PDBsum entry 1ptu

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Complex (hydrolase/peptide) PDB id
Protein chain
297 a.a. *
Waters ×71
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Complex (hydrolase/peptide)
Title: Crystal structure of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b complexed with phosphotyrosine-containing hexa-peptide (dadepyl-nh2)
Structure: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b. Chain: a. Engineered: yes. Mutation: yes. Phosphotyrosine-containing hexa-peptide. Chain: b. Synonym: dadepyl-nh2. Engineered: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562.
Biol. unit: Tetramer (from PQS)
2.60Å     R-factor:   0.199    
Authors: D.Barford,Z.Jia
Key ref: Z.Jia et al. (1995). Structural basis for phosphotyrosine peptide recognition by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. Science, 268, 1754-1758. PubMed id: 7540771 DOI: 10.1126/science.7540771
21-Apr-95     Release date:   01-Aug-96    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P18031  (PTN1_HUMAN) -  Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 1
435 a.a.
297 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 2 residue positions (black crosses)

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: Protein tyrosine phosphate + H2O = protein tyrosine + phosphate
Protein tyrosine phosphate
Bound ligand (Het Group name = PTR)
matches with 76.00% similarity
+ H(2)O
= protein tyrosine
+ phosphate
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     dephosphorylation   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     phosphatase activity     2 terms  


DOI no: 10.1126/science.7540771 Science 268:1754-1758 (1995)
PubMed id: 7540771  
Structural basis for phosphotyrosine peptide recognition by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.
Z.Jia, D.Barford, A.J.Flint, N.K.Tonks.
The crystal structures of a cysteine-215-->serine mutant of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B complexed with high-affinity peptide substrates corresponding to an autophosphorylation site of the epidermal growth factor receptor were determined. Peptide binding to the protein phosphatase was accompanied by a conformational change of a surface loop that created a phosphotyrosine recognition pocket and induced a catalytically competent form of the enzyme. The phosphotyrosine side chain is buried within the period and anchors the peptide substrate to its binding site. Hydrogen bonds between peptide main-chain atoms and the protein contribute to binding affinity, and specific interactions of acidic residues of the peptide with basic residues on the surface of the enzyme confer sequence specificity.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
22562138 L.Liu, S.C.Kohout, Q.Xu, S.Müller, C.R.Kimberlin, E.Y.Isacoff, and D.L.Minor (2012).
A glutamate switch controls voltage-sensitive phosphatase function.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 19, 633-641.
PDB codes: 3v0d 3v0e 3v0f 3v0g 3v0h 3v0i 3v0j
21365683 E.Darian, O.Guvench, B.Yu, C.K.Qu, and A.D.Mackerell (2011).
Structural mechanism associated with domain opening in gain-of-function mutations in SHP2 phosphatase.
  Proteins, 79, 1573-1588.  
21240419 L.Piovan, L.Wu, Z.Y.Zhang, and L.H.Andrade (2011).
Hypervalent organochalcogenanes as inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatases.
  Org Biomol Chem, 9, 1347-1351.  
20725946 L.Gao, H.Sun, and S.Q.Yao (2010).
Activity-based high-throughput determination of PTPs substrate specificity using a phosphopeptide microarray.
  Biopolymers, 94, 810-819.  
20381358 S.C.Yip, S.Saha, and J.Chernoff (2010).
PTP1B: a double agent in metabolism and oncogenesis.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 35, 442-449.  
20170098 X.Zhang, Y.He, S.Liu, Z.Yu, Z.X.Jiang, Z.Yang, Y.Dong, S.C.Nabinger, L.Wu, A.M.Gunawan, L.Wang, R.J.Chan, and Z.Y.Zhang (2010).
Salicylic acid based small molecule inhibitor for the oncogenic Src homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2).
  J Med Chem, 53, 2482-2493.
PDB codes: 3jrl 3o5x
19716756 D.Krishnamurthy, and A.M.Barrios (2009).
Profiling protein tyrosine phosphatase activity with mechanistic probes.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 13, 375-381.  
19810703 D.Vidović, and S.C.Schürer (2009).
Knowledge-based characterization of similarity relationships in the human protein-tyrosine phosphatase family for rational inhibitor design.
  J Med Chem, 52, 6649-6659.  
