PDBsum entry 1pv6

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Transport protein PDB id
Protein chains
417 a.a. *
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Transport protein
Title: Crystal structure of lactose permease
Structure: Lactose permease. Chain: a, b. Engineered: yes. Mutation: yes
Source: Escherichia coli. Organism_taxid: 562. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562
3.50Å     R-factor:   0.294     R-free:   0.337
Authors: J.Abramson,I.Smirnova,V.Kasho,G.Verner,H.R.Kaback,S.Iwata
Key ref:
J.Abramson et al. (2003). Structure and mechanism of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. Science, 301, 610-615. PubMed id: 12893935 DOI: 10.1126/science.1088196
26-Jun-03     Release date:   12-Aug-03    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P02920  (LACY_ECOLI) -  Lactose permease
417 a.a.
417 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 1 residue position (black cross)

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     membrane   4 terms 
  Biological process     transport   5 terms 
  Biochemical function     symporter activity     4 terms  


DOI no: 10.1126/science.1088196 Science 301:610-615 (2003)
PubMed id: 12893935  
Structure and mechanism of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli.
J.Abramson, I.Smirnova, V.Kasho, G.Verner, H.R.Kaback, S.Iwata.
Membrane transport proteins that transduce free energy stored in electrochemical ion gradients into a concentration gradient are a major class of membrane proteins. We report the crystal structure at 3.5 angstroms of the Escherichia coli lactose permease, an intensively studied member of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters. The molecule is composed of N- and C-terminal domains, each with six transmembrane helices, symmetrically positioned within the permease. A large internal hydrophilic cavity open to the cytoplasmic side represents the inward-facing conformation of the transporter. The structure with a bound lactose homolog, beta-D-galactopyranosyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside, reveals the sugar-binding site in the cavity, and residues that play major roles in substrate recognition and proton translocation are identified. We propose a possible mechanism for lactose/proton symport (co-transport) consistent with both the structure and a large body of experimental data.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 2.
Fig. 2. The internal hydrophilic cavity of LacY. The surface model and electrostatic potential were calculated with the program GRASP (38). The polar surfaces are colored blue (positively charged) and red (negatively charged). The black spheres denote TDG. (A) View parallel to the membrane. For clarity, helices V and VIII have been removed. (B) View along the membrane normal from the cytoplasmic side.
Figure 4.
Fig. 4. Residues involved in proton translocation and coupling. Hydrogen bonds are represented by dashed black lines. Transmembrane helices in the N- and C-terminal domains are colored blue and red, respectively. Color code for atoms is as in Fig. 3. (A) Stereo view parallel to the membrane. (B) Stereo view along the membrane normal from the cytoplasmic side.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from the AAAs: Science (2003, 301, 610-615) copyright 2003.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
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PDB codes: 4gby 4gbz 4gc0
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PDB code: 3ob6
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20620041 C.J.Tsai, and C.Ziegler (2010).
Coupling electron cryomicroscopy and X-ray crystallography to understand secondary active transport.
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A glucose transporter can mediate ribose uptake: definition of residues that confer substrate specificity in a sugar transporter.
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20598524 E.R.Kunji, and A.J.Robinson (2010).
Coupling of proton and substrate translocation in the transport cycle of mitochondrial carriers.
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Two mechanisms of ion selectivity in protein binding sites.
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Simulating ligand-induced conformational changes in proteins using a mechanical disassembly method.
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Delineating electrogenic reactions during lactose/H+ symport.
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Secondary transport of metal-citrate complexes: the CitMHS family.
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Putative transmembrane domain 12 of the human organic anion transporter hOAT1 determines transporter stability and maturation efficiency.
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Biophysics: Transporter in the spotlight.
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Structure of a fucose transporter in an outward-open conformation.
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PDB codes: 3o7p 3o7q
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Biogenesis of bacterial inner-membrane proteins.
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Taking the plunge: integrating structural, enzymatic and computational insights into a unified model for membrane-immersed rhomboid proteolysis.
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Water-transporting proteins.
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20861838 X.He, P.Szewczyk, A.Karyakin, M.Evin, W.X.Hong, Q.Zhang, and G.Chang (2010).
Structure of a cation-bound multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporter.
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PDB codes: 3mkt 3mku
20821001 Y.M.Weaver, and B.Hagenbuch (2010).
Several conserved positively charged amino acids in OATP1B1 are involved in binding or translocation of different substrates.
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20457922 Y.Nie, and H.R.Kaback (2010).
Sugar binding induces the same global conformational change in purified LacY as in the native bacterial membrane.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 9903-9908.  
20498872 Y.Pan, and L.Konermann (2010).
Membrane protein structural insights from chemical labeling and mass spectrometry.
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Substrate-specific binding and conformational changes involving Ser313 and transmembrane domain 8 of the human reduced folate carrier, as determined by site-directed mutagenesis and protein cross-linking.
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20043916 Z.Liu, M.G.Madej, and H.R.Kaback (2010).
Helix dynamics in LacY: helices II and IV.
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Application of protein engineering to enhance crystallizability and improve crystal properties.
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19690067 A.Carruthers, J.DeZutter, A.Ganguly, and S.U.Devaskar (2009).
Will the original glucose transporter isoform please stand up!
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19260674 A.D.Joshi, and A.M.Pajor (2009).
Identification of conformationally sensitive amino acids in the Na(+)/dicarboxylate symporter (SdcS).
  Biochemistry, 48, 3017-3024.  
20119482 A.Specht, F.Bolze, Z.Omran, J.F.Nicoud, and M.Goeldner (2009).
Photochemical tools to study dynamic biological processes.
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19808668 C.J.Collar, M.I.Al-Salabi, M.L.Stewart, M.P.Barrett, W.D.Wilson, and Koning (2009).
Predictive computational models of substrate binding by a nucleoside transporter.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 34028-34035.  
19240214 C.J.De Feo, S.G.Aller, G.S.Siluvai, N.J.Blackburn, and V.M.Unger (2009).
Three-dimensional structure of the human copper transporter hCTR1.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 4237-4242.  
19720022 C.J.Law, G.Enkavi, D.N.Wang, and E.Tajkhorshid (2009).
Structural basis of substrate selectivity in the glycerol-3-phosphate: phosphate antiporter GlpT.
  Biophys J, 97, 1346-1353.  
19134477 D.Hilger, Y.Polyhach, H.Jung, and G.Jeschke (2009).
Backbone Structure of Transmembrane Domain IX of the Na(+)/Proline Transporter PutP of Escherichia coli.
  Biophys J, 96, 217-225.  
19250913 D.Khare, M.L.Oldham, C.Orelle, A.L.Davidson, and J.Chen (2009).
Alternating access in maltose transporter mediated by rigid-body rotations.
  Mol Cell, 33, 528-536.
PDB code: 3fh6
19966417 E.Champion, M.Remaud-Simeon, L.K.Skov, J.S.Kastrup, M.Gajhede, and O.Mirza (2009).
The apo structure of sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris shows an open active-site groove.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 65, 1309-1314.
PDB code: 2wpg
19581302 E.Karena, and S.Frillingos (2009).
Role of intramembrane polar residues in the YgfO xanthine permease: HIS-31 and ASN-93 are crucial for affinity and specificity, and ASP-304 and GLU-272 are irreplaceable.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 24257-24268.  
