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PDBsum entry 1scm

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protein metals Protein-protein interface(s) links
Calcium-binding protein PDB id
1scm
Jmol
Contents
Protein chains
60 a.a. *
138 a.a. *
149 a.a. *
Metals
_CA ×2
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
1scm
Name: Calcium-binding protein
Title: Structure of the regulatory domain of scallop myosin at 2.8 angstroms resolution
Structure: Myosin heavy chain. Chain: a. Engineered: yes. Myosin regulatory light chain. Chain: b. Engineered: yes. Myosin essential light chain. Chain: c. Engineered: yes
Source: Argopecten irradians. Organism_taxid: 31199. Organism_taxid: 31199
Biol. unit: Trimer (from PQS)
Resolution:
2.80Å     R-factor:   0.201    
Authors: C.Cohen,X.Xie
Key ref: X.Xie et al. (1994). Structure of the regulatory domain of scallop myosin at 2.8 A resolution. Nature, 368, 306-312. PubMed id: 8127365
Date:
06-Jan-94     Release date:   30-Apr-94    
PROCHECK
Go to PROCHECK summary
 Headers
 References

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P24733  (MYS_AEQIR) -  Myosin heavy chain, striated muscle
Seq:
Struc:
 
Seq:
Struc:
 
Seq:
Struc:
 
Seq:
Struc:
1938 a.a.
60 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P13543  (MLR_AEQIR) -  Myosin regulatory light chain, striated adductor muscle
Seq:
Struc:
157 a.a.
138 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam  
P07291  (MLE_ARGIR) -  Myosin essential light chain, striated adductor muscle
Seq:
Struc:
157 a.a.
149 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     myosin complex   1 term 
  Biochemical function     metal ion binding     2 terms  

 

 
Nature 368:306-312 (1994)
PubMed id: 8127365  
 
 
Structure of the regulatory domain of scallop myosin at 2.8 A resolution.
X.Xie, D.H.Harrison, I.Schlichting, R.M.Sweet, V.N.Kalabokis, A.G.Szent-Györgyi, C.Cohen.
 
  ABSTRACT  
 
The regulatory domain of scallop myosin is a three-chain protein complex that switches on this motor in response to Ca2+ binding. This domain has been crystallized and the structure solved to 2.8 A resolution. Side-chain interactions link the two light chains in tandem to adjacent segments of the heavy chain bearing the IQ-sequence motif. The Ca(2+)-binding site is a novel EF-hand motif on the essential light chain and is stabilized by linkages involving the heavy chain and both light chains, accounting for the requirement of all three chains for Ca2+ binding and regulation in the intact myosin molecule.
 

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
  21465563 X.Xu, R.Ishima, and J.B.Ames (2011).
Conformational dynamics of recoverin's Ca(2+) -myristoyl switch probed by (15) N NMR relaxation dispersion and chemical shift analysis.
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19769984 D.M.Himmel, S.Mui, E.O'Neall-Hennessey, A.G.Szent-Györgyi, and C.Cohen (2009).
The on-off switch in regulated myosins: different triggers but related mechanisms.
  J Mol Biol, 394, 496-505.
PDB codes: 3jtd 3jvt
19298669 J.Zhu, Y.Sun, F.Q.Zhao, J.Yu, R.Craig, and S.Hu (2009).
Analysis of tarantula skeletal muscle protein sequences and identification of transcriptional isoforms.
  BMC Genomics, 10, 117.  
19470801 K.Pant, J.Watt, M.Greenberg, M.Jones, D.Szczesna-Cordary, and J.R.Moore (2009).
Removal of the cardiac myosin regulatory light chain increases isometric force production.
  FASEB J, 23, 3571-3580.  
19458282 M.J.Greenberg, T.R.Mealy, J.D.Watt, M.Jones, D.Szczesna-Cordary, and J.R.Moore (2009).
The molecular effects of skeletal muscle myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation.
  Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 297, R265-R274.  
