PDBsum entry 1qba

Go to PDB code: 
protein ligands links
Glycosyl hydrolase PDB id
Protein chain
858 a.a. *
SO4 ×4
Waters ×771
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Glycosyl hydrolase
Title: Bacterial chitobiase, glycosyl hydrolase family 20
Structure: Chitobiase. Chain: a. Synonym: beta-n-acetylhexosaminidase, n-acetyl-beta-d- glucosaminidase. Engineered: yes
Source: Serratia marcescens. Organism_taxid: 615. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562. Other_details: periplasmatic targeting sequence residues 1- 27 cleaved off during maturation
1.85Å     R-factor:   0.146     R-free:   0.196
Authors: I.Tews,A.Perrakis,A.Oppenheim,Z.Dauter,K.S.Wilson, C.E.Vorgias
Key ref: I.Tews et al. (1996). Bacterial chitobiase structure provides insight into catalytic mechanism and the basis of Tay-Sachs disease. Nat Struct Biol, 3, 638-648. PubMed id: 8673609
06-Jun-96     Release date:   11-Jan-97    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q54468  (CHB_SERMA) -  Chitobiase
885 a.a.
858 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 2 residue positions (black crosses)

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides.
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     periplasmic space   1 term 
  Biological process     metabolic process   4 terms 
  Biochemical function     hydrolase activity     6 terms  


Nat Struct Biol 3:638-648 (1996)
PubMed id: 8673609  
Bacterial chitobiase structure provides insight into catalytic mechanism and the basis of Tay-Sachs disease.
I.Tews, A.Perrakis, A.Oppenheim, Z.Dauter, K.S.Wilson, C.E.Vorgias.
Chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharide on earth, is degraded by chitinases and chitobiases. The structure of Serratia marcescens chitobiase has been refined at 1.9 A resolution. The mature protein is folded into four domains and its active site is situated at the C-terminal end of the central (beta alpha)8-barrel. Based on the structure of the complex with the substrate disaccharide chitobiose, we propose an acid-base reaction mechanism, in which only one protein carboxylate acts as catalytic acid, while the nucleophile is the polar acetamido group of the sugar in a substrate-assisted reaction. The structural data lead to the hypothesis that the reaction proceeds with retention of anomeric configuration. The structure allows us to model the catalytic domain of the homologous hexosaminidases to give a structural rationale to pathogenic mutations that underlie Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21373681 H.Usuki, Y.Yamamoto, Y.Kumagai, T.Nitoda, H.Kanzaki, and T.Hatanaka (2011).
MS/MS fragmentation-guided search of TMG-chitooligomycins and their structure-activity relationship in specific β-N-acetylglucosaminidase inhibition.
  Org Biomol Chem, 9, 2943-2951.  
21030387 S.Ghosh, V.S.Meli, A.Kumar, A.Thakur, N.Chakraborty, S.Chakraborty, and A.Datta (2011).
The N-glycan processing enzymes {alpha}-mannosidase and {beta}-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase are involved in ripening-associated softening in the non-climacteric fruits of capsicum.
  J Exp Bot, 62, 571-582.  
21290547 Y.Yang, T.Liu, Y.Yang, Q.Wu, Q.Yang, and B.Yu (2011).
Synthesis, Evaluation, and Mechanism of N,N,N-Trimethyl-D-glucosamine-(1→4)-chitooligosaccharides as Selective Inhibitors of Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 20 β-N-Acetyl-D-hexosaminidases.
  Chembiochem, 12, 457-467.  
20127424 D.B.Jordan, and J.D.Braker (2010).
beta-D-Xylosidase from Selenomonas ruminantium: role of glutamate 186 in catalysis revealed by site-directed mutagenesis, alternate substrates, and active-site inhibitor.
  Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 161, 395-410.  
