PDBsum entry 1rec

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Calcium-binding protein PDB id
Protein chain
185 a.a. *
Waters ×164
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Calcium-binding protein
Title: Three-dimensional structure of recoverin, a calcium sensor i
Structure: Recoverin. Chain: a. Engineered: yes
Source: Bos taurus. Cattle. Organism_taxid: 9913
Biol. unit: Tetramer (from PQS)
1.90Å     R-factor:   0.191    
Authors: K.M.Flaherty,S.Zozulya,L.Stryer,D.B.Mckay
Key ref: K.M.Flaherty et al. (1993). Three-dimensional structure of recoverin, a calcium sensor in vision. Cell, 75, 709-716. PubMed id: 8242744 DOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90491-8
29-Oct-93     Release date:   31-Jan-94    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P21457  (RECO_BOVIN) -  Recoverin
202 a.a.
185 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     cytosol   1 term 
  Biological process     response to stimulus   4 terms 
  Biochemical function     protein binding     3 terms  


DOI no: 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90491-8 Cell 75:709-716 (1993)
PubMed id: 8242744  
Three-dimensional structure of recoverin, a calcium sensor in vision.
K.M.Flaherty, S.Zozulya, L.Stryer, D.B.McKay.
Recoverin, a recently discovered member of the EF hand superfamily, serves as a calcium sensor in vision. We report here the crystal structure of recombinant unmyristoylated recoverin at 1.9 A resolution. The four EF hands of the protein are arranged in a compact array that contrasts with the dumbbell shape of calmodulin and troponin C. A calcium ion is bound to EF hand 3, while EF hand 2 can bind samarium but not calcium in this crystal form. The other two EF hands have novel structural features that prevent or impair calcium binding. A concave hydrophobic surface formed by EF hands 1 and 2 may participate in the read out of calcium signals by recoverin and its homologs.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21442718 M.Nullmeier, H.Koliwer-Brandl, S.Kelm, P.Zägel, K.W.Koch, and I.Brand (2011).
Impact of strong and weak lipid-protein interactions on the structure of a lipid bilayer on a gold electrode surface.
  Chemphyschem, 12, 1066-1079.  
18942727 J.L.Li, C.Y.Geng, Y.Bu, X.R.Huang, and C.C.Sun (2009).
Conformational transition pathway in the allosteric process of calcium-induced recoverin: molecular dynamics simulations.
  J Comput Chem, 30, 1135-1145.  
19143494 S.Lim, I.Peshenko, A.Dizhoor, and J.B.Ames (2009).
Effects of Ca2+, Mg2+, and myristoylation on guanylyl cyclase activating protein 1 structure and stability.
  Biochemistry, 48, 850-862.  
19851889 S.Lim, and J.B.Ames (2009).
(1)H, (15)N, and (13)C chemical shift assignments of neuronal calcium sensor-1 homolog from fission yeast.
  Biomol NMR Assign, 3, 269-271.  
18559337 J.N.Wingard, J.Ladner, M.Vanarotti, A.J.Fisher, H.Robinson, K.T.Buchanan, D.M.Engman, and J.B.Ames (2008).
Structural Insights into Membrane Targeting by the Flagellar Calcium-binding Protein (FCaBP), a Myristoylated and Palmitoylated Calcium Sensor in Trypanosoma cruzi.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 23388-23396.
PDB code: 3cs1
18346093 R.Stephen, S.Filipek, K.Palczewski, and M.C.Sousa (2008).
Ca2+ -dependent regulation of phototransduction.
  Photochem Photobiol, 84, 903-910.  
17989959 S.Massaro, T.Zlateva, V.Torre, and L.Quaroni (2008).
Detection of molecular processes in the intact retina by ATR-FTIR spectromicroscopy.
  Anal Bioanal Chem, 390, 317-322.  
16444517 A.V.Bazhin, D.Schadendorf, P.P.Philippov, and S.B.Eichmüller (2007).
Recoverin as a cancer-retina antigen.
  Cancer Immunol Immunother, 56, 110-116.  