19380334 J.F.Wang, K.Gong, D.Q.Wei, Y.X.Li, and K.C.Chou (2009).
Molecular dynamics studies on the interactions of PTP1B with inhibitors: from the first phosphate-binding site to the second one.
  Protein Eng Des Sel, 22, 349-355.  
19197921 J.Jiang, D.Zeng, and S.Li (2009).
Photogenerated quinone methides as protein affinity labeling reagents.
  Chembiochem, 10, 635-638.  
19889974 K.Hofmeyer, and J.E.Treisman (2009).
The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase LAR promotes R7 photoreceptor axon targeting by a phosphatase-independent signaling mechanism.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 19399-19404.  
19474293 K.M.Heinonen, A.Bourdeau, K.M.Doody, and M.L.Tremblay (2009).
Protein tyrosine phosphatases PTP-1B and TC-PTP play nonredundant roles in macrophage development and IFN-gamma signaling.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 9368-9372.  
19424502 M.C.Balasu, L.N.Spiridon, S.Miron, C.T.Craescu, A.J.Scheidig, A.J.Petrescu, and S.E.Szedlacsek (2009).
Interface analysis of the complex between ERK2 and PTP-SL.
  PLoS ONE, 4, e5432.  
19308932 M.Köhn (2009).
Immobilization strategies for small molecule, peptide and protein microarrays.
  J Pept Sci, 15, 393-397.  
19816407 S.H.Lim, S.K.Kwon, M.K.Lee, J.Moon, D.G.Jeong, E.Park, S.J.Kim, B.C.Park, S.C.Lee, S.E.Ryu, D.Y.Yu, B.H.Chung, E.Kim, P.K.Myung, and J.R.Lee (2009).
Synapse formation regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor T through interaction with cell adhesion molecules and Fyn.
  EMBO J, 28, 3564-3578.  
19754155 S.Hsu, Y.Kim, S.Li, E.S.Durrant, R.M.Pace, V.L.Woods, and M.S.Gentry (2009).
Structural insights into glucan phosphatase dynamics using amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.
  Biochemistry, 48, 9891-9902.  
19604469 T.D.Bugg (2009).
Oxygenases get to grips with polypeptides.
  Structure, 17, 913-914.  
19464924 V.Shetty, and T.A.Neubert (2009).
Characterization of novel oxidation products of cysteine in an active site motif peptide of PTP1B.
  J Am Soc Mass Spectrom, 20, 1540-1548.  
19845408 Z.Huang, and C.F.Wong (2009).
Docking flexible peptide to flexible protein by molecular dynamics using two implicit-solvent models: an evaluation in protein kinase and phosphatase systems.
  J Phys Chem B, 113, 14343-14354.  
19053285 D.A.Critton, A.Tortajada, G.Stetson, W.Peti, and R.Page (2008).
Structural basis of substrate recognition by hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase.
  Biochemistry, 47, 13336-13345.
PDB codes: 2hvl 2qdc 2qdm 2qdp 3d42 3d44
18387182 G.LaPointe, D.Atlan, and C.Gilbert (2008).
Characterization and site-directed mutagenesis of Wzb, an O-phosphatase from Lactobacillus rhamnosus.
  BMC Biochem, 9, 10.  
18685809 K.Bharatham, N.Bharatham, Y.J.Kwon, and K.W.Lee (2008).
Molecular dynamics simulation study of PTP1B with allosteric inhibitor and its application in receptor based pharmacophore modeling.
  J Comput Aided Mol Des, 22, 925-933.  
18298793 L.Tabernero, A.R.Aricescu, E.Y.Jones, and S.E.Szedlacsek (2008).
Protein tyrosine phosphatases: structure-function relationships.
  FEBS J, 275, 867-882.  
18573100 R.J.Gruninger, L.Brent Selinger, and S.C.Mosimann (2008).
Effect of ionic strength and oxidation on the P-loop conformation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like phytase, PhyAsr.
  FEBS J, 275, 3783-3792.
PDB codes: 2psz 2pt0 3d1h 3d1o 3d1q
18528979 S.Liu, B.Zhou, H.Yang, Y.He, Z.X.Jiang, S.Kumar, L.Wu, and Z.Y.Zhang (2008).
Aryl vinyl sulfonates and sulfones as active site-directed and mechanism-based probes for protein tyrosine phosphatases.