18430924 D.J.Wright, E.Munro, M.Corbett, A.J.Bentley, N.J.Fullwood, S.Murray, and C.Price (2008).
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin cytoskeletal component Bsp1p has an auxiliary role in actomyosin ring function and in the maintenance of bud-neck structure.
  Genetics, 178, 1903-1914.  
18585394 F.Q.Zhao, and R.Craig (2008).
Millisecond time-resolved changes occurring in Ca2+-regulated myosin filaments upon relaxation.
  J Mol Biol, 381, 256-260.  
18616971 S.L.Hooper, K.H.Hobbs, and J.B.Thuma (2008).
Invertebrate muscles: thin and thick filament structure; molecular basis of contraction and its regulation, catch and asynchronous muscle.
  Prog Neurobiol, 86, 72.  
18076673 S.M.Ware, M.E.Quinn, E.T.Ballard, E.Miller, K.Uzark, and R.L.Spicer (2008).
Pediatric restrictive cardiomyopathy associated with a mutation in beta-myosin heavy chain.
  Clin Genet, 73, 165-170.  
17628590 J.Bosch, S.Turley, C.M.Roach, T.M.Daly, L.W.Bergman, and W.G.Hol (2007).
The closed MTIP-myosin A-tail complex from the malaria parasite invasion machinery.
  J Mol Biol, 372, 77-88.
PDB code: 2qac
16957918 F.Capozzi, F.Casadei, and C.Luchinat (2006).
EF-hand protein dynamics and evolution of calcium signal transduction: an NMR view.
  J Biol Inorg Chem, 11, 949-962.  
16617426 H.Deng, G.Chen, W.Yang, and J.J.Yang (2006).
Predicting calcium-binding sites in proteins - a graph theory and geometry approach.
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16547135 J.Bosch, S.Turley, T.M.Daly, S.M.Bogh, M.L.Villasmil, C.Roach, N.Zhou, J.M.Morrisey, A.B.Vaidya, L.W.Bergman, and W.G.Hol (2006).
Structure of the MTIP-MyoA complex, a key component of the malaria parasite invasion motor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 4852-4857.
PDB code: 2auc
16538438 J.H.Collins (2006).
Myoinformatics report: myosin regulatory light chain paralogs in the human genome.
  J Muscle Res Cell Motil, 27, 69-74.  
16645962 Y.Liu, M.Scolari, W.Im, and H.J.Woo (2006).
Protein-protein interactions in actin-myosin binding and structural effects of R405Q mutation: a molecular dynamics study.
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16227209 J.E.Debreczeni, L.Farkas, V.Harmat, C.Hetényi, I.Hajdú, P.Závodszky, K.Kohama, and L.Nyitray (2005).
Structural evidence for non-canonical binding of Ca2+ to a canonical EF-hand of a conventional myosin.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 41458-41464.
PDB code: 2bl0
15929007 S.Melino, M.Pennestri, A.Santoprete, P.Bielli, M.Paci, A.Ragnini-Wilson, and D.O.Cicero (2005).
Assignment of the 1H, 13C and 15N resonances of Mlc1p from Saccharomices cerevisiae.
  J Biomol NMR, 31, 367-368.  
15753305 W.D.Nelson, S.E.Blakely, Y.E.Nesmelov, and D.D.Thomas (2005).
Site-directed spin labeling reveals a conformational switch in the phosphorylation domain of smooth muscle myosin.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 4000-4005.  
15735645 Y.H.Ching, T.K.Ghosh, S.J.Cross, E.A.Packham, L.Honeyman, S.Loughna, T.E.Robinson, A.M.Dearlove, G.Ribas, A.J.Bonser, N.R.Thomas, A.J.Scotter, L.S.Caves, G.P.Tyrrell, R.A.Newbury-Ecob, A.Munnich, D.Bonnet, and J.D.Brook (2005).
Mutation in myosin heavy chain 6 causes atrial septal defect.
  Nat Genet, 37, 423-428.  