17942091 C.C.Chan, S.Zhang, T.Cagatay, and K.A.Wharton (2007).
Cell-autonomous, myristyl-independent activity of the Drosophila Wnt/Wingless antagonist Naked cuticle (Nkd).
  Dev Biol, 311, 538-553.  
18034895 I.I.Senin, V.A.Churumova, P.P.Philippov, and K.W.Koch (2007).
Membrane binding of the neuronal calcium sensor recoverin - modulatory role of the charged carboxy-terminus.
  BMC Biochem, 8, 24.  
17545152 I.V.Peshenko, and A.M.Dizhoor (2007).
Activation and inhibition of photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase by guanylyl cyclase activating protein 1 (GCAP-1): the functional role of Mg2+/Ca2+ exchange in EF-hand domains.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 21645-21652.  
17962406 L.Yu, C.Sun, R.Mendoza, J.Wang, E.D.Matayoshi, E.Hebert, A.Pereda-Lopez, P.J.Hajduk, and E.T.Olejniczak (2007).
Solution structure and calcium-binding properties of EF-hands 3 and 4 of calsenilin.
  Protein Sci, 16, 2502-2509.
PDB code: 2e6w
17526567 P.Desmeules, S.E.Penney, B.Desbat, and C.Salesse (2007).
Determination of the contribution of the myristoyl group and hydrophobic amino acids of recoverin on its dynamics of binding to lipid monolayers.
  Biophys J, 93, 2069-2082.  
17078090 T.Gensch, K.E.Komolov, I.I.Senin, P.P.Philippov, and K.W.Koch (2007).
Ca2+-dependent conformational changes in the neuronal Ca2+-sensor recoverin probed by the fluorescent dye Alexa647.
  Proteins, 66, 492-499.  
17720810 T.Strahl, I.G.Huttner, J.D.Lusin, M.Osawa, D.King, J.Thorner, and J.B.Ames (2007).
Structural insights into activation of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (Pik1) by yeast frequenin (Frq1).
  J Biol Chem, 282, 30949-30959.
PDB code: 2ju0
16951992 C.P.Chen, L.Lee, and L.S.Chang (2006).
Effects of metal-binding properties of human Kv channel-interacting proteins on their molecular structure and binding with Kv4.2 channel.
  Protein J, 25, 345-351.  
16765896 E.Babini, I.Bertini, F.Capozzi, E.Chirivino, and C.Luchinat (2006).
A structural and dynamic characterization of the EF-hand protein CLSP.
  Structure, 14, 1029-1038.
PDB code: 2b1u
16703469 F.F.Jheng, L.Wang, L.Lee, and L.S.Chang (2006).
Functional contribution of Ca2+ and Mg2+ to the intermolecular interaction of visinin-like proteins.
  Protein J, 25, 250-256.  
17020884 J.B.Ames, K.Levay, J.N.Wingard, J.D.Lusin, and V.Z.Slepak (2006).
Structural basis for calcium-induced inhibition of rhodopsin kinase by recoverin.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 37237-37245.
PDB code: 2i94
16432210 M.Ikura, and J.B.Ames (2006).
Genetic polymorphism and protein conformational plasticity in the calmodulin superfamily: two ways to promote multifunctionality.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 1159-1164.  
16675451 M.K.Higgins, D.D.Oprian, and G.F.Schertler (2006).
Recoverin binds exclusively to an amphipathic peptide at the N terminus of rhodopsin kinase, inhibiting rhodopsin phosphorylation without affecting catalytic activity of the kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 19426-19432.  
17015448 O.H.Weiergräber, I.I.Senin, E.Y.Zernii, V.A.Churumova, N.A.Kovaleva, A.A.Nazipova, S.E.Permyakov, E.A.Permyakov, P.P.Philippov, J.Granzin, and K.W.Koch (2006).
Tuning of a neuronal calcium sensor.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 37594-37602.
PDB code: 2het
16849595 S.Waldrop, C.C.Chan, T.Cagatay, S.Zhang, R.Rousset, J.Mack, W.Zeng, M.Fish, M.Zhang, M.Amanai, and K.A.Wharton (2006).