20939100 S.Kalkhof, S.Haehn, M.Paulsson, N.Smyth, J.Meiler, and A.Sinz (2010).
Computational modeling of laminin N-terminal domains using sparse distance constraints from disulfide bonds and chemical cross-linking.
  Proteins, 78, 3409-3427.  
20396401 T.M.Gloster, and D.J.Vocadlo (2010).
Mechanism, Structure, and Inhibition of O-GlcNAc Processing Enzymes.
  Curr Signal Transduct Ther, 5, 74-91.  
20066263 T.M.Gloster, and G.J.Davies (2010).
Glycosidase inhibition: assessing mimicry of the transition state.
  Org Biomol Chem, 8, 305-320.  
20920218 W.Suginta, D.Chuenark, M.Mizuhara, and T.Fukamizo (2010).
Novel β-N-acetylglucosaminidases from Vibrio harveyi 650: cloning, expression, enzymatic properties, and subsite identification.
  BMC Biochem, 11, 40.  
  20431716 D.Dodd, and I.K.Cann (2009).
Enzymatic deconstruction of xylan for biofuel production.
  Glob Change Biol Bioenergy, 1, 2.  
19181667 D.W.Abbott, M.S.Macauley, D.J.Vocadlo, and A.B.Boraston (2009).
Streptococcus pneumoniae Endohexosaminidase D, Structural and Mechanistic Insight into Substrate-assisted Catalysis in Family 85 Glycoside Hydrolases.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 11676-11689.
PDB codes: 2w91 2w92
19499593 M.D.Balcewich, K.A.Stubbs, Y.He, T.W.James, G.J.Davies, D.J.Vocadlo, and B.L.Mark (2009).
Insight into a strategy for attenuating AmpC-mediated beta-lactam resistance: structural basis for selective inhibition of the glycoside hydrolase NagZ.
  Protein Sci, 18, 1541-1551.
PDB codes: 2wca 3gs6 3gsm
18799462 A.Cartmell, E.Topakas, V.M.Ducros, M.D.Suits, G.J.Davies, and H.J.Gilbert (2008).
The Cellvibrio japonicus Mannanase CjMan26C Displays a Unique exo-Mode of Action That Is Conferred by Subtle Changes to the Distal Region of the Active Site.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 34403-34413.
PDB codes: 2vx4 2vx5 2vx6 2vx7
18558099 D.J.Vocadlo, and G.J.Davies (2008).
Mechanistic insights into glycosidase chemistry.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 12, 539-555.  
18499583 T.Parkkinen, A.Koivula, J.Vehmaanperä, and J.Rouvinen (2008).
Crystal structures of Melanocarpus albomyces cellobiohydrolase Cel7B in complex with cello-oligomers show high flexibility in the substrate binding.
  Protein Sci, 17, 1383-1394.
PDB codes: 2rfw 2rfy 2rfz 2rg0
18256480 X.Lan, X.Zhang, R.Kodaira, Z.Zhou, and M.Shimosaka (2008).
Gene cloning, expression, and characterization of a second beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase from the chitinolytic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila strain SUWA-9.
  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 72, 492-498.  
17728868 A.Scaffidi, K.A.Stubbs, R.J.Dennis, E.J.Taylor, G.J.Davies, D.J.Vocadlo, and R.V.Stick (2007).
A 1-acetamido derivative of 6-epi-valienamine: an inhibitor of a diverse group of beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases.
  Org Biomol Chem, 5, 3013-3019.
PDB code: 2jiw
17635864 K.L.Frank, and R.Patel (2007).
Poly-N-acetylglucosamine is not a major component of the extracellular matrix in biofilms formed by icaADBC-positive Staphylococcus lugdunensis isolates.
  Infect Immun, 75, 4728-4742.  
17317569 M.B.Tropak, J.E.Blanchard, S.G.Withers, E.D.Brown, and D.Mahuran (2007).
High-throughput screening for human lysosomal beta-N-Acetyl hexosaminidase inhibitors acting as pharmacological chaperones.