  15173217 A.G.Szent-Györgyi (2004).
The early history of the biochemistry of muscle contraction.
  J Gen Physiol, 123, 631-641.  
15041671 A.S.Brack, B.D.Brandmeier, R.E.Ferguson, S.Criddle, R.E.Dale, and M.Irving (2004).
Bifunctional rhodamine probes of Myosin regulatory light chain orientation in relaxed skeletal muscle fibers.
  Biophys J, 86, 2329-2341.  
15630611 D.M.Warshaw (2004).
Lever arms and necks: a common mechanistic theme across the myosin superfamily.
  J Muscle Res Cell Motil, 25, 467-474.  
14594949 D.Szczesna-Cordary, G.Guzman, S.S.Ng, and J.Zhao (2004).
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked alterations in Ca2+ binding of human cardiac myosin regulatory light chain affect cardiac muscle contraction.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 3535-3542.  
14701841 H.O.Hambrock, B.Kaufmann, S.Müller, F.G.Hanisch, K.Nose, M.Paulsson, P.Maurer, and U.Hartmann (2004).
Structural characterization of TSC-36/Flik: analysis of two charge isoforms.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 11727-11735.  
14504268 J.V.Kilmartin (2003).
Sfi1p has conserved centrin-binding sites and an essential function in budding yeast spindle pole body duplication.
  J Cell Biol, 162, 1211-1221.  
12754206 L.Farkas, A.Malnasi-Csizmadia, A.Nakamura, K.Kohama, and L.Nyitray (2003).
Localization and characterization of the inhibitory Ca2+-binding site of Physarum polycephalum myosin II.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 27399-27405.  
12554638 M.Terrak, G.Wu, W.F.Stafford, R.C.Lu, and R.Dominguez (2003).
Two distinct myosin light chain structures are induced by specific variations within the bound IQ motifs-functional implications.
  EMBO J, 22, 362-371.
PDB codes: 1m45 1m46
14656445 S.Gourinath, D.M.Himmel, J.H.Brown, L.Reshetnikova, A.G.Szent-Györgyi, and C.Cohen (2003).
Crystal structure of scallop Myosin s1 in the pre-power stroke state to 2.6 a resolution: flexibility and function in the head.
  Structure, 11, 1621-1627.
PDB code: 1qvi
12466269 S.P.Harris, W.T.Heller, M.L.Greaser, R.L.Moss, and J.Trewhella (2003).
Solution structure of heavy meromyosin by small-angle scattering.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 6034-6040.  
12907680 S.Sheng, Y.Gao, A.S.Khromov, A.V.Somlyo, A.P.Somlyo, and Z.Shao (2003).
Cryo-atomic force microscopy of unphosphorylated and thiophosphorylated single smooth muscle myosin molecules.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 39892-39896.  
12446675 Z.Li, and D.B.Sacks (2003).
Elucidation of the interaction of calmodulin with the IQ motifs of IQGAP1.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 4347-4352.  
12080126 J.S.Davis, C.L.Satorius, and N.D.Epstein (2002).
Kinetic effects of myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation on skeletal muscle contraction.
  Biophys J, 83, 359-370.  
12324407 L.E.LaConte, V.Voelz, W.Nelson, M.Enz, and D.D.Thomas (2002).
Molecular dynamics simulation of site-directed spin labeling: experimental validation in muscle fibers.
  Biophys J, 83, 1854-1866.  
11429759 L.D.Brown, and M.E.Cantino (2001).
Nonuniform distribution of myosin light chains within the thick filaments of lobster slow muscle: Immunocytochemical study.
  J Exp Zool, 290, 6.  
11699641 M.M.Khan, and M.Komiyama (2001).
The second EF-hand is responsible for the isoform-specific sorting of myosin essential light chain.
  Cell Struct Funct, 26, 243-251.  
11573089 R.A.Atkinson, C.Joseph, G.Kelly, F.W.Muskett, T.A.Frenkiel, D.Nietlispach, and A.Pastore (2001).
Ca2+-independent binding of an EF-hand domain to a novel motif in the alpha-actinin-titin complex.