An unconventional nuclear localization motif is crucial for function of the Drosophila Wnt/wingless antagonist Naked cuticle.
  Genetics, 174, 331-348.  
16710297 Y.B.Ammar, S.Takeda, T.Hisamitsu, H.Mori, and S.Wakabayashi (2006).
Crystal structure of CHP2 complexed with NHE1-cytosolic region and an implication for pH regulation.
  EMBO J, 25, 2315-2325.
PDB code: 2bec
15574431 H.R.Gentry, A.U.Singer, L.Betts, C.Yang, J.D.Ferrara, J.Sondek, and L.V.Parise (2005).
Structural and biochemical characterization of CIB1 delineates a new family of EF-hand-containing proteins.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 8407-8415.
PDB code: 1xo5
16147998 J.N.Wingard, J.Chan, I.Bosanac, F.Haeseleer, K.Palczewski, M.Ikura, and J.B.Ames (2005).
Structural analysis of Mg2+ and Ca2+ binding to CaBP1, a neuron-specific regulator of calcium channels.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 37461-37470.  
15746104 M.Osawa, A.Dace, K.I.Tong, A.Valiveti, M.Ikura, and J.B.Ames (2005).
Mg2+ and Ca2+ differentially regulate DNA binding and dimerization of DREAM.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 18008-18014.  
15937279 M.Palczewska, G.Batta, P.Groves, S.Linse, and J.Kuznicki (2005).
Characterization of calretinin I-II as an EF-hand, Ca2+, H+-sensing domain.
  Protein Sci, 14, 1879-1887.  
15735337 T.C.Appleby, G.Larson, I.W.Cheney, H.Walker, J.Z.Wu, W.Zhong, Z.Hong, and N.Yao (2005).
Structure of human uridine-cytidine kinase 2 determined by SIRAS using a rotating-anode X-ray generator and a single samarium derivative.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 61, 278-284.
PDB code: 1xrj
15987692 Y.Naoe, K.Arita, H.Hashimoto, H.Kanazawa, M.Sato, and T.Shimizu (2005).
Structural characterization of calcineurin B homologous protein 1.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 32372-32378.
PDB code: 2ct9
15448139 I.V.Peshenko, E.V.Olshevskaya, and A.M.Dizhoor (2004).
Ca(2+)-dependent conformational changes in guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 2 (GCAP-2) revealed by site-specific phosphorylation and partial proteolysis.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 50342-50349.  
14722091 N.Hamasaki-Katagiri, T.Molchanova, K.Takeda, and J.B.Ames (2004).
Fission yeast homolog of neuronal calcium sensor-1 (Ncs1p) regulates sporulation and confers calcium tolerance.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 12744-12754.  
15627391 N.K.Tikhomirova, M.A.Goncharskaya, and I.I.Senin (2004).
Preparation and characteristics of Ca(2+)-dependent monoclonal antibodies to recoverin.
  Biochemistry (Mosc), 69, 1360-1364.  
14980207 R.H.Scannevin, K.Wang, F.Jow, J.Megules, D.C.Kopsco, W.Edris, K.C.Carroll, Q.Lü, W.Xu, Z.Xu, A.H.Katz, S.Olland, L.Lin, M.Taylor, M.Stahl, K.Malakian, W.Somers, L.Mosyak, M.R.Bowlby, P.Chanda, and K.J.Rhodes (2004).
Two N-terminal domains of Kv4 K(+) channels regulate binding to and modulation by KChIP1.
  Neuron, 41, 587-598.
PDB codes: 1s1e 1s1g
14980206 W.Zhou, Y.Qian, K.Kunjilwar, P.J.Pfaffinger, and S.Choe (2004).
Structural insights into the functional interaction of KChIP1 with Shal-type K(+) channels.
  Neuron, 41, 573-586.
PDB code: 1s6c
  14739996 I.Sokal, A.Alekseev, and K.Palczewski (2003).
Photoreceptor guanylate cyclase variants: cGMP production under control.
