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PDBsum entry 1tad

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protein ligands metals Protein-protein interface(s) links
Gtp-binding protein PDB id
1tad
Jmol
Contents
Protein chains
316 a.a. *
Ligands
CAC ×6
ALF-GDP ×3
Metals
_CA ×3
Waters ×1014
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
1tad
Name: Gtp-binding protein
Title: Gtpase mechanism of gproteins from the 1.7-angstrom crystal of transducin alpha-gdp-alf4-
Structure: Transducin-alpha. Chain: a, b, c. Engineered: yes
Source: Bos taurus. Cattle. Organism_taxid: 9913. Organ: eye. Tissue: retina
Resolution:
1.70Å     R-factor:   0.209     R-free:   0.266
Authors: J.Sondek,D.G.Lambright,J.P.Noel,H.E.Hamm,P.B.Sigler
Key ref: J.Sondek et al. (1994). GTPase mechanism of Gproteins from the 1.7-A crystal structure of transducin alpha-GDP-AIF-4. Nature, 372, 276-279. PubMed id: 7969474
Date:
05-Jan-95     Release date:   08-May-95    
PROCHECK
Go to PROCHECK summary
 Headers
 References

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P04695  (GNAT1_BOVIN) -  Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-1
Seq:
Struc:
350 a.a.
316 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     photoreceptor outer segment   5 terms 
  Biological process     response to stimulus   16 terms 
  Biochemical function     acyl binding     11 terms  

 

 
Nature 372:276-279 (1994)
PubMed id: 7969474  
 
 
GTPase mechanism of Gproteins from the 1.7-A crystal structure of transducin alpha-GDP-AIF-4.
J.Sondek, D.G.Lambright, J.P.Noel, H.E.Hamm, P.B.Sigler.
 
  ABSTRACT  
 
Aluminium fluoride (AIF-4) activates members of the heterotrimeric G-protein (G alpha beta gamma) family by binding to inactive G alpha.GDP near the site occupied by the gamma-phosphate in G alpha.GTP (ref. 3). Here we describe the crystal structure of transducin alpha.GDP activated with aluminium fluoride (Gt alpha.GDP.AIF-4.H2O) at 1.7 A, a resolution sufficient to establish the coordination geometry of the bound aluminium fluoride as well as the extensive network of direct and water-mediated interactions that stabilize it. These observations are derived from three independent representations in the asymmetric unit, eliminating any chance of drawing conclusions based on stereochemistry imposed by crystal packing. Surprisingly, aluminium fluoride activates G alpha.GDP by binding with a geometry resembling a pentavalent intermediate for GTP hydrolysis. The stabilizing interactions involve not only residues that interact with the gamma-phosphate in Gt alpha.GTP gamma S, but also conserved residues for GTPase activity. Thus the Gt alpha.GDP.AIF-4.H2O structure provides new insight into the mechanism of GTP hydrolysis.
 

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
20639466 A.Nishimura, K.Kitano, J.Takasaki, M.Taniguchi, N.Mizuno, K.Tago, T.Hakoshima, and H.Itoh (2010).
Structural basis for the specific inhibition of heterotrimeric Gq protein by a small molecule.
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PDB code: 3ah8
20376346 B.Anand, P.Surana, and B.Prakash (2010).
Deciphering the catalytic machinery in 30S ribosome assembly GTPase YqeH.
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20809990 J.V.Møller, C.Olesen, A.M.Winther, and P.Nissen (2010).
The sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase: design of a perfect chemi-osmotic pump.
  Q Rev Biophys, 43, 501-566.  
20001089 L.Shen, G.Caruso, P.Bisegna, D.Andreucci, V.V.Gurevich, H.E.Hamm, and E.Dibenedetto (2010).
Dynamics of mouse rod phototransduction and its sensitivity to variation of key parameters.
  IET Syst Biol, 4, 12.  
19222191 A.M.Preininger, M.A.Funk, W.M.Oldham, S.M.Meier, C.A.Johnston, S.Adhikary, A.J.Kimple, D.P.Siderovski, H.E.Hamm, and T.M.Iverson (2009).
Helix dipole movement and conformational variability contribute to allosteric GDP release in Galphai subunits.
  Biochemistry, 48, 2630-2642.
PDB code: 3d7m
19445518 E.J.Heenan, J.L.Vanhooke, B.R.Temple, L.Betts, J.E.Sondek, and H.G.Dohlman (2009).
Structure and function of Vps15 in the endosomal G protein signaling pathway.
  Biochemistry, 48, 6390-6401.
PDB code: 3gre
19760664 H.E.Hamm, S.M.Meier, G.Liao, and A.M.Preininger (2009).
Trp fluorescence reveals an activation-dependent cation-pi interaction in the Switch II region of Galphai proteins.
  Protein Sci, 18, 2326-2335.  
19424291 R.Gasper, S.Meyer, K.Gotthardt, M.Sirajuddin, and A.Wittinghofer (2009).
It takes two to tango: regulation of G proteins by dimerization.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 10, 423-429.  
19820068 T.Zielinski, A.J.Kimple, S.Q.Hutsell, M.D.Koeff, D.P.Siderovski, and R.G.Lowery (2009).
Two Galpha(i1) rate-modifying mutations act in concert to allow receptor-independent, steady-state measurements of RGS protein activity.
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19470481 X.J.Yao, G.Vélez Ruiz, M.R.Whorton, S.G.Rasmussen, B.T.DeVree, X.Deupi, R.K.Sunahara, and B.Kobilka (2009).
The effect of ligand efficacy on the formation and stability of a GPCR-G protein complex.
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18771287 A.M.Preininger, J.Parello, S.M.Meier, G.Liao, and H.E.Hamm (2008).
Receptor-mediated changes at the myristoylated amino terminus of Galpha(il) proteins.
  Biochemistry, 47, 10281-10293.  
18773979 B.L.Grigorenko, M.S.Shadrina, I.A.Topol, J.R.Collins, and A.V.Nemukhin (2008).
Mechanism of the chemical step for the guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis catalyzed by elongation factor Tu.
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18373982 B.T.Layden, W.Saengsawang, R.J.Donati, S.Yang, D.C.Mulhearn, M.E.Johnson, and M.M.Rasenick (2008).
Structural model of a complex between the heterotrimeric G protein, Gsalpha, and tubulin.
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18249008 E.McCusker, and A.S.Robinson (2008).
Refolding of G protein alpha subunits from inclusion bodies expressed in Escherichia coli.
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18434540 K.C.Slep, M.A.Kercher, T.Wieland, C.K.Chen, M.I.Simon, and P.B.Sigler (2008).
