PDBsum entry 1qcr

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protein ligands links
Oxidoreductase PDB id
Protein chains
446 a.a.* *
423 a.a.* *
378 a.a.* *
75 a.a.* *
196 a.a.* *
103 a.a.* *
70 a.a.* *
60 a.a.* *
28 a.a.* *
59 a.a.* *
45 a.a.* *
* Residue conservation analysis
* C-alpha coords only
PDB id:
Name: Oxidoreductase
Title: Crystal structure of bovine mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex, alpha carbon atoms only
Structure: Ubiquinol cytochromE C oxidoreductase. Chain: a. Synonym: cytochrome bc1, qcr. Ubiquinol cytochromE C oxidoreductase. Chain: b. Synonym: cytochrome bc1, qcr. Ubiquinol cytochromE C oxidoreductase. Chain: c. Synonym: cytochrome bc1, qcr.
Source: Bos taurus. Cattle. Organism_taxid: 9913. Organ: heart. Tissue: muscle. Organelle: mitochondrion. Cellular_location: mitochondrial inner membrane. Cellular_location: mitochondrial inner membrane
2.70Å     R-factor:   0.300     R-free:   0.375
Authors: D.Xia,C.A.Yu,H.Kim,J.Z.Xia,A.Kachurin,L.Zhang,L.Yu, J.Deisenhofer
Key ref:
D.Xia et al. (1997). Crystal structure of the cytochrome bc1 complex from bovine heart mitochondria. Science, 277, 60-66. PubMed id: 9204897 DOI: 10.1126/science.277.5322.60
17-May-97     Release date:   14-Oct-98    

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P31800  (QCR1_BOVIN) -  Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 1, mitochondrial
480 a.a.
446 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P23004  (QCR2_BOVIN) -  Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 2, mitochondrial
453 a.a.
423 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P00157  (CYB_BOVIN) -  Cytochrome b
379 a.a.
378 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P00125  (CY1_BOVIN) -  Cytochrome c1, heme protein, mitochondrial
325 a.a.
75 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P13272  (UCRI_BOVIN) -  Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit Rieske, mitochondrial
274 a.a.
196 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P00129  (QCR7_BOVIN) -  Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 7
111 a.a.
103 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P13271  (QCR8_BOVIN) -  Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 8
82 a.a.
70 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P00126  (QCR6_BOVIN) -  Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 6, mitochondrial
91 a.a.
60 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P13272  (UCRI_BOVIN) -  Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit Rieske, mitochondrial
274 a.a.
28 a.a.
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P00130  (QCR9_BOVIN) -  Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 9
64 a.a.
59 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P07552  (QCR10_BOVIN) -  Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 10
56 a.a.
45 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 6 residue positions (black crosses)

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: Chains E, I: E.C.  - Quinol--cytochrome-c reductase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: Quinol + 2 ferricytochrome c = quinone + 2 ferrocytochrome c + 2 H+
2 × ferricytochrome c
Bound ligand (Het Group name = HEM)
matches with 63.00% similarity
= quinone
+ 2 × ferrocytochrome c
+ 2 × H(+)
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     membrane   8 terms 
  Biological process     oxidation-reduction process   4 terms 
  Biochemical function     catalytic activity     10 terms  


    Added reference    
DOI no: 10.1126/science.277.5322.60 Science 277:60-66 (1997)
PubMed id: 9204897  
Crystal structure of the cytochrome bc1 complex from bovine heart mitochondria.
D.Xia, C.A.Yu, H.Kim, J.Z.Xia, A.M.Kachurin, L.Zhang, L.Yu, J.Deisenhofer.
On the basis of x-ray diffraction data to a resolution of 2.9 angstroms, atomic models of most protein components of the bovine cytochrome bc1 complex were built, including core 1, core 2, cytochrome b, subunit 6, subunit 7, a carboxyl-terminal fragment of cytochrome c1, and an amino-terminal fragment of the iron-sulfur protein. The positions of the four iron centers within the bc1 complex and the binding sites of the two specific respiratory inhibitors antimycin A and myxothiazol were identified. The membrane-spanning region of each bc1 complex monomer consists of 13 transmembrane helices, eight of which belong to cytochrome b. Closely interacting monomers are arranged as symmetric dimers and form cavities through which the inhibitor binding pockets can be accessed. The proteins core 1 and core 2 are structurally similar to each other and consist of two domains of roughly equal size and identical folding topology.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 2.