  Acta Biochim Pol, 50, 1075-1095.  
13678959 K.D.Ridge, N.G.Abdulaev, M.Sousa, and K.Palczewski (2003).
Phototransduction: crystal clear.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 28, 479-487.  
12871972 M.Nagae, A.Nozawa, N.Koizumi, H.Sano, H.Hashimoto, M.Sato, and T.Shimizu (2003).
The crystal structure of the novel calcium-binding protein AtCBL2 from Arabidopsis thaliana.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 42240-42246.
PDB code: 1uhn
12686556 O.H.Weiergräber, I.I.Senin, P.P.Philippov, J.Granzin, and K.W.Koch (2003).
Impact of N-terminal myristoylation on the Ca2+-dependent conformational transition in recoverin.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 22972-22979.
PDB codes: 1omr 1omv
14512421 T.Strahl, B.Grafelmann, J.Dannenberg, J.Thorner, and O.Pongs (2003).
Conservation of regulatory function in calcium-binding proteins: human frequenin (neuronal calcium sensor-1) associates productively with yeast phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase isoform, Pik1.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 49589-49599.  
12928444 X.Ren, S.H.Shand, and K.Takimoto (2003).
Effective association of Kv channel-interacting proteins with Kv4 channel is mediated with their unique core peptide.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 43564-43570.  
12393897 I.I.Senin, T.Fischer, K.E.Komolov, D.V.Zinchenko, P.P.Philippov, and K.W.Koch (2002).
Ca2+-myristoyl switch in the neuronal calcium sensor recoverin requires different functions of Ca2+-binding sites.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 50365-50372.  
11980481 J.B.Ames, N.Hamasaki, and T.Molchanova (2002).
Structure and calcium-binding studies of a recoverin mutant (E85Q) in an allosteric intermediate state.
  Biochemistry, 41, 5776-5787.
PDB code: 1la3
12111723 M.Ikura, M.Osawa, and J.B.Ames (2002).
The role of calcium-binding proteins in the control of transcription: structure to function.
  Bioessays, 24, 625-636.  
12023256 P.Desmeules, M.Grandbois, V.A.Bondarenko, A.Yamazaki, and C.Salesse (2002).
Measurement of membrane binding between recoverin, a calcium-myristoyl switch protein, and lipid bilayers by AFM-based force spectroscopy.
  Biophys J, 82, 3343-3350.  
12354775 R.Rousset, K.A.Wharton, G.Zimmermann, and M.P.Scott (2002).
Zinc-dependent interaction between dishevelled and the Drosophila Wnt antagonist naked cuticle.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 49019-49026.  
11988478 T.P.Sakmar, S.T.Menon, E.P.Marin, and E.S.Awad (2002).
Rhodopsin: insights from recent structural studies.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 31, 443-484.  
11266616 A.Ababou, and J.R.Desjarlais (2001).
Solvation energetics and conformational change in EF-hand proteins.
  Protein Sci, 10, 301-312.  
11410626 A.P.Braun, and L.Sy (2001).
Contribution of potential EF hand motifs to the calcium-dependent gating of a mouse brain large conductance, calcium-sensitive K(+) channel.
  J Physiol, 533, 681-695.  
11274398 D.Yan, J.B.Wallingford, T.Q.Sun, A.M.Nelson, C.Sakanaka, C.Reinhard, R.M.Harland, W.J.Fantl, and L.T.Williams (2001).
Cell autonomous regulation of multiple Dishevelled-dependent pathways by mammalian Nkd.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 3802-3807.  
11266596 H.Aitio, T.Laakso, T.Pihlajamaa, M.Torkkeli, I.Kilpeläinen, T.Drakenberg, R.Serimaa, and A.Annila (2001).
Characterization of apo and partially saturated states of calerythrin, an EF-hand protein from S. erythraea: a molten globule when deprived of Ca(2+).
  Protein Sci, 10, 74-82.  
