PDBsum entry 1qgs

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Transferase PDB id
Protein chain
238 a.a. *
_MG ×2
Waters ×191
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Transferase
Title: Udp-magnesium complex of spsa from bacillus subtilis
Structure: Protein (spore coat polysaccharide biosynthesis p spsa). Chain: a. Fragment: whole molecule. Engineered: yes. Other_details: glycerol magnesium udp
Source: Bacillus subtilis. Organism_taxid: 1423. Gene: spsa. Expressed in: escherichia coli bl21. Expression_system_taxid: 511693.
2.00Å     R-factor:   0.190     R-free:   0.240
Authors: S.J.Charnock
Key ref:
S.J.Charnock and G.J.Davies (1999). Structure of the nucleotide-diphospho-sugar transferase, SpsA from Bacillus subtilis, in native and nucleotide-complexed forms. Biochemistry, 38, 6380-6385. PubMed id: 10350455 DOI: 10.1021/bi990270y
04-May-99     Release date:   04-May-00    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P39621  (SPSA_BACSU) -  Spore coat polysaccharide biosynthesis protein SpsA
256 a.a.
238 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     metabolic process   1 term 
  Biochemical function     transferase activity     2 terms  


DOI no: 10.1021/bi990270y Biochemistry 38:6380-6385 (1999)
PubMed id: 10350455  
Structure of the nucleotide-diphospho-sugar transferase, SpsA from Bacillus subtilis, in native and nucleotide-complexed forms.
S.J.Charnock, G.J.Davies.
The enzymatic formation of glycosidic bonds may be catalyzed by the transfer of the glycosyl moiety from an activated nucleotide-diphospho-sugar donor to a specific acceptor. SpsA is a glycosyltransferase implicated in the synthesis of the spore coat of Bacillus subtilis, whose homologues include cellulose synthase and many lipopolysaccharide and bacterial O-antigen synthases. The three-dimensional crystal structure of SpsA has been determined by conventional MIR techniques at a resolution of 1.5 A. It is a two-domain protein with a nucleotide-binding domain together with an acceptor binding domain which features a disordered loop spanning the active site. The structures of SpsA in complex with both Mg-UDP and Mn-UDP have also been determined at 2.0 and 1.7 A, respectively. These complexes, together with the sequence conservation, begin to shed light on the mechanism of this ubiquitous family of inverting glycosyltransferases.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
23222542 J.L.Morgan, J.Strumillo, and J.Zimmer (2013).
Crystallographic snapshot of cellulose synthesis and membrane translocation.
  Nature, 493, 181-186.
PDB code: 4hg6
21677752 C.Lizak, S.Gerber, S.Numao, M.Aebi, and K.P.Locher (2011).
X-ray structure of a bacterial oligosaccharyltransferase.
  Nature, 474, 350-355.
PDB code: 3rce
20672277 G.K.Wagner, and T.Pesnot (2010).
Glycosyltransferases and their assays.
  Chembiochem, 11, 1939-1949.  
21070667 H.Magellan, T.Drujon, A.Thellend, A.Piffeteau, and H.F.Becker (2010).
Expression in E. coli and characterization of the catalytic domain of Botrytis cinerea chitin synthase.
  BMC Res Notes, 3, 299.  
  20585355 L.Kaminski, and J.Eichler (2010).
Identification of residues important for the activity of Haloferax volcanii AglD, a component of the archaeal N-glycosylation pathway.
  Archaea, 2010, 315108.  
20473714 M.Hrmova, B.A.Stone, and G.B.Fincher (2010).
High-yield production, refolding and a molecular modelling of the catalytic module of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan (curdlan) synthase from Agrobacterium sp.
  Glycoconj J, 27, 461-476.  
20030628 R.Hurtado-Guerrero, T.Zusman, S.Pathak, A.F.Ibrahim, S.Shepherd, A.Prescott, G.Segal, and D.M.van Aalten (2010).
Molecular mechanism of elongation factor 1A inhibition by a Legionella pneumophila glycosyltransferase.
  Biochem J, 426, 281-292.
PDB codes: 2wzf 2wzg
21170308 S.B.Guttenplan, K.M.Blair, and D.B.Kearns (2010).
The EpsE flagellar clutch is bifunctional and synergizes with EPS biosynthesis to promote Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation.
  PLoS Genet, 6, e1001243.  
