Wu, N.A.Farrow, K.Ramnarayan, J.Wang, D.Rideout, V.Yalamoori, P.Domaille, D.J.Underwood, J.M.Trzaskos, S.M.Friedman, R.C.Newton, C.P.Decicco, and J.A.Muckelbauer (2001).
Photochemically enhanced binding of small molecules to the tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 inhibits the binding of TNF-alpha.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 11879-11884.
PDB code: 1ft4
11602024 R.C.Pillutla, K.Hsiao, R.Brissette, P.S.Eder, T.Giordano, P.W.Fletcher, M.Lennick, A.J.Blume, and N.I.Goldstein (2001).
A surrogate-based approach for post-genomic partner identification.
  BMC Biotechnol, 1, 6.  
11774036 R.K.Srivastava (2001).
TRAIL/Apo-2L: mechanisms and clinical applications in cancer.
  Neoplasia, 3, 535-546.  
11239407 R.M.Locksley, N.Killeen, and M.J.Lenardo (2001).
The TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies: integrating mammalian biology.
  Cell, 104, 487-501.  
11574464 S.G.Hymowitz, E.H.Filvaroff, J.P.Yin, J.Lee, L.Cai, P.Risser, M.Maruoka, W.Mao, J.Foster, R.F.Kelley, G.Pan, A.L.Gurney, Vos, and M.A.Starovasnik (2001).
IL-17s adopt a cystine knot fold: structure and activity of a novel cytokine, IL-17F, and implications for receptor binding.
  EMBO J, 20, 5332-5341.
PDB code: 1jpy
11828422 U.Sartorius, I.Schmitz, and P.H.Krammer (2001).
Molecular mechanisms of death-receptor-mediated apoptosis.
  Chembiochem, 2, 20-29.  
11416205 Y.Chen, S.S.Molloy, L.Thomas, J.Gambee, H.P.Bächinger, B.Ferguson, J.Zonana, G.Thomas, and N.P.Morris (2001).
Mutations within a furin consensus sequence block proteolytic release of ectodysplasin-A and cause X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 7218-7223.  
11169925 A.J.Blume, J.Beasley, and N.I.Goldstein (2000).
The use of peptides in Diogenesis: a novel approach to drug discovery and phenomics.
  Biopolymers, 55, 347-356.  
12594893 D.L.Dunn (2000).
Prevention and treatment of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: lessons learned and future prospects.
  Surg Infect (Larchmt), 1, 227.  
11114500 E.Y.Jones (2000).
The tumour necrosis factor receptor family: life or death choices.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 10, 644-648.  
11053089 F.K.Chan (2000).
The pre-ligand binding assembly domain: a potential target of inhibition of tumour necrosis factor receptor function.
  Ann Rheum Dis, 59, i50-i53.  
10781406 G.Screaton, and X.N.Xu (2000).
T cell life and death signalling via TNF-receptor family members.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 12, 316-322.  
10729132 H.B.Adkins, J.Brojatsch, and J.A.Young (2000).
Identification and characterization of a shared TNFR-related receptor for subgroup B, D, and E avian leukosis viruses reveal cysteine residues required specifically for subgroup E viral entry.
  J Virol, 74, 3572-3578.  
10891884 H.T.Idriss, and J.H.Naismith (2000).
TNF alpha and the TNF receptor superfamily: structure-function relationship(s).
  Microsc Res Tech, 50, 184-195.  
10908665 H.Ye, and H.Wu (2000).
Thermodynamic characterization of the interaction between TRAF2 and tumor necrosis factor receptor peptides by isothermal titration calorimetry.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 8961-8966.  
10899034 J.Galon, I.Aksentijevich, M.F.McDermott, J.J.O'Shea, and D.L.Kastner (2000).
TNFRSF1A mutations and autoinflammatory syndromes.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 12, 479-486.  
  11007926 J.R.Harrington (2000).
SODD-silencer of death domains.
  Stem Cells, 18, 388-389.  
10880534 J.S.Thompson, P.Schneider, S.L.Kalled, L.Wang, E.A.Lefevre, T.G.Cachero, F.MacKay, S.A.Bixler, M.Zafari, Z.Y.Liu, S.A.Woodcock, F.Qian, M.Batten, C.Madry, Y.Richard, C.D.Benjamin, J.L.Browning, A.Tsapis, J.Tschopp, and C.Ambrose (2000).
BAFF binds to the tumor necrosis factor receptor-like molecule B cell maturation antigen and is important for maintaining the peripheral B cell population.
  J Exp Med, 192, 129-135.  
11070160 K.F.Chan, M.R.Siegel, and J.M.Lenardo (2000).
Signaling by the TNF receptor superfamily and T cell homeostasis.
  Immunity, 13, 419-422.  
10821669 L.Qiu, C.R.Escalante, A.K.Aggarwal, P.D.Wilson, and C.R.Burrow (2000).
Monomeric midkine induces tumor cell proliferation in the absence of cell-surface proteoglycan binding.
  Biochemistry, 39, 5977-5987.  
10753817 M.C.Deller, and E.Yvonne Jones (2000).
Cell surface receptors.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 10, 213-219.  