Fig. 2. Anomalous scattering difference-Fourier map contoured at 5.1 (red) and difference densities between inhibitor-bound and^ native crystals contoured at 4.5 (antimycin A) and 4.0 (myxothiazol). (A) View parallel to the membrane plane, with the intermembrane^ space at the top and the matrix space at the bottom. Peaks were^ assigned to hemes b[H], b[L], and c[1] and to the Rieske iron-sulfur cluster, respectively, as shown. Distances between some iron pairs are indicated (see Table 2). The twofold symmetry axis of the^ bc[1] dimer (purple line) runs in the plane of the diagram. (B) View perpendicular to the membrane plane.
Figure 3.
Fig. 3. Inhibitor binding sites in the cytochrome bc[1] complex. (A) Stereo diagram of the antimycin A binding pocket. The helices a, A, D, and E of cytochrome b form the pocket as shown. The DE^ loop is the bottom, and the b[H] heme (yellow ball-and-stick model) is the back wall of the pocket. The difference density between inhibitor-bound and native crystals is contoured at 4.5 (blue) and at -4.5 (brown). An antimycin molecule is fitted to the positive^ density. (B) Stereo diagram of the myxothiazol binding pocket, formed by helices C, F, cd1, and ef of cytochrome b, as indicated. The b[L] heme (yellow ball-and-stick model) and the Rieske^ iron-sulfur center (green and yellow dots) are about equally distant from the pocket. The difference density is contoured at 4.0 (blue).
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from the AAAs: Science (1997, 277, 60-66) copyright 1997.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21168530 L.Mathieu, S.Marsy, Y.Saint-Georges, C.Jacq, and G.Dujardin (2011).
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20034997 K.Hikosaka, Y.Watanabe, N.Tsuji, K.Kita, H.Kishine, N.Arisue, N.M.Palacpac, S.Kawazu, H.Sawai, T.Horii, I.Igarashi, and K.Tanabe (2010).
Divergence of the mitochondrial genome structure in the apicomplexan parasites, Babesia and Theileria.
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19826804 K.McLuskey, A.W.Roszak, Y.Zhu, and N.W.Isaacs (2010).
Crystal structures of all-alpha type membrane proteins.
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20955558 L.Zhang, W.P.Lam, L.Lü, C.Wang, Y.W.Wong, L.H.Lam, H.C.Tang, M.S.Wai, M.Wang, W.H.Kwong, S.M.Ngai, Y.T.Mak, and D.T.Yew (2010).
Protective effects and potential mechanisms of Pien Tze Huang on cerebral chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke.
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Impact of the mitochondrial genetic background in complex III deficiency.
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19892700 M.Castellani, R.Covian, T.Kleinschroth, O.Anderka, B.Ludwig, and B.L.Trumpower (2010).
Direct demonstration of half-of-the-sites reactivity in the dimeric cytochrome bc1 complex: enzyme with one inactive monomer is fully active but unable to activate the second ubiquinol oxidation site in response to ligand binding at the ubiquinone reduction site.
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20518024 M.Morán, L.Marín-Buera, M.C.Gil-Borlado, H.Rivera, A.Blázquez, S.Seneca, M.Vázquez-López, J.Arenas, M.A.Martín, and C.Ugalde (2010).
Cellular pathophysiological consequences of BCS1L mutations in mitochondrial complex III enzyme deficiency.
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19913481 A.E.Aleshin, S.Gramatikova, G.L.Hura, A.Bobkov, A.Y.Strongin, B.Stec, J.A.Tainer, R.C.Liddington, and J.W.Smith (2009).
Crystal and solution structures of a prokaryotic M16B peptidase: an open and shut case.
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PDB code: 3hdi
19348884 F.Millett, and B.Durham (2009).
Chapter 5 Use of ruthenium photooxidation techniques to study electron transfer in the cytochrome bc1 complex.
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20161522 H.B.Gray, and J.R.Winkler (2009).
Electron Flow through Proteins.
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19254042 J.W.Cooley, D.W.Lee, and F.Daldal (2009).
Across membrane communication between the Q(o) and Q(i) active sites of cytochrome bc(1).
  Biochemistry, 48, 1888-1899.  
20040113 M.Freigassner, H.Pichler, and A.Glieder (2009).
wTuning microbial hosts for membrane protein production.
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19415898 M.Sarewicz, M.Dutka, W.Froncisz, and A.Osyczka (2009).
Magnetic interactions sense changes in distance between heme b(L) and the iron-sulfur cluster in cytochrome bc(1).
  Biochemistry, 48, 5708-5720.  
  20161332 M.Sener, J.Hsin, L.G.Trabuco, E.Villa, P.Qian, C.N.Hunter, and K.Schulten (2009).
Structural model and excitonic properties of the dimeric RC-LH1-PufX complex from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
  Chem Phys, 357, 188-197.  
19165831 P.Van Nieuwenhuyse, T.Van Leeuwen, J.Khajehali, B.Vanholme, and L.Tirry (2009).
Mutations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) confer cross-resistance between bifenazate and acequinocyl.