  Chem Biol, 14, 153-164.  
17509134 R.Ettrich, V.Kopecký, K.Hofbauerová, V.Baumruk, P.Novák, P.Pompach, P.Man, O.Plíhal, M.Kutý, N.Kulik, J.Sklenár, H.Ryslavá, V.Kren, and K.Bezouska (2007).
Structure of the dimeric N-glycosylated form of fungal beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase revealed by computer modeling, vibrational spectroscopy, and biochemical studies.
  BMC Struct Biol, 7, 32.  
17949435 S.G.Manuel, C.Ragunath, H.B.Sait, E.A.Izano, J.B.Kaplan, and N.Ramasubbu (2007).
Role of active-site residues of dispersin B, a biofilm-releasing beta-hexosaminidase from a periodontal pathogen, in substrate hydrolysis.
  FEBS J, 274, 5987-5999.  
17617724 T.Okada, S.Ishiyama, H.Sezutsu, A.Usami, T.Tamura, K.Mita, K.Fujiyama, and T.Seki (2007).
Molecular cloning and expression of two novel beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases from silkworm Bombyx mori.
  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 71, 1626-1635.  
16762038 C.Mayer, D.J.Vocadlo, M.Mah, K.Rupitz, D.Stoll, R.A.Warren, and S.G.Withers (2006).
Characterization of a beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase and a beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase/beta-glucosidase from Cellulomonas fimi.
  FEBS J, 273, 2929-2941.  
16545067 K.A.Miroshnikov, N.M.Faizullina, N.N.Sykilinda, and V.V.Mesyanzhinov (2006).
Properties of the endolytic transglycosylase encoded by gene 144 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage phiKZ.
  Biochemistry (Mosc), 71, 300-305.  
16493467 K.A.Stubbs, N.Zhang, and D.J.Vocadlo (2006).
A divergent synthesis of 2-acyl derivatives of PUGNAc yields selective inhibitors of O-GlcNAcase.
  Org Biomol Chem, 4, 839-845.  
16698036 M.J.Lemieux, B.L.Mark, M.M.Cherney, S.G.Withers, D.J.Mahuran, and M.N.James (2006).
Crystallographic structure of human beta-hexosaminidase A: interpretation of Tay-Sachs mutations and loss of GM2 ganglioside hydrolysis.
  J Mol Biol, 359, 913-929.
PDB codes: 2gjx 2gk1
16565725 R.J.Dennis, E.J.Taylor, M.S.Macauley, K.A.Stubbs, J.P.Turkenburg, S.J.Hart, G.N.Black, D.J.Vocadlo, and G.J.Davies (2006).
Structure and mechanism of a bacterial beta-glucosaminidase having O-GlcNAcase activity.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 13, 365-371.
PDB codes: 2chn 2cho
16522010 R.Stern, and M.J.Jedrzejas (2006).
Hyaluronidases: their genomics, structures, and mechanisms of action.
  Chem Rev, 106, 818-839.  
16685709 S.Pyrpassopoulos, M.Vlassi, A.Tsortos, Y.Papanikolau, K.Petratos, C.E.Vorgias, and G.Nounesis (2006).
Equilibrium heat-induced denaturation of chitinase 40 from Streptomyces thermoviolaceus.
  Proteins, 64, 513-523.  
16260784 X.Biarnés, J.Nieto, A.Planas, and C.Rovira (2006).
Substrate distortion in the Michaelis complex of Bacillus 1,3-1,4-beta-glucanase. Insight from first principles molecular dynamics simulations.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 1432-1441.  
15501829 A.L.Lovering, S.S.Lee, Y.W.Kim, S.G.Withers, and N.C.Strynadka (2005).
Mechanistic and structural analysis of a family 31 alpha-glycosidase and its glycosyl-enzyme intermediate.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 2105-2115.