  J Am Chem Soc, 130, 8251-8260.
PDB codes: 3blt 3blu 3bm8
19012396 S.Liu, L.F.Zeng, L.Wu, X.Yu, T.Xue, A.M.Gunawan, Y.Q.Long, and Z.Y.Zhang (2008).
Targeting inactive enzyme conformation: aryl diketoacid derivatives as a new class of PTP1B inhibitors.
  J Am Chem Soc, 130, 17075-17084.
PDB codes: 3eax 3eb1
18678493 X.Y.Zhang, V.L.Chen, M.S.Rosen, E.R.Blair, A.M.Lone, and A.C.Bishop (2008).
Allele-specific inhibition of divergent protein tyrosine phosphatases with a single small molecule.
  Bioorg Med Chem, 16, 8090-8097.  
17567745 A.A.Puhl, R.J.Gruninger, R.Greiner, T.W.Janzen, S.C.Mosimann, and L.B.Selinger (2007).
Kinetic and structural analysis of a bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase-like myo-inositol polyphosphatase.
  Protein Sci, 16, 1368-1378.
PDB codes: 2b4o 2b4p 2b4u
17532515 A.C.Bishop, X.Y.Zhang, and A.M.Lone (2007).
Generation of inhibitor-sensitive protein tyrosine phosphatases via active-site mutations.
  Methods, 42, 278-288.  
17532507 A.S.Wavreille, M.Garaud, Y.Zhang, and D.Pei (2007).
Defining SH2 domain and PTP specificity by screening combinatorial peptide libraries.
  Methods, 42, 207-219.  
17495930 G.C.Fox, M.Shafiq, D.C.Briggs, P.P.Knowles, M.Collister, M.J.Didmon, V.Makrantoni, R.J.Dickinson, S.Hanrahan, N.Totty, M.J.Stark, S.M.Keyse, and N.Q.McDonald (2007).
Redox-mediated substrate recognition by Sdp1 defines a new group of tyrosine phosphatases.
  Nature, 447, 487-492.
PDB codes: 2j16 2j17
17400699 H.C.Matozo, M.A.Santos, Oliveira Neto, L.Bleicher, L.M.Lima, R.Iuliano, A.Fusco, and I.Polikarpov (2007).
Low-resolution structure and fluorescence anisotropy analysis of protein tyrosine phosphatase eta catalytic domain.
  Biophys J, 92, 4424-4432.  
17173287 H.M.Chu, and A.H.Wang (2007).
Enzyme-substrate interactions revealed by the crystal structures of the archaeal Sulfolobus PTP-fold phosphatase and its phosphopeptide complexes.
  Proteins, 66, 996.
PDB codes: 2dxp 2i6i 2i6j 2i6m 2i6o 2i6p
17585314 J.A.Ubersax, and J.E.Ferrell (2007).
Mechanisms of specificity in protein phosphorylation.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 8, 530-541.  
17191286 M.Stuible, L.Zhao, I.Aubry, D.Schmidt-Arras, F.D.Böhmer, C.J.Li, and M.L.Tremblay (2007).
Cellular inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B by uncharged thioxothiazolidinone derivatives.
  Chembiochem, 8, 179-186.  
17115885 P.Chiarugi, and F.Buricchi (2007).
Protein tyrosine phosphorylation and reversible oxidation: two cross-talking posttranslation modifications.
  Antioxid Redox Signal, 9, 1.  
17044055 S.J.Kim, D.G.Jeong, T.S.Yoon, J.H.Son, S.K.Cho, S.E.Ryu, and J.H.Kim (2007).
Crystal structure of human TMDP, a testis-specific dual specificity protein phosphatase: implications for substrate specificity.
  Proteins, 66, 239-245.
PDB code: 2gwo
17546659 T.S.Girish, and B.Gopal (2007).
The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the chick retinal neurite inhibitor-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase CRYP-2/cPTPRO.
  Proteins, 68, 1011-1015.
PDB code: 2pi7
16534812 A.J.Barr, J.E.Debreczeni, J.Eswaran, and S.Knapp (2006).
Crystal structure of human protein tyrosine phosphatase 14 (PTPN14) at 1.65-A resolution.