20921370 S.Q.Hu, Y.G.Gao, K.Tajima, N.Sunagawa, Y.Zhou, S.Kawano, T.Fujiwara, T.Yoda, D.Shimura, Y.Satoh, M.Munekata, I.Tanaka, and M.Yao (2010).
Structure of bacterial cellulose synthase subunit D octamer with four inner passageways.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 17957-17961.
PDB codes: 3a8e 3aj1 3aj2
19820709 F.V.Rao, J.R.Rich, B.Rakić, S.Buddai, M.F.Schwartz, K.Johnson, C.Bowe, W.W.Wakarchuk, S.Defrees, S.G.Withers, and N.C.Strynadka (2009).
Structural insight into mammalian sialyltransferases.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 16, 1186-1188.
PDB codes: 2wml 2wnb 2wnf
19520856 M.E.Guerin, F.Schaeffer, A.Chaffotte, P.Gest, D.Giganti, J.Korduláková, M.van der Woerd, M.Jackson, and P.M.Alzari (2009).
Substrate-induced Conformational Changes in the Essential Peripheral Membrane-associated Mannosyltransferase PimA from Mycobacteria: IMPLICATIONS FOR CATALYSIS.
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18822375 B.Henrissat, G.Sulzenbacher, and Y.Bourne (2008).
Glycosyltransferases, glycoside hydrolases: surprise, surprise!
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  18678952 B.Sá-Moura, L.Albuquerque, N.Empadinhas, M.S.da Costa, P.J.Pereira, and S.Macedo-Ribeiro (2008).
Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase from Rubrobacter xylanophilus.
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  19058170 C.J.Thibodeaux, C.E.Melançon, and H.W.Liu (2008).
Natural-product sugar biosynthesis and enzymatic glycodiversification.
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18627619 C.J.Zea, G.Camci-Unal, and N.L.Pohl (2008).
Thermodynamics of binding of divalent magnesium and manganese to uridine phosphates: implications for diabetes-related hypomagnesaemia and carbohydrate biocatalysis.
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18487334 I.Brockhausen, B.Hu, B.Liu, K.Lau, W.A.Szarek, L.Wang, and L.Feng (2008).
Characterization of two beta-1,3-glucosyltransferases from Escherichia coli serotypes O56 and O152.
  J Bacteriol, 190, 4922-4932.  
18536883 I.Brockhausen, J.G.Riley, M.Joynt, X.Yang, and W.A.Szarek (2008).
Acceptor substrate specificity of UDP-Gal: GlcNAc-R beta1,3-galactosyltransferase (WbbD) from Escherichia coli O7:K1.
  Glycoconj J, 25, 663-673.  
18192272 J.A.Alfaro, R.B.Zheng, M.Persson, J.A.Letts, R.Polakowski, Y.Bai, S.N.Borisova, N.O.Seto, T.L.Lowary, M.M.Palcic, and S.V.Evans (2008).
ABO(H) blood group A and B glycosyltransferases recognize substrate via specific conformational changes.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 10097-10108.
PDB codes: 2rit 2rix 2riy 2riz 2rj0 2rj1 2rj4 2rj5 2rj6 2rj7 2rj8 2rj9
18515358 K.Steiner, R.Novotny, D.B.Werz, K.Zarschler, P.H.Seeberger, A.Hofinger, P.Kosma, C.Schäffer, and P.Messner (2008).
Molecular basis of S-layer glycoprotein glycan biosynthesis in Geobacillus stearothermophilus.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 21120-21133.  
18518825 L.L.Lairson, B.Henrissat, G.J.Davies, and S.G.Withers (2008).
Glycosyltransferases: structures, functions, and mechanisms.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 77, 521-555.  
  19052364 P.Gest, D.Kaur, H.T.Pham, M.van der Woerd, E.Hansen, P.J.Brennan, M.Jackson, and M.E.Guerin (2008).
Preliminary crystallographic analysis of GpgS, a key glucosyltransferase involved in methylglucose lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 64, 1121-1124.  
19015727 P.J.Pereira, N.Empadinhas, L.Albuquerque, B.Sá-Moura, M.S.da Costa, and S.Macedo-Ribeiro (2008).
Mycobacterium tuberculosis glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase: structure of a key enzyme in methylglucose lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis.
  PLoS ONE, 3, e3748.