  Pest Manag Sci, 65, 404-412.  
19176478 R.Covian, and B.L.Trumpower (2009).
Ilicicolin Inhibition and Binding at Center N of the Dimeric Cytochrome bc1 Complex Reveal Electron Transfer and Regulatory Interactions between Monomers.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 8614-8620.  
19236481 V.Zara, L.Conte, and B.L.Trumpower (2009).
Evidence that the assembly of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex involves the formation of a large core structure in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
  FEBS J, 276, 1900-1914.  
19422831 Y.Shibata, J.F.White, M.J.Serrano-Vega, F.Magnani, A.L.Aloia, R.Grisshammer, and C.G.Tate (2009).
Thermostabilization of the neurotensin receptor NTS1.
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18281288 A.M.Gusdon, T.V.Votyakova, and C.E.Mathews (2008).
mt-Nd2a suppresses reactive oxygen species production by mitochondrial complexes I and III.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 10690-10697.  
18796602 A.P.Komarov, O.W.Rokhlin, C.A.Yu, and A.V.Gudkov (2008).
Functional genetic screening reveals the role of mitochondrial cytochrome b as a mediator of FAS-induced apoptosis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 14453-14458.  
18501698 A.R.Crofts, J.T.Holland, D.Victoria, D.R.Kolling, S.A.Dikanov, R.Gilbreth, S.Lhee, R.Kuras, and M.G.Kuras (2008).
The Q-cycle reviewed: How well does a monomeric mechanism of the bc(1) complex account for the function of a dimeric complex?
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1777, 1001-1019.  
18701458 B.Gurung, L.Yu, and C.A.Yu (2008).
Stigmatellin induces reduction of iron-sulfur protein in the oxidized cytochrome bc1 complex.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 28087-28094.  
18953640 D.Xia, L.Esser, M.Elberry, F.Zhou, L.Yu, and C.A.Yu (2008).
The road to the crystal structure of the cytochrome bc (1) complex from the anoxigenic, photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
  J Bioenerg Biomembr, 40, 485-492.  
18418633 E.A.Berry, and F.A.Walker (2008).
Bis-histidine-coordinated hemes in four-helix bundles: how the geometry of the bundle controls the axial imidazole plane orientations in transmembrane cytochromes of mitochondrial complexes II and III and related proteins.
  J Biol Inorg Chem, 13, 481-498.  
18719951 E.N.Brown, R.Friemann, A.Karlsson, J.V.Parales, M.M.Couture, L.D.Eltis, and S.Ramaswamy (2008).
Determining Rieske cluster reduction potentials.
  J Biol Inorg Chem, 13, 1301-1313.
PDB code: 2qpz
18513324 H.Sumimoto (2008).
Structure, regulation and evolution of Nox-family NADPH oxidases that produce reactive oxygen species.
  FEBS J, 275, 3249-3277.  
18258178 H.W.Ma, S.Yang, L.Yu, and C.A.Yu (2008).
Formation of engineered intersubunit disulfide bond in cytochrome bc1 complex disrupts electron transfer activity in the complex.
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18723509 J.D.Olsen, J.D.Tucker, J.A.Timney, P.Qian, C.Vassilev, and C.N.Hunter (2008).
The organization of LH2 complexes in membranes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
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18793186 N.Rabbani, and P.J.Thornalley (2008).
Dicarbonyls linked to damage in the powerhouse: glycation of mitochondrial proteins and oxidative stress.
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18516048 O.A.Ulanovskaya, J.Janjic, M.Suzuki, S.S.Sabharwal, P.T.Schumacker, S.J.Kron, and S.A.Kozmin (2008).
Synthesis enables identification of the cellular target of leucascandrolide A and neopeltolide.
  Nat Chem Biol, 4, 418-424.  
18996700 P.J.Crowley, E.A.Berry, T.Cromartie, F.Daldal, C.R.Godfrey, D.W.Lee, J.E.Phillips, A.Taylor, and R.Viner (2008).
The role of molecular modeling in the design of analogues of the fungicidal natural products crocacins A and D.
  Bioorg Med Chem, 16, 10345-10355.
PDB code: 3cwb
18471987 R.Covian, and B.L.Trumpower (2008).
Regulatory interactions in the dimeric cytochrome bc(1) complex: the advantages of being a twin.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1777, 1079-1091.  
18713733 S.Yang, H.W.Ma, L.Yu, and C.A.Yu (2008).
On the mechanism of quinol oxidation at the QP site in the cytochrome bc1 complex: studied using mutants lacking cytochrome bL or bH.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 28767-28776.  