Molecular architecture of Galphao and the structural basis for RGS16-mediated deactivation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 6243-6248.
PDB codes: 3c7k 3c7l
18713003 L.Gremer, B.Gilsbach, M.R.Ahmadian, and A.Wittinghofer (2008).
Fluoride complexes of oncogenic Ras mutants to study the Ras-RasGap interaction.
  Biol Chem, 389, 1163-1171.  
17957392 S.A.Gabel, and R.E.London (2008).
Ternary borate-nucleoside complex stabilization by ribonuclease A demonstrates phosphate mimicry.
  J Biol Inorg Chem, 13, 207-217.  
18940608 Z.Chen, W.D.Singer, S.M.Danesh, P.C.Sternweis, and S.R.Sprang (2008).
Recognition of the activated states of Galpha13 by the rgRGS domain of PDZRhoGEF.
  Structure, 16, 1532-1543.
PDB codes: 3cx6 3cx7 3cx8
17639598 B.Barren, and N.O.Artemyev (2007).
Mechanisms of dominant negative G-protein alpha subunits.
  J Neurosci Res, 85, 3505-3514.  
17094109 B.L.Grigorenko, A.V.Nemukhin, M.S.Shadrina, I.A.Topol, and S.K.Burt (2007).
Mechanisms of guanosine triphosphate hydrolysis by Ras and Ras-GAP proteins as rationalized by ab initio QM/MM simulations.
  Proteins, 66, 456-466.  
17588669 L.S.Weinstein, T.Xie, Q.H.Zhang, and M.Chen (2007).
Studies of the regulation and function of the Gs alpha gene Gnas using gene targeting technology.
  Pharmacol Ther, 115, 271-291.  
19412439 M.Bastepe (2007).
The GNAS Locus: Quintessential Complex Gene Encoding Gsalpha, XLalphas, and other Imprinted Transcripts.
  Curr Genomics, 8, 398-414.  
17253127 M.Jaffé, and J.Bubis (2007).
Use of 5'-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl] guanosine as an affinity probe for the guanine nucleotide-binding site of transducin.
  Protein J, 26, 125-133.  
17109408 P.S.Crozier, M.J.Stevens, and T.B.Woolf (2007).
How a small change in retinal leads to G-protein activation: initial events suggested by molecular dynamics calculations.
  Proteins, 66, 559-574.  
16981699 C.A.Johnston, E.S.Lobanova, A.S.Shavkunov, J.Low, J.K.Ramer, R.Blaesius, Z.Fredericks, F.S.Willard, B.Kuhlman, V.Y.Arshavsky, and D.P.Siderovski (2006).
Minimal determinants for binding activated G alpha from the structure of a G alpha(i1)-peptide dimer.
  Biochemistry, 45, 11390-11400.
PDB code: 2g83
16906158 C.Galés, J.J.Van Durm, S.Schaak, S.Pontier, Y.Percherancier, M.Audet, H.Paris, and M.Bouvier (2006).
Probing the activation-promoted structural rearrangements in preassembled receptor-G protein complexes.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 13, 778-786.  
16698293 C.Hill, A.Goddard, J.Davey, and G.Ladds (2006).
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Equilibrium between metarhodopsin-I and metarhodopsin-II is dependent on the conformation of the third cytoplasmic loop.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 6813-6825.
PDB code: 1xgy
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G(s)alpha mutations in fibrous dysplasia and McCune-Albright syndrome.
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16460808 V.V.Gurevich, and E.V.Gurevich (2006).
The structural basis of arrestin-mediated regulation of G-protein-coupled receptors.
  Pharmacol Ther, 110, 465-502.  
16855591 X.Pan, S.Eathiraj, M.Munson, and D.G.Lambright (2006).
TBC-domain GAPs for Rab GTPases accelerate GTP hydrolysis by a dual-finger mechanism.
  Nature, 442, 303-306.
PDB code: 2g77
15906320 B.L.Grigorenko, A.V.Nemukhin, I.A.Topol, R.E.Cachau, and S.K.Burt (2005).
QM/MM modeling the Ras-GAP catalyzed hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate.
  Proteins, 60, 495-503.  
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Computational study of a transition state analog of phosphoryl transfer in the Ras-RasGAP complex: AlF(x) versus MgF3-.
  J Mol Model, 11, 503-508.  
15747061 C.R.McCudden, M.D.Hains, R.J.Kimple, D.P.Siderovski, and F.S.Willard (2005).
G-protein signaling: back to the future.
  Cell Mol Life Sci, 62, 551-577.  
16006554 J.B.Thoden, and H.M.Holden (2005).
The molecular architecture of human N-acetylgalactosamine kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 32784-32791.
PDB codes: 2a2c 2a2d
15983037 L.L.Anderson, G.R.Marshall, E.Crocker, S.O.Smith, and T.J.Baranski (2005).
Motion of carboxyl terminus of Galpha is restricted upon G protein activation. A solution NMR study using semisynthetic Galpha subunits.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 31019-31026.  
15489510 M.A.Schade, N.K.Reynolds, C.M.Dollins, and K.G.Miller (2005).
Mutations that rescue the paralysis of Caenorhabditis elegans ric-8 (synembryn) mutants activate the G alpha(s) pathway and define a third major branch of the synaptic signaling network.
  Genetics, 169, 631-649.  
16269358 M.E.Burns, and V.Y.Arshavsky (2005).
Beyond counting photons: trials and trends in vertebrate visual transduction.
  Neuron, 48, 387-401.  
16041481 N.G.Abdulaev, C.Zhang, A.Dinh, T.Ngo, P.N.Bryan, D.M.Brabazon, J.P.Marino, and K.D.Ridge (2005).
Bacterial expression and one-step purification of an isotope-labeled heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunit.
  J Biomol NMR, 32, 31-40.  
16129667 N.G.Abdulaev, T.Ngo, C.Zhang, A.Dinh, D.M.Brabazon, K.D.Ridge, and J.P.Marino (2005).
Heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunit adopts a "preactivated" conformation when associated with betagamma-subunits.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 38071-38080.  
15696175 R.E.Burton, T.A.Baker, and R.T.Sauer (2005).
Nucleotide-dependent substrate recognition by the AAA+ HslUV protease.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 12, 245-251.  
16103122 R.Pereira, and R.A.Cerione (2005).
A switch 3 point mutation in the alpha subunit of transducin yields a unique dominant-negative inhibitor.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 35696-35703.  