11067865 M.E.Guicciardi, J.Deussing, H.Miyoshi, S.F.Bronk, P.A.Svingen, C.Peters, S.H.Kaufmann, and G.J.Gores (2000).
Cathepsin B contributes to TNF-alpha-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis by promoting mitochondrial release of cytochrome c.
  J Clin Invest, 106, 1127-1137.  
10891885 M.J.Smyth, and R.W.Johnstone (2000).
Role of TNF in lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity.
  Microsc Res Tech, 50, 196-208.  
10716715 S.D.Khare, I.Sarosi, X.Z.Xia, S.McCabe, K.Miner, I.Solovyev, N.Hawkins, M.Kelley, D.Chang, G.Van, L.Ross, J.Delaney, L.Wang, D.Lacey, W.J.Boyle, and H.Hsu (2000).
Severe B cell hyperplasia and autoimmune disease in TALL-1 transgenic mice.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 3370-3375.  
10651627 S.G.Hymowitz, M.P.O'Connell, M.H.Ultsch, A.Hurst, K.Totpal, A.Ashkenazi, Vos, and R.F.Kelley (2000).
A unique zinc-binding site revealed by a high-resolution X-ray structure of homotrimeric Apo2L/TRAIL.
  Biochemistry, 39, 633-640.
PDB code: 1dg6
10700560 S.J.Newman, B.Bond, B.Crook, J.Darker, C.Edge, and P.R.Maycox (2000).
Neuron-specific localisation of the TR3 death receptor in Alzheimer's disease.
  Brain Res, 857, 131-140.  
10966463 S.R.Hubbard, and J.H.Till (2000).
Protein tyrosine kinase structure and function.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 69, 373-398.  
11057900 S.W.Fesik (2000).
Insights into programmed cell death through structural biology.
  Cell, 103, 273-282.  
10892748 Y.C.Park, H.Ye, C.Hsia, D.Segal, R.L.Rich, H.C.Liou, D.G.Myszka, and H.Wu (2000).
A novel mechanism of TRAF signaling revealed by structural and functional analyses of the TRADD-TRAF2 interaction.
  Cell, 101, 777-787.
PDB code: 1f3v
10536368 C.Köhne, A.Johnson, S.Tom, D.H.Peers, R.L.Gehant, T.A.Hotaling, D.Brousseau, T.Ryll, J.A.Fox, S.M.Chamow, and P.W.Berman (1999).
Secretion of glycosylation site mutants can be rescued by the signal/pro sequence of tissue plasminogen activator.
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PEGylated recombinant human soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor type I (r-Hu-sTNF-RI): novel high affinity TNF receptor designed for chronic inflammatory diseases.
  Ann Rheum Dis, 58, I73-I81.  
10233684 C.L.Chirinos-Rojas, M.W.Steward, and C.D.Partidos (1999).
A phage-displayed mimotope inhibits tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced cytotoxicity more effectively than the free mimotope.
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11232331 H.Wu, Y.C.Park, H.Ye, and L.Tong (1999).
Structural studies of human TRAF2.
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10518213 H.Ye, Y.C.Park, M.Kreishman, E.Kieff, and H.Wu (1999).
The structural basis for the recognition of diverse receptor sequences by TRAF2.
  Mol Cell, 4, 321-330.
PDB codes: 1czy 1czz 1d00 1d01 1d0a 1d0j
  10595525 I.L.Shamovsky, G.M.Ross, R.J.Riopelle, and D.F.Weaver (1999).
The interaction of neurotrophins with the p75NTR common neurotrophin receptor: a comprehensive molecular modeling study.
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10382675 J.Bajorath (1999).
Identification of the ligand binding site in Fas (CD95) and analysis of Fas-ligand interactions.
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Structure and function of Fas/Fas ligand.
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10339421 J.Tschopp, F.Martinon, and K.Hofmann (1999).
Apoptosis: Silencing the death receptors.
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10089307 K.J.Baeyens, H.L.De Bondt, A.Raeymaekers, W.Fiers, and C.J.De Ranter (1999).
The structure of mouse tumour-necrosis factor at 1.4 A resolution: towards modulation of its selectivity and trimerization.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 55, 772-778.
PDB code: 2tnf
10196221 K.Seyama, W.R.Osborne, and H.D.Ochs (1999).
CD40 ligand mutants responsible for X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome associate with wild type CD40 ligand.
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Clinical and pharmacological experience with etanercept.
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10199409 M.F.McDermott, I.Aksentijevich, J.Galon, E.M.McDermott, B.W.Ogunkolade, M.Centola, E.Mansfield, M.Gadina, L.Karenko, T.Pettersson, J.McCarthy, D.M.Frucht, M.Aringer, Y.Torosyan, A.M.Teppo, M.Wilson, H.M.Karaarslan, Y.Wan, I.Todd, G.Wood, R.Schlimgen, T.R.Kumarajeewa, S.M.Cooper, J.P.Vella, C.I.Amos, J.Mulley, K.A.Quane, M.G.Molloy, A.Ranki, R.J.Powell, G.A.Hitman, J.J.O'Shea, and D.L.Kastner (1999).