18721136 T.Kleinschroth, O.Anderka, M.Ritter, A.Stocker, T.A.Link, B.Ludwig, and P.Hellwig (2008).
Characterization of mutations in crucial residues around the Q(o) binding site of the cytochrome bc complex from Paracoccus denitrificans.
  FEBS J, 275, 4773-4785.  
18836526 Y.Kitazoe, H.Kishino, M.Hasegawa, N.Nakajima, J.L.Thorne, and M.Tanaka (2008).
Adaptive threonine increase in transmembrane regions of mitochondrial proteins in higher primates.
  PLoS ONE, 3, e3343.  
17200733 A.Y.Mulkidjanian (2007).
Proton translocation by the cytochrome bc1 complexes of phototrophic bacteria: introducing the activated Q-cycle.
  Photochem Photobiol Sci, 6, 19-34.  
17223530 D.J.Kolling, J.S.Brunzelle, S.Lhee, A.R.Crofts, and S.K.Nair (2007).
Atomic resolution structures of rieske iron-sulfur protein: role of hydrogen bonds in tuning the redox potential of iron-sulfur clusters.
  Structure, 15, 29-38.
PDB codes: 2nuk 2num 2nve 2nvf 2nvg 2nwf
17457691 D.Xia, L.Esser, L.Yu, and C.A.Yu (2007).
Structural basis for the mechanism of electron bifurcation at the quinol oxidation site of the cytochrome bc1 complex.
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17498743 E.Yamashita, H.Zhang, and W.A.Cramer (2007).
Structure of the cytochrome b6f complex: quinone analogue inhibitors as ligands of heme cn.
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PDB codes: 2e74 2e75 2e76
17288564 H.Yamada, E.Takashima, and K.Konishi (2007).
Molecular characterization of the membrane-bound quinol peroxidase functionally connected to the respiratory chain.
  FEBS J, 274, 853-866.  
17360398 J.Zhu, T.Egawa, S.R.Yeh, L.Yu, and C.A.Yu (2007).
Simultaneous reduction of iron-sulfur protein and cytochrome b(L) during ubiquinol oxidation in cytochrome bc(1) complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 4864-4869.  
17573435 L.Giachini, F.Francia, G.Veronesi, D.W.Lee, F.Daldal, L.S.Huang, E.A.Berry, T.Cocco, S.Papa, F.Boscherini, and G.Venturoli (2007).
X-Ray absorption studies of Zn2+ binding sites in bacterial, avian, and bovine cytochrome bc1 complexes.
  Biophys J, 93, 2934-2951.  
16963124 M.R.Jones (2007).
Lipids in photosynthetic reaction centres: structural roles and functional holes.
  Prog Lipid Res, 46, 56-87.  
17557793 N.Buzhynskyy, P.Sens, V.Prima, J.N.Sturgis, and S.Scheuring (2007).
Rows of ATP synthase dimers in native mitochondrial inner membranes.
  Biophys J, 93, 2870-2876.  
17562131 P.Kakkar, and B.K.Singh (2007).
Mitochondria: a hub of redox activities and cellular distress control.
  Mol Cell Biochem, 305, 235-253.  
17535914 R.Kuras, D.Saint-Marcoux, F.A.Wollman, and Vitry (2007).
A specific c-type cytochrome maturation system is required for oxygenic photosynthesis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 9906-9910.  
17616531 S.A.Dikanov, J.T.Holland, B.Endeward, D.R.Kolling, R.I.Samoilova, T.F.Prisner, and A.R.Crofts (2007).
Hydrogen bonds between nitrogen donors and the semiquinone in the Qi-site of the bc1 complex.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 25831-25841.  
17516628 S.Devanathan, Z.Salamon, G.Tollin, J.C.Fitch, T.E.Meyer, E.A.Berry, and M.A.Cusanovich (2007).
Plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopic evidence for differential binding of oxidized and reduced Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome c2 to the cytochrome bc1 complex mediated by the conformation of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein.
  Biochemistry, 46, 7138-7145.  
17253777 S.Rajagukguk, S.Yang, C.A.Yu, L.Yu, B.Durham, and F.Millett (2007).
Effect of mutations in the cytochrome b ef loop on the electron-transfer reactions of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein in the cytochrome bc1 complex.
  Biochemistry, 46, 1791-1798.  
17399709 V.P.Shinkarev, and C.A.Wraight (2007).
Intermonomer electron transfer in the bc1 complex dimer is controlled by the energized state and by impaired electron transfer between low and high potential hemes.
  FEBS Lett, 581, 1535-1541.  
17680808 V.Zara, L.Conte, and B.L.Trumpower (2007).
Identification and characterization of cytochrome bc(1) subcomplexes in mitochondria from yeast with single and double deletions of genes encoding cytochrome bc(1) subunits.