16339447 V.M.Tesmer, T.Kawano, A.Shankaranarayanan, T.Kozasa, and J.J.Tesmer (2005).
Snapshot of activated G proteins at the membrane: the Galphaq-GRK2-Gbetagamma complex.
  Science, 310, 1686-1690.
PDB code: 2bcj
15546818 X.Gao, Z.Du, and T.B.Patel (2005).
Copper and zinc inhibit Galphas function: a nucleotide-free state of Galphas induced by Cu2+ and Zn2+.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 2579-2586.  
15665872 Z.Chen, W.D.Singer, P.C.Sternweis, and S.R.Sprang (2005).
Structure of the p115RhoGEF rgRGS domain-Galpha13/i1 chimera complex suggests convergent evolution of a GTPase activator.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 12, 191-197.
PDB code: 1shz
  15173220 B.C.Suh, L.F.Horowitz, W.Hirdes, K.Mackie, and B.Hille (2004).
Regulation of KCNQ2/KCNQ3 current by G protein cycling: the kinetics of receptor-mediated signaling by Gq.
  J Gen Physiol, 123, 663-683.  
15128951 C.J.Thomas, X.Du, P.Li, Y.Wang, E.M.Ross, and S.R.Sprang (2004).
Uncoupling conformational change from GTP hydrolysis in a heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunit.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 7560-7565.
PDB codes: 1svk 1svs
15653425 E.J.Helmreich (2004).
Structural flexibility of small GTPases. Can it explain their functional versatility?
  Biol Chem, 385, 1121-1136.  
15007073 R.Herrmann, M.Heck, P.Henklein, P.Henklein, C.Kleuss, K.P.Hofmann, and O.P.Ernst (2004).
Sequence of interactions in receptor-G protein coupling.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 24283-24290.  
15271992 S.Majumdar, S.Ramachandran, and R.A.Cerione (2004).
Perturbing the linker regions of the alpha-subunit of transducin: a new class of constitutively active GTP-binding proteins.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 40137-40145.  
12433916 G.Zhu, J.Liu, S.Terzyan, P.Zhai, G.Li, and X.C.Zhang (2003).
High resolution crystal structures of human Rab5a and five mutants with substitutions in the catalytically important phosphate-binding loop.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 2452-2460.
PDB codes: 1n6h 1n6i 1n6k 1n6l 1n6n 1n6o 1n6p 1n6r
12517447 J.Cherfils, and M.Chabre (2003).
Activation of G-protein Galpha subunits by receptors through Galpha-Gbeta and Galpha-Ggamma interactions.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 28, 13-17.  
12399457 J.M.Manganello, J.S.Huang, T.Kozasa, T.A.Voyno-Yasenetskaya, and G.C.Le Breton (2003).
Protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of the Galpha13 switch I region alters the Galphabetagamma13-G protein-coupled receptor complex and inhibits Rho activation.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 124-130.  
13678959 K.D.Ridge, N.G.Abdulaev, M.Sousa, and K.Palczewski (2003).
Phototransduction: crystal clear.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 28, 479-487.  
14622106 M.Natochin, and N.O.Artemyev (2003).
A point mutation uncouples transducin-alpha from the photoreceptor RGS and effector proteins.
  J Neurochem, 87, 1262-1271.  
12525488 Z.Chen, W.D.Singer, C.D.Wells, S.R.Sprang, and P.C.Sternweis (2003).
Mapping the Galpha13 binding interface of the rgRGS domain of p115RhoGEF.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 9912-9919.  
11753430 A.U.Singer, G.L.Waldo, T.K.Harden, and J.Sondek (2002).
A unique fold of phospholipase C-beta mediates dimerization and interaction with G alpha q.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 32-36.
PDB code: 1jad
11748238 F.X.Gomis-Rüth, G.Moncalían, F.de la Cruz, and M.Coll (2002).
Conjugative plasmid protein TrwB, an integral membrane type IV secretion system coupling protein. Detailed structural features and mapping of the active site cleft.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 7556-7566.  
11847228 G.Kochs, M.Haener, U.Aebi, and O.Haller (2002).
Self-assembly of human MxA GTPase into highly ordered dynamin-like oligomers.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 14172-14176.  
12429851 H.Onishi, T.Ohki, N.Mochizuki, and M.F.Morales (2002).
Early stages of energy transduction by myosin: roles of Arg in switch I, of Glu in switch II, and of the salt-bridge between them.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 15339-15344.  
11953435 J.B.Thoden, S.M.Firestine, S.J.Benkovic, and H.M.Holden (2002).
PurT-encoded glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase. Accommodation of adenosine nucleotide analogs within the active site.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 23898-23908.
PDB codes: 1kj8 1kj9 1kji 1kjj 1kjq
11882295 K.S.Nair, N.Balasubramanian, and V.Z.Slepak (2002).
Signal-dependent translocation of transducin, RGS9-1-Gbeta5L complex, and arrestin to detergent-resistant membrane rafts in photoreceptors.
  Curr Biol, 12, 421-425.  
  12119276 L.S.Weinstein, M.Chen, and J.Liu (2002).
Gs(alpha) mutations and imprinting defects in human disease.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 968, 173-197.  
11896404 Madhusudan, P.Akamine, N.H.Xuong, and S.S.Taylor (2002).
Crystal structure of a transition state mimic of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 273-277.
PDB code: 1l3r
11960978 R.D.Miles, A.Gorrell, and J.G.Ferry (2002).
Evidence for a transition state analog, MgADP-aluminum fluoride-acetate, in acetate kinase from Methanosarcina thermophila.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 22547-22552.  
  12296648 S.A.Woods, E.Marmor, M.Feldkamp, N.Lau, A.J.Apicelli, G.Boss, D.H.Gutmann, and A.Guha (2002).
Aberrant G protein signaling in nervous system tumors.
  J Neurosurg, 97, 627-642.  
11988478 T.P.Sakmar, S.T.Menon, E.P.Marin, and E.S.Awad (2002).
Rhodopsin: insights from recent structural studies.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 31, 443-484.  
11331007 A.V.Kravchuk, L.Zhao, R.J.Kubiak, K.S.Bruzik, and M.D.Tsai (2001).
Mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C: origin of unusually high nonbridging thio effects.
  Biochemistry, 40, 5433-5439.  
11371635 H.Resat, T.P.Straatsma, D.A.Dixon, and J.H.Miller (2001).
The arginine finger of RasGAP helps Gln-61 align the nucleophilic water in GAP-stimulated hydrolysis of GTP.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 6033-6038.  
11296216 I.Hayashi, T.Oyama, and K.Morikawa (2001).
Structural and functional studies of MinD ATPase: implications for the molecular recognition of the bacterial cell division apparatus.