19403800 E.S.Unal, R.Zhao, and I.D.Goldman (2009).
Role of the glutamate 185 residue in proton translocation mediated by the proton-coupled folate transporter SLC46A1.
  Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, 297, C66-C74.  
19389703 E.S.Unal, R.Zhao, M.H.Chang, A.Fiser, M.F.Romero, and I.D.Goldman (2009).
The functional roles of the His247 and His281 residues in folate and proton translocation mediated by the human proton-coupled folate transporter SLC46A1.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 17846-17857.  
19458948 F.Orsini, M.Santacroce, P.Arosio, M.Castagna, C.Lenardi, G.Poletti, and F.V.Sacchi (2009).
Intermittent contact mode AFM investigation of native plasma membrane of Xenopus laevis oocyte.
  Eur Biophys J, 38, 903-910.  
19161491 G.Psakis, M.Saidijam, K.Shibayama, J.Polaczek, K.E.Bettaney, J.M.Baldwin, S.A.Baldwin, R.Hope, L.O.Essen, R.C.Essenberg, and P.J.Henderson (2009).
The sodium-dependent D-glucose transport protein of Helicobacter pylori.
  Mol Microbiol, 71, 391-403.  
19458710 H.Krishnamurthy, C.L.Piscitelli, and E.Gouaux (2009).
Unlocking the molecular secrets of sodium-coupled transporters.
  Nature, 459, 347-355.  
19158318 H.S.Hundal, and P.M.Taylor (2009).
Amino acid transceptors: gate keepers of nutrient exchange and regulators of nutrient signaling.
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Making the most of fusion tags technology in structural characterization of membrane proteins.
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Probing of the rates of alternating access in LacY with Trp fluorescence.
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Residues in the H+ translocation site define the pKa for sugar binding to LacY.
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19383792 J.J.Garcia-Celma, I.N.Smirnova, H.R.Kaback, and K.Fendler (2009).
Electrophysiological characterization of LacY.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 7373-7378.  
19798434 J.Jeon, J.S.Yang, and S.Kim (2009).
Integration of evolutionary features for the identification of functionally important residues in major facilitator superfamily transporters.
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19589778 J.Kaur, and A.K.Bachhawat (2009).
Gln-222 in transmembrane domain 4 and Gln-526 in transmembrane domain 9 are critical for substrate recognition in the yeast high affinity glutathione transporter, Hgt1p.
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alpha- and beta-monosaccharide transport in human erythrocytes.
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Alternating carrier models and the energy conservation laws.
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20041202 K.Kapoor, M.Rehan, A.Kaushiki, R.Pasrija, A.M.Lynn, and R.Prasad (2009).
Rational mutational analysis of a multidrug MFS transporter CaMdr1p of Candida albicans by employing a membrane environment based computational approach.
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19181816 K.Nanatani, P.C.Maloney, and K.Abe (2009).
Structural and functional importance of transmembrane domain 3 (TM3) in the aspartate:alanine antiporter AspT: topology and function of the residues of TM3 and oligomerization of AspT.
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Properties of a LacY efflux mutant.
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19996368 L.R.Forrest, and G.Rudnick (2009).
The rocking bundle: a mechanism for ion-coupled solute flux by symmetrical transporters.
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19473976 M.C.Wilson, D.Meredith, C.Bunnun, R.B.Sessions, and A.P.Halestrap (2009).
Studies on the DIDS-binding site of monocarboxylate transporter 1 suggest a homology model of the open conformation and a plausible translocation cycle.
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Conserved glutamate residues Glu-343 and Glu-519 provide mechanistic insights into cation/nucleoside cotransport by human concentrative nucleoside transporter hCNT3.
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Facilitative glucose transporter 9, a unique hexose and urate transporter.
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19267870 M.F.Brown, K.Martínez-Mayorga, K.Nakanishi, G.F.Salgado, and A.V.Struts (2009).
Retinal Conformation and Dynamics in Activation of Rhodopsin Illuminated by Solid-state H NMR Spectroscopy.
  Photochem Photobiol, 85, 442-453.  
19449892 M.Mueckler, and C.Makepeace (2009).
Model of the exofacial substrate-binding site and helical folding of the human Glut1 glucose transporter based on scanning mutagenesis.
  Biochemistry, 48, 5934-5942.  
19389486 M.Pieri, C.Gan, P.Bailey, and D.Meredith (2009).
The transmembrane tyrosines Y56, Y91 and Y167 play important roles in determining the affinity and transport rate of the rabbit proton-coupled peptide transporter PepT1.
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A 3D structure model of the melibiose permease of Escherichia coli represents a distinctive fold for Na+ symporters.
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Transport mechanism of a bacterial homologue of glutamate transporters.
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PDB code: 3kbc
19685929 P.Khare, A.R.White, and S.M.Parsons (2009).
Multiple protonation states of vesicular acetylcholine transporter detected by binding of [3H]vesamicol.
  Biochemistry, 48, 8965-8975.  
19429678 R.Valdés, S.Arastu-Kapur, S.M.Landfear, and U.Shinde (2009).
An ab Initio structural model of a nucleoside permease predicts functionally important residues.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 19067-19076.  
19596860 S.Bröer, H.P.Schneider, A.Bröer, and J.W.Deitmer (2009).
Mutation of asparagine 76 in the center of glutamine transporter SNAT3 modulates substrate-induced conductances and Na+ binding.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 25823-25831.  
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Biophysical dissection of membrane proteins.
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Effects on conformational states of the rabbit sodium/glucose cotransporter through modulation of polarity and charge at glutamine 457.
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G-protein-coupled receptor structures were not built in a day.
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19259829 T.S.Guillot, and G.W.Miller (2009).
Protective Actions of the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 (VMAT2) in Monoaminergic Neurons.
  Mol Neurobiol, 39, 149-170.  
19489728 W.Dowhan, and M.Bogdanov (2009).
Lipid-dependent membrane protein topogenesis.
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Alteration of sugar-induced conformational changes of the melibiose permease by mutating Arg141 in loop 4-5.
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Efflux-mediated drug resistance in bacteria: an update.
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19389778 Y.Kajiyama, M.Otagiri, J.Sekiguchi, T.Kudo, and S.Kosono (2009).
The MrpA, MrpB and MrpD subunits of the Mrp antiporter complex in Bacillus subtilis contain membrane-embedded and essential acidic residues.
  Microbiology, 155, 2137-2147.  
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Topological analysis of a haloacid permease of a Burkholderia sp. bacterium with a PhoA-LacZ reporter.
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Clogging the periplasmic pathway in LacY.
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Evidence for the transport of maltose by the sucrose permease, CscB, of Escherichia coli.
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Residues gating the periplasmic pathway of LacY.
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19019821 Z.Hou, and L.H.Matherly (2009).
Oligomeric structure of the human reduced folate carrier: identification of homo-oligomers and dominant-negative effects on carrier expression and function.
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19001266 A.J.Robinson, C.Overy, and E.R.Kunji (2008).
The mechanism of transport by mitochondrial carriers based on analysis of symmetry.
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18844672 A.M.Jørgensen, and S.Topiol (2008).
Driving forces for ligand migration in the leucine transporter.
  Chem Biol Drug Des, 72, 265-272.  
18979492 A.Pedretti, L.De Luca, C.Marconi, G.Negrisoli, G.Aldini, and G.Vistoli (2008).
Modeling of the intestinal peptide transporter hPepT1 and analysis of its transport capacities by docking and pharmacophore mapping.