Germline mutations in the extracellular domains of the 55 kDa TNF receptor, TNFR1, define a family of dominantly inherited autoinflammatory syndromes.
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10358758 M.Lenardo, K.M.Chan, F.Hornung, H.McFarland, R.Siegel, J.Wang, and L.Zheng (1999).
Mature T lymphocyte apoptosis--immune regulation in a dynamic and unpredictable antigenic environment.
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Thiolated recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha protects against Plasmodium berghei K173-induced experimental cerebral malaria in mice.
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9974392 O.Livnah, E.A.Stura, S.A.Middleton, D.L.Johnson, L.K.Jolliffe, and I.A.Wilson (1999).
Crystallographic evidence for preformed dimers of erythropoietin receptor before ligand activation.
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PDB code: 1ern
10359578 P.Schneider, F.MacKay, V.Steiner, K.Hofmann, J.L.Bodmer, N.Holler, C.Ambrose, P.Lawton, S.Bixler, H.Acha-Orbea, D.Valmori, P.Romero, C.Werner-Favre, R.H.Zubler, J.L.Browning, and J.Tschopp (1999).
BAFF, a novel ligand of the tumor necrosis factor family, stimulates B cell growth.
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10382740 P.Schneider, R.Schwenzer, E.Haas, F.Mühlenbeck, G.Schubert, P.Scheurich, J.Tschopp, and H.Wajant (1999).
TWEAK can induce cell death via endogenous TNF and TNF receptor 1.
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9874572 R.Endres, M.B.Alimzhanov, T.Plitz, A.Fütterer, M.H.Kosco-Vilbois, S.A.Nedospasov, K.Rajewsky, and K.Pfeffer (1999).
Mature follicular dendritic cell networks depend on expression of lymphotoxin beta receptor by radioresistant stromal cells and of lymphotoxin beta and tumor necrosis factor by B cells.
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10611959 R.H.Arch, and C.B.Thompson (1999).
Lymphocyte survival--the struggle against death.
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10545102 S.Eketjäll, M.Fainzilber, J.Murray-Rust, and C.F.Ibáñez (1999).
Distinct structural elements in GDNF mediate binding to GFRalpha1 and activation of the GFRalpha1-c-Ret receptor complex.
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10549288 S.G.Hymowitz, H.W.Christinger, G.Fuh, M.Ultsch, M.O'Connell, R.F.Kelley, A.Ashkenazi, and Vos (1999).
Triggering cell death: the crystal structure of Apo2L/TRAIL in a complex with death receptor 5.
  Mol Cell, 4, 563-571.
PDB code: 1d0g
11232332 S.M.McWhirter, S.S.Pullen, B.G.Werneburg, M.E.Labadia, R.H.Ingraham, J.J.Crute, M.R.Kehry, and T.Alber (1999).
Structural and biochemical analysis of signal transduction by the TRAF family of adapter proteins.
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10411888 S.M.McWhirter, S.S.Pullen, J.M.Holton, J.J.Crute, M.R.Kehry, and T.Alber (1999).
Crystallographic analysis of CD40 recognition and signaling by human TRAF2.
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PDB code: 1qsc
10690403 S.Nagata (1999).
Fas ligand-induced apoptosis.
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10216319 S.S.Cha, H.C.Shin, K.Y.Choi, and B.H.Oh (1999).
Expression, purification and crystallization of recombinant human TRAIL.
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10485660 S.S.Cha, M.S.Kim, Y.H.Choi, B.J.Sung, N.K.Shin, H.C.Shin, Y.C.Sung, and B.H.Oh (1999).
2.8 A resolution crystal structure of human TRAIL, a cytokine with selective antitumor activity.
  Immunity, 11, 253-261.
PDB code: 1d2q
10433725 S.S.Pullen, M.E.Labadia, R.H.Ingraham, S.M.McWhirter, D.S.Everdeen, T.Alber, J.J.Crute, and M.R.Kehry (1999).
High-affinity interactions of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and CD40 require TRAF trimerization and CD40 multimerization.
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10190897 T.Maeda, Y.Yamada, R.Moriuchi, K.Sugahara, K.Tsuruda, T.Joh, S.Atogami, K.Tsukasaki, M.Tomonaga, and S.Kamihira (1999).
Fas gene mutation in the progression of adult T cell leukemia.
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10514510 W.N.Procopio, P.I.Pelavin, W.M.Lee, and N.M.Yeilding (1999).
Angiopoietin-1 and -2 coiled coil domains mediate distinct homo-oligomerization patterns, but fibrinogen-like domains mediate ligand activity.
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Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha by an adenovirus-encoded soluble fusion protein extends transgene expression in the liver and lung.
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Osteoprotegerin ligand is a cytokine that regulates osteoclast differentiation and activation.
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9462508 D.N.Mauri, R.Ebner, R.I.Montgomery, K.D.Kochel, T.C.Cheung, G.L.Yu, S.Ruben, M.Murphy, R.J.Eisenberg, G.H.Cohen, P.G.Spear, and C.F.Ware (1998).
LIGHT, a new member of the TNF superfamily, and lymphotoxin alpha are ligands for herpesvirus entry mediator.