  Proteins, 63, 1132-1136.
PDB code: 2bzl
16557282 A.Ostman, C.Hellberg, and F.D.Böhmer (2006).
Protein-tyrosine phosphatases and cancer.
  Nat Rev Cancer, 6, 307-320.  
16541109 F.V.Rao, H.C.Dorfmueller, F.Villa, M.Allwood, I.M.Eggleston, and D.M.van Aalten (2006).
Structural insights into the mechanism and inhibition of eukaryotic O-GlcNAc hydrolysis.
  EMBO J, 25, 1569-1578.
PDB codes: 2cbi 2cbj
  16946481 H.C.Matozo, A.S.Nascimento, M.A.Santos, R.Iuliano, A.Fusco, and I.Polikarpov (2006).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of rat protein tyrosine phosphatase eta.
  Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun, 62, 923-925.  
16514605 J.E.Marlo, and C.J.Desai (2006).
Loss of phosphatase activity in Ptp69D alleles supporting axon guidance defects.
  J Cell Biochem, 98, 1296-1307.  
16410353 M.J.Begley, G.S.Taylor, M.A.Brock, P.Ghosh, V.L.Woods, and J.E.Dixon (2006).
Molecular basis for substrate recognition by MTMR2, a myotubularin family phosphoinositide phosphatase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 927-932.
PDB codes: 1zsq 1zvr
15890001 A.Salmeen, and D.Barford (2005).
Functions and mechanisms of redox regulation of cysteine-based phosphatases.
  Antioxid Redox Signal, 7, 560-577.  
15684325 H.J.Nam, F.Poy, H.Saito, and C.A.Frederick (2005).
Structural basis for the function and regulation of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45.
  J Exp Med, 201, 441-452.
PDB codes: 1ygr 1ygu
15715684 I.Gouni-Berthold, E.Giannakidou, D.Müller-Wieland, M.Faust, J.Kotzka, H.K.Berthold, and W.Krone (2005).
The Pro387Leu variant of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B is not associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 in a German population.
  J Intern Med, 257, 272-280.  
15258570 C.Wiesmann, K.J.Barr, J.Kung, J.Zhu, D.A.Erlanson, W.Shen, B.J.Fahr, M.Zhong, L.Taylor, M.Randal, R.S.McDowell, and S.K.Hansen (2004).
Allosteric inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 11, 730-737.
PDB codes: 1t48 1t49 1t4j
15256004 F.Cvrcková, M.Novotný, D.Pícková, and V.Zárský (2004).
Formin homology 2 domains occur in multiple contexts in angiosperms.
  BMC Genomics, 5, 44.  
15013940 S.D.Taylor, and B.Hill (2004).
Recent advances in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors.
  Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 13, 199-214.  
15516802 S.Shibuya (2004).
[Synthesis of phosphonic acid and phosphinic acid derivatives for development of biologically active compounds]
  Yakugaku Zasshi, 124, 725-749.  
12802338 A.Salmeen, J.N.Andersen, M.P.Myers, T.C.Meng, J.A.Hinks, N.K.Tonks, and D.Barford (2003).
Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B involves a sulphenyl-amide intermediate.
  Nature, 423, 769-773.
PDB codes: 1oem 1oeo
12917349 C.C.Stebbins, C.Watzl, D.D.Billadeau, P.J.Leibson, D.N.Burshtyn, and E.O.Long (2003).
Vav1 dephosphorylation by the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 as a mechanism for inhibition of cellular cytotoxicity.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 6291-6299.  
12853468 C.H.Gray, V.M.Good, N.K.Tonks, and D.Barford (2003).
The structure of the cell cycle protein Cdc14 reveals a proline-directed protein phosphatase.
  EMBO J, 22, 3524-3535.
PDB codes: 1ohc 1ohd 1ohe
14690594 M.J.Begley, G.S.Taylor, S.A.Kim, D.M.Veine, J.E.Dixon, and J.A.Stuckey (2003).
Crystal structure of a phosphoinositide phosphatase, MTMR2: insights into myotubular myopathy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome.
  Mol Cell, 12, 1391-1402.