  EMBO J, 20, 1819-1828.
PDB codes: 1g3q 1g3r
11598136 R.Vaiskunaite, T.Kozasa, and T.A.Voyno-Yasenetskaya (2001).
Interaction between the G alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G(12) protein and Hsp90 is required for G alpha(12) signaling.
  J Biol Chem, 276, 46088-46093.  
11746677 T.A.Soares, J.H.Miller, and T.P.Straatsma (2001).
Revisiting the structural flexibility of the complex p21(ras)-GTP: the catalytic conformation of the molecular switch II.
  Proteins, 45, 297-312.  
11070368 T.Ebrey, and Y.Koutalos (2001).
Vertebrate photoreceptors.
  Prog Retin Eye Res, 20, 49-94.  
11112536 B.Schneider, C.Sigalat, T.Amano, and J.L.Zimmermann (2000).
Evidence for changes in the nucleotide conformation in the active site of H(+)-ATPase as determined by pulsed EPR spectroscopy.
  Biochemistry, 39, 15500-15512.  
11163217 C.E.Stebbins, and J.E.Galán (2000).
Modulation of host signaling by a bacterial mimic: structure of the Salmonella effector SptP bound to Rac1.
  Mol Cell, 6, 1449-1460.
PDB codes: 1g4u 1g4w
11188692 C.T.Farrar, J.Ma, D.J.Singel, and C.J.Halkides (2000).
Structural changes induced in p21Ras upon GAP-334 complexation as probed by ESEEM spectroscopy and molecular-dynamics simulation.
  Structure, 8, 1279-1287.  
10880458 D.Mohr, W.Wintermeyer, and M.V.Rodnina (2000).
Arginines 29 and 59 of elongation factor G are important for GTP hydrolysis or translocation on the ribosome.
  EMBO J, 19, 3458-3464.  
10966476 E.M.Ross, and T.M.Wilkie (2000).
GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 69, 795-827.  
10873854 K.Braig, R.I.Menz, M.G.Montgomery, A.G.Leslie, and J.E.Walker (2000).
Structure of bovine mitochondrial F(1)-ATPase inhibited by Mg(2+) ADP and aluminium fluoride.
  Structure, 8, 567-573.
PDB codes: 1e1q 1e1r
10644758 M.Bähner, P.Sander, R.Paulsen, and A.Huber (2000).
The visual G protein of fly photoreceptors interacts with the PDZ domain assembled INAD signaling complex via direct binding of activated Galpha(q) to phospholipase cbeta.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 2901-2904.  
10937867 M.Sprinzl, S.Brock, Y.Huang, P.Milovnik, M.Nanninga, M.Nesper-Brock, H.Rütthard, and K.Szkaradkiewicz (2000).
Regulation of GTPases in the bacterial translation machinery.
  Biol Chem, 381, 367-375.  
10937868 M.V.Rodnina, H.Stark, A.Savelsbergh, H.J.Wieden, D.Mohr, N.B.Matassova, F.Peske, T.Daviter, C.O.Gualerzi, and W.Wintermeyer (2000).
GTPases mechanisms and functions of translation factors on the ribosome.
  Biol Chem, 381, 377-387.  
10924155 S.Nadanaciva, J.Weber, and A.E.Senior (2000).
New probes of the F1-ATPase catalytic transition state reveal that two of the three catalytic sites can assume a transition state conformation simultaneously.
  Biochemistry, 39, 9583-9590.  
10933780 T.M.Glennon, J.Villà, and A.Warshel (2000).
How does GAP catalyze the GTPase reaction of Ras? A computer simulation study.
  Biochemistry, 39, 9641-9651.  
10819995 T.Shimizu, K.S.Thorn, A.Ruby, and R.D.Vale (2000).
ATPase kinetic characterization and single molecule behavior of mutant human kinesin motors defective in microtubule-based motility.
  Biochemistry, 39, 5265-5273.  
  10739241 W.Dall'Acqua, and P.Carter (2000).
Substrate-assisted catalysis: molecular basis and biological significance.
  Protein Sci, 9, 1-9.  
10722686 X.Du, H.Frei, and S.H.Kim (2000).
The mechanism of GTP hydrolysis by Ras probed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 8492-8500.  
10037756 A.Gilchrist, M.Bünemann, A.Li, M.M.Hosey, and H.E.Hamm (1999).
A dominant-negative strategy for studying roles of G proteins in vivo.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 6610-6616.  
9891006 C.S.Yang, N.P.Skiba, M.R.Mazzoni, and H.E.Hamm (1999).
Conformational changes at the carboxyl terminus of Galpha occur during G protein activation.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 2379-2385.  
10358003 D.E.Coleman, and S.R.Sprang (1999).
Structure of Gialpha1.GppNHp, autoinhibition in a galpha protein-substrate complex.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 16669-16672.
PDB code: 1cip
10555980 D.L.Graham, J.F.Eccleston, C.W.Chung, and P.N.Lowe (1999).
Magnesium fluoride-dependent binding of small G proteins to their GTPase-activating proteins.
  Biochemistry, 38, 14981-14987.  
9893994 D.L.Graham, J.F.Eccleston, and P.N.Lowe (1999).
The conserved arginine in rho-GTPase-activating protein is essential for efficient catalysis but not for complex formation with Rho.GDP and aluminum fluoride.
  Biochemistry, 38, 985-991.  
9988742 D.R.Warner, R.Romanowski, S.Yu, and L.S.Weinstein (1999).
Mutagenesis of the conserved residue Glu259 of Gsalpha demonstrates the importance of interactions between switches 2 and 3 for activation.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 4977-4984.  
10071748 H.Kubinyi (1999).
Chance favors the prepared mind--from serendipity to rational drug design.
  J Recept Signal Transduct Res, 19, 15-39.  
10371466 H.LeVine (1999).
Structural features of heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled receptors and their modulatory proteins.
  Mol Neurobiol, 19, 111-149.  
  10419963 I.Rombel, P.Peters-Wendisch, A.Mesecar, T.Thorgeirsson, Y.K.Shin, and S.Kustu (1999).
MgATP binding and hydrolysis determinants of NtrC, a bacterial enhancer-binding protein.
  J Bacteriol, 181, 4628-4638.  
10102276 J.Goldberg (1999).
Structural and functional analysis of the ARF1-ARFGAP complex reveals a role for coatomer in GTP hydrolysis.
  Cell, 96, 893-902.  
10494851 J.Müller, A.Marx, S.Sack, Y.H.Song, and E.Mandelkow (1999).
The structure of the nucleotide-binding site of kinesin.