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Nuclear factor kB-independent cytoprotective pathways originating at tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2.
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Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD): lymphokine production and PTLD.
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9700498 I.D.Campbell (1998).
The modular architecture of leukocyte cell-surface receptors.
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Herpesvirus entry mediator ligand (HVEM-L), a novel ligand for HVEM/TR2, stimulates proliferation of T cells and inhibits HT29 cell growth.
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Detailed comparison of two molecular models of the human CD40 ligand with an x-ray structure and critical assessment of model-based mutagenesis and residue mapping studies.
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Dimerization as a regulatory mechanism in signal transduction.
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Characterization of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the type II activin receptor.
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Modularity in the TNF-receptor family.
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Initiation of signal transduction through the T cell receptor requires the multivalent engagement of peptide/MHC ligands [corrected]
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The role of polar interactions in the molecular recognition of CD40L with its receptor CD40.
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Transforming the cell surface through proteolysis.
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The type 1 receptor (CD120a) is the high-affinity receptor for soluble tumor necrosis factor.
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APRIL, a new ligand of the tumor necrosis factor family, stimulates tumor cell growth.
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Role of TNF receptor 1 in protein turnover during cancer cachexia using gene knockout mice.
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9479578 R.Murali, and M.I.Greene (1998).
Structure-based design of immunologically active therapeutic peptides.
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9442056 S.S.Cha, J.S.Kim, H.S.Cho, N.K.Shin, W.Jeong, H.C.Shin, Y.J.Kim, J.H.Hahn, and B.H.Oh (1998).
High resolution crystal structure of a human tumor necrosis factor-alpha mutant with low systemic toxicity.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 2153-2160.
PDB codes: 4tsv 4tsw 5tsw
9655487 T.D.Randall, A.W.Heath, L.Santos-Argumedo, M.C.Howard, I.L.Weissman, and F.E.Lund (1998).
Arrest of B lymphocyte terminal differentiation by CD40 signaling: mechanism for lack of antibody-secreting cells in germinal centers.
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9794836 T.S.Griffith, and D.H.Lynch (1998).
TRAIL: a molecule with multiple receptors and control mechanisms.
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A third distinct tumor necrosis factor receptor of orthopoxviruses.
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A tumor necrosis factor mimetic peptide activates a murine macrophage cell line to inhibit mycobacterial growth in a nitric oxide-dependent fashion.
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Affinity and kinetics of the interaction between soluble trimeric OX40 ligand, a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, and its receptor OX40 on activated T cells.
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9394127 B.L.Slomiany, J.Piotrowski, and A.Slomiany (1997).
Chronic alcohol ingestion enhances tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression and salivary gland apoptosis.
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9476666 B.Zheng, S.Han, Y.Takahashi, and G.Kelsoe (1997).
Immunosenescence and germinal center reaction.
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Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase is mediated by TRAF2.
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9195871 D.J.Underwood, and K.Prendergast (1997).
Getting it together: signal transduction in G-protein coupled receptors by association of receptor domains.
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Fas-ligand: privilege and peril.
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9722891 D.Schmitter, M.Koss, E.Niederer, R.A.Stahel, and G.Pichert (1997).
T-cell derived cytokines co-stimulate proliferation of CD40-activated germinal centre as well as follicular lymphoma cells.
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9045669 D.T.Loo, N.J.Chalupny, J.Bajorath, W.W.Shuford, R.S.Mittler, and A.Aruffo (1997).
Analysis of 4-1BBL and laminin binding to murine 4-1BB, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, and comparison with human 4-1BB.
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9126929 G.C.Starling, J.Bajorath, J.Emswiler, J.A.Ledbetter, A.Aruffo, and P.A.Kiener (1997).
Identification of amino acid residues important for ligand binding to Fas.
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  9407552 G.I.Botchkina, M.E.Meistrell, I.L.Botchkina, and K.J.Tracey (1997).
Expression of TNF and TNF receptors (p55 and p75) in the rat brain after focal cerebral ischemia.
  Mol Med, 3, 765-781.  
9177197 G.Nocentini, L.Giunchi, S.Ronchetti, L.T.Krausz, A.Bartoli, R.Moraca, G.Migliorati, and C.Riccardi (1997).
A new member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor family inhibits T cell receptor-induced apoptosis.
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NF-AT activation induced by a CAML-interacting member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily.
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9326659 H.B.Adkins, J.Brojatsch, J.Naughton, M.M.Rolls, J.M.Pesola, and J.A.Young (1997).
Identification of a cellular receptor for subgroup E avian leukosis virus.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 11617-11622.  
  9223502 J.C.Whitbeck, C.Peng, H.Lou, R.Xu, S.H.Willis, M.Ponce de Leon, T.Peng, A.V.Nicola, R.I.Montgomery, M.S.Warner, A.M.Soulika, L.A.Spruce, W.T.Moore, J.D.Lambris, P.G.Spear, G.H.Cohen, and R.J.Eisenberg (1997).
Glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds directly to HVEM, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and a mediator of HSV entry.