11524415 I.Sokal, N.Li, C.S.Klug, S.Filipek, W.L.Hubbell, W.Baehr, and K.Palczewski (2001).
Calcium-sensitive regions of GCAP1 as observed by chemical modifications, fluorescence, and EPR spectroscopies.
  J Biol Chem, 276, 43361-43373.  
11283311 K.Musunuru, and R.B.Darnell (2001).
Paraneoplastic neurologic disease antigens: RNA-binding proteins and signaling proteins in neuronal degeneration.
  Annu Rev Neurosci, 24, 239-262.  
11592399 N.Li, I.Sokal, J.D.Bronson, K.Palczewski, and W.Baehr (2001).
Identification of functional regions of guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP1) using GCAP1/GCIP chimeras.
  Biol Chem, 382, 1179-1188.  
11169621 W.Chen, W.Cao, A.M.Achyuthan, and J.F.McGinnis (2001).
In vitro inhibition of antirecoverin immunoglobulin-mediated death of mammalian photoreceptor cells.
  J Neurosci Res, 63, 116-123.  
11114499 A.Lewit-Bentley, and S.Réty (2000).
EF-hand calcium-binding proteins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 10, 637-643.  
10733970 B.Z.Peterson, J.S.Lee, J.G.Mulle, Y.Wang, Leon, and D.T.Yue (2000).
Critical determinants of Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation within an EF-hand motif of L-type Ca(2+) channels.
  Biophys J, 78, 1906-1920.  
10822252 P.M.Hwang, and H.J.Vogel (2000).
Structures of the platelet calcium- and integrin-binding protein and the alphaIIb-integrin cytoplasmic domain suggest a mechanism for calcium-regulated recognition; homology modelling and NMR studies.
  J Mol Recognit, 13, 83-92.
PDB codes: 1dgu 1dgv
10652319 S.Tachibanaki, K.Nanda, K.Sasaki, K.Ozaki, and S.Kawamura (2000).
Amino acid residues of S-modulin responsible for interaction with rhodopsin kinase.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 3313-3319.  
  11152121 T.Berggård, E.Thulin, K.S.Akerfeldt, and S.Linse (2000).
Fragment complementation of calbindin D28k.
  Protein Sci, 9, 2094-2108.  
10652348 T.J.Melia, J.A.Malinski, F.He, and T.G.Wensel (2000).
Enhancement of phototransduction protein interactions by lipid surfaces.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 3535-3542.  
11087403 T.Ozawa, M.Fukuda, M.Nara, A.Nakamura, Y.Komine, K.Kohama, and Y.Umezawa (2000).
How can Ca2+ selectively activate recoverin in the presence of Mg2+? Surface plasmon resonance and FT-IR spectroscopic studies.
  Biochemistry, 39, 14495-14503.  
10196159 D.M.Krylov, G.A.Niemi, A.M.Dizhoor, and J.B.Hurley (1999).
Mapping sites in guanylyl cyclase activating protein-1 required for regulation of photoreceptor membrane guanylyl cyclases.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 10833-10839.  
10464292 E.V.Olshevskaya, A.N.Ermilov, and A.M.Dizhoor (1999).
Dimerization of guanylyl cyclase-activating protein and a mechanism of photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase activation.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 25583-25587.  
  10631973 H.Aitio, A.Annila, S.Heikkinen, E.Thulin, T.Drakenberg, and I.Kilpeläinen (1999).
NMR assignments, secondary structure, and global fold of calerythrin, an EF-hand calcium-binding protein from Saccharopolyspora erythraea.
  Protein Sci, 8, 2580-2588.  
10371466 H.LeVine (1999).
Structural features of heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled receptors and their modulatory proteins.
  Mol Neurobiol, 19, 111-149.  
10391927 I.Sokal, A.E.Otto-Bruc, I.Surgucheva, C.L.Verlinde, C.K.Wang, W.Baehr, and K.Palczewski (1999).
Conformational changes in guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP1) and its tryptophan mutants as a function of calcium concentration.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 19829-19837.  