PDB codes: 1lw3 1m7r
12802339 R.L.van Montfort, M.Congreve, D.Tisi, R.Carr, and H.Jhoti (2003).
Oxidation state of the active-site cysteine in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.
  Nature, 423, 773-777.
PDB codes: 1oes 1oet 1oeu 1oev
12668436 T.M.Frimurer, G.H.Peters, L.F.Iversen, H.S.Andersen, N.P.Møller, and O.H.Olsen (2003).
Ligand-induced conformational changes: improved predictions of ligand binding conformations and affinities.
  Biophys J, 84, 2273-2281.  
14690430 Y.Kim, A.E.Rice, and J.M.Denu (2003).
Intramolecular dephosphorylation of ERK by MKP3.
  Biochemistry, 42, 15197-15207.  
12556216 Z.Y.Zhang, and S.Y.Lee (2003).
PTP1B inhibitors as potential therapeutics in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity.
  Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 12, 223-233.  
12377129 A.E.Todd, C.A.Orengo, and J.M.Thornton (2002).
Sequence and structural differences between enzyme and nonenzyme homologs.
  Structure, 10, 1435-1451.  
12119018 E.Asante-Appiah, S.Patel, C.Dufresne, P.Roy, Q.Wang, V.Patel, R.W.Friesen, C.Ramachandran, J.W.Becker, Y.Leblanc, B.P.Kennedy, and G.Scapin (2002).
The structure of PTP-1B in complex with a peptide inhibitor reveals an alternative binding mode for bisphosphonates.
  Biochemistry, 41, 9043-9051.
PDB code: 1lqf
12186556 H.Fu, J.Park, and D.Pei (2002).
Peptidyl aldehydes as reversible covalent inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatases.
  Biochemistry, 41, 10700-10709.  
11900546 L.Xie, Y.L.Zhang, and Z.Y.Zhang (2002).
Design and characterization of an improved protein tyrosine phosphatase substrate-trapping mutant.
  Biochemistry, 41, 4032-4039.  
11863439 M.A.Schumacher, J.L.Todd, A.E.Rice, K.G.Tanner, and J.M.Denu (2002).
Structural basis for the recognition of a bisphosphorylated MAP kinase peptide by human VHR protein Phosphatase.
  Biochemistry, 41, 3009-3017.
PDB code: 1j4x
11807171 Z.Y.Zhang (2002).
Protein tyrosine phosphatases: structure and function, substrate specificity, and inhibitor development.
  Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 42, 209-234.  
12191622 Z.Y.Zhang, B.Zhou, and L.Xie (2002).
Modulation of protein kinase signaling by protein phosphatases and inhibitors.
  Pharmacol Ther, 93, 307-317.  
11350947 A.Changela, C.K.Ho, A.Martins, S.Shuman, and A.Mondragón (2001).
Structure and mechanism of the RNA triphosphatase component of mammalian mRNA capping enzyme.
  EMBO J, 20, 2575-2586.
PDB codes: 1i9s 1i9t
11468356 G.Scapin, S.Patel, V.Patel, B.Kennedy, and E.Asante-Appiah (2001).
The structure of apo protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B C215S mutant: more than just an S --> O change.
  Protein Sci, 10, 1596-1605.
PDB code: 1i57
11381105 H.Kawachi, A.Fujikawa, N.Maeda, and M.Noda (2001).
Identification of GIT1/Cat-1 as a substrate molecule of protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta /beta by the yeast substrate-trapping system.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 6593-6598.  
11746515 J.Yang, T.Niu, A.Zhang, A.K.Mishra, Z.J.Zhao, and G.W.Zhou (2001).
Relation between the flexibility of the WPD loop and the activity of the catalytic domain of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1.
  J Cell Biochem, 84, 47-55.  
11248552 N.K.Tonks, and B.G.Neel (2001).
Combinatorial control of the specificity of protein tyrosine phosphatases.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 13, 182-195.  
11392533 T.R.Burke, Z.J.Yao, B.Ye, K.Miyoshi, A.Otaka, L.Wu, and Z.Y.Zhang (2001).
Phospho-Azatyrosine, a less effective protein-tyrosine phosphatase substrate than phosphotyrosine.
  Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 11, 1265-1268.  
11376431 T.R.Burke, Z.J.Yao, D.G.Liu, J.Voigt, and Y.Gao (2001).
Phosphoryltyrosyl mimetics in the design of peptide-based signal transduction inhibitors.