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Predicted structure of the extracellular region of ligand-gated ion-channel receptors shows SH2-like and SH3-like domains forming the ligand-binding site.
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TRAMP, a novel apoptosis-mediating receptor with sequence homology to tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and Fas(Apo-1/CD95).
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Requirement of cysteine-rich repeats of the Fas receptor for binding by the Fas ligand.
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Separate domains of the human fas ligand dictate self-association and receptor binding.
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Oligomeric states and siderophore binding of the ligand-gated FhuA protein that forms channels across Escherichia coli outer membranes.
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The lymphotoxin-alpha (LTalpha) subunit is essential for the assembly, but not for the receptor specificity, of the membrane-anchored LTalpha1beta2 heterotrimeric ligand.
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Kit receptor dimerization is driven by bivalent binding of stem cell factor.
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Two EGF molecules contribute additively to stabilization of the EGFR dimer.
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Distinct roles of lymphotoxin alpha and the type I tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor in the establishment of follicular dendritic cells from non-bone marrow-derived cells.
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Human lymphotoxin mutein lacks hypotensive activity but has higher in vivo antitumor activity than lymphotoxin or tumor necrosis factor.
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Ligand-induced receptor dimerization may be critical for signal transduction by choriogonadotropin.
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Polymorphism of murine Fas ligand that affects the biological activity.
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Latent membrane protein 1 of Epstein-Barr virus mimics a constitutively active receptor molecule.
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Apoptosis by death factor.
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Induced expression of trimerized intracellular domains of the human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) p55 receptor elicits TNF effects.
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Structure-based design and characterization of exocyclic peptidomimetics that inhibit TNF alpha binding to its receptor.
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PDB code: 1vpf
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Looking beneath the surface: the cell death pathway of Fas/APO-1 (CD95).
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Apoptosis mediated by the TNF-related cytokine and receptor families.
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8943045 H.B.Shu, M.Takeuchi, and D.V.Goeddel (1996).
The tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 signal transducers TRAF2 and c-IAP1 are components of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 signaling complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 13973-13978.  
8565075 H.Hsu, H.B.Shu, M.G.Pan, and D.V.Goeddel (1996).
TRADD-TRAF2 and TRADD-FADD interactions define two distinct TNF receptor 1 signal transduction pathways.
  Cell, 84, 299-308.  
8612133 H.Hsu, J.Huang, H.B.Shu, V.Baichwal, and D.V.Goeddel (1996).
TNF-dependent recruitment of the protein kinase RIP to the TNF receptor-1 signaling complex.
  Immunity, 4, 387-396.  
8905447 H.J.Gruss (1996).
Molecular, structural, and biological characteristics of the tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily.
  Int J Clin Lab Res, 26, 143-159.  
8663299 H.Nakano, H.Oshima, W.Chung, L.Williams-Abbott, C.F.Ware, H.Yagita, and K.Okumura (1996).
TRAF5, an activator of NF-kappaB and putative signal transducer for the lymphotoxin-beta receptor.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 14661-14664.  
8912006 J.A.Barbara, X.Van ostade, and A.Lopez (1996).
Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha): the good, the bad and potentially very effective.
  Immunol Cell Biol, 74, 434-443.  
  16509032 J.Bajorath, K.Seyama, S.Nonoyama, H.D.Ochs, and A.Aruffo (1996).
Classification of mutations in the human CD40 ligand, gp39, that are associated with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome.
  Protein Sci, 5, 531-534.  
8945512 J.Brojatsch, J.Naughton, M.M.Rolls, K.Zingler, and J.A.Young (1996).
CAR1, a TNFR-related protein, is a cellular receptor for cytopathic avian leukosis-sarcoma viruses and mediates apoptosis.
  Cell, 87, 845-855.  
8877801 J.H.Naismith, B.J.Brandhuber, T.Q.Devine, and S.R.Sprang (1996).
Seeing double: crystal structures of the type I TNF receptor.
  J Mol Recognit, 9, 113-117.  
8939750 J.H.Naismith, T.Q.Devine, T.Kohno, and S.R.Sprang (1996).
Structures of the extracellular domain of the type I tumor necrosis factor receptor.
  Structure, 4, 1251-1262.
PDB code: 1ext
8621492 J.L.Browning, K.Miatkowski, D.A.Griffiths, P.R.Bourdon, C.Hession, C.M.Ambrose, and W.Meier (1996).
Preparation and characterization of soluble recombinant heterotrimeric complexes of human lymphotoxins alpha and beta.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 8618-8626.  
8642291 J.L.Browning, K.Miatkowski, I.Sizing, D.Griffiths, M.Zafari, C.D.Benjamin, W.Meier, and F.Mackay (1996).
Signaling through the lymphotoxin beta receptor induces the death of some adenocarcinoma tumor lines.
  J Exp Med, 183, 867-878.  
8902847 K.Shao, S.Purohit, and O.P.Bahl (1996).
Effect of modification of all loop regions in the alpha- and beta-subunits of human choriogonadotropin on its signal transduction activity.
  Mol Cell Endocrinol, 122, 173-182.  