  Biol Chem, 380, 981-992.  
10320361 J.Wei, and T.S.Leyh (1999).
Isomerization couples chemistry in the ATP sulfurylase-GTPase system.
  Biochemistry, 38, 6311-6316.  
10409830 K.Kolmodin, P.Nordlund, and J.Aqvist (1999).
Mechanism of substrate dephosphorylation in low Mr protein tyrosine phosphatase.
  Proteins, 36, 370-379.  
  10493576 M.Young, K.Kirshenbaum, K.A.Dill, and S.Highsmith (1999).
Predicting conformational switches in proteins.
  Protein Sci, 8, 1752-1764.  
10085118 N.P.Skiba, C.S.Yang, T.Huang, H.Bae, and H.E.Hamm (1999).
The alpha-helical domain of Galphat determines specific interaction with regulator of G protein signaling 9.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 8770-8778.  
10066761 S.Nadanaciva, J.Weber, and A.E.Senior (1999).
Binding of the transition state analog MgADP-fluoroaluminate to F1-ATPase.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 7052-7058.  
10387006 S.Nadanaciva, J.Weber, and A.E.Senior (1999).
The role of beta-Arg-182, an essential catalytic site residue in Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.
  Biochemistry, 38, 7670-7677.  
  10421631 Y.M.Hajdu-Cronin, W.J.Chen, G.Patikoglou, M.R.Koelle, and P.W.Sternberg (1999).
Antagonism between G(o)alpha and G(q)alpha in Caenorhabditis elegans: the RGS protein EAT-16 is necessary for G(o)alpha signaling and regulates G(q)alpha activity.
  Genes Dev, 13, 1780-1793.  
9553104 A.D.Pannifer, A.J.Flint, N.K.Tonks, and D.Barford (1998).
Visualization of the cysteinyl-phosphate intermediate of a protein-tyrosine phosphatase by x-ray crystallography.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 10454-10462.
PDB code: 1a5y
  9515163 A.E.Granovsky, R.McEntaffer, and N.O.Artemyev (1998).
Probing functional interfaces of rod PDE gamma-subunit using scanning fluorescent labeling.
  Cell Biochem Biophys, 28, 115-133.  
9545275 B.A.Sermon, P.N.Lowe, M.Strom, and J.F.Eccleston (1998).
The importance of two conserved arginine residues for catalysis by the ras GTPase-activating protein, neurofibromin.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 9480-9485.  
9727495 C.U.Lenzen, D.Steinmann, S.W.Whiteheart, and W.I.Weis (1998).
Crystal structure of the hexamerization domain of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein.
  Cell, 94, 525-536.
PDB code: 1d2n
9646865 D.Barford, A.K.Das, and M.P.Egloff (1998).
The structure and mechanism of protein phosphatases: insights into catalysis and regulation.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 27, 133-164.  
9786851 D.M.Apanovitch, T.Iiri, T.Karasawa, H.R.Bourne, and H.G.Dohlman (1998).
Second site suppressor mutations of a GTPase-deficient G-protein alpha-subunit. Selective inhibition of Gbeta gamma-mediated signaling.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 28597-28602.  
9430654 D.M.Berman, and A.G.Gilman (1998).
Mammalian RGS proteins: barbarians at the gate.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 1269-1272.  
9718317 E.A.Namsaraev, and P.Berg (1998).
Interaction of Rad51 with ATP and Mg2+ induces a conformational change in Rad51.
  Biochemistry, 37, 11932-11939.  
9468490 G.R.Hoffman, N.Nassar, R.E.Oswald, and R.A.Cerione (1998).
Fluoride activation of the Rho family GTP-binding protein Cdc42Hs.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 4392-4399.  
  9865950 H.Käck, J.Sandmark, K.J.Gibson, G.Schneider, and Y.Lindqvist (1998).
Crystal structure of two quaternary complexes of dethiobiotin synthetase, enzyme-MgADP-AlF3-diaminopelargonic acid and enzyme-MgADP-dethiobiotin-phosphate; implications for catalysis.
  Protein Sci, 7, 2560-2566.
PDB codes: 1bs1 1dam
10384279 I.Rombel, A.North, I.Hwang, C.Wyman, and S.Kustu (1998).
The bacterial enhancer-binding protein NtrC as a molecular machine.
  Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 63, 157-166.  
9693007 J.H.Wang, D.G.Xiao, H.Deng, M.R.Webb, and R.Callender (1998).
Raman difference studies of GDP and GTP binding to c-Harvey ras.
  Biochemistry, 37, 11106-11116.  
9562564 J.J.Dumas, and D.G.Lambright (1998).
Gs alpha meets its target--shedding light on a key signal transduction event.
  Structure, 6, 407-411.  
9648208 K.Ajtai, F.Dai, S.Park, C.R.Zayas, Y.M.Peyser, A.Muhlrad, and T.P.Burghardt (1998).
Near UV circular dichroism from biomimetic model compounds define the coordination geometry of vanadate centers in MeVi- and MeADPVi-rabbit myosin subfragment 1 complexes in solution.
  Biophys Chem, 71, 205-220.  
9697416 K.Scheffzek, M.R.Ahmadian, and A.Wittinghofer (1998).
GTPase-activating proteins: helping hands to complement an active site.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 23, 257-262.  
9546398 L.Ditzel, J.Löwe, D.Stock, K.O.Stetter, H.Huber, R.Huber, and S.Steinbacher (1998).
Crystal structure of the thermosome, the archaeal chaperonin and homolog of CCT.
  Cell, 93, 125-138.
PDB codes: 1a6d 1a6e
9556630 M.Jeschke, G.J.Standke, and M.Scaronuscarona (1998).
Fluoroaluminate induces activation and association of Src and Pyk2 tyrosine kinases in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 11354-11361.  
9705319 M.Natochin, A.E.Granovsky, and N.O.Artemyev (1998).
Identification of effector residues on photoreceptor G protein, transducin.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 21808-21815.  
9506972 M.Natochin, R.L.McEntaffer, and N.O.Artemyev (1998).
Mutational analysis of the Asn residue essential for RGS protein binding to G-proteins.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 6731-6735.  
9846874 N.Nassar, G.R.Hoffman, D.Manor, J.C.Clardy, and R.A.Cerione (1998).
Structures of Cdc42 bound to the active and catalytically compromised forms of Cdc42GAP.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 1047-1052.
PDB codes: 1grn 2ngr
9461067 N.P.Skiba, and H.E.Hamm (1998).
How Gsalpha activates adenylyl cyclase.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 88-92.  