  ChemMedChem, 3, 1913-1921.  
  19391462 C.I.Rivas, F.A.Zúñiga, A.Salas-Burgos, L.Mardones, V.Ormazabal, and J.C.Vera (2008).
Vitamin C transporters.
  J Physiol Biochem, 64, 357-375.  
18395745 C.J.Law, J.Almqvist, A.Bernstein, R.M.Goetz, Y.Huang, C.Soudant, A.Laaksonen, S.Hovmöller, and D.N.Wang (2008).
Salt-bridge dynamics control substrate-induced conformational change in the membrane transporter GlpT.
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18537473 C.J.Law, P.C.Maloney, and D.N.Wang (2008).
Ins and outs of major facilitator superfamily antiporters.
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18668434 C.Srimaroeng, J.L.Perry, and J.B.Pritchard (2008).
Physiology, structure, and regulation of the cloned organic anion transporters.
  Xenobiotica, 38, 889-935.  
18981181 D.M.Blodgett, C.Graybill, and A.Carruthers (2008).
Analysis of glucose transporter topology and structural dynamics.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 36416-36424.  
19045824 D.W.Dreisigmeyer, J.Stajic, I.Nemenman, W.S.Hlavacek, and M.E.Wall (2008).
Determinants of bistability in induction of the Escherichia coli lac operon.
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18707888 E.Padan (2008).
The enlightening encounter between structure and function in the NhaA Na+-H+ antiporter.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 33, 435-443.  
18819925 F.Casagrande, M.Ratera, A.D.Schenk, M.Chami, E.Valencia, J.M.Lopez, D.Torrents, A.Engel, M.Palacin, and D.Fotiadis (2008).
Projection structure of a member of the amino acid/polyamine/organocation transporter superfamily.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 33240-33248.  
18545655 H.Shen, and J.J.Chou (2008).
MemBrain: improving the accuracy of predicting transmembrane helices.
  PLoS ONE, 3, e2399.  
17981981 H.Sztajer, A.Lemme, R.Vilchez, S.Schulz, R.Geffers, C.Y.Yip, C.M.Levesque, D.G.Cvitkovitch, and I.Wagner-Döbler (2008).
Autoinducer-2-regulated genes in Streptococcus mutans UA159 and global metabolic effect of the luxS mutation.
  J Bacteriol, 190, 401-415.  
18942157 I.F.Tsigelny, J.Greenberg, V.Kouznetsova, and S.K.Nigam (2008).
Modeling of glycerol-3-phosphate transporter suggests a potential 'tilt' mechanism involved in its function.
  J Bioinform Comput Biol, 6, 885-904.  
18559978 I.Lasry, B.Berman, R.Straussberg, Y.Sofer, H.Bessler, M.Sharkia, F.Glaser, G.Jansen, S.Drori, and Y.G.Assaraf (2008).
A novel loss-of-function mutation in the proton-coupled folate transporter from a patient with hereditary folate malabsorption reveals that Arg 113 is crucial for function.
  Blood, 112, 2055-2061.  
18567672 I.N.Smirnova, V.Kasho, and H.R.Kaback (2008).
Protonation and sugar binding to LacY.
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18723509 J.D.Olsen, J.D.Tucker, J.A.Timney, P.Qian, C.Vassilev, and C.N.Hunter (2008).
The organization of LH2 complexes in membranes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
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18426798 J.Kniazeff, L.Shi, C.J.Loland, J.A.Javitch, H.Weinstein, and U.Gether (2008).
An intracellular interaction network regulates conformational transitions in the dopamine transporter.
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18387950 J.M.Pascual, D.Wang, R.Yang, L.Shi, H.Yang, and D.C.De Vivo (2008).
Structural signatures and membrane helix 4 in GLUT1: inferences from human blood-brain glucose transport mutants.
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18161988 J.Weerachayaphorn, and A.M.Pajor (2008).
Threonine-509 is a determinant of apparent affinity for both substrate and cations in the human Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter.
  Biochemistry, 47, 1087-1093.  
18223078 K.A.Hassan, T.Souhani, R.A.Skurray, and M.H.Brown (2008).
Analysis of tryptophan residues in the staphylococcal multidrug transporter QacA reveals long-distance functional associations of residues on opposite sides of the membrane.
  J Bacteriol, 190, 2441-2449.  
18336632 K.Li, L.Xu, A.A.Kulkarni, D.I.Perkins, I.S.Haworth, and D.L.Davies (2008).
Ethanol inhibits functional activity of the human intestinal dipeptide transporter hPepT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes.
  Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 32, 777-784.  
18647834 L.R.Forrest, Y.W.Zhang, M.T.Jacobs, J.Gesmonde, L.Xie, B.H.Honig, and G.Rudnick (2008).
Mechanism for alternating access in neurotransmitter transporters.
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18779371 M.Bogdanov, J.Xie, P.Heacock, and W.Dowhan (2008).
To flip or not to flip: lipid-protein charge interactions are a determinant of final membrane protein topology.
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18192400 M.J.Serrano-Vega, F.Magnani, Y.Shibata, and C.G.Tate (2008).
Conformational thermostabilization of the {beta}1-adrenergic receptor in a detergent-resistant form.
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18312695 M.M.Gromiha, and Y.Yabuki (2008).
Functional discrimination of membrane proteins using machine learning techniques.
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18245775 M.Mueckler, and C.Makepeace (2008).
Transmembrane segment 6 of the Glut1 glucose transporter is an outer helix and contains amino acid side chains essential for transport activity.
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18024501 N.Dave, V.A.Lórenz-Fonfría, G.Leblanc, and E.Padrós (2008).
FTIR spectroscopy of secondary-structure reorientation of melibiose permease modulated by substrate binding.
  Biophys J, 94, 3659-3670.  
18508772 N.Hussainzada, T.C.Da Silva, E.Y.Zhang, and P.W.Swaan (2008).
Conserved aspartic acid residues lining the extracellular loop 1 of sodium-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT Interact with Na+ and 7alpha-OH moieties on the ligand cholestane skeleton.
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18687947 N.K.Karpowich, and D.N.Wang (2008).
Structural biology. Symmetric transporters for asymmetric transport.
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18621842 R.Hagedorn, D.Gradmann, and P.Hegemann (2008).
Dynamics of voltage profile in enzymatic ion transporters, demonstrated in electrokinetics of proton pumping rhodopsin.
  Biophys J, 95, 5005-5013.  
18988731 R.Ujwal, D.Cascio, J.P.Colletier, S.Faham, J.Zhang, L.Toro, P.Ping, and J.Abramson (2008).
The crystal structure of mouse VDAC1 at 2.3 A resolution reveals mechanistic insights into metabolite gating.
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PDB code: 3emn
17932930 S.Choi, J.Jeon, J.S.Yang, and S.Kim (2008).
Common occurrence of internal repeat symmetry in membrane proteins.
  Proteins, 71, 68-80.  
18599740 S.Faham, A.Watanabe, G.M.Besserer, D.Cascio, A.Specht, B.A.Hirayama, E.M.Wright, and J.Abramson (2008).
The crystal structure of a sodium galactose transporter reveals mechanistic insights into Na+/sugar symport.
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PDB code: 3dh4
18927357 S.Weyand, T.Shimamura, S.Yajima, S.Suzuki, O.Mirza, K.Krusong, E.P.Carpenter, N.G.Rutherford, J.M.Hadden, J.O'Reilly, P.Ma, M.Saidijam, S.G.Patching, R.J.Hope, H.T.Norbertczak, P.C.Roach, S.Iwata, P.J.Henderson, and A.D.Cameron (2008).