10383444 J.B.Ames, A.M.Dizhoor, M.Ikura, K.Palczewski, and L.Stryer (1999).
Three-dimensional structure of guanylyl cyclase activating protein-2, a calcium-sensitive modulator of photoreceptor guanylyl cyclases.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 19329-19337.
PDB code: 1jba
10396602 J.C.DeMar, D.R.Rundle, T.G.Wensel, and R.E.Anderson (1999).
Heterogeneous N-terminal acylation of retinal proteins.
  Prog Lipid Res, 38, 49-90.  
9890887 K.Nakashima, H.Ishida, S.Y.Ohki, K.Hikichi, and M.Yazawa (1999).
Calcium binding induces interaction between the N- and C-terminal domains of yeast calmodulin and modulates its overall conformation.
  Biochemistry, 38, 98.  
9930992 S.Matsuda, O.Hisatomi, and F.Tokunaga (1999).
Role of carboxyl-terminal charges on S-modulin membrane affinity and inhibition of rhodopsin phosphorylation.
  Biochemistry, 38, 1310-1315.  
9860856 A.N.Baldwin, and J.B.Ames (1998).
Core mutations that promote the calcium-induced allosteric transition of bovine recoverin.
  Biochemistry, 37, 17408-17419.  
9562557 D.E.Brodersen, M.Etzerodt, P.Madsen, J.E.Celis, H.C.Thøgersen, J.Nyborg, and M.Kjeldgaard (1998).
EF-hands at atomic resolution: the structure of human psoriasin (S100A7) solved by MAD phasing.
  Structure, 6, 477-489.
PDB code: 1psr
9609687 F.Hayashi, R.Ishima, D.Liu, K.I.Tong, S.Kim, D.Reinberg, S.Bagby, and M.Ikura (1998).
Human general transcription factor TFIIB: conformational variability and interaction with VP16 activation domain.
  Biochemistry, 37, 7941-7951.
PDB code: 1tfb
  9865963 R.E.Hughes, P.S.Brzovic, A.M.Dizhoor, R.E.Klevit, and J.B.Hurley (1998).
Ca2+-dependent conformational changes in bovine GCAP-2.
  Protein Sci, 7, 2675-2680.  
9685370 S.Matsuda, O.Hisatomi, T.Ishino, Y.Kobayashi, and F.Tokunaga (1998).
The role of calcium-binding sites in S-modulin function.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 20223-20227.  
9519411 S.P.Smith, and G.S.Shaw (1998).
A novel calcium-sensitive switch revealed by the structure of human S100B in the calcium-bound form.
  Structure, 6, 211-222.
PDB code: 1uwo
9122189 J.Zhou, R.Olcese, N.Qin, F.Noceti, L.Birnbaumer, and E.Stefani (1997).
Feedback inhibition of Ca2+ channels by Ca2+ depends on a short sequence of the C terminus that does not include the Ca2+ -binding function of a motif with similarity to Ca2+ -binding domains.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 2301-2305.  
  9041633 P.Groves, S.Linse, E.Thulin, and S.Forsén (1997).
A calbindin D9k mutant containing a novel structural extension: 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies.
  Protein Sci, 6, 323-330.  
  9385641 S.Linse, E.Thulin, L.K.Gifford, D.Radzewsky, J.Hagan, R.R.Wilk, and K.S.Akerfeldt (1997).
Domain organization of calbindin D28k as determined from the association of six synthetic EF-hand fragments.
  Protein Sci, 6, 2385-2396.  
  9098894 T.A.Neubert, K.A.Walsh, J.B.Hurley, and R.S.Johnson (1997).
Monitoring calcium-induced conformational changes in recoverin by electrospray mass spectrometry.
  Protein Sci, 6, 843-850.  
9053397 W.D.Kohn, C.T.Mant, and R.S.Hodges (1997).
Alpha-helical protein assembly motifs.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 2583-2586.  
8961484 A.Polans, W.Baehr, and K.Palczewski (1996).
Turned on by Ca2+! The physiology and pathology of Ca(2+)-binding proteins in the retina.
  Trends Neurosci, 19, 547-554.  