PDB codes: 1xsi 1xsj 1xsk
15795231 M.S.Macauley, G.E.Whitworth, A.W.Debowski, D.Chin, and D.J.Vocadlo (2005).
O-GlcNAcase uses substrate-assisted catalysis: kinetic analysis and development of highly selective mechanism-inspired inhibitors.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 25313-25322.  
16193156 O.A.Andersen, M.J.Dixon, I.M.Eggleston, and D.M.van Aalten (2005).
Natural product family 18 chitinase inhibitors.
  Nat Prod Rep, 22, 563-579.  
15840830 R.Bourgault, A.J.Oakley, J.D.Bewley, and M.C.Wilce (2005).
Three-dimensional structure of (1,4)-beta-D-mannan mannanohydrolase from tomato fruit.
  Protein Sci, 14, 1233-1241.
PDB code: 1rh9
15846595 S.M.Hancock, K.Corbett, A.P.Fordham-Skelton, J.A.Gatehouse, and B.G.Davis (2005).
Developing promiscuous glycosidases for glycoside synthesis: residues W433 and E432 in Sulfolobus solfataricus beta-glycosidase are important glucoside- and galactoside-specificity determinants.
  Chembiochem, 6, 866-875.  
14717693 B.Synstad, S.Gåseidnes, D.M.Van Aalten, G.Vriend, J.E.Nielsen, and V.G.Eijsink (2004).
Mutational and computational analysis of the role of conserved residues in the active site of a family 18 chitinase.
  Eur J Biochem, 271, 253-262.  
14573597 G.Golan, D.Shallom, A.Teplitsky, G.Zaide, S.Shulami, T.Baasov, V.Stojanoff, A.Thompson, Y.Shoham, and G.Shoham (2004).
Crystal structures of Geobacillus stearothermophilus alpha-glucuronidase complexed with its substrate and products: mechanistic implications.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 3014-3024.
PDB codes: 1k9d 1k9e 1k9f 1l8n 1mqp 1mqq 1mqr
15148317 L.Verdoucq, J.Morinière, D.R.Bevan, A.Esen, A.Vasella, B.Henrissat, and M.Czjze (2004).
Structural determinants of substrate specificity in family 1 beta-glucosidases: novel insights from the crystal structure of sorghum dhurrinase-1, a plant beta-glucosidase with strict specificity, in complex with its natural substrate.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 31796-31803.
PDB codes: 1v02 1v03 1v08
14597633 M.Hrmova, R.De Gori, B.J.Smith, A.Vasella, J.N.Varghese, and G.B.Fincher (2004).
Three-dimensional structure of the barley beta-D-glucan glucohydrolase in complex with a transition state mimic.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 4970-4980.
PDB code: 1lq2
14570926 R.P.Gibson, C.A.Tarling, S.Roberts, S.G.Withers, and G.J.Davies (2004).
The donor subsite of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase: binary complexes with UDP-glucose and UDP-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-glucose at 2 A resolution.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 1950-1955.
PDB codes: 1uqt 1uqu
15170113 X.Lan, N.Ozawa, N.Nishiwaki, R.Kodaira, M.Okazaki, and M.Shimosaka (2004).
Purification, cloning, and sequence analysis of beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase from the chitinolytic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila strain SUWA-9.
  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 68, 1082-1090.  
14675549 A.Vrielink, and N.Sampson (2003).
Sub-Angstrom resolution enzyme X-ray structures: is seeing believing?
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 13, 709-715.  
12662933 B.L.Mark, D.J.Mahuran, M.M.Cherney, D.Zhao, S.Knapp, and M.N.James (2003).
Crystal structure of human beta-hexosaminidase B: understanding the molecular basis of Sandhoff and Tay-Sachs disease.
  J Mol Biol, 327, 1093-1109.
PDB codes: 1nou 1now 1np0
12654008 G.Hofhaus, J.E.Lee, I.Tews, B.Rosenberg, and T.Lisowsky (2003).
The N-terminal cysteine pair of yeast sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1p is essential for in vivo activity and interacts with the primary redox centre.