PDB codes: 3e25 3e26
18394902 T.Jank, and K.Aktories (2008).
Structure and mode of action of clostridial glucosylating toxins: the ABCD model.
  Trends Microbiol, 16, 222-229.  
18667419 Z.Fulton, A.McAlister, M.C.Wilce, R.Brammananth, L.Zaker-Tabrizi, M.A.Perugini, S.P.Bottomley, R.L.Coppel, P.K.Crellin, J.Rossjohn, and T.Beddoe (2008).
Crystal Structure of a UDP-glucose-specific Glycosyltransferase from a Mycobacterium Species.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 27881-27890.
PDB codes: 3ckj 3ckn 3cko 3ckq 3ckv
  18453718 Z.Fulton, P.K.Crellin, R.Brammananth, L.Zaker-Tabrizi, R.L.Coppel, J.Rossjohn, and T.Beddoe (2008).
Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a putative glycosyltransferase of the GT-A fold found in mycobacteria.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 64, 428-431.  
17460661 C.J.Thibodeaux, C.E.Melançon, and H.W.Liu (2007).
Unusual sugar biosynthesis and natural product glycodiversification.
  Nature, 446, 1008-1016.  
17392279 D.Maruyama, Y.Nishitani, T.Nonaka, A.Kita, T.A.Fukami, T.Mio, H.Yamada-Okabe, T.Yamada-Okabe, and K.Miki (2007).
Crystal structure of uridine-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase from Candida albicans and catalytic reaction mechanism.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 17221-17230.
PDB codes: 2yqc 2yqh 2yqj 2yqs
16385447 D.B.Sparrow, G.Chapman, M.A.Wouters, N.V.Whittock, S.Ellard, D.Fatkin, P.D.Turnpenny, K.Kusumi, D.Sillence, and S.L.Dunwoodie (2006).
Mutation of the LUNATIC FRINGE gene in humans causes spondylocostal dysostosis with a severe vertebral phenotype.
  Am J Hum Genet, 78, 28-37.  
16840342 E.T.Larson, D.Reiter, M.Young, and C.M.Lawrence (2006).
Structure of A197 from Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus: a crenarchaeal viral glycosyltransferase exhibiting the GT-A fold.
  J Virol, 80, 7636-7644.
PDB code: 2c0n
16075270 H.Merzendorfer (2006).
Insect chitin synthases: a review.
  J Comp Physiol [B], 176, 1.  
16964258 M.Jinek, Y.W.Chen, H.Clausen, S.M.Cohen, and E.Conti (2006).
Structural insights into the Notch-modifying glycosyltransferase Fringe.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 13, 945-946.
PDB codes: 2j0a 2j0b
16959770 T.A.Kane, C.L.White, and P.L.DeAngelis (2006).
Functional characterization of PmHS1, a Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 33192-33197.  
16391057 U.Remminghorst, and B.H.Rehm (2006).
In vitro alginate polymerization and the functional role of Alg8 in alginate production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  Appl Environ Microbiol, 72, 298-305.  
16410247 W.T.Forsee, R.T.Cartee, and J.Yother (2006).
Role of the carbohydrate binding site of the Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide type 3 synthase in the transition from oligosaccharide to polysaccharide synthesis.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 6283-6289.  
16880973 A.Luzhetskyy, A.Vente, and A.Bechthold (2005).
Glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of biologically active natural products that contain oligosaccharides.
  Mol Biosyst, 1, 117-126.  
16007668 C.J.Zea, and N.L.Pohl (2005).
Unusual sugar nucleotide recognition elements of mesophilic vs. thermophilic glycogen synthases.
  Biopolymers, 79, 106-113.  
15951819 J.Flint, E.Taylor, M.Yang, D.N.Bolam, L.E.Tailford, C.Martinez-Fleites, E.J.Dodson, B.G.Davis, H.J.Gilbert, and G.J.Davies (2005).
Structural dissection and high-throughput screening of mannosylglycerate synthase.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 12, 608-614.
PDB codes: 2bo4 2bo6 2bo7 2bo8
15987364 M.H.Yazer, G.A.Denomme, N.L.Rose, and M.M.Palcic (2005).
Amino-acid substitution in the disordered loop of blood group B-glycosyltransferase enzyme causes weak B phenotype.
  Transfusion, 45, 1178-1182.  