  Nat Struct Biol, 8, 853-857.
PDB code: 1h8b
10671524 H.Patel, S.S.Margossian, and P.D.Chantler (2000).
Locking regulatory myosin in the off-state with trifluoperazine.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 4880-4888.  
10836495 K.C.Holmes, and M.A.Geeves (2000).
The structural basis of muscle contraction.
  Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 355, 419-431.  
10984097 M.Komiyama, M.M.Khan, N.Toyota, and Y.Shimada (2000).
Fast skeletal muscle isoforms exhibit the highest incorporation level into myofibrils and stress fibers among members of myosin alkali light chain isoform family.
  Cell Struct Funct, 25, 141-148.  
11112516 Y.Luo, J.Leszyk, B.Li, J.Gergely, and T.Tao (2000).
Proximity relationships between residue 6 of troponin I and residues in troponin C: further evidence for extended conformation of troponin C in the troponin complex.
  Biochemistry, 39, 15306-15315.  
10338210 A.Houdusse, V.N.Kalabokis, D.Himmel, A.G.Szent-Györgyi, and C.Cohen (1999).
Atomic structure of scallop myosin subfragment S1 complexed with MgADP: a novel conformation of the myosin head.
  Cell, 97, 459-470.
PDB code: 1b7t
10215856 A.Málnási-Csizmadia, G.Hegyi, F.Tölgyesi, A.G.Szent-Györgyi, and L.Nyitray (1999).
Fluorescence measurements detect changes in scallop myosin regulatory domain.
  Eur J Biochem, 261, 452-458.  
10074367 B.B.Adhikari, J.Somerset, J.T.Stull, and P.G.Fajer (1999).
Dynamic modulation of the regulatory domain of myosin heads by pH, ionic strength, and RLC phosphorylation in synthetic myosin filaments.
  Biochemistry, 38, 3127-3132.  
10373429 D.J.Timson, H.R.Trayer, K.J.Smith, and I.P.Trayer (1999).
Size and charge requirements for kinetic modulation and actin binding by alkali 1-type myosin essential light chains.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 18271-18277.  
10872464 M.A.Geeves, and K.C.Holmes (1999).
Structural mechanism of muscle contraction.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 68, 687-728.  
9927691 R.Vemuri, E.B.Lankford, K.Poetter, S.Hassanzadeh, K.Takeda, Z.X.Yu, V.J.Ferrans, and N.D.Epstein (1999).
The stretch-activation response may be critical to the proper functioning of the mammalian heart.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 1048-1053.  
10413484 S.Ramachandran, and D.D.Thomas (1999).
Rotational dynamics of the regulatory light chain in scallop muscle detected by time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy.
  Biochemistry, 38, 9097-9104.  
10082949 T.Kobayashi, X.Zhao, R.Wade, and J.H.Collins (1999).
Ca2+-dependent interaction of the inhibitory region of troponin I with acidic residues in the N-terminal domain of troponin C.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1430, 214-221.  
10574999 W.L.Lee, E.M.Ostap, H.G.Zot, and T.D.Pollard (1999).
Organization and ligand binding properties of the tail of Acanthamoeba myosin-IA. Identification of an actin-binding site in the basic (tail homology-1) domain.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 35159-35171.  
9442059 A.Barth, S.R.Martin, and P.M.Bayley (1998).
Specificity and symmetry in the interaction of calmodulin domains with the skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase target sequence.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 2174-2183.  
9560191 D.G.Vassylyev, S.Takeda, S.Wakatsuki, K.Maeda, and Y.Maéda (1998).
Crystal structure of troponin C in complex with troponin I fragment at 2.3-A resolution.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 4847-4852.
PDB code: 1a2x
9601027 G.Wu, A.Wong, F.Qian, and R.C.Lu (1998).
Phosphorylation changes the spatial relationship between Glu124-Arg143 and Cys18 and Cys165 of the regulatory light chain in smooth muscle myosin.