8784201 L.O.Narhi, J.S.Philo, T.Li, M.Zhang, B.Samal, and T.Arakawa (1996).
Induction of alpha-helix in the beta-sheet protein tumor necrosis factor-alpha: acid-induced denaturation.
  Biochemistry, 35, 11454-11460.  
8621450 M.Canossa, G.Rovelli, and ShooterEM (1996).
Transphosphorylation of the neurotrophin Trk receptors.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 5812-5818.  
8642275 M.J.Lenardo (1996).
Fas and the art of lymphocyte maintenance.
  J Exp Med, 183, 721-724.  
8740419 M.Simonen, H.Vihinen, E.Jämsä, U.Arumäe, N.Kalkkinen, and M.Makarow (1996).
The hsp150 delta-carrier confers secretion competence to the rat nerve growth factor receptor ectodomain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  Yeast, 12, 457-466.  
8870072 P.Bork, A.K.Downing, B.Kieffer, and I.D.Campbell (1996).
Structure and distribution of modules in extracellular proteins.
  Q Rev Biophys, 29, 119-167.  
8939689 P.J.Belshaw, D.M.Spencer, G.R.Crabtree, and S.L.Schreiber (1996).
Controlling programmed cell death with a cyclophilin-cyclosporin-based chemical inducer of dimerization.
  Chem Biol, 3, 731-738.  
8679576 P.Tang, Hung M-C, and J.Klostergaard (1996).
Human pro-tumor necrosis factor is a homotrimer.
  Biochemistry, 35, 8216-8225.  
8679577 P.Tang, Hung M-C, and J.Klostergaard (1996).
Length of the linking domain of human pro-tumor necrosis factor determines the cleavage processing.
  Biochemistry, 35, 8226-8233.  
8797629 R.G.Gedeit (1996).
Tumor necrosis factor-induced E-selectin expression on vascular endothelial cells.
  Crit Care Med, 24, 1543-1546.  
8577707 R.L.Baldwin, M.L.Stolowitz, L.Hood, and B.J.Wisnieski (1996).
Structural changes of tumor necrosis factor alpha associated with membrane insertion and channel formation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 1021-1026.  
8994832 S.A.Marsters, J.P.Sheridan, C.J.Donahue, R.M.Pitti, C.L.Gray, A.D.Goddard, K.D.Bauer, and A.Ashkenazi (1996).
Apo-3, a new member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, contains a death domain and activates apoptosis and NF-kappa B.
  Curr Biol, 6, 1669-1676.  
8717526 T.M.Foy, A.Aruffo, J.Bajorath, J.E.Buhlmann, and R.J.Noelle (1996).
Immune regulation by CD40 and its ligand GP39.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 14, 591-617.  
8663376 T.Takahashi, M.Tanaka, J.Ogasawara, T.Suda, H.Murakami, and S.Nagata (1996).
Swapping between Fas and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 17555-17560.  
9237205 U.Reineke, R.Sabat, A.Kramer, R.D.Stigler, M.Seifert, T.Michel, H.D.Volk, and J.Schneider-Mergener (1996).
Mapping protein-protein contact sites using cellulose-bound peptide scans.
  Mol Divers, 1, 141-148.  
  8786236 W.A.Hendrickson (1996).
Production of crystallizable fragments of membrane proteins.
  J Bioenerg Biomembr, 28, 35-40.  
8537604 A.J.Lewis, and A.F.Keft (1995).
A review on the strategies for the development and application of new anti-arthritic agents.
  Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol, 17, 607-663.  
7876230 A.N.Baldwin, and E.M.Shooter (1995).
Zone mapping of the binding domain of the rat low affinity nerve growth factor receptor by the introduction of novel N-glycosylation sites.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 4594-4602.  
7797464 B.G.Darnay, S.Singh, M.M.Chaturvedi, and B.B.Aggarwal (1995).
The p60 tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated kinase (TRAK) binds residues 344-397 within the cytoplasmic domain involved in TNF signaling.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 14867-14870.  
  8528068 B.S.Chapman, and I.D.Kuntz (1995).
Modeled structure of the 75-kDa neurotrophin receptor.
  Protein Sci, 4, 1696-1707.  
7834741 C.H.Heldin (1995).
Dimerization of cell surface receptors in signal transduction.
  Cell, 80, 213-223.  
7567962 C.W.Ward, P.A.Hoyne, and R.H.Flegg (1995).
Insulin and epidermal growth factor receptors contain the cysteine repeat motif found in the tumor necrosis factor receptor.
  Proteins, 22, 141-153.  
  7615552 D.Adam, U.Kessler, and M.Krönke (1995).
Cross-linking of the p55 tumor necrosis factor receptor cytoplasmic domain by a dimeric ligand induces nuclear factor-kappa B and mediates cell death.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 17482-17487.  
8749360 D.I.Stuart, and E.Y.Jones (1995).
Recognition at the cell surface: recent structural insights.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 735-743.  
7777515 F.Bazzoni, E.Alejos, and B.Beutler (1995).
Chimeric tumor necrosis factor receptors with constitutive signaling activity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 5376-5380.  