9539726 O.G.Kisselev, J.Kao, J.W.Ponder, Y.C.Fann, N.Gautam, and G.R.Marshall (1998).
Light-activated rhodopsin induces structural binding motif in G protein alpha subunit.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 4270-4275.
PDB code: 1aqg
9488712 P.R.DiBello, T.R.Garrison, D.M.Apanovitch, G.Hoffman, D.J.Shuey, K.Mason, M.I.Cockett, and H.G.Dohlman (1998).
Selective uncoupling of RGS action by a single point mutation in the G protein alpha-subunit.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 5780-5784.  
9545566 S.Grenier, P.Desmeules, A.K.Dutta, A.Yamazaki, and C.Salesse (1998).
Determination of the depth of penetration of the alpha subunit of retinal G protein in membranes: a spectroscopic study.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1370, 199-206.  
9631293 S.J.Gamblin, and S.J.Smerdon (1998).
GTPase-activating proteins and their complexes.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 8, 195-201.  
9843387 S.Nishimura, H.Kandori, and A.Maeda (1998).
Interaction between photoactivated rhodopsin and the C-terminal peptide of transducin alpha-subunit studied by FTIR spectroscopy.
  Biochemistry, 37, 15816-15824.  
9482864 S.Vincent, M.Brouns, M.J.Hart, and J.Settleman (1998).
Evidence for distinct mechanisms of transition state stabilization of GTPases by fluoride.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 2210-2215.  
  9529886 T.H.Adams, J.K.Wieser, and J.H.Yu (1998).
Asexual sporulation in Aspergillus nidulans.
  Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 62, 35-54.  
9452438 T.Tanaka, T.Kohno, S.Kinoshita, H.Mukai, H.Itoh, M.Ohya, T.Miyazawa, T.Higashijima, and K.Wakamatsu (1998).
Alpha helix content of G protein alpha subunit is decreased upon activation by receptor mimetics.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 3247-3252.  
9665734 V.Cepus, A.J.Scheidig, R.S.Goody, and K.Gerwert (1998).
Time-resolved FTIR studies of the GTPase reaction of H-ras p21 reveal a key role for the beta-phosphate.
  Biochemistry, 37, 10263-10271.  
9265729 A.Bohm, R.Gaudet, and P.B.Sigler (1997).
Structural aspects of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 8, 480-487.  
9382787 A.Wittinghofer (1997).
Signaling mechanistics: aluminum fluoride for molecule of the year.
  Curr Biol, 7, R682-R685.  
9218429 B.Yu, V.Z.Slepak, and M.I.Simon (1997).
Characterization of a Goalpha mutant that binds xanthine nucleotides.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 18015-18019.  
9419813 C.Moon, S.P.Fraser, and M.B.Djamgoz (1997).
G-protein activation, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and phosphorylation studies of membrane currents induced by AlF4- in Xenopus oocytes.
  Cell Signal, 9, 497-504.  
9414203 D.M.van Aalten, D.A.Conn, B.L.de Groot, H.J.Berendsen, J.B.Findlay, and A.Amadei (1997).
Protein dynamics derived from clusters of crystal structures.
  Biophys J, 73, 2891-2896.  
9305927 E.Ogier-Denis, A.Petiot, C.Bauvy, and P.Codogno (1997).
Control of the expression and activity of the Galpha-interacting protein (GAIP) in human intestinal cells.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 24599-24603.  
9535175 G.R.Marshall (1997).
Therapeutic approaches to human immunodeficiency virus: structural studies on G-protein-coupled receptors.
  Pharmacol Ther, 76, 135-139.  
9125495 G.Yang, T.Sandalova, K.Lohman, Y.Lindqvist, and A.R.Rendina (1997).
Active site mutants of Escherichia coli dethiobiotin synthetase: effects of mutations on enzyme catalytic and structural properties.
  Biochemistry, 36, 4751-4760.  
9280438 I.Schlichting, and J.Reinstein (1997).
Structures of active conformations of UMP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum suggest phosphoryl transfer is associative.
  Biochemistry, 36, 9290-9296.
PDB codes: 2ukd 3ukd 4ukd
9312017 J.Cherfils, J.Ménétrey, G.Le Bras, I.Janoueix-Lerosey, J.de Gunzburg, J.R.Garel, and I.Auzat (1997).
Crystal structures of the small G protein Rap2A in complex with its substrate GTP, with GDP and with GTPgammaS.
  EMBO J, 16, 5582-5591.
PDB codes: 1kao 2rap
9346955 J.F.Carr, and J.E.Hinshaw (1997).
Dynamin assembles into spirals under physiological salt conditions upon the addition of GDP and gamma-phosphate analogues.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 28030-28035.  
9417641 J.J.Tesmer, R.K.Sunahara, A.G.Gilman, and S.R.Sprang (1997).
Crystal structure of the catalytic domains of adenylyl cyclase in a complex with Gsalpha.GTPgammaS.
  Science, 278, 1907-1916.
PDB code: 1azs
9302988 J.P.Noel (1997).
Turning off the Ras switch with the flick of a finger.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 677-680.  
9038185 J.Wang, Y.Tu, J.Woodson, X.Song, and E.M.Ross (1997).
A GTPase-activating protein for the G protein Galphaz. Identification, purification, and mechanism of action.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 5732-5740.  
9235998 K.B.Pomerantz, H.M.Lander, B.Summers, J.D.Robishaw, E.Balcueva, and D.P.Hajjar (1997).
G-protein-mediated signaling in cholesterol-enriched arterial smooth muscle cells. 1. Reduced membrane-associated G-protein content due to diminished isoprenylation of G-gamma subunits and p21ras.
  Biochemistry, 36, 9523-9531.  
9371764 K.M.Druey, and J.H.Kehrl (1997).
Inhibition of regulator of G protein signaling function by two mutant RGS4 proteins.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 12851-12856.  
9219684 K.Scheffzek, M.R.Ahmadian, W.Kabsch, L.Wiesmüller, A.Lautwein, F.Schmitz, and A.Wittinghofer (1997).
The Ras-RasGAP complex: structural basis for GTPase activation and its loss in oncogenic Ras mutants.
  Science, 277, 333-338.
PDB code: 1wq1
9309223 M.Eriksson, U.Uhlin, S.Ramaswamy, M.Ekberg, K.Regnström, B.M.Sjöberg, and H.Eklund (1997).
Binding of allosteric effectors to ribonucleotide reductase protein R1: reduction of active-site cysteines promotes substrate binding.
  Structure, 5, 1077-1092.