15653326 P.K.Qasba, B.Ramakrishnan, and E.Boeggeman (2005).
Substrate-induced conformational changes in glycosyltransferases.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 30, 53-62.  
15849187 T.D.Hurley, S.Stout, E.Miner, J.Zhou, and P.J.Roach (2005).
Requirements for catalysis in mammalian glycogenin.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 23892-23899.
PDB codes: 1zct 1zcu 1zcv 1zcy 1zdf 1zdg
15272305 A.Buschiazzo, J.E.Ugalde, M.E.Guerin, W.Shepard, R.A.Ugalde, and P.M.Alzari (2004).
Crystal structure of glycogen synthase: homologous enzymes catalyze glycogen synthesis and degradation.
  EMBO J, 23, 3196-3205.
PDB codes: 1rzu 1rzv
15294915 C.Götting, S.Müller, M.Schöttler, S.Schön, C.Prante, T.Brinkmann, J.Kuhn, and K.Kleesiek (2004).
Analysis of the DXD motifs in human xylosyltransferase I required for enzyme activity.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 42566-42573.  
14730352 C.P.Chiu, A.G.Watts, L.L.Lairson, M.Gilbert, D.Lim, W.W.Wakarchuk, S.G.Withers, and N.C.Strynadka (2004).
Structural analysis of the sialyltransferase CstII from Campylobacter jejuni in complex with a substrate analog.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 11, 163-170.
PDB codes: 1ro7 1ro8
14695508 J.S.Thorson, W.A.Barton, D.Hoffmeister, C.Albermann, and D.B.Nikolov (2004).
Structure-based enzyme engineering and its impact on in vitro glycorandomization.
  Chembiochem, 5, 16-25.  
15803415 M.Geisler, M.Wilczynska, S.Karpinski, and L.A.Kleczkowski (2004).
Toward a blueprint for UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase structure/function properties: homology-modeling analyses.
  Plant Mol Biol, 56, 783-794.  
15458406 O.Kirillina, J.D.Fetherston, A.G.Bobrov, J.Abney, and R.D.Perry (2004).
HmsP, a putative phosphodiesterase, and HmsT, a putative diguanylate cyclase, control Hms-dependent biofilm formation in Yersinia pestis.
  Mol Microbiol, 54, 75-88.  
14570926 R.P.Gibson, C.A.Tarling, S.Roberts, S.G.Withers, and G.J.Davies (2004).
The donor subsite of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase: binary complexes with UDP-glucose and UDP-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-glucose at 2 A resolution.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 1950-1955.
PDB codes: 1uqt 1uqu
15209092 W.W.Young (2004).
Organization of Golgi glycosyltransferases in membranes: complexity via complexes.
  J Membr Biol, 198, 1.  
15094797 Y.Zheng, R.J.Roberts, and S.Kasif (2004).
Segmentally variable genes: a new perspective on adaptation.
  PLoS Biol, 2, E81.  
14646108 C.Horcajada, E.Cid, J.J.Guinovart, N.Verdaguer, and J.C.Ferrer (2003).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the glycogen synthase from Pyrococcus abyssi.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 59, 2322-2324.  
14602648 J.Knurr, O.Benedek, J.Heslop, R.B.Vinson, J.A.Boydston, J.McAndrew, J.F.Kearney, and C.L.Turnbough (2003).
Peptide ligands that bind selectively to spores of Bacillus subtilis and closely related species.
  Appl Environ Microbiol, 69, 6841-6847.  
12803927 T.D.Butters, H.R.Mellor, K.Narita, R.A.Dwek, and F.M.Platt (2003).
Small-molecule therapeutics for the treatment of glycolipid lysosomal storage disorders.
  Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 358, 927-945.  
12538870 Y.Hu, L.Chen, S.Ha, B.Gross, B.Falcone, D.Walker, M.Mokhtarzadeh, and S.Walker (2003).
Crystal structure of the MurG:UDP-GlcNAc complex reveals common structural principles of a superfamily of glycosyltransferases.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 845-849.
PDB code: 1nlm
14500887 Z.Zhang, S.Kochhar, and M.Grigorov (2003).
Exploring the sequence-structure protein landscape in the glycosyltransferase family.
  Protein Sci, 12, 2291-2302.  
11784313 H.Ihara, Y.Ikeda, S.Koyota, T.Endo, K.Honke, and N.Taniguchi (2002).
A catalytically inactive beta 1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III) behaves as a dominant negative GnT-III inhibitor.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 193-201.  