  Biochemistry, 37, 7676-7685.  
  9560408 J.D.Huang, M.J.Cope, V.Mermall, M.C.Strobel, J.Kendrick-Jones, L.B.Russell, M.S.Mooseker, N.G.Copeland, and N.A.Jenkins (1998).
Molecular genetic dissection of mouse unconventional myosin-VA: head region mutations.
  Genetics, 148, 1951-1961.  
9808035 K.C.Holmes (1998).
Picture story. A powerful stroke.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 940-942.  
9660810 K.M.Trybus, V.Naroditskaya, and H.L.Sweeney (1998).
The light chain-binding domain of the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain is not the only determinant of regulation.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 18423-18428.  
9651364 L.D.Saraswat, and S.Lowey (1998).
Subunit interactions within an expressed regulatory domain of chicken skeletal myosin. Location of the NH2 terminus of the regulatory light chain by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 17671-17679.  
9651368 M.Ikebe, T.Kambara, W.F.Stafford, M.Sata, E.Katayama, and R.Ikebe (1998).
A hinge at the central helix of the regulatory light chain of myosin is critical for phosphorylation-dependent regulation of smooth muscle myosin motor activity.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 17702-17707.  
9772169 O.Roopnarine, A.G.Szent-Györgyi, and D.D.Thomas (1998).
Microsecond rotational dynamics of spin-labeled myosin regulatory light chain induced by relaxation and contraction of scallop muscle.
  Biochemistry, 37, 14428-14436.  
9700160 R.C.Stevens, and T.N.Davis (1998).
Mlc1p is a light chain for the unconventional myosin Myo2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  J Cell Biol, 142, 711-722.  
9741621 R.Dominguez, Y.Freyzon, K.M.Trybus, and C.Cohen (1998).
Crystal structure of a vertebrate smooth muscle myosin motor domain and its complex with the essential light chain: visualization of the pre-power stroke state.
  Cell, 94, 559-571.
PDB codes: 1br1 1br2 1br4
9730814 R.T.McKay, J.R.Pearlstone, D.C.Corson, S.M.Gagné, L.B.Smillie, and B.D.Sykes (1998).
Structure and interaction site of the regulatory domain of troponin-C when complexed with the 96-148 region of troponin-I.
  Biochemistry, 37, 12419-12430.
PDB code: 1blq
9635763 S.C.Hopkins, C.Sabido-David, J.E.Corrie, M.Irving, and Y.E.Goldman (1998).
Fluorescence polarization transients from rhodamine isomers on the myosin regulatory light chain in skeletal muscle fibers.
  Biophys J, 74, 3093-3110.  
9786863 S.S.Rosenfeld, J.Xing, H.C.Cheung, F.Brown, S.Kar, and H.L.Sweeney (1998).
Structural and kinetic studies of phosphorylation-dependent regulation in smooth muscle myosin.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 28682-28690.  
9447616 A.B.Oestreicher, P.N.De Graan, W.H.Gispen, J.Verhaagen, and L.H.Schrama (1997).
B-50, the growth associated protein-43: modulation of cell morphology and communication in the nervous system.
  Prog Neurobiol, 53, 627-686.  
9020178 G.Ho, and R.L.Chisholm (1997).
Substitution mutations in the myosin essential light chain lead to reduced actin-activated ATPase activity despite stoichiometric binding to the heavy chain.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 4522-4527.  
9341188 J.C.Deloulme, L.Prichard, O.Delattre, and D.R.Storm (1997).
The prooncoprotein EWS binds calmodulin and is phosphorylated by protein kinase C through an IQ domain.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 27369-27377.  
9200712 J.R.Pearlstone, B.D.Sykes, and L.B.Smillie (1997).
Interactions of structural C and regulatory N domains of troponin C with repeated sequence motifs in troponin I.
  Biochemistry, 36, 7601-7606.  