  Eur J Biochem, 270, 1528-1535.  
12896987 J.B.Kaplan, C.Ragunath, N.Ramasubbu, and D.H.Fine (2003).
Detachment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans biofilm cells by an endogenous beta-hexosaminidase activity.
  J Bacteriol, 185, 4693-4698.  
14517232 K.Hövel, D.Shallom, K.Niefind, V.Belakhov, G.Shoham, T.Baasov, Y.Shoham, and D.Schomburg (2003).
Crystal structure and snapshots along the reaction pathway of a family 51 alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase.
  EMBO J, 22, 4922-4932.
PDB codes: 1pz2 1pz3 1qw8 1qw9
12828682 R.Koyanagi, and T.G.Honegger (2003).
Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of an ascidian egg beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase with a potential role in fertilization.
  Dev Growth Differ, 45, 209-218.  
12527415 R.Sharma, S.Bukovac, J.Callahan, and D.Mahuran (2003).
A single site in human beta-hexosaminidase A binds both 6-sulfate-groups on hexosamines and the sialic acid moiety of GM2 ganglioside.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1637, 113-118.  
12413546 A.Vasella, G.J.Davies, and M.Böhm (2002).
Glycosidase mechanisms.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 6, 619-629.  
11999431 H.Tsujibo, K.Miyamoto, M.Yoshimura, M.Takata, J.Miyamoto, and Y.Inamori (2002).
Molecular cloning of the gene encoding a novel beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase from a marine bacterium, Alteromonas sp. strain O-7, and characterization of the cloned enzyme.
  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 66, 471-475.  
12180151 M.J.McGinniss, D.H.Brown, A.Fulwiler, M.Marten, J.S.Lim-Steele, and M.M.Kaback (2002).
Eight novel mutations in the HEXA gene.
  Genet Med, 4, 158-161.  
12171933 S.J.Williams, B.L.Mark, D.J.Vocadlo, M.N.James, and S.G.Withers (2002).
Aspartate 313 in the Streptomyces plicatus hexosaminidase plays a critical role in substrate-assisted catalysis by orienting the 2-acetamido group and stabilizing the transition state.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 40055-40065.
PDB codes: 1m01 1m03 1m04
12084718 V.B.Lokeshwar, G.L.Schroeder, R.I.Carey, M.S.Soloway, and N.Iida (2002).
Regulation of hyaluronidase activity by alternative mRNA splicing.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 33654-33663.  
11522797 B.L.Mark, D.J.Vocadlo, D.Zhao, S.Knapp, S.G.Withers, and M.N.James (2001).
Biochemical and structural assessment of the 1-N-azasugar GalNAc-isofagomine as a potent family 20 beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase inhibitor.
  J Biol Chem, 276, 42131-42137.
PDB code: 1jak
11481469 D.M.van Aalten, D.Komander, B.Synstad, S.Gåseidnes, M.G.Peter, and V.G.Eijsink (2001).
Structural insights into the catalytic mechanism of a family 18 exo-chitinase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 8979-8984.
PDB codes: 1e6n 1e6p 1e6r 1e6z
11331008 R.Sharma, H.Deng, A.Leung, and D.Mahuran (2001).
Identification of the 6-sulfate binding site unique to alpha-subunit-containing isozymes of human beta-hexosaminidase.
  Biochemistry, 40, 5440-5446.  
11828460 S.Fort, A.Varrot, M.Schülein, S.Cottaz, H.Driguez, and G.J.Davies (2001).
Mixed-linkage cellooligosaccharides: a new class of glycoside hydrolase inhibitors.
  Chembiochem, 2, 319-325.
PDB code: 1e5j
11160110 T.Lonhienne, K.Mavromatis, C.E.Vorgias, L.Buchon, C.Gerday, and V.Bouriotis (2001).
Cloning, sequences, and characterization of two chitinase genes from the Antarctic Arthrobacter sp. strain TAD20: isolation and partial characterization of the enzymes.