  FEBS J, 274, 4526-4539.  
17960747 W.Gu, and V.Helms (2007).
Different protonation equilibria of 4-methylimidazole and acetic acid.
  Chemphyschem, 8, 2445-2451.  
17480203 X.Huo, D.Su, A.Wang, Y.Zhai, J.Xu, X.Li, M.Bartlam, F.Sun, and Z.Rao (2007).
Preliminary molecular characterization and crystallization of mitochondrial respiratory complex II from porcine heart.
  FEBS J, 274, 1524-1529.  
17534481 X.Liang, D.J.Campopiano, and P.J.Sadler (2007).
Metals in membranes.
  Chem Soc Rev, 36, 968-992.  
16987314 J.Bachmann, B.Bauer, K.Zwicker, B.Ludwig, and O.Anderka (2006).
The Rieske protein from Paracoccus denitrificans is inserted into the cytoplasmic membrane by the twin-arginine translocase.
  FEBS J, 273, 4817-4830.  
16756489 J.P.Hosler, S.Ferguson-Miller, and D.A.Mills (2006).
Energy transduction: proton transfer through the respiratory complexes.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 75, 165-187.  
16371475 J.Yan, G.Kurisu, and W.A.Cramer (2006).
Intraprotein transfer of the quinone analogue inhibitor 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone in the cytochrome b6f complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 69-74.
PDB code: 2d2c
17050691 J.Zhang, F.E.Frerman, and J.J.Kim (2006).
Structure of electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase and electron transfer to the mitochondrial ubiquinone pool.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 16212-16217.
PDB codes: 2gmh 2gmj
16924113 L.Esser, X.Gong, S.Yang, L.Yu, C.A.Yu, and D.Xia (2006).
Surface-modulated motion switch: capture and release of iron-sulfur protein in the cytochrome bc1 complex.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 13045-13050.
PDB codes: 2fyn 2fyu
16504567 T.M.Iverson (2006).
Evolution and unique bioenergetic mechanisms in oxygenic photosynthesis.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 10, 91.  
16433558 T.Teschner, L.Yatsunyk, V.Schünemann, H.Paulsen, H.Winkler, C.Hu, W.R.Scheidt, F.A.Walker, and A.X.Trautwein (2006).
Models of the membrane-bound cytochromes: mössbauer spectra of crystalline low-spin ferriheme complexes having axial ligand plane dihedral angles ranging from 0 degree to 90 degrees.
  J Am Chem Soc, 128, 1379-1389.  
16756511 W.A.Cramer, H.Zhang, J.Yan, G.Kurisu, and J.L.Smith (2006).
Transmembrane traffic in the cytochrome b6f complex.
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15817393 A.Osyczka, C.C.Moser, and P.L.Dutton (2005).
Fixing the Q cycle.
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16319876 D.M.Engelman (2005).
Membranes are more mosaic than fluid.
  Nature, 438, 578-580.  
15989954 F.Sun, X.Huo, Y.Zhai, A.Wang, J.Xu, D.Su, M.Bartlam, and Z.Rao (2005).
Crystal structure of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complex II.
  Cell, 121, 1043-1057.
PDB codes: 1zoy 1zp0
15968116 K.Djinović Carugo, J.R.Helliwell, H.Stuhrmann, and M.S.Weiss (2005).
Softer and soft X-rays in macromolecular crystallography.
  J Synchrotron Radiat, 12, 410-419.  
16024040 L.S.Huang, D.Cobessi, E.Y.Tung, and E.A.Berry (2005).
Binding of the respiratory chain inhibitor antimycin to the mitochondrial bc1 complex: a new crystal structure reveals an altered intramolecular hydrogen-bonding pattern.
  J Mol Biol, 351, 573-597.
PDB codes: 1pp9 1ppj 2a06
15778449 N.Dashdorj, H.Zhang, H.Kim, J.Yan, W.A.Cramer, and S.Savikhin (2005).
The single chlorophyll a molecule in the cytochrome b6f complex: unusual optical properties protect the complex against singlet oxygen.
  Biophys J, 88, 4178-4187.  
15706597 O.Fedrigo, D.C.Adams, and G.J.Naylor (2005).
DRUIDS--detection of regions with unexpected internal deviation from stationarity.
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14961113 A.Osyczka, C.C.Moser, F.Daldal, and P.L.Dutton (2004).
Reversible redox energy coupling in electron transfer chains.
  Nature, 427, 607-612.  
14977419 A.R.Crofts (2004).
The cytochrome bc1 complex: function in the context of structure.
  Annu Rev Physiol, 66, 689-733.  
  15238208 A.R.Cross, and A.W.Segal (2004).
The NADPH oxidase of professional phagocytes--prototype of the NOX electron transport chain systems.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1657, 1.  