PDB codes: 1r1r 2r1r 3r1r 4r1r
9434896 M.Geyer, and A.Wittinghofer (1997).
GEFs, GAPs, GDIs and effectors: taking a closer (3D) look at the regulation of Ras-related GTP-binding proteins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 786-792.  
9211888 M.Natochin, A.E.Granovsky, and N.O.Artemyev (1997).
Regulation of transducin GTPase activity by human retinal RGS.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 17444-17449.  
9302992 M.R.Ahmadian, P.Stege, K.Scheffzek, and A.Wittinghofer (1997).
Confirmation of the arginine-finger hypothesis for the GAP-stimulated GTP-hydrolysis reaction of Ras.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 686-689.  
9069252 M.R.Koelle (1997).
A new family of G-protein regulators - the RGS proteins.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 9, 143-147.  
9268292 Q.Li, and R.A.Cerione (1997).
Communication between switch II and switch III of the transducin alpha subunit is essential for target activation.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 21673-21676.  
9395396 R.K.Sunahara, J.J.Tesmer, A.G.Gilman, and S.R.Sprang (1997).
Crystal structure of the adenylyl cyclase activator Gsalpha.
  Science, 278, 1943-1947.
PDB code: 1azt
  9348541 R.T.Müller, U.Honnert, J.Reinhard, and M.Bähler (1997).
The rat myosin myr 5 is a GTPase-activating protein for Rho in vivo: essential role of arginine 1695.
  Mol Biol Cell, 8, 2039-2053.  
9207071 S.Popov, K.Yu, T.Kozasa, and T.M.Wilkie (1997).
The regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) domains of RGS4, RGS10, and GAIP retain GTPase activating protein activity in vitro.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 7216-7220.  
9242920 S.R.Sprang (1997).
G protein mechanisms: insights from structural analysis.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 66, 639-678.  
9434906 S.R.Sprang (1997).
G proteins, effectors and GAPs: structure and mechanism.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 849-856.  
9056720 T.Gudermann, T.Schöneberg, and G.Schultz (1997).
Functional and structural complexity of signal transduction via G-protein-coupled receptors.
  Annu Rev Neurosci, 20, 399-427.  
9159128 T.Iiri, Z.Farfel, and H.R.Bourne (1997).
Conditional activation defect of a human Gsalpha mutant.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 5656-5661.  
9363787 T.Zor, M.Bar-Yaacov, S.Elgavish, B.Shaanan, and Z.Selinger (1997).
Rescue of a mutant G-protein by substrate-assisted catalysis.
  Eur J Biochem, 249, 330-336.  
9391039 Y.Liu, A.E.Ruoho, V.D.Rao, and J.H.Hurley (1997).
Catalytic mechanism of the adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases: modeling and mutational analysis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 13414-13419.
PDB codes: 1awk 1awl 1awm 1awn
9108019 Y.W.Xu, S.Moréra, J.Janin, and J.Cherfils (1997).
AlF3 mimics the transition state of protein phosphorylation in the crystal structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase and MgADP.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 3579-3583.
PDB codes: 1kdn 2bef
8939752 A.M.Berghuis, E.Lee, A.S.Raw, A.G.Gilman, and S.R.Sprang (1996).
Structure of the GDP-Pi complex of Gly203-->Ala gialpha1: a mimic of the ternary product complex of galpha-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis.
  Structure, 4, 1277-1290.
PDB code: 1git
8740357 A.Wittinghofer (1996).
Deciphering the alphabet of G proteins: the structure of the alpha, beta, gamma heterotrimer.
  Structure, 4, 357-361.  
8611530 C.A.Smith, and I.Rayment (1996).
X-ray structure of the magnesium(II).ADP.vanadate complex of the Dictyostelium discoideum myosin motor domain to 1.9 A resolution.
  Biochemistry, 35, 5404-5417.
PDB code: 1vom
8785318 C.A.Smith, and I.Rayment (1996).
Active site comparisons highlight structural similarities between myosin and other P-loop proteins.
  Biophys J, 70, 1590-1602.  
8917514 C.K.Chen, T.Wieland, and M.I.Simon (1996).
RGS-r, a retinal specific RGS protein, binds an intermediate conformation of transducin and enhances recycling.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 12885-12889.  
8639578 C.Soto, P.H.Rodríguez, and O.Monasterio (1996).
Calcium and gadolinium ions stimulate the GTPase activity of purified chicken brain tubulin through a conformational change.
  Biochemistry, 35, 6337-6344.  
8851656 D.E.Coleman, and S.R.Sprang (1996).
How G proteins work: a continuing story.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 21, 41-44.  
8910288 D.M.Berman, T.Kozasa, and A.G.Gilman (1996).
The GTPase-activating protein RGS4 stabilizes the transition state for nucleotide hydrolysis.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 27209-27212.  
8550587 E.L.Martin, S.Rens-Domiano, P.J.Schatz, and H.E.Hamm (1996).
Potent peptide analogues of a G protein receptor-binding region obtained with a combinatorial library.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 361-366.  
8617784 G.Venkatakrishnan, and J.H.Exton (1996).
Identification of determinants in the alpha-subunit of Gq required for phospholipase C activation.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 5066-5072.  
8791425 H.E.Hamm, and A.Gilchrist (1996).
Heterotrimeric G proteins.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 8, 189-196.  
  8663496 I.Rayment (1996).
The structural basis of the myosin ATPase activity.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 15850-15853.  
8702787 I.Simon, M.Zerial, and R.S.Goody (1996).
Kinetics of interaction of Rab5 and Rab7 with nucleotides and magnesium ions.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 20470-20478.  
8768893 J.Nyborg, and M.Kjeldgaard (1996).
Elongation in bacterial protein biosynthesis.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 7, 369-375.  
8702526 J.Weber, C.Bowman, and A.E.Senior (1996).
Specific tryptophan substitution in catalytic sites of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase allows differentiation between bound substrate ATP and product ADP in steady-state catalysis.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 18711-18718.  
8710841 K.A.Maegley, S.J.Admiraal, and D.Herschlag (1996).
Ras-catalyzed hydrolysis of GTP: a new perspective from model studies.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 8160-8166.  
8611524 K.A.Renner, and J.B.Howard (1996).
Aluminum fluoride inhibition of nitrogenase: stabilization of a nucleotide.Fe-protein.MoFe-protein complex.
  Biochemistry, 35, 5353-5358.  
8703943 K.Scheffzek, W.Kliche, L.Wiesmüller, and J.Reinstein (1996).
Crystal structure of the complex of UMP/CMP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum and the bisubstrate inhibitor P1-(5'-adenosyl) P5-(5'-uridyl) pentaphosphate (UP5A) and Mg2+ at 2.2 A: implications for water-mediated specificity.