8663447 A.A.Nascimento, R.E.Cheney, S.B.Tauhata, R.E.Larson, and M.S.Mooseker (1996).
Enzymatic characterization and functional domain mapping of brain myosin-V.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 17561-17569.  
8672723 A.G.Szent-Györgyi (1996).
Regulation of contraction by calcium binding myosins.
  Biophys Chem, 59, 357-363.  
8805510 A.Houdusse, and C.Cohen (1996).
Structure of the regulatory domain of scallop myosin at 2 A resolution: implications for regulation.
  Structure, 4, 21-32.
PDB code: 1wdc
8994973 A.Houdusse, M.Silver, and C.Cohen (1996).
A model of Ca(2+)-free calmodulin binding to unconventional myosins reveals how calmodulin acts as a regulatory switch.
  Structure, 4, 1475-1490.
PDB code: 1aji
8906621 C.L.Perreault-Micale, A.Jancsó, and A.G.Szent-Györgyi (1996).
Essential and regulatory light chains of Placopecten striated and catch muscle myosins.
  J Muscle Res Cell Motil, 17, 533-542.  
8906622 C.L.Perreault-Micale, V.N.Kalabokis, L.Nyitray, and A.G.Szent-Györgyi (1996).
Sequence variations in the surface loop near the nucleotide binding site modulate the ATP turnover rates of molluscan myosins.
  J Muscle Res Cell Motil, 17, 543-553.  
8807883 D.D.Hackney (1996).
Myosin and kinesin: mother and child reunited.
  Chem Biol, 3, 525-528.  
8617809 D.Szczesna, J.Zhao, and J.D.Potter (1996).
The regulatory light chains of myosin modulate cross-bridge cycling in skeletal muscle.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 5246-5250.  
8622919 D.Weil, G.Levy, I.Sahly, F.Levi-Acobas, S.Blanchard, A.El-Amraoui, F.Crozet, H.Philippe, M.Abitbol, and C.Petit (1996).
Human myosin VIIA responsible for the Usher 1B syndrome: a predicted membrane-associated motor protein expressed in developing sensory epithelia.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 3232-3237.  
8548457 E.Hohenester, P.Maurer, C.Hohenadl, R.Timpl, J.N.Jansonius, and J.Engel (1996).
Structure of a novel extracellular Ca(2+)-binding module in BM-40.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 67-73.
PDB code: 1sra
8804617 G.M.Diffee, J.R.Patel, F.C.Reinach, M.L.Greaser, and R.L.Moss (1996).
Altered kinetics of contraction in skeletal muscle fibers containing a mutant myosin regulatory light chain with reduced divalent cation binding.
  Biophys J, 71, 341-350.  
8994083 J.M.West, H.Higuchi, A.Ishijima, and T.Yanagida (1996).
Modification of the bi-directional sliding movement of actin filaments along native thick filaments isolated from a clam.
  J Muscle Res Cell Motil, 17, 637-646.  
8740428 J.R.Sellers, H.V.Goodson, and F.Wang (1996).
A myosin family reunion.
  J Muscle Res Cell Motil, 17, 7.  
8970737 K.M.Ruppel, and J.A.Spudich (1996).
Structure-function analysis of the motor domain of myosin.
  Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 12, 543-573.  
8673105 K.Poetter, H.Jiang, S.Hassanzadeh, S.R.Master, A.Chang, M.C.Dalakas, I.Rayment, J.R.Sellers, L.Fananapazir, and N.D.Epstein (1996).
Mutations in either the essential or regulatory light chains of myosin are associated with a rare myopathy in human heart and skeletal muscle.
  Nat Genet, 13, 63-69.  
8756480 L.Zhao, J.Gollub, and R.Cooke (1996).
Orientation of paramagnetic probes attached to gizzard regulatory light chain bound to myosin heads in rabbit skeletal muscle.
  Biochemistry, 35, 10158-10165.  
  8947029 M.Anson, M.A.Geeves, S.E.Kurzawa, and D.J.Manstein (1996).
Myosin motors with artificial lever arms.