Structure and molecular mechanism of a nucleobase-cation-symport-1 family transporter.
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PDB codes: 2jln 2jlo
18536011 S.Y.Noskov (2008).
Molecular mechanism of substrate specificity in the bacterial neutral amino acid transporter LeuT.
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18448629 T.Liu, B.Lo, P.Speight, and M.Silverman (2008).
Transmembrane IV of the high-affinity sodium-glucose cotransporter participates in sugar binding.
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19325829 W.F.Widdas (2008).
A Reconsideration of the Link between the Energetics of Water and of ATP Hydrolysis Energy in the Power Strokes of Molecular Motors in Protein Structures.
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18452311 X.Wang, L.Ye, C.C.McKinney, M.Feng, and P.C.Maloney (2008).
Cysteine scanning mutagenesis of TM5 reveals conformational changes in OxlT, the oxalate transporter of Oxalobacter formigenes.
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18485365 Y.Nie, F.E.Sabetfard, and H.R.Kaback (2008).
The Cys154-->Gly mutation in LacY causes constitutive opening of the hydrophilic periplasmic pathway.
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18319336 Y.Zhou, L.Guan, J.A.Freites, and H.R.Kaback (2008).
Opening and closing of the periplasmic gate in lactose permease.
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17009102 A.A.Kulkarni, D.L.Davies, J.S.Links, L.N.Patel, V.H.Lee, and I.S.Haworth (2007).
A charge pair interaction between Arg282 in transmembrane segment 7 and Asp341 in transmembrane segment 8 of hPepT1.
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17237094 A.Enosh, S.J.Fleishman, N.Ben-Tal, and D.Halperin (2007).
Prediction and simulation of motion in pairs of transmembrane alpha-helices.
  Bioinformatics, 23, e212-e218.  
17436258 A.M.Jørgensen, L.Tagmose, A.M.Jørgensen, K.P.Bøgesø, and G.H.Peters (2007).
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Na(+)/Cl(-)-Dependent Neurotransmitter Transporters in a Membrane-Aqueous System.
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18008022 B.M.Van Camp, R.R.Crow, Y.Peng, and M.F.Varela (2007).
Amino acids that confer transport of raffinose and maltose sugars in the raffinose permease (RafB) of Escherichia coli as implicated by spontaneous mutations at Val-35, Ser-138, Ser-139, Gly-389 and Ile-391.
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17876316 B.Roux (2007).
A proton-controlled check valve for sodium ion transport.
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17429392 C.F.Higgins (2007).
Multiple molecular mechanisms for multidrug resistance transporters.
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17211682 C.J.De Feo, S.G.Aller, and V.M.Unger (2007).
A structural perspective on copper uptake in eukaryotes.
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17915951 C.J.Law, Q.Yang, C.Soudant, P.C.Maloney, and D.N.Wang (2007).
Kinetic evidence is consistent with the rocker-switch mechanism of membrane transport by GlpT.
  Biochemistry, 46, 12190-12197.  
17473876 C.Miller (2007).
A leak in the EAATs.
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17630698 C.Mim, Z.Tao, and C.Grewer (2007).
Two conformational changes are associated with glutamate translocation by the glutamate transporter EAAC1.
  Biochemistry, 46, 9007-9018.  
18075584 C.Olesen, M.Picard, A.M.Winther, C.Gyrup, J.P.Morth, C.Oxvig, J.V.Møller, and P.Nissen (2007).
The structural basis of calcium transport by the calcium pump.
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PDB codes: 3b9b 3b9r 3ba6
17965925 C.von Ballmoos (2007).
Alternative proton binding mode in ATP synthases.
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17521566 D.L.Minor (2007).
The neurobiologist's guide to structural biology: a primer on why macromolecular structure matters and how to evaluate structural data.
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  17635959 D.M.Blodgett, J.K.De Zutter, K.B.Levine, P.Karim, and A.Carruthers (2007).
Structural basis of GLUT1 inhibition by cytoplasmic ATP.
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17941992 D.R.Livesay, P.D.Kidd, S.Eskandari, and U.Roshan (2007).
Assessing the ability of sequence-based methods to provide functional insight within membrane integral proteins: a case study analyzing the neurotransmitter/Na+ symporter family.
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17502603 D.S.Majumdar, I.Smirnova, V.Kasho, E.Nir, X.Kong, S.Weiss, and H.R.Kaback (2007).
Single-molecule FRET reveals sugar-induced conformational dynamics in LacY.
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17222166 E.M.Wright, B.A.Hirayama, and D.F.Loo (2007).
Active sugar transport in health and disease.
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17882334 F.Mancia, and W.A.Hendrickson (2007).
Expression of recombinant G-protein coupled receptors for structural biology.
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17103332 F.Zhou, and G.You (2007).
Molecular insights into the structure-function relationship of organic anion transporters OATs.
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17547710 G.von Heijne (2007).
The membrane protein universe: what's out there and why bother?
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17473959 H.Koepsell, K.Lips, and C.Volk (2007).
Polyspecific organic cation transporters: structure, function, physiological roles, and biopharmaceutical implications.
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17172438 H.R.Kaback, R.Dunten, S.Frillingos, P.Venkatesan, I.Kwaw, W.Zhang, and N.Ermolova (2007).
Site-directed alkylation and the alternating access model for LacY.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 491-494.  
  17591987 I.Schroeder, and U.P.Hansen (2007).
Saturation and microsecond gating of current indicate depletion-induced instability of the MaxiK selectivity filter.
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17925435 I.Smirnova, V.Kasho, J.Y.Choe, C.Altenbach, W.L.Hubbell, and H.R.Kaback (2007).
Sugar binding induces an outward facing conformation of LacY.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 16504-16509.  
17660252 J.Almqvist, Y.Huang, A.Laaksonen, D.N.Wang, and S.Hovmöller (2007).
Docking and homology modeling explain inhibition of the human vesicular glutamate transporters.
  Protein Sci, 16, 1819-1829.  
17320103 J.B.Klauda, and B.R.Brooks (2007).
Sugar binding in lactose permease: anomeric state of a disaccharide influences binding structure.
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17504760 J.Weerachayaphorn, and A.M.Pajor (2007).
Sodium-dependent extracellular accessibility of Lys-84 in the sodium/dicarboxylate cotransporter.
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17345146 J.Zhang, F.Visser, K.M.King, S.A.Baldwin, J.D.Young, and C.E.Cass (2007).
The role of nucleoside transporters in cancer chemotherapy with nucleoside drugs.
  Cancer Metastasis Rev, 26, 85.  
17566106 L.Bamber, M.Harding, M.Monné, D.J.Slotboom, and E.R.Kunji (2007).
The yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier functions as a monomer in mitochondrial membranes.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 10830-10834.  
17659523 L.F.Barros, C.X.Bittner, A.Loaiza, and O.H.Porras (2007).
A quantitative overview of glucose dynamics in the gliovascular unit.
  Glia, 55, 1222-1237.  
17881559 L.Guan, O.Mirza, G.Verner, S.Iwata, and H.R.Kaback (2007).
Structural determination of wild-type lactose permease.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 15294-15298.