8626592 E.Faurobert, C.K.Chen, J.B.Hurley, and D.H.Teng (1996).
Drosophila neurocalcin, a fatty acylated, Ca2+-binding protein that associates with membranes and inhibits in vitro phosphorylation of bovine rhodopsin.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 10256-10262.  
8548457 E.Hohenester, P.Maurer, C.Hohenadl, R.Timpl, J.N.Jansonius, and J.Engel (1996).
Structure of a novel extracellular Ca(2+)-binding module in BM-40.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 67-73.
PDB code: 1sra
8652520 G.S.Shaw, and B.D.Sykes (1996).
NMR solution structure of a synthetic troponin C heterodimeric domain.
  Biochemistry, 35, 7429-7438.
PDB code: 1pon
8702537 J.T.Seykora, M.M.Myat, L.A.Allen, J.V.Ravetch, and A.Aderem (1996).
Molecular determinants of the myristoyl-electrostatic switch of MARCKS.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 18797-18802.  
8619985 K.S.Akerfeldt, A.N.Coyne, R.R.Wilk, E.Thulin, and S.Linse (1996).
Ca2+-binding stoichiometry of calbindin D28k as assessed by spectroscopic analyses of synthetic peptide fragments.
  Biochemistry, 35, 3662-3669.  
8848832 M.Ikura (1996).
Calcium binding and conformational response in EF-hand proteins.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 21, 14-17.  
8702916 S.Kawamura, O.Kuwata, M.Yamada, S.Matsuda, O.Hisatomi, and F.Tokunaga (1996).
Photoreceptor protein s26, a cone homologue of S-modulin in frog retina.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 21359-21364.  
8820871 Y.Koutalos, and K.W.Yau (1996).
Regulation of sensitivity in vertebrate rod photoreceptors by calcium.
  Trends Neurosci, 19, 73-81.  
7568096 A.S.Polans, D.Witkowska, T.L.Haley, D.Amundson, L.Baizer, and G.Adamus (1995).
Recoverin, a photoreceptor-specific calcium-binding protein, is expressed by the tumor of a patient with cancer-associated retinopathy.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 9176-9180.  
  7852401 D.Ladant (1995).
Calcium and membrane binding properties of bovine neurocalcin delta expressed in Escherichia coli.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 3179-3185.  
7851407 G.Travé, A.Pastore, M.Hyvönen, and M.Saraste (1995).
The C-terminal domain of alpha-spectrin is structurally related to calmodulin.
  Eur J Biochem, 227, 35-42.  
7876221 J.B.Ames, T.Porumb, T.Tanaka, M.Ikura, and L.Stryer (1995).
Amino-terminal myristoylation induces cooperative calcium binding to recoverin.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 4526-4533.  
  7591845 S.De Raad, M.Comte, P.Nef, S.E.Lenz, E.D.Gundelfinger, and J.A.Cox (1995).
Distribution pattern of three neural calcium-binding proteins (NCS-1, VILIP and recoverin) in chicken, bovine and rat retina.
  Histochem J, 27, 524-535.  
7667880 S.McLaughlin, and A.Aderem (1995).
The myristoyl-electrostatic switch: a modulator of reversible protein-membrane interactions.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 20, 272-276.  
7608179 V.A.Klenchin, P.D.Calvert, and M.D.Bownds (1995).
Inhibition of rhodopsin kinase by recoverin. Further evidence for a negative feedback system in phototransduction.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 16147-16152.  
7552734 W.J.Chazin (1995).
Releasing the calcium trigger.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 707-710.  
7812135 J.B.Hurley (1994).
Termination of photoreceptor responses.
  Curr Opin Neurobiol, 4, 481-487.  
7922316 J.F.Head (1994).
Phototransduction. Shedding light on recoverin.
  Curr Biol, 4, 64-66.  
7812136 J.L.Miller, A.Picones, and J.I.Korenbrot (1994).
Differences in transduction between rod and cone photoreceptors: an exploration of the role of calcium homeostasis.
  Curr Opin Neurobiol, 4, 488-495.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.