  EMBO J, 15, 6069-6074.  
8646534 M.B.Swindells, and M.Ikura (1996).
Pre-formation of the semi-open conformation by the apo-calmodulin C-terminal domain and implications binding IQ-motifs.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 501-504.  
8848832 M.Ikura (1996).
Calcium binding and conformational response in EF-hand proteins.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 21, 14-17.  
8804587 M.Kekic, W.Huang, P.D.Moens, B.D.Hambly, and C.G.dos Remedios (1996).
Distance measurements near the myosin head-rod junction using fluorescence spectroscopy.
  Biophys J, 71, 40-47.  
  8918462 P.D.Wes, M.Yu, and C.Montell (1996).
RIC, a calmodulin-binding Ras-like GTPase.
  EMBO J, 15, 5839-5848.  
8552606 R.A.Milligan (1996).
Protein-protein interactions in the rigor actomyosin complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 21-26.  
8913571 T.D.Lenart, J.M.Murray, C.Franzini-Armstrong, and Y.E.Goldman (1996).
Structure and periodicities of cross-bridges in relaxation, in rigor, and during contractions initiated by photolysis of caged Ca2+.
  Biophys J, 71, 2289-2306.  
8626639 T.Katoh, and F.Morita (1996).
Roles of light chains in the activity and conformation of smooth muscle myosin.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 9992-9996.  
8633089 T.Q.Uyeda, P.D.Abramson, and J.A.Spudich (1996).
The neck region of the myosin motor domain acts as a lever arm to generate movement.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 4459-4464.  
8900158 V.N.Kalabokis, P.Vibert, M.L.York, and A.G.Szent-Györgyi (1996).
Single-headed scallop myosin and regulation.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 26779-26782.  
7896823 A.C.da Silva, J.Kendrick-Jones, and F.C.Reinach (1995).
Determinants of ion specificity on EF-hands sites. Conversion of the Ca2+/Mg2+ site of smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain into a Ca(2+)-specific site.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 6773-6778.  
7479857 A.Houdusse, and C.Cohen (1995).
Target sequence recognition by the calmodulin superfamily: implications from light chain binding to the regulatory domain of scallop myosin.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 10644-10647.  
8519977 D.B.Stone, D.K.Schneider, Z.Huang, and R.A.Mendelson (1995).
The radius of gyration of native and reductively methylated myosin subfragment-1 from neutron scattering.
  Biophys J, 69, 767-776.  
7896819 D.D.Gerendasy, S.R.Herron, P.A.Jennings, and J.G.Sutcliffe (1995).
Calmodulin stabilizes an amphiphilic alpha-helix within RC3/neurogranin and GAP-43/neuromodulin only when Ca2+ is absent.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 6741-6750.  
  7787056 D.D.Thomas, S.Ramachandran, O.Roopnarine, D.W.Hayden, and E.M.Ostap (1995).
The mechanism of force generation in myosin: a disorder-to-order transition, coupled to internal structural changes.
  Biophys J, 68, 135S-141S.  
7499275 G.Ho, T.L.Chen, and R.L.Chisholm (1995).
Both the amino and carboxyl termini of Dictyostelium myosin essential light chain are required for binding to myosin heavy chain.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 27977-27981.  
7787030 G.M.Diffee, M.L.Greaser, F.C.Reinach, and R.L.Moss (1995).
Effects of a non-divalent cation binding mutant of myosin regulatory light chain on tension generation in skinned skeletal muscle fibers.
  Biophys J, 68, 1443-1452.  
  7556088 J.A.Porter, B.Minke, and C.Montell (1995).
Calmodulin binding to Drosophila NinaC required for termination of phototransduction.
  EMBO J, 14, 4450-4459.  
7659082 J.C.Holt, J.B.Caulfield, P.Norton, P.D.Chantler, H.S.Slayter, and S.S.Margossian (1995).
Human cardiac myosin light chains: sequence comparisons between myosin LC1 and LC2 from normal and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathic hearts.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 145, 89-96.  