PDB code: 2v8n
17334909 L.H.Matherly, Z.Hou, and Y.Deng (2007).
Human reduced folate carrier: translation of basic biology to cancer etiology and therapy.
  Cancer Metastasis Rev, 26, 111-128.  
16794873 L.Picas, S.Merino-Montero, A.Morros, J.Hernández-Borrell, and M.T.Montero (2007).
Monitoring pyrene excimers in lactose permease liposomes: revealing the presence of phosphatidylglycerol in proximity to an integral membrane protein.
  J Fluoresc, 17, 649-654.  
17176390 M.Bucher (2007).
Functional biology of plant phosphate uptake at root and mycorrhiza interfaces.
  New Phytol, 173, 11-26.  
17434947 M...Jensen, Y.Yin, E.Tajkhorshid, and K.Schulten (2007).
Sugar transport across lactose permease probed by steered molecular dynamics.
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17242069 N.Shimohata, S.Nagamori, Y.Akiyama, H.R.Kaback, and K.Ito (2007).
SecY alterations that impair membrane protein folding and generate a membrane stress.
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17325012 R.J.Naftalin, N.Green, and P.Cunningham (2007).
Lactose permease H+-lactose symporter: mechanical switch or Brownian ratchet?
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17251354 R.M.Stroud (2007).
Transmembrane transporters: an open and closed case.
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17111137 R.Schneiter, and A.Toulmay (2007).
The role of lipids in the biogenesis of integral membrane proteins.
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17641688 S.H.Cho, A.Porat, J.Ye, and J.Beckwith (2007).
Redox-active cysteines of a membrane electron transporter DsbD show dual compartment accessibility.
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17011510 S.L.Rusch, and D.A.Kendall (2007).
Oligomeric states of the SecA and SecYEG core components of the bacterial Sec translocon.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1768, 5.  
17452106 S.Schuldiner (2007).
When biochemistry meets structural biology: the cautionary tale of EmrE.
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17501925 Y.Akiyama, and S.Maegawa (2007).
Sequence features of substrates required for cleavage by GlpG, an Escherichia coli rhomboid protease.
  Mol Microbiol, 64, 1028-1037.  
18024586 Y.J.Chen, O.Pornillos, S.Lieu, C.Ma, A.P.Chen, and G.Chang (2007).
X-ray structure of EmrE supports dual topology model.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 18999-19004.
PDB codes: 3b5d 3b61 3b62
17920075 Y.Nie, N.Ermolova, and H.R.Kaback (2007).
Site-directed alkylation of LacY: effect of the proton electrochemical gradient.
  J Mol Biol, 374, 356-364.  
17708758 Y.Park, S.Hayat, and V.Helms (2007).
Prediction of the burial status of transmembrane residues of helical membrane proteins.
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16923166 A.Chandrasekaran, A.M.Ojeda, N.G.Kolmakova, and S.M.Parsons (2006).
Mutational and bioinformatics analysis of proline- and glycine-rich motifs in vesicular acetylcholine transporter.
  J Neurochem, 98, 1551-1559.  
16566597 A.D.Joshi, and A.M.Pajor (2006).
Role of conserved prolines in the structure and function of the Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter 1, NaDC1.
  Biochemistry, 45, 4231-4239.  
16469842 A.J.Robinson, and E.R.Kunji (2006).
Mitochondrial carriers in the cytoplasmic state have a common substrate binding site.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 2617-2622.  
17088325 B.W.Berger, C.M.Gendron, A.M.Lenhoff, and E.W.Kaler (2006).
Effects of additives on surfactant phase behavior relevant to bacteriorhodopsin crystallization.
  Protein Sci, 15, 2682-2696.  
16651382 B.Wu, K.Ottow, P.Poulsen, R.F.Gaber, E.Albers, and M.C.Kielland-Brandt (2006).
Competitive intra- and extracellular nutrient sensing by the transporter homologue Ssy1p.
  J Cell Biol, 173, 327-331.  
17097188 C.Chang, S.Ekins, P.Bahadduri, and P.W.Swaan (2006).
Pharmacophore-based discovery of ligands for drug transporters.
  Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 58, 1431-1450.  
17086202 C.Dong, K.Beis, J.Nesper, A.L.Brunkan-Lamontagne, B.R.Clarke, C.Whitfield, and J.H.Naismith (2006).
Wza the translocon for E. coli capsular polysaccharides defines a new class of membrane protein.
  Nature, 444, 226-229.
PDB code: 2j58
17127621 C.Manoharan, M.C.Wilson, R.B.Sessions, and A.P.Halestrap (2006).
The role of charged residues in the transmembrane helices of monocarboxylate transporter 1 and its ancillary protein basigin in determining plasma membrane expression and catalytic activity.
  Mol Membr Biol, 23, 486-498.  
17417705 D.Meredith, and R.A.Price (2006).
Molecular modeling of PepT1--towards a structure.
  J Membr Biol, 213, 79-88.  
17081964 E.E.Matthews, M.Zoonens, and D.M.Engelman (2006).
Dynamic helix interactions in transmembrane signaling.
  Cell, 127, 447-450.  
17139331 G.von Heijne (2006).
Membrane-protein topology.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 7, 909-918.  
17417701 H.Jung, T.Pirch, and D.Hilger (2006).
Secondary transport of amino acids in prokaryotes.
  J Membr Biol, 213, 119-133.  
16451122 H.Nury, C.Dahout-Gonzalez, V.Trézéguet, G.J.Lauquin, G.Brandolin, and E.Pebay-Peyroula (2006).
Relations between structure and function of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 75, 713-741.  
17176050 I.N.Smirnova, V.N.Kasho, and H.R.Kaback (2006).
Direct sugar binding to LacY measured by resonance energy transfer.
  Biochemistry, 45, 15279-15287.  
17158705 J.Deutscher, C.Francke, and P.W.Postma (2006).
How phosphotransferase system-related protein phosphorylation regulates carbohydrate metabolism in bacteria.
  Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 70, 939.  
16635801 J.J.Barker (2006).
Antibacterial drug discovery and structure-based design.
  Drug Discov Today, 11, 391-404.  
17038320 J.L.Perry, N.Dembla-Rajpal, L.A.Hall, and J.B.Pritchard (2006).
A three-dimensional model of human organic anion transporter 1: aromatic amino acids required for substrate transport.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 38071-38079.  
16958854 K.A.Hassan, M.Galea, J.Wu, B.A.Mitchell, R.A.Skurray, and M.H.Brown (2006).
Functional effects of intramembranous proline substitutions in the staphylococcal multidrug transporter QacA.
  FEMS Microbiol Lett, 263, 76-85.  
17056710 L.Bamber, M.Harding, P.J.Butler, and E.R.Kunji (2006).
Yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers are monomeric in detergents.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 16224-16229.  
16689628 L.Guan, and H.R.Kaback (2006).
Lessons from lactose permease.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 35, 67-91.  
16446422 L.Guan, I.N.Smirnova, G.Verner, S.Nagamori, S.Nagamoni, and H.R.Kaback (2006).
Manipulating phospholipids for crystallization of a membrane transport protein.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 1723-1726.  
17103018 L.Renault, H.T.Chou, P.L.Chiu, R.M.Hill, X.Zeng, B.Gipson, Z.Y.Zhang, A.Cheng, V.Unger, and H.Stahlberg (2006).
Milestones in electron crystallography.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 20, 519-527.  