  8521815 F.C.Kischkel, S.Hellbardt, I.Behrmann, M.Germer, M.Pawlita, P.H.Krammer, and M.E.Peter (1995).
Cytotoxicity-dependent APO-1 (Fas/CD95)-associated proteins form a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) with the receptor.
  EMBO J, 14, 5579-5588.  
7540117 G.H.Fisher, F.J.Rosenberg, S.E.Straus, J.K.Dale, L.A.Middleton, A.Y.Lin, W.Strober, M.J.Lenardo, and J.M.Puck (1995).
Dominant interfering Fas gene mutations impair apoptosis in a human autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.
  Cell, 81, 935-946.  
7539010 J.D.Mountz, T.Zhou, J.Wu, W.Wang, X.Su, and J.Cheng (1995).
Regulation of apoptosis in immune cells.
  J Clin Immunol, 15, 1.  
7768931 J.H.Naismith, T.Q.Devine, B.J.Brandhuber, and S.R.Sprang (1995).
Crystallographic evidence for dimerization of unliganded tumor necrosis factor receptor.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 13303-13307.
PDB code: 1ncf
7761472 J.Tavernier, T.Tuypens, A.Verhee, G.Plaetinck, R.Devos, J.Van der Heyden, Y.Guisez, and C.Oefner (1995).
Identification of receptor-binding domains on human interleukin 5 and design of an interleukin 5-derived receptor antagonist.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 5194-5198.  
7543899 K.Yone, S.Bajard, N.Tsunekawa, and J.Suzuki (1995).
Epitopic regions for antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha. Analysis by synthetic peptide mapping.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 19509-19515.  
8589998 M.Karpusas, Y.M.Hsu, J.H.Wang, J.Thompson, S.Lederman, L.Chess, and D.Thomas (1995).
2 A crystal structure of an extracellular fragment of human CD40 ligand.
  Structure, 3, 1031-1039.
PDB code: 1aly
7737295 M.L.Birkeland, N.G.Copeland, D.J.Gilbert, N.A.Jenkins, and A.N.Barclay (1995).
Gene structure and chromosomal localization of the mouse homologue of rat OX40 protein.
  Eur J Immunol, 25, 926-930.  
7664782 M.Schuchmann, S.Hess, P.Bufler, C.Brakebusch, D.Wallach, A.Porter, G.Riethmüller, and H.Engelmann (1995).
Functional discrepancies between tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin alpha explained by trimer stability and distinct receptor interactions.
  Eur J Immunol, 25, 2183-2189.  
  7536672 M.Tanaka, T.Suda, T.Takahashi, and S.Nagata (1995).
Expression of the functional soluble form of human fas ligand in activated lymphocytes.
  EMBO J, 14, 1129-1135.  
7743124 N.Q.McDonald, J.Murray-Rust, and T.L.Blundell (1995).
The first structure of a receptor tyrosine kinase domain: a further step in understanding the molecular basis of insulin action.
  Structure, 3, 1-6.  
7649974 N.Q.McDonald, and M.V.Chao (1995).
Structural determinants of neurotrophin action.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 19669-19672.  
7852363 P.C.Chen, G.C.DuBois, and M.J.Chen (1995).
Mapping the domain(s) critical for the binding of human tumor necrosis factor-alpha to its two receptors.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 2874-2878.  
7559548 P.O.Olins, S.C.Bauer, S.Braford-Goldberg, K.Sterbenz, J.O.Polazzi, M.H.Caparon, B.K.Klein, A.M.Easton, K.Paik, and J.A.Klover (1995).
Saturation mutagenesis of human interleukin-3.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 23754-23760.  
  8590321 P.Rao, K.C.Hsu, and M.V.Chao (1995).
Upregulation of NF-kappa B-dependent gene expression mediated by the p75 tumor necrosis factor receptor.
  J Interferon Cytokine Res, 15, 171-177.  
14732063 P.Vandenabeele, W.Declercq, R.Beyaert, and W.Fiers (1995).
Two tumour necrosis factor receptors: structure and function.
  Trends Cell Biol, 5, 392-399.  
7531151 S.Hess, R.Kurrle, L.Lauffer, G.Riethmüller, and H.Engelmann (1995).
A cytotoxic CD40/p55 tumor necrosis factor receptor hybrid detects CD40 ligand on herpesvirus saimiri-transformed T cells.
  Eur J Immunol, 25, 80-86.  
  7849586 A.A.Kossiakoff, W.Somers, M.Ultsch, K.Andow, Y.A.Muller, and A.M.De Vos (1994).
Comparison of the intermediate complexes of human growth hormone bound to the human growth hormone and prolactin receptors.
  Protein Sci, 3, 1697-1705.  
8055960 A.E.Corcoran, K.Barrett, M.Turner, A.Brown, A.M.Kissonerghis, M.Gadnell, P.W.Gray, Y.Chernajovsky, and M.Feldmann (1994).
Characterization of ligand binding by the human p55 tumour-necrosis-factor receptor. Involvement of individual cysteine-rich repeats.
  Eur J Biochem, 223, 831-840.  
8137429 C.A.Smith, T.Farrah, and R.G.Goodwin (1994).
The TNF receptor superfamily of cellular and viral proteins: activation, costimulation, and death.