  Biochemistry, 35, 9716-9727.
PDB codes: 1ukd 1uke
8986788 L.De Vries, E.Elenko, L.Hubler, T.L.Jones, and M.G.Farquhar (1996).
GAIP is membrane-anchored by palmitoylation and interacts with the activated (GTP-bound) form of G alpha i subunits.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 15203-15208.  
8755504 O.Lichtarge, H.R.Bourne, and F.E.Cohen (1996).
Evolutionarily conserved Galphabetagamma binding surfaces support a model of the G protein-receptor complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 7507-7511.  
8758988 P.Friedhoff, B.Kolmes, O.Gimadutdinow, W.Wende, K.L.Krause, and A.Pingoud (1996).
Analysis of the mechanism of the Serratia nuclease using site-directed mutagenesis.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 24, 2632-2639.  
8994974 P.Heikinheimo, J.Lehtonen, A.Baykov, R.Lahti, B.S.Cooperman, and A.Goldman (1996).
The structural basis for pyrophosphatase catalysis.
  Structure, 4, 1491-1508.
PDB codes: 1wgi 1wgj
8896589 R.D.Vale (1996).
Switches, latches, and amplifiers: common themes of G proteins and molecular motors.
  J Cell Biol, 135, 291-302.  
8898209 R.Gaudet, A.Bohm, and P.B.Sigler (1996).
Crystal structure at 2.4 angstroms resolution of the complex of transducin betagamma and its regulator, phosducin.
  Cell, 87, 577-588.
PDB code: 2trc
8916908 T.Schweins, and A.Warshel (1996).
Mechanistic analysis of the observed linear free energy relationships in p21ras and related systems.
  Biochemistry, 35, 14232-14243.  
8916907 T.Schweins, M.Geyer, H.R.Kalbitzer, A.Wittinghofer, and A.Warshel (1996).
Linear free energy relationships in the intrinsic and GTPase activating protein-stimulated guanosine 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis of p21ras.
  Biochemistry, 35, 14225-14231.  
8706729 W.Zeidler, N.K.Schirmer, C.Egle, S.Ribeiro, R.Kreutzer, and M.Sprinzl (1996).
Limited proteolysis and amino acid replacements in the effector region of Thermus thermophilus elongation factor Tu.
  Eur J Biochem, 239, 265-271.  
8702665 Z.Farfel, T.Iiri, H.Shapira, A.Roitman, M.Mouallem, and H.R.Bourne (1996).
Pseudohypoparathyroidism, a novel mutation in the betagamma-contact region of Gsalpha impairs receptor stimulation.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 19653-19655.  
  7787065 A.J.Fisher, C.A.Smith, J.Thoden, R.Smith, K.Sutoh, H.M.Holden, and I.Rayment (1995).
Structural studies of myosin:nucleotide complexes: a revised model for the molecular basis of muscle contraction.
  Biophys J, 68, 19S.  
7648317 E.A.Merritt, and W.G.Hol (1995).
AB5 toxins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 165-171.  
7642531 J.C.Knol, A.R.van der Slik, E.R.van Kesteren, R.J.Planta, H.van Herikhuizen, and E.Vreugdenhil (1995).
A novel G protein alpha subunit containing atypical guanine nucleotide-binding domains is differentially expressed in a molluscan nervous system.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 18804-18808.  
7553130 J.M.Robinson, and J.A.Badwey (1995).
The NADPH oxidase complex of phagocytic leukocytes: a biochemical and cytochemical view.
  Histochem Cell Biol, 103, 163-180.  
8749036 J.Ong, and D.I.Kerr (1995).
Interactions of N-ethylmaleimide and aluminium fluoride with GABAB receptor function in rat neocortical slices.
  Eur J Pharmacol, 287, 197-200.  
8521505 M.A.Wall, D.E.Coleman, E.Lee, J.A.Iñiguez-Lluhi, B.A.Posner, A.G.Gilman, and S.R.Sprang (1995).
The structure of the G protein heterotrimer Gi alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2.
  Cell, 83, 1047-1058.
PDB codes: 1gg2 1gp2
8599650 M.R.Carson, and M.J.Welsh (1995).
Structural and functional similarities between the nucleotide-binding domains of CFTR and GTP-binding proteins.
  Biophys J, 69, 2443-2448.  
7737995 O.P.Ernst, K.P.Hofmann, and T.P.Sakmar (1995).
Characterization of rhodopsin mutants that bind transducin but fail to induce GTP nucleotide uptake. Classification of mutant pigments by fluorescence, nucleotide release, and flash-induced light-scattering assays.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 10580-10586.  
  7556089 P.D.Garcia, R.Onrust, S.M.Bell, T.P.Sakmar, and H.R.Bourne (1995).
Transducin-alpha C-terminal mutations prevent activation by rhodopsin: a new assay using recombinant proteins expressed in cultured cells.
  EMBO J, 14, 4460-4469.  
7719851 R.Hilgenfeld (1995).
How do the GTPases really work?
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 3-6.  
8749370 R.Hilgenfeld (1995).
Regulatory GTPases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 810-817.  
8529632 S.Nock, N.Grillenbeck, M.R.Ahmadian, S.Ribeiro, R.Kreutzer, and M.Sprinzl (1995).
Properties of isolated domains of the elongation factor Tu from Thermus thermophilus HB8.
  Eur J Biochem, 234, 132-139.  
  8528083 T.P.Hopp (1995).
Evidence from sequence information that the interleukin-1 receptor is a transmembrane GTPase.
  Protein Sci, 4, 1851-1859.  
7719852 T.Schweins, M.Geyer, K.Scheffzek, A.Warshel, H.R.Kalbitzer, and A.Wittinghofer (1995).
Substrate-assisted catalysis as a mechanism for GTP hydrolysis of p21ras and other GTP-binding proteins.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 36-44.  
7782290 V.Z.Slepak, N.O.Artemyev, Y.Zhu, C.L.Dumke, L.Sabacan, J.Sondek, H.E.Hamm, M.D.Bownds, and V.Y.Arshavsky (1995).
An effector site that stimulates G-protein GTPase in photoreceptors.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 14319-14324.  
7758452 W.Zeidler, C.Egle, S.Ribeiro, A.Wagner, V.Katunin, R.Kreutzer, M.Rodnina, W.Wintermeyer, and M.Sprinzl (1995).
Site-directed mutagenesis of Thermus thermophilus elongation factor Tu. Replacement of His85, Asp81 and Arg300.
  Eur J Biochem, 229, 596-604.  
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