15341729 C.Brockmann, A.Diehl, K.Rehbein, H.Strauss, P.Schmieder, B.Korn, R.Kühne, and H.Oschkinat (2004).
The oxidized subunit B8 from human complex I adopts a thioredoxin fold.
  Structure, 12, 1645-1654.
PDB code: 1s3a
15110392 I.Nalvarte, A.E.Damdimopoulos, and G.Spyrou (2004).
Human mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase reduces cytochrome c and confers resistance to complex III inhibition.
  Free Radic Biol Med, 36, 1270-1278.  
15003236 J.F.Allen (2004).
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14647374 D.Stroebel, Y.Choquet, J.L.Popot, and D.Picot (2003).
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12829500 M.T.Facciotti, V.S.Cheung, D.Nguyen, S.Rouhani, and R.M.Glaeser (2003).
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11916874 S.Georgakopoulou, R.N.Frese, E.Johnson, C.Koolhaas, R.J.Cogdell, R.van Grondelle, and G.van der Zwan (2002).
Absorption and CD spectroscopy and modeling of various LH2 complexes from purple bacteria.
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11870776 W.Werhahn, and H.P.Braun (2002).
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Structures and proton-pumping strategies of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes.
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11695186 F.Schuler, and J.E.Casida (2001).
The insecticide target in the PSST subunit of complex I.
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11435171 J.F.Allen, and J.Forsberg (2001).
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11245788 T.Lee, S.U.Metzger, Y.S.Cho, J.Whitmarsh, and T.Kallas (2001).
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Q-band ENDOR (electron nuclear double resonance) of the high-affinity ubisemiquinone center in cytochrome bo3 from Escherichia coli.
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10975456 A.W.Munro, P.Taylor, and M.D.Walkinshaw (2000).
Structures of redox enzymes.
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10727220 B.K.Rao, A.M.Tyryshkin, A.G.Roberts, M.K.Bowman, and D.M.Kramer (2000).
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10873857 C.Hunte, J.Koepke, C.Lange, T.Rossmanith, and H.Michel (2000).
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PDB code: 1ezv
11004459 C.R.Lancaster, and A.Kröger (2000).
Succinate: quinone oxidoreductases: new insights from X-ray crystal structures.
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PDB code: 3h1k
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Uncovering the [2Fe2S] domain movement in cytochrome bc1 and its implications for energy conversion.
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Determination of the binding sites of the proton transfer inhibitors Cd2+ and Zn2+ in bacterial reaction centers.
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PDB codes: 1ds8 1dv3 1dv6
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Helical membrane protein folding, stability, and evolution.
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An out-of-frame cytochrome b gene deletion from a patient with parkinsonism is associated with impaired complex III assembly and an increase in free radical production.
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The changing face of mitochondrial research.
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Use of a photoactivated ruthenium dimer complex to measure electron transfer between the Rieske iron-sulfur protein and cytochrome c(1) in the cytochrome bc(1) complex.
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Analyzing your complexes: structure of the quinol-fumarate reductase respiratory complex.
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DCCD inhibits the reactions of the iron-sulfur protein in Rhodobacter sphaeroides chromatophores.
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10869174 Y.I.Chi, L.S.Huang, Z.Zhang, J.G.Fernández-Velasco, and E.A.Berry (2000).
X-ray structure of a truncated form of cytochrome f from chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
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PDB code: 1cfm
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Mechanism of ubiquinol oxidation by the bc(1) complex: different domains of the quinol binding pocket and their role in the mechanism and binding of inhibitors.
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Mechanism of ubiquinol oxidation by the bc(1) complex: role of the iron sulfur protein and its mobility.
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Pathways for proton release during ubihydroquinone oxidation by the bc(1) complex.
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Physicochemical aspects of the movement of the rieske iron sulfur protein during quinol oxidation by the bc(1) complex from mitochondria and photosynthetic bacteria.
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An engineered cytochrome b6c1 complex with a split cytochrome b is able to support photosynthetic growth of Rhodobacter capsulatus.
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The photosynthetic apparatus of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
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Phospholipase digestion of bound cardiolipin reversibly inactivates bovine cytochrome bc1.
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Histidine placement in de novo-designed heme proteins.
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Structure and reaction mechanisms of multifunctional mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex.
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Supramolecular organization of the photosynthetic apparatus of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
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Distinct structures and environments for the three hemes of the cytochrome bc1 complex from Rhodospirillum rubrum. A resonance Raman study using B-band excitations.
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Bcs1p, an AAA-family member, is a chaperone for the assembly of the cytochrome bc(1) complex.
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Characterization and submitochondrial localization of the alpha subunit of the mitochondrial processing peptidase from the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii.