16856936 O.Lewinson, J.Adler, N.Sigal, and E.Bibi (2006).
Promiscuity in multidrug recognition and transport: the bacterial MFS Mdr transporters.
  Mol Microbiol, 61, 277-284.  
16525509 O.Mirza, L.Guan, G.Verner, S.Iwata, and H.R.Kaback (2006).
Structural evidence for induced fit and a mechanism for sugar/H+ symport in LacY.
  EMBO J, 25, 1177-1183.
PDB codes: 2cfp 2cfq
16988863 P.J.Franco, E.A.Matzke, J.L.Johnson, B.M.Wiczer, and R.J.Brooker (2006).
A suppressor analysis of residues involved in cation transport in the lactose permease: identification of a coupling sensor.
  J Membr Biol, 211, 101-113.  
16545467 R.A.Shilling, H.Venter, S.Velamakanni, A.Bapna, B.Woebking, S.Shahi, and H.W.van Veen (2006).
New light on multidrug binding by an ATP-binding-cassette transporter.
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 27, 195-203.  
16501047 S.G.Aller, and V.M.Unger (2006).
Projection structure of the human copper transporter CTR1 at 6-A resolution reveals a compact trimer with a novel channel-like architecture.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 3627-3632.  
17146459 S.H.White (2006).
Rhomboid intramembrane protease structures galore!
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 13, 1049-1051.  
16822664 S.J.Fleishman, and N.Ben-Tal (2006).
Progress in structure prediction of alpha-helical membrane proteins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 16, 496-504.  
16406532 S.J.Fleishman, V.M.Unger, and N.Ben-Tal (2006).
Transmembrane protein structures without X-rays.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 31, 106-113.  
16915237 S.Murakami, R.Nakashima, E.Yamashita, T.Matsumoto, and A.Yamaguchi (2006).
Crystal structures of a multidrug transporter reveal a functionally rotating mechanism.
  Nature, 443, 173-179.
PDB codes: 2dhh 2dr6 2drd
16574153 V.N.Kasho, I.N.Smirnova, and H.R.Kaback (2006).
Sequence alignment and homology threading reveals prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins similar to lactose permease.
  J Mol Biol, 358, 1060-1070.  
16574149 V.Vadyvaloo, I.N.Smirnova, V.N.Kasho, and H.R.Kaback (2006).
Conservation of residues involved in sugar/H(+) symport by the sucrose permease of Escherichia coli relative to lactose permease.
  J Mol Biol, 358, 1051-1059.  
17012318 X.León, R.Lemonnier, G.Leblanc, and E.Padrós (2006).
Changes in secondary structures and acidic side chains of melibiose permease upon cosubstrates binding.
  Biophys J, 91, 4440-4449.  
16922510 X.Wang, R.I.Sarker, and P.C.Maloney (2006).
Analysis of substrate-binding elements in OxlT, the oxalate:formate antiporter of Oxalobacter formigenes.
  Biochemistry, 45, 10344-10350.  
17003033 Y.Nie, I.Smirnova, V.Kasho, and H.R.Kaback (2006).
Energetics of ligand-induced conformational flexibility in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 35779-35784.  
16807902 Y.Park, and V.Helms (2006).
Assembly of transmembrane helices of simple polytopic membrane proteins from sequence conservation patterns.
  Proteins, 64, 895-905.  
16609684 Y.Shigeta, Y.Kanai, A.Chairoungdua, N.Ahmed, S.Sakamoto, H.Matsuo, D.K.Kim, M.Fujimura, N.Anzai, K.Mizoguchi, T.Ueda, K.Akakura, T.Ichikawa, H.Ito, and H.Endou (2006).
A novel missense mutation of SLC7A9 frequent in Japanese cystinuria cases affecting the C-terminus of the transporter.
  Kidney Int, 69, 1198-1206.  
17015667 Y.Takatsuka, and H.Nikaido (2006).
Threonine-978 in the transmembrane segment of the multidrug efflux pump AcrB of Escherichia coli is crucial for drug transport as a probable component of the proton relay network.
  J Bacteriol, 188, 7284-7289.  
16963502 Y.Yin, M...Jensen, E.Tajkhorshid, and K.Schulten (2006).
Sugar binding and protein conformational changes in lactose permease.
  Biophys J, 91, 3972-3985.  
15962009 A.Kedrov, M.Krieg, C.Ziegler, W.Kuhlbrandt, and D.J.Muller (2005).
Locating ligand binding and activation of a single antiporter.
  EMBO Rep, 6, 668-674.  
16094369 B.Chanda, O.K.Asamoah, R.Blunck, B.Roux, and F.Bezanilla (2005).
Gating charge displacement in voltage-gated ion channels involves limited transmembrane movement.
  Nature, 436, 852-856.  
15894231 C.Chang, A.Ray, and P.Swaan (2005).
In silico strategies for modeling membrane transporter function.
  Drug Discov Today, 10, 663-671.  
15703210 C.Ferreira, F.van Voorst, A.Martins, L.Neves, R.Oliveira, M.C.Kielland-Brandt, C.Lucas, and A.Brandt (2005).
A member of the sugar transporter family, Stl1p is the glycerol/H+ symporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  Mol Biol Cell, 16, 2068-2076.  
15834685 C.Grewer, and T.Rauen (2005).
Electrogenic glutamate transporters in the CNS: molecular mechanism, pre-steady-state kinetics, and their impact on synaptic signaling.
  J Membr Biol, 203, 1.  
15988517 C.Hunte, E.Screpanti, M.Venturi, A.Rimon, E.Padan, and H.Michel (2005).
Structure of a Na+/H+ antiporter and insights into mechanism of action and regulation by pH.
  Nature, 435, 1197-1202.
PDB code: 1zcd
  15596535 D.D.Loo, B.A.Hirayama, A.Cha, F.Bezanilla, and E.M.Wright (2005).
Perturbation analysis of the voltage-sensitive conformational changes of the Na+/glucose cotransporter.
  J Gen Physiol, 125, 13-36.  
16319876 D.M.Engelman (2005).
Membranes are more mosaic than fluid.
  Nature, 438, 578-580.  
15955613 D.Sulzer, M.S.Sonders, N.W.Poulsen, and A.Galli (2005).
Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review.
  Prog Neurobiol, 75, 406-433.  
16237035 E.Vardy, S.Steiner-Mordoch, and S.Schuldiner (2005).
Characterization of bacterial drug antiporters homologous to mammalian neurotransmitter transporters.
  J Bacteriol, 187, 7518-7525.  
16648940 F.Meier-Abt, Y.Mokrab, and K.Mizuguchi (2005).
Organic anion transporting polypeptides of the OATP/SLCO superfamily: identification of new members in nonmammalian species, comparative modeling and a potential transport mode.
  J Membr Biol, 208, 213-227.  
15879478 G.Veldhuis, J.Broos, B.Poolman, and R.M.Scheek (2005).
Stoichiometry and substrate affinity of the mannitol transporter, EnzymeIImtl, from Escherichia coli.
  Biophys J, 89, 201-210.  
15746278 H.Leonov, and I.T.Arkin (2005).
A periodicity analysis of transmembrane helices.
  Bioinformatics, 21, 2604-2610.  
16339740 I.Sobczak, and J.S.Lolkema (2005).
The 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family: physiology, structure, and mechanism.
  Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 69, 665-695.  
15802247 I.Sobczak, and J.S.Lolkema (2005).
Structural and mechanistic diversity of secondary transporters.