12702327 J.Ruiz-Herrera, J.M.González-Prieto, and R.Ruiz-Medrano (2002).
Evolution and phylogenetic relationships of chitin synthases from yeasts and fungi.
  FEMS Yeast Res, 1, 247-256.  
11950836 L.C.Pedersen, T.A.Darden, and M.Negishi (2002).
Crystal structure of beta 1,3-glucuronyltransferase I in complex with active donor substrate UDP-GlcUA.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 21869-21873.
PDB code: 1kws
11784317 M.Malissard, A.Dinter, E.G.Berger, and T.Hennet (2002).
Functional assignment of motifs conserved in beta 1,3-glycosyltransferases.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 233-239.  
12199709 M.Tenno, S.Toba, F.J.Kézdy, A.P.Elhammer, and A.Kurosaka (2002).
Identification of two cysteine residues involved in the binding of UDP-GalNAc to UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (GalNAc-T1).
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 4308-4316.  
11943783 P.E.Pummill, and P.L.DeAngelis (2002).
Evaluation of critical structural elements of UDP-sugar substrates and certain cysteine residues of a vertebrate hyaluronan synthase.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 21610-21616.  
11807274 R.P.Gibson, R.M.Lloyd, S.J.Charnock, and G.J.Davies (2002).
Characterization of Escherichia coli OtsA, a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase from glycosyltransferase family 20.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 58, 349-351.  
12135481 S.Bhattacharyya, A.Kerzmann, and A.L.Feig (2002).
Fluorescent analogs of UDP-glucose and their use in characterizing substrate binding by toxin A from Clostridium difficile.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 3425-3432.  
12198488 S.I.Patenaude, N.O.Seto, S.N.Borisova, A.Szpacenko, S.L.Marcus, M.M.Palcic, and S.V.Evans (2002).
The structural basis for specificity in human ABO(H) blood group biosynthesis.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 685-690.
PDB codes: 1lz0 1lz7 1lzi 1lzj
  11800269 C.M.Douglas (2001).
Fungal beta(1,3)-D-glucan synthesis.
  Med Mycol, 39, 55-66.  
11707391 C.Peneff, P.Ferrari, V.Charrier, Y.Taburet, C.Monnier, V.Zamboni, J.Winter, M.Harnois, F.Fassy, and Y.Bourne (2001).
Crystal structures of two human pyrophosphorylase isoforms in complexes with UDPGlc(Gal)NAc: role of the alternatively spliced insert in the enzyme oligomeric assembly and active site architecture.
  EMBO J, 20, 6191-6202.
PDB codes: 1jv1 1jv3 1jvd 1jvg
11573090 D.A.Sanders, A.G.Staines, S.A.McMahon, M.R.McNeil, C.Whitfield, and J.H.Naismith (2001).
UDP-galactopyranose mutase has a novel structure and mechanism.
  Nat Struct Biol, 8, 858-863.
PDB code: 1i8t
11410375 D.Hoffmeister, K.Ichinose, and A.Bechthold (2001).
Two sequence elements of glycosyltransferases involved in urdamycin biosynthesis are responsible for substrate specificity and enzymatic activity.
  Chem Biol, 8, 557-567.  
  11592969 E.Boix, G.J.Swaminathan, Y.Zhang, R.Natesh, K.Brew, and K.R.Acharya (2001).
Structure of UDP complex of UDP-galactose:beta-galactoside-alpha -1,3-galactosyltransferase at 1.53-A resolution reveals a conformational change in the catalytically important C terminus.
  J Biol Chem, 276, 48608-48614.
PDB code: 1k4v
11398978 E.J.Hehre (2001).
Glycosyl transfer: a history of the concept's development and view of its major contributions to biochemistry.
  Carbohydr Res, 331, 347-368.  
11738044 J.A.Prates, N.Tarbouriech, S.J.Charnock, C.M.Fontes, L.M.Ferreira, and G.J.Davies (2001).
The structure of the feruloyl esterase module of xylanase 10B from Clostridium thermocellum provides insights into substrate recognition.
  Structure, 9, 1183-1190.
PDB codes: 1gkk 1gkl
11641063 K.S.Dhugga (2001).
Building the wall: genes and enzyme complexes for polysaccharide synthases.