  J Bacteriol, 183, 1773-1779.  
11329289 Y.Hou, D.J.Vocadlo, A.Leung, S.G.Withers, and D.Mahuran (2001).
Characterization of the Glu and Asp residues in the active site of human beta-hexosaminidase B.
  Biochemistry, 40, 2201-2209.  
10966578 A.J.Harvey, M.Hrmova, R.De Gori, J.N.Varghese, and G.B.Fincher (2000).
Comparative modeling of the three-dimensional structures of family 3 glycoside hydrolases.
  Proteins, 41, 257-269.  
11006547 C.S.Rye, and S.G.Withers (2000).
Glycosidase mechanisms.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 4, 573-580.  
10823940 D.M.van Aalten, B.Synstad, M.B.Brurberg, E.Hough, B.W.Riise, V.G.Eijsink, and R.K.Wierenga (2000).
Structure of a two-domain chitotriosidase from Serratia marcescens at 1.9-A resolution.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 5842-5847.
PDB code: 1e15
11193430 H.Tsujibo, J.Miyamoto, N.Kondo, K.Miyamoto, N.Baba, and Y.Inamori (2000).
Molecular cloning of the gene encoding an outer-membrane-associated beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase involved in chitin degradation system of Alteromonas sp. strain O-7.
  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 64, 2512-2516.  
11106394 M.Czjzek, M.Cicek, V.Zamboni, D.R.Bevan, B.Henrissat, and A.Esen (2000).
The mechanism of substrate (aglycone) specificity in beta -glucosidases is revealed by crystal structures of mutant maize beta -glucosidase-DIMBOA, -DIMBOAGlc, and -dhurrin complexes.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 13555-13560.
PDB codes: 1e4l 1e4n 1e55 1e56
11339652 P.Cordeiro, P.Hechtman, and F.Kaplan (2000).
The GM2 gangliosidoses databases: allelic variation at the HEXA, HEXB, and GM2A gene loci.
  Genet Med, 2, 319-327.  
10951219 S.Cottaz, B.Brasme, and H.Driguez (2000).
A fluorescence-quenched chitopentaose for the study of endo-chitinases and chitobiosidases.
  Eur J Biochem, 267, 5593-5600.  
10821697 Y.Hou, D.Vocadlo, S.Withers, and D.Mahuran (2000).
Role of beta Arg211 in the active site of human beta-hexosaminidase B.
  Biochemistry, 39, 6219-6227.  
10413461 A.Varrot, M.Schülein, and G.J.Davies (1999).
Structural changes of the active site tunnel of Humicola insolens cellobiohydrolase, Cel6A, upon oligosaccharide binding.
  Biochemistry, 38, 8884-8891.
PDB code: 2bvw
10082993 B.Amutha, J.M.Khire, and M.I.Khan (1999).
Active site characterization of the exo-N-acetyl-beta-D- glucosaminidase from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120: involvement of tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate residues in catalytic activity.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1427, 121-132.  
  10210191 D.H.Juers, R.E.Huber, and B.W.Matthews (1999).
Structural comparisons of TIM barrel proteins suggest functional and evolutionary relationships between beta-galactosidase and other glycohydrolases.
  Protein Sci, 8, 122-136.  
10571007 D.J.Mahuran (1999).
Biochemical consequences of mutations causing the GM2 gangliosidoses.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1455, 105-138.  
10220321 G.Sidhu, S.G.Withers, N.T.Nguyen, L.P.McIntosh, L.Ziser, and G.D.Brayer (1999).
Sugar ring distortion in the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate of a family G/11 xylanase.
  Biochemistry, 38, 5346-5354.
PDB codes: 1bvv 2bvv
10872458 H.D.Ly, and S.G.Withers (1999).
Mutagenesis of glycosidases.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 68, 487-522.  