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GAT1 (GABA:Na+:Cl-) cotransport function. Database reconstruction with an alternating access model.
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Substitution of the sixth axial ligand of Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome c1 heme yields novel cytochrome c1 variants with unusual properties.
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Q-Band resonance Raman investigation of turnip cytochrome f and Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome c1.
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The Qo site of cytochrome b6f complexes controls the activation of the LHCII kinase.
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The cytochrome bc1 complex from Rhodovulum sulfidophilum is a dimer with six quinones per monomer and an additional 6-kDa component.
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Bioenergetics of the Archaea.
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A mechanism for the synergistic antimalarial action of atovaquone and proguanil.
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Resistance mutations reveal the atovaquone-binding domain of cytochrome b in malaria parasites.
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Structural details of an interaction between cardiolipin and an integral membrane protein.
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PDB code: 1qov
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Thermolysin and mitochondrial processing peptidase: how far structure-functional convergence goes.
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Membrane-bound electron transfer chain of the thermohalophilic bacterium Rhodothermus marinus: characterization of the iron-sulfur centers from the dehydrogenases and investigation of the high-potential iron-sulfur protein function by in vitro reconstitution of the respiratory chain.
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Ubiquinone binding capacity of the Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome bc1 complex: effect of diphenylamine, a weak binding QO site inhibitor.
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10555979 R.E.Sharp, B.R.Gibney, A.Palmitessa, J.L.White, J.A.Dixon, C.C.Moser, F.Daldal, and P.L.Dutton (1999).
Effect of inhibitors on the ubiquinone binding capacity of the primary energy conversion site in the Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome bc(1) complex.
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10410805 S.H.White, and W.C.Wimley (1999).
Membrane protein folding and stability: physical principles.
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Steered molecular dynamics simulation of the Rieske subunit motion in the cytochrome bc(1) complex.
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Functional complementation analysis of yeast bc1 mutants. A study of the mitochondrial import of heterologous and hybrid proteins.
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Structure analysis of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase at 2.8 A resolution.
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Proton translocation in the respiratory chain involving ubiquinone--a hypothetical semiquinone switch mechanism for complex I.
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Energy transduction function of the quinone reactions in cytochrome bc complexes.
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9729743 A.R.Crofts, and E.A.Berry (1998).
Structure and function of the cytochrome bc1 complex of mitochondria and photosynthetic bacteria.
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9609705 A.S.Saribaş, M.Valkova-Valchanova, M.K.Tokito, Z.Zhang, E.A.Berry, and F.Daldal (1998).
Interactions between the cytochrome b, cytochrome c1, and Fe-S protein subunits at the ubihydroquinone oxidation site of the bc1 complex of Rhodobacter capsulatus.
  Biochemistry, 37, 8105-8114.  
10066592 A.V.Vener, I.Ohad, and B.Andersson (1998).
Protein phosphorylation and redox sensing in chloroplast thylakoids.
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9521784 B.R.Gibney, F.Rabanal, K.S.Reddy, and P.L.Dutton (1998).
Effect of four helix bundle topology on heme binding and redox properties.
  Biochemistry, 37, 4635-4643.  
9560218 B.S.Goldman, D.L.Beck, E.M.Monika, and R.G.Kranz (1998).
Transmembrane heme delivery systems.
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9693733 C.A.Yu, D.Xia, H.Kim, J.Deisenhofer, L.Zhang, A.M.Kachurin, and L.Yu (1998).
Structural basis of functions of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1365, 151-158.  
9667934 D.Beratan, and S.Skourtis (1998).
Electron transfer mechanisms.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 2, 235-243.  
9649396 E.J.Peterman, S.O.Wenk, T.Pullerits, L.O.Pâlsson, R.van Grondelle, J.P.Dekker, M.Rögner, and H.van Amerongen (1998).
Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy of the weakly fluorescent chlorophyll a in cytochrome b6f of Synechocystis PCC6803.
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9657688 F.Gao, H.Qin, D.B.Knaff, L.Zhang, L.Yu, C.A.Yu, and M.R.Ondrias (1998).
Q-band resonance Raman spectra of oxidized and reduced mitochondrial bc1 complexes.
  Biochemistry, 37, 9751-9758.  
9671508 F.Zito, G.Finazzi, P.Joliot, and F.A.Wollman (1998).
Glu78, from the conserved PEWY sequence of subunit IV, has a key function in cytochrome b6f turnover.
  Biochemistry, 37, 10395-10403.  
9653134 H.Kim, D.Xia, C.A.Yu, J.Z.Xia, A.M.Kachurin, L.Zhang, L.Yu, and J.Deisenhofer (1998).
Inhibitor binding changes domain mobility in the iron-sulfur protein of the mitochondrial bc1 complex from bovine heart.