  Curr Opin Microbiol, 8, 161-167.  
16030212 J.A.Hall, and A.M.Pajor (2005).
Functional characterization of a Na(+)-coupled dicarboxylate carrier protein from Staphylococcus aureus.
  J Bacteriol, 187, 5189-5194.  
16456716 J.A.Hernández, and J.Fischbarg (2005).
A general channel model accounts for channel, carrier, counter-transport and co-transport kinetics.
  J Membr Biol, 206, 215-226.  
15623581 J.Kota, and P.O.Ljungdahl (2005).
Specialized membrane-localized chaperones prevent aggregation of polytopic proteins in the ER.
  J Cell Biol, 168, 79-88.  
15996519 J.M.Pagès, M.Masi, and J.Barbe (2005).
Inhibitors of efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria.
  Trends Mol Med, 11, 382-389.  
15545642 J.R.Kinghorn, J.Sloan, G.J.Kana'n, E.R.Dasilva, D.A.Rouch, and S.E.Unkles (2005).
Missense mutations that inactivate the Aspergillus nidulans nrtA gene encoding a high-affinity nitrate transporter.
  Genetics, 169, 1369-1377.  
16096261 J.S.Lolkema, and D.J.Slotboom (2005).
Sequence and hydropathy profile analysis of two classes of secondary transporters.
  Mol Membr Biol, 22, 177-189.  
15853816 J.S.Lolkema, I.Sobczak, and D.J.Slotboom (2005).
Secondary transporters of the 2HCT family contain two homologous domains with inverted membrane topology and trans re-entrant loops.
  FEBS J, 272, 2334-2344.  
15728379 K.M.Kahlig, F.Binda, H.Khoshbouei, R.D.Blakely, D.G.McMahon, J.A.Javitch, and A.Galli (2005).
Amphetamine induces dopamine efflux through a dopamine transporter channel.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 3495-3500.  
16015376 K.R.Vinothkumar, S.H.Smits, and W.Kühlbrandt (2005).
pH-induced structural change in a sodium/proton antiporter from Methanococcus jannaschii.
  EMBO J, 24, 2720-2729.  
15980376 M.Braibant, J.Chevalier, E.Chaslus-Dancla, J.M.Pagès, and A.Cloeckaert (2005).
Structural and functional study of the phenicol-specific efflux pump FloR belonging to the major facilitator superfamily.
  Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49, 2965-2971.  
16171405 M.De Jesus, J.Jin, A.A.Guffanti, and T.A.Krulwich (2005).
Importance of the GP dipeptide of the antiporter motif and other membrane-embedded proline and glycine residues in tetracycline efflux protein Tet(L).
  Biochemistry, 44, 12896-12904.  
15716425 M.Otsuka, M.Yasuda, Y.Morita, C.Otsuka, T.Tsuchiya, H.Omote, and Y.Moriyama (2005).
Identification of essential amino acid residues of the NorM Na+/multidrug antiporter in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
  J Bacteriol, 187, 1552-1558.  
15919190 M.S.Sonders, M.Quick, and J.A.Javitch (2005).
How did the neurotransmitter cross the bilayer? A closer view.
  Curr Opin Neurobiol, 15, 296-304.  
16096267 P.Karatza, and S.Frillingos (2005).
Cloning and functional characterization of two bacterial members of the NAT/NCS2 family in Escherichia coli.
  Mol Membr Biol, 22, 251-261.  
15932938 Q.Yang, X.Wang, L.Ye, M.Mentrikoski, E.Mohammadi, Y.M.Kim, and P.C.Maloney (2005).
Experimental tests of a homology model for OxlT, the oxalate transporter of Oxalobacter formigenes.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 8513-8518.
PDB code: 1zc7
  16103276 S.Ding, L.Ingleby, C.A.Ahern, and R.Horn (2005).
Investigating the putative glycine hinge in Shaker potassium channel.
  J Gen Physiol, 126, 213-226.  
16007500 S.Eskandari, E.M.Wright, and D.D.Loo (2005).
Kinetics of the reverse mode of the Na+/glucose cotransporter.
  J Membr Biol, 204, 23-32.  
15733208 S.G.Dahl, and I.Sylte (2005).
Molecular modelling of drug targets: the past, the present and the future.
  Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, 96, 151-155.  
15678184 S.G.Patching, S.A.Baldwin, A.D.Baldwin, J.D.Young, M.P.Gallagher, P.J.Henderson, and R.B.Herbert (2005).
The nucleoside transport proteins, NupC and NupG, from Escherichia coli: specific structural motifs necessary for the binding of ligands.
  Org Biomol Chem, 3, 462-470.  
15889294 S.Karim, D.Lundh, K.O.Holmström, A.Mandal, and M.Pirhonen (2005).
Structural and functional characterization of AtPTR3, a stress-induced peptide transporter of Arabidopsis.
  J Mol Model, 11, 226-236.  
15681202 S.Merino, O.Domènech, M.T.Montero, and J.Hernández-Borrell (2005).
Atomic force microscopy study of Escherichia coli lactose permease proteolipid sheets.
  Biosens Bioelectron, 20, 1843-1846.  
15950877 V.Eulenburg, W.Armsen, H.Betz, and J.Gomeza (2005).
Glycine transporters: essential regulators of neurotransmission.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 30, 325-333.  
15642520 V.Karandashov, and M.Bucher (2005).
Symbiotic phosphate transport in arbuscular mycorrhizas.
  Trends Plant Sci, 10, 22-29.  
15719020 Y.Kim, S.M.Lampert, and C.C.Philpott (2005).
A receptor domain controls the intracellular sorting of the ferrichrome transporter, ARN1.
  EMBO J, 24, 952-962.  
15953370 Z.Lin, and G.R.Uhl (2005).
Proline mutations induce negative-dosage effects on uptake velocity of the dopamine transporter.
  J Neurochem, 94, 276-287.  
15736956 Z.Tao, and C.Grewer (2005).
The conserved histidine 295 does not contribute to proton cotransport by the glutamate transporter EAAC1.
  Biochemistry, 44, 3466-3476.  
14985752 A.Accardi, and C.Miller (2004).
Secondary active transport mediated by a prokaryotic homologue of ClC Cl- channels.
  Nature, 427, 803-807.  
15326030 A.Salas-Burgos, P.Iserovich, F.Zuniga, J.C.Vera, and J.Fischbarg (2004).
Predicting the three-dimensional structure of the human facilitative glucose transporter glut1 by a novel evolutionary homology strategy: insights on the molecular mechanism of substrate migration, and binding sites for glucose and inhibitory molecules.
  Biophys J, 87, 2990-2999.
PDB codes: 1suk 1u5n
15313242 A.Senes, D.E.Engel, and W.F.DeGrado (2004).
Folding of helical membrane proteins: the role of polar, GxxxG-like and proline motifs.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 14, 465-479.  
  15504899 C.Ehnes, I.C.Forster, A.Bacconi, K.Kohler, J.Biber, and H.Murer (2004).
Structure-function relations of the first and fourth extracellular linkers of the type IIa Na+/Pi cotransporter: II. Substrate interaction and voltage dependency of two functionally important sites.
  J Gen Physiol, 124, 489-503.  
14970332 C.Ma, and G.Chang (2004).
Structure of the multidrug resistance efflux transporter EmrE from Escherichia coli.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 2852-2857.