7588784 J.Heierhorst, W.C.Probst, R.A.Kohanski, A.Buku, and K.R.Weiss (1995).
Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chains by the molluscan twitchin kinase.
  Eur J Biochem, 233, 426-431.  
  7882973 J.Reinhard, A.A.Scheel, D.Diekmann, A.Hall, C.Ruppert, and M.Bähler (1995).
A novel type of myosin implicated in signalling by rho family GTPases.
  EMBO J, 14, 697-704.  
7755294 J.Robbins, J.Palermo, and H.Rindt (1995).
In vivo definition of a cardiac specific promoter and its potential utility in remodeling the heart.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 752, 492-505.  
14732095 J.S.Wolenski (1995).
Regulation of calmodulin-binding myosins.
  Trends Cell Biol, 5, 310-316.  
8567936 K.A.Edwards, X.J.Chang, and D.P.Kiehart (1995).
Essential light chain of Drosophila nonmuscle myosin II.
  J Muscle Res Cell Motil, 16, 491-498.  
7755994 K.M.Ruppel, and J.A.Spudich (1995).
Myosin motor function: structural and mutagenic approaches.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 7, 89-93.  
7648319 K.M.Ruppel, M.Lorenz, and J.A.Spudich (1995).
Myosin structure/function: a combined mutagenesis-crystallography approach.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 181-186.  
  8590803 P.L.Post, R.L.DeBiasio, and D.L.Taylor (1995).
A fluorescent protein biosensor of myosin II regulatory light chain phosphorylation reports a gradient of phosphorylated myosin II in migrating cells.
  Mol Biol Cell, 6, 1755-1768.  
7644472 S.Fromherz, and A.G.Szent-Györgyi (1995).
Role of essential light chain EF hand domains in calcium binding and regulation of scallop myosin.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 7652-7656.  
  7787054 S.Lowey, and K.M.Trybus (1995).
Role of skeletal and smooth muscle myosin light chains.
  Biophys J, 68, 120S.  
7552750 S.M.Gagné, S.Tsuda, M.X.Li, L.B.Smillie, and B.D.Sykes (1995).
Structures of the troponin C regulatory domains in the apo and calcium-saturated states.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 784-789.
PDB codes: 1tnp 1tnq
7767791 S.Marston (1995).
Ca(2+)-dependent protein switches in actomyosin based contractile systems.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 27, 97.  
  7787093 Y.Sugimoto, M.Tokunaga, Y.Takezawa, M.Ikebe, and K.Wakabayashi (1995).
Conformational changes of the myosin heads during hydrolysis of ATP as analyzed by x-ray solution scattering.
  Biophys J, 68, 29S.  
7559573 Z.Yang, and H.L.Sweeney (1995).
Restoration of phosphorylation-dependent regulation to the skeletal muscle myosin regulatory light chain.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 24646-24649.  
8090720 A.Jancso, and A.G.Szent-Györgyi (1994).
Regulation of scallop myosin by the regulatory light chain depends on a single glycine residue.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 8762-8766.  
7990922 J.A.Spudich (1994).
How molecular motors work.
  Nature, 372, 515-518.  
7706415 K.M.Trybus (1994).
Role of myosin light chains.
  J Muscle Res Cell Motil, 15, 587-594.  
8090776 M.Ikebe, S.Reardon, Y.Mitani, H.Kamisoyama, M.Matsuura, and R.Ikebe (1994).
Involvement of the C-terminal residues of the 20,000-dalton light chain of myosin on the regulation of smooth muscle actomyosin.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91, 9096-9100.  
8087841 R.D.Vale (1994).
Getting a grip on myosin.
  Cell, 78, 733-737.  
7860702 V.N.Kalabokis, E.O'Neall-Hennessey, and A.G.Szent-Györgyi (1994).
Regulatory domains of myosins: influence of heavy chain on Ca(2+)-binding.
  J Muscle Res Cell Motil, 15, 547-553.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.