  Cell, 76, 959-962.  
7922037 C.L.Verlinde, and W.G.Hol (1994).
Structure-based drug design: progress, results and challenges.
  Structure, 2, 577-587.  
  7528588 D.Cosman (1994).
A family of ligands for the TNF receptor superfamily.
  Stem Cells, 12, 440-455.  
  8019416 D.E.Timm, A.H.Ross, and K.E.Neet (1994).
Circular dichroism and crosslinking studies of the interaction between four neurotrophins and the extracellular domain of the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor.
  Protein Sci, 3, 451-458.  
9383393 D.J.Underwood, C.D.Strader, R.Rivero, A.A.Patchett, W.Greenlee, and K.Prendergast (1994).
Structural model of antagonist and agonist binding to the angiotensin II, AT1 subtype, G protein coupled receptor.
  Chem Biol, 1, 211-221.  
7704534 D.Xia, L.J.Henry, R.D.Gerard, and J.Deisenhofer (1994).
Crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain of adenovirus type 5 fiber protein at 1.7 A resolution.
  Structure, 2, 1259-1270.
PDB code: 1knb
  7969172 H.K.Sluss, T.Barrett, B.Dérijard, and R.J.Davis (1994).
Signal transduction by tumor necrosis factor mediated by JNK protein kinases.
  Mol Cell Biol, 14, 8376-8384.  
  7509279 J.A.Barbara, W.B.Smith, J.R.Gamble, X.Van Ostade, P.Vandenabeele, J.Tavernier, W.Fiers, M.A.Vadas, and A.F.Lopez (1994).
Dissociation of TNF-alpha cytotoxic and proinflammatory activities by p55 receptor- and p75 receptor-selective TNF-alpha mutants.
  EMBO J, 13, 843-850.  
8024806 J.A.Wells (1994).
Structural and functional basis for hormone binding and receptor oligomerization.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 6, 163-173.  
7519237 J.Bigda, I.Beletsky, C.Brakebusch, Y.Varfolomeev, H.Engelmann, J.Bigda, H.Holtmann, and D.Wallach (1994).
Dual role of the p75 tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor in TNF cytotoxicity.
  J Exp Med, 180, 445-460.  
8198398 K.J.Tracey, and A.Cerami (1994).
Tumor necrosis factor: a pleiotropic cytokine and therapeutic target.
  Annu Rev Med, 45, 491-503.  
7837289 K.Kullander, and T.Ebendal (1994).
Neurotrophin-3 acquires NGF-like activity after exchange to five NGF amino acid residues: molecular analysis of the sites in NGF mediating the specific interaction with the NGF high affinity receptor.
  J Neurosci Res, 39, 195-210.  
7855887 M.A.Lemmon, and J.Schlessinger (1994).
Regulation of signal transduction and signal diversity by receptor oligomerization.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 19, 459-463.  
7852992 M.V.Chao (1994).
The p75 neurotrophin receptor.
  J Neurobiol, 25, 1373-1385.  
7519240 M.V.Clement, and I.Stamenkovic (1994).
Fas and tumor necrosis factor receptor-mediated cell death: similarities and distinctions.
  J Exp Med, 180, 557-567.  
  18475579 O.Rekdal, Z.Konopski, J.S.Svendsen, J.O.Winberg, T.Espevik, and B.Osterud (1994).
The TNF Receptors p55 and p75 Mediate Chemotaxis of PMN Induced by TNFalpha and a TNFalpha 36-62 Peptide.
  Mediators Inflamm, 3, 347-352.  
  8076595 P.R.Baum, R.B.Gayle, F.Ramsdell, S.Srinivasan, R.A.Sorensen, M.L.Watson, M.F.Seldin, E.Baker, G.R.Sutherland, and K.N.Clifford (1994).
Molecular characterization of murine and human OX40/OX40 ligand systems: identification of a human OX40 ligand as the HTLV-1-regulated protein gp34.
  EMBO J, 13, 3992-4001.  
7765067 W.M.Kazmierski (1994).
Recent advances in the design and synthesis of small-molecule mimetic drugs.
  Trends Biotechnol, 12, 216-218.  
8143731 X.Van Ostade, P.Vandenabeele, J.Tavernier, and W.Fiers (1994).
Human tumor necrosis factor mutants with preferential binding to and activity on either the R55 or R75 receptor.
  Eur J Biochem, 220, 771-779.  
  7505680 J.Bajorath, R.Stenkamp, and A.Aruffo (1993).
Knowledge-based model building of proteins: concepts and examples.
  Protein Sci, 2, 1798-1810.
PDB code: 1kjd
15335677 J.F.Bazan (1993).
Emerging families of cytokines and receptors.
  Curr Biol, 3, 603-606.  
8490958 N.Q.McDonald, and W.A.Hendrickson (1993).
A structural superfamily of growth factors containing a cystine knot motif.
  Cell, 73, 421-424.  
7505205 T.Suda, T.Takahashi, P.Golstein, and S.Nagata (1993).
Molecular cloning and expression of the Fas ligand, a novel member of the tumor necrosis factor family.
  Cell, 75, 1169-1178.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.