  Curr Opin Plant Biol, 4, 488-493.  
11179209 L.N.Gastinel, C.Bignon, A.K.Misra, O.Hindsgaul, J.H.Shaper, and D.H.Joziasse (2001).
Bovine alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase catalytic domain structure and its relationship with ABO histo-blood group and glycosphingolipid glycosyltransferases.
  EMBO J, 20, 638-649.
PDB codes: 1fg5 1g8o 1g93
11484220 M.Rao, and I.Tvaroska (2001).
Structure of bovine alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase and its complexes with UDP and DPGal inferred from molecular modeling.
  Proteins, 44, 428-434.  
11285558 P.Petrová, C.Monteiro, C.Hervé du Penhoat, J.Koca, and A.Imberty (2001).
Conformational behavior of nucleotide-sugar in solution: molecular dynamics and NMR study of solvated uridine diphosphate-glucose in the presence of monovalent cations.
  Biopolymers, 58, 617-635.  
11606199 P.Petrová, J.Koca, and A.Imberty (2001).
Molecular dynamics simulations of solvated UDP-glucose in interaction with Mg2+ cations.
  Eur J Biochem, 268, 5365-5374.  
11717264 V.Chazalet, K.Uehara, R.A.Geremia, and C.Breton (2001).
Identification of essential amino acids in the Azorhizobium caulinodans fucosyltransferase NodZ.
  J Bacteriol, 183, 7067-7075.  
11114903 W.J.Keenleyside, A.J.Clarke, and C.Whitfield (2001).
Identification of residues involved in catalytic activity of the inverting glycosyl transferase WbbE from Salmonella enterica serovar borreze.
  J Bacteriol, 183, 77-85.  
11785761 Y.Bourne, and B.Henrissat (2001).
Glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases: families and functional modules.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 11, 593-600.  
10788427 C.Busch, F.Hofmann, R.Gerhard, and K.Aktories (2000).
Involvement of a conserved tryptophan residue in the UDP-glucose binding of large clostridial cytotoxin glycosyltransferases.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 13228-13234.  
11042449 C.Busch, and K.Aktories (2000).
Microbial toxins and the glycosylation of rho family GTPases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 10, 528-535.  
11035748 C.Busch, K.Schömig, F.Hofmann, and K.Aktories (2000).
Characterization of the catalytic domain of Clostridium novyi alpha-toxin.
  Infect Immun, 68, 6378-6383.  
11080634 C.E.Stevenson, F.Sargent, G.Buchanan, T.Palmer, and D.M.Lawson (2000).
Crystal structure of the molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein MobA from Escherichia coli at near-atomic resolution.
  Structure, 8, 1115-1125.
PDB code: 1e5k
11074385 I.M.Saxena, and R.M.Brown (2000).
Cellulose synthases and related enzymes.
  Curr Opin Plant Biol, 3, 523-531.  
  10892798 S.Ha, D.Walker, Y.Shi, and S.Walker (2000).
The 1.9 A crystal structure of Escherichia coli MurG, a membrane-associated glycosyltransferase involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis.
  Protein Sci, 9, 1045-1052.
PDB code: 1f0k
11042447 U.M.Unligil, and J.M.Rini (2000).
Glycosyltransferase structure and mechanism.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 10, 510-517.  
11032794 U.M.Unligil, S.Zhou, S.Yuwaraj, M.Sarkar, H.Schachter, and J.M.Rini (2000).
X-ray crystal structure of rabbit N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I: catalytic mechanism and a new protein superfamily.
  EMBO J, 19, 5269-5280.
PDB codes: 1fo8 1fo9 1foa
11118200 W.Blankenfeldt, M.Asuncion, J.S.Lam, and J.H.Naismith (2000).
The structural basis of the catalytic mechanism and regulation of glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA).
  EMBO J, 19, 6652-6663.
PDB codes: 1fxo 1fzw 1g0r 1g1l 1g23 1g2v 1g3l
10608830 B.Lougheed, H.D.Ly, W.W.Wakarchuk, and S.G.Withers (1999).
Glycosyl fluorides can function as substrates for nucleotide phosphosugar-dependent glycosyltransferases.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 37717-37722.  
10508766 C.Breton, and A.Imberty (1999).
Structure/function studies of glycosyltransferases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 9, 563-571.  
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