  10464221 H.Tsujibo, N.Kondo, K.Tanaka, K.Miyamoto, N.Baba, and Y.Inamori (1999).
Molecular analysis of the gene encoding a novel transglycosylative enzyme from Alteromonas sp. strain O-7 and its physiological role in the chitinolytic system.
  J Bacteriol, 181, 5461-5466.  
10469642 K.A.Watson, C.McCleverty, S.Geremia, S.Cottaz, H.Driguez, and L.N.Johnson (1999).
Phosphorylase recognition and phosphorolysis of its oligosaccharide substrate: answers to a long outstanding question.
  EMBO J, 18, 4619-4632.
PDB codes: 1e4o 1qm5
9677388 B.L.Mark, G.A.Wasney, T.J.Salo, A.R.Khan, Z.Cao, P.W.Robbins, M.N.James, and B.L.Triggs-Raine (1998).
Structural and functional characterization of Streptomyces plicatus beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase by comparative molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 19618-19624.  
9718293 G.J.Davies, L.Mackenzie, A.Varrot, M.Dauter, A.M.Brzozowski, M.Schülein, and S.G.Withers (1998).
Snapshots along an enzymatic reaction coordinate: analysis of a retaining beta-glycoside hydrolase.
  Biochemistry, 37, 11707-11713.
PDB codes: 3a3h 4a3h 5a3h 6a3h 7a3h
9812383 M.P.Geimba, A.Riffel, and A.Brandelli (1998).
Purification and characterization of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase from the phytopathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana.
  J Appl Microbiol, 85, 708-714.  
9694901 Y.Hou, B.McInnes, A.Hinek, G.Karpati, and D.Mahuran (1998).
A Pro504 --> Ser substitution in the beta-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase A inhibits alpha-subunit hydrolysis of GM2 ganglioside, resulting in chronic Sandhoff disease.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 21386-21392.  
9345622 A.White, and D.R.Rose (1997).
Mechanism of catalysis by retaining beta-glycosyl hydrolases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 645-651.  
9345621 B.Henrissat, and G.Davies (1997).
Structural and sequence-based classification of glycoside hydrolases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 637-644.  
9153432 G.Sulzenbacher, M.Schülein, and G.J.Davies (1997).
Structure of the endoglucanase I from Fusarium oxysporum: native, cellobiose, and 3,4-epoxybutyl beta-D-cellobioside-inhibited forms, at 2.3 A resolution.
  Biochemistry, 36, 5902-5911.
PDB codes: 2ovw 3ovw 4ovw
9334746 J.Sakon, D.Irwin, D.B.Wilson, and P.A.Karplus (1997).
Structure and mechanism of endo/exocellulase E4 from Thermomonospora fusca.
  Nat Struct Biol, 4, 810-818.
PDB codes: 1js4 1tf4 3tf4 4tf4
9535180 M.Horsch, C.Mayer, U.Sennhauser, and D.M.Rast (1997).
Beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase: a target for the design of antifungal agents.
  Pharmacol Ther, 76, 187-218.  
8995368 M.J.Fernandes, S.Yew, D.Leclerc, B.Henrissat, C.E.Vorgias, R.A.Gravel, P.Hechtman, and F.Kaplan (1997).
Identification of candidate active site residues in lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase A.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 814-820.  
9090523 R.Myerowitz (1997).
Tay-Sachs disease-causing mutations and neutral polymorphisms in the Hex A gene.
  Hum Mutat, 9, 195-208.  
8952478 G.Sulzenbacher, H.Driguez, B.Henrissat, M.Schülein, and G.J.Davies (1996).
Structure of the Fusarium oxysporum endoglucanase I with a nonhydrolyzable substrate analogue: substrate distortion gives rise to the preferred axial orientation for the leaving group.
  Biochemistry, 35, 15280-15287.
PDB code: 1ovw
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.