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9724544 H.Oh-oka, M.Iwaki, and S.Itoh (1998).
Membrane-bound cytochrome cz couples quinol oxidoreductase to the P840 reaction center complex in isolated membranes of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum.
  Biochemistry, 37, 12293-12300.  
9699610 J.M.Grimes, and D.I.Stuart (1998).
Large unit cells and cellular mechanics.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 630-634.  
9819216 M.B.Valkova-Valchanova, A.S.Saribas, B.R.Gibney, P.L.Dutton, and F.Daldal (1998).
Isolation and characterization of a two-subunit cytochrome b-c1 subcomplex from Rhodobacter capsulatus and reconstitution of its ubihydroquinone oxidation (Qo) site with purified Fe-S protein subunit.
  Biochemistry, 37, 16242-16251.  
9784589 M.Hippler, K.Redding, and J.D.Rochaix (1998).
Chlamydomonas genetics, a tool for the study of bioenergetic pathways.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1367, 1.  
9751725 M.S.Graige, G.Feher, and M.Y.Okamura (1998).
Conformational gating of the electron transfer reaction QA-.QB --> QAQB-. in bacterial reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides determined by a driving force assay.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 11679-11684.  
9665708 M.Simianu, E.Murakami, J.M.Brewer, and S.W.Ragsdale (1998).
Purification and properties of the heme- and iron-sulfur-containing heterodisulfide reductase from Methanosarcina thermophila.
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9437421 P.C.Preusch, J.C.Norvell, J.C.Cassatt, and M.Cassman (1998).
Progress away from 'no crystals, no grant'.
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  9755193 P.Hamel, C.Lemaire, N.Bonnefoy, P.Brivet-Chevillotte, and G.Dujardin (1998).
Mutations in the membrane anchor of yeast cytochrome c1 compensate for the absence of Oxa1p and generate carbonate-extractable forms of cytochrome c1.
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9671509 P.Joliot, and A.Joliot (1998).
In vivo analysis of the effect of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide on electron and proton transfers in cytochrome bf complex of Chlorella sorokiniana.
  Biochemistry, 37, 10404-10410.  
9788983 R.B.Gennis (1998).
How does cytochrome oxidase pump protons?
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9720859 R.Kranz, R.Lill, B.Goldman, G.Bonnard, and S.Merchant (1998).
Molecular mechanisms of cytochrome c biogenesis: three distinct systems.
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9819220 R.Kuras, M.Guergova-Kuras, and A.R.Crofts (1998).
Steps toward constructing a cytochrome b6 f complex in the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides: an example of the structural plasticity of a membrane cytochrome.
  Biochemistry, 37, 16280-16288.  
9751640 R.M.Garavito (1998).
Membrane protein structures: the known world expands.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 9, 344-349.  
9893941 S.Papa, N.Capitanio, G.Villani, G.Capitanio, A.Bizzoca, L.L.Palese, V.Carlino, and E.De Nitto (1998).
Cooperative coupling and role of heme a in the proton pump of heme-copper oxidases.
  Biochimie, 80, 821-836.  
9485330 T.Cocco, M.Di Paola, S.Papa, and M.Lorusso (1998).
Chemical modification of the bovine mitochondrial bc1 complex reveals critical acidic residues involved in the proton pumping activity.
  Biochemistry, 37, 2037-2043.  
9693740 U.Brandt (1998).
The chemistry and mechanics of ubihydroquinone oxidation at center P (Qo) of the cytochrome bc1 complex.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1365, 261-268.  
9914255 U.Ermler, W.Grabarse, S.Shima, M.Goubeaud, and R.K.Thauer (1998).
Active sites of transition-metal enzymes with a focus on nickel.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 8, 749-758.  
  9914816 U.Schulte, A.Abelmann, N.Amling, B.Brors, T.Friedrich, L.Kintscher, T.Rasmussen, and H.Weiss (1998).
Search for novel redox groups in mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) by diode array UV/VIS spectroscopy.
  Biofactors, 8, 177-186.  
9746528 Z.Salamon, D.Huang, W.A.Cramer, and G.Tollin (1998).
Coupled plasmon-waveguide resonance spectroscopy studies of the cytochrome b6f/plastocyanin system in supported lipid bilayer membranes.
  Biophys J, 75, 1874-1885.  
9345629 C.Ostermeier, and H.Michel (1997).
Crystallization of membrane proteins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 697-701.  
9395324 H.Boumans, J.A.Berden, and L.A.Grivell (1997).
The role of subunit VIII in the structural stability of the bc1 complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae studied using hybrid complexes.
  Eur J Biochem, 249, 762-769.  
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