PDB code: 1s7b
15368566 C.van der Does, and R.Tampé (2004).
Changing orders--primary and secondary membrane transporters revised.
  Chembiochem, 5, 1171-1175.  
15247424 D.Zaslavsky, R.C.Sadoski, S.Rajagukguk, L.Geren, F.Millett, B.Durham, and R.B.Gennis (2004).
Direct measurement of proton release by cytochrome c oxidase in solution during the F-->O transition.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 10544-10547.  
15313235 E.Pebay-Peyroula, and G.Brandolin (2004).
Nucleotide exchange in mitochondria: insight at a molecular level.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 14, 420-425.  
15215526 E.Vardy, I.T.Arkin, K.E.Gottschalk, H.R.Kaback, and S.Schuldiner (2004).
Structural conservation in the major facilitator superfamily as revealed by comparative modeling.
  Protein Sci, 13, 1832-1840.  
14990786 H.Hong, and L.K.Tamm (2004).
Elastic coupling of integral membrane protein stability to lipid bilayer forces.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 4065-4070.  
15530644 H.Miyazaki, T.Sekine, and H.Endou (2004).
The multispecific organic anion transporter family: properties and pharmacological significance.
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 25, 654-662.  
  15111647 J.A.Lundbaek, P.Birn, A.J.Hansen, R.Søgaard, C.Nielsen, J.Girshman, M.J.Bruno, S.E.Tape, J.Egebjerg, D.V.Greathouse, G.L.Mattice, R.E.Koeppe, and O.S.Andersen (2004).
Regulation of sodium channel function by bilayer elasticity: the importance of hydrophobic coupling. Effects of Micelle-forming amphiphiles and cholesterol.
  J Gen Physiol, 123, 599-621.  
15313234 J.Abramson, H.R.Kaback, and S.Iwata (2004).
Structural comparison of lactose permease and the glycerol-3-phosphate antiporter: members of the major facilitator superfamily.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 14, 413-419.  
15216415 J.L.Johnson, and R.J.Brooker (2004).
Control of H+/lactose coupling by ionic interactions in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli.
  J Membr Biol, 198, 135-146.  
15189838 K.E.Gottschalk, M.Soskine, S.Schuldiner, and H.Kessler (2004).
A structural model of EmrE, a multi-drug transporter from Escherichia coli.
  Biophys J, 86, 3335-3348.  
15313236 K.P.Locher (2004).
Structure and mechanism of ABC transporters.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 14, 426-431.  
15304639 L.Guan, and H.R.Kaback (2004).
Binding affinity of lactose permease is not altered by the H+ electrochemical gradient.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 12148-12152.  
15563598 L.Zheng, D.Kostrewa, S.Bernèche, F.K.Winkler, and X.D.Li (2004).
The mechanism of ammonia transport based on the crystal structure of AmtB of Escherichia coli.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 17090-17095.
PDB codes: 1xqe 1xqf
15568015 M.J.Conroy, S.J.Jamieson, D.Blakey, T.Kaufmann, A.Engel, D.Fotiadis, M.Merrick, and P.A.Bullough (2004).
Electron and atomic force microscopy of the trimeric ammonium transporter AmtB.
  EMBO Rep, 5, 1153-1158.  
15313233 M.J.Lemieux, Y.Huang, and D.N.Wang (2004).
The structural basis of substrate translocation by the Escherichia coli glycerol-3-phosphate transporter: a member of the major facilitator superfamily.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 14, 405-412.  
15362229 M.T.Facciotti, S.Rouhani-Manshadi, and R.M.Glaeser (2004).
Energy transduction in transmembrane ion pumps.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 29, 445-451.  
15210985 P.M.Hwang, R.E.Bishop, and L.E.Kay (2004).
The integral membrane enzyme PagP alternates between two dynamically distinct states.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 9618-9623.  
15071758 R.J.Law, and M.S.Sansom (2004).
Homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations: comparative studies of human aquaporin-1.
  Eur Biophys J, 33, 477-489.  
15548327 S.C.King (2004).
The "Transport Specificity Ratio": a structure-function tool to search the protein fold for loci that control transition state stability in membrane transport catalysis.
  BMC Biochem, 5, 16.  
15576512 S.E.Unkles, D.A.Rouch, Y.Wang, M.Y.Siddiqi, A.D.Glass, and J.R.Kinghorn (2004).
Two perfectly conserved arginine residues are required for substrate binding in a high-affinity nitrate transporter.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 17549-17554.  
15377224 S.Lalonde, D.Wipf, and W.B.Frommer (2004).
Transport mechanisms for organic forms of carbon and nitrogen between source and sink.
  Annu Rev Plant Biol, 55, 341-372.  
15067017 S.Nagamori, I.N.Smirnova, and H.R.Kaback (2004).
Role of YidC in folding of polytopic membrane proteins.
  J Cell Biol, 165, 53-62.  
15133159 T.Boldog, and G.L.Hazelbauer (2004).
Accessibility of introduced cysteines in chemoreceptor transmembrane helices reveals boundaries interior to bracketing charged residues.
  Protein Sci, 13, 1466-1475.  
15339805 T.Hirai, and S.Subramaniam (2004).
Structure and transport mechanism of the bacterial oxalate transporter OxlT.
  Biophys J, 87, 3600-3607.  
15496982 Y.Akiyama, K.Kanehara, and K.Ito (2004).
RseP (YaeL), an Escherichia coli RIP protease, cleaves transmembrane sequences.
  EMBO J, 23, 4434-4442.  
14691544 D.F.Savage, P.F.Egea, Y.Robles-Colmenares, J.D.O'Connell, and R.M.Stroud (2003).
Architecture and selectivity in aquaporins: 2.5 a X-ray structure of aquaporin Z.
  PLoS Biol, 1, E72.
PDB code: 1rc2
14603310 E.Pebay-Peyroula, C.Dahout-Gonzalez, R.Kahn, V.Trézéguet, G.J.Lauquin, and G.Brandolin (2003).
Structure of mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier in complex with carboxyatractyloside.
  Nature, 426, 39-44.
PDB code: 1okc
14572535 I.T.Paulsen (2003).
Multidrug efflux pumps and resistance: regulation and evolution.
  Curr Opin Microbiol, 6, 446-451.  
14633977 I.Ubarretxena-Belandia, J.M.Baldwin, S.Schuldiner, and C.G.Tate (2003).
Three-dimensional structure of the bacterial multidrug transporter EmrE shows it is an asymmetric homodimer.
  EMBO J, 22, 6175-6181.  
14566061 J.L.Vázquez-Ibar, L.Guan, M.Svrakic, and H.R.Kaback (2003).
Exploiting luminescence spectroscopy to elucidate the interaction between sugar and a tryptophan residue in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 12706-12711.  
14596609 M.C.Shelden, P.Loughlin, M.L.Tierney, and S.M.Howitt (2003).
Interactions between charged amino acid residues within transmembrane helices in the sulfate transporter SHST1.
  Biochemistry, 42, 12941-12949.  
12934015 N.Ermolova, L.Guan, and H.R.Kaback (2003).
Intermolecular thiol cross-linking via loops in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 10187-10192.  
14498822 T.Joët, C.Morin, J.Fischbarg, A.I.Louw, U.Eckstein-Ludwig, C.Woodrow, and S.Krishna (2003).
Why is the Plasmodium falciparum hexose transporter a promising new drug target?
  Expert Opin Ther Targets, 7, 593-602.  
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