  Biopolymers, 60, 32-44.  
11470605 Z.Y.Zhang (2001).
Protein tyrosine phosphatases: prospects for therapeutics.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 5, 416-423.  
11163213 A.Salmeen, J.N.Andersen, M.P.Myers, N.K.Tonks, and D.Barford (2000).
Molecular basis for the dephosphorylation of the activation segment of the insulin receptor by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.
  Mol Cell, 6, 1401-1412.
PDB codes: 1g1f 1g1g 1g1h
10911997 B.O.Krogh, and S.Shuman (2000).
Catalytic mechanism of DNA topoisomerase IB.
  Mol Cell, 5, 1035-1041.  
11079556 C.Pasquali, F.Vilbois, M.L.Curchod, R.Hooft van Huijsduijnen, and F.Arigoni (2000).
Mapping and identification of protein-protein interactions by two-dimensional far-Western immunoblotting.
  Electrophoresis, 21, 3357-3368.  
10777720 G.H.Peters, T.M.Frimurer, J.N.Andersen, and O.H.Olsen (2000).
Molecular dynamics simulations of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B. II. substrate-enzyme interactions and dynamics.
  Biophys J, 78, 2191-2200.  
11056007 J.C.Li, E.T.Samy, J.Grima, S.S.Chung, D.Mruk, W.M.Lee, B.Silvestrini, and C.Y.Cheng (2000).
Rat testicular myotubularin, a protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed by Sertoli and germ cells, is a potential marker for studying cell-cell interactions in the rat testis.
  J Cell Physiol, 185, 366-385.  
10605932 P.Herrlich, and F.D.Böhmer (2000).
Redox regulation of signal transduction in mammalian cells.
  Biochem Pharmacol, 59, 35-41.  
10853661 Y.Gao, L.Wu, J.H.Luo, R.Guo, D.Yang, Z.Y.Zhang, and T.R.Burke (2000).
Examination of novel non-phosphorus-containing phosphotyrosyl mimetics against protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1B and demonstration of differential affinities toward Grb2 SH2 domains.
  Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 10, 923-927.  
10381193 A.Hernández-Hernández, J.Sánchez-Yagüe, E.M.Martín-Valmaseda, and M.Llanillo (1999).
Oxidative inactivation of human and sheep platelet membrane-associated phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity.
  Free Radic Biol Med, 26, 1218-1230.  
10388775 G.H.Peters, T.M.Frimurer, J.N.Andersen, and O.H.Olsen (1999).
Molecular dynamics simulations of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B. I. ligand-induced changes in the protein motions.
  Biophys J, 77, 505-515.  
10338209 H.J.Nam, F.Poy, N.X.Krueger, H.Saito, and C.A.Frederick (1999).
Crystal structure of the tandem phosphatase domains of RPTP LAR.
  Cell, 97, 449-457.
PDB code: 1lar
10555148 J.O.Lee, H.Yang, M.M.Georgescu, A.Di Cristofano, T.Maehama, Y.Shi, J.E.Dixon, P.Pandolfi, and N.P.Pavletich (1999).
Crystal structure of the PTEN tumor suppressor: implications for its phosphoinositide phosphatase activity and membrane association.
  Cell, 99, 323-334.
PDB code: 1d5r
10409830 K.Kolmodin, P.Nordlund, and J.Aqvist (1999).
Mechanism of substrate dephosphorylation in low Mr protein tyrosine phosphatase.
  Proteins, 36, 370-379.  
10525146 K.L.Lim, C.H.Ng, and C.J.Pallen (1999).
Catalytic activation of the membrane distal domain of protein tyrosine phosphatase epsilon, but not CD45, by two point mutations.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1434, 275-283.  
10092868 Y.F.Keng, L.Wu, and Z.Y.Zhang (1999).
Probing the function of the conserved tryptophan in the flexible loop of the Yersinia protein-tyrosine phosphatase.
  Eur J Biochem, 259, 809-814.  
9763224 B.L.Martin (1998).
Inhibition of calcineurin by the tyrphostin class of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
  Biochem Pharmacol, 56, 483-488.  
9646865 D.Barford, A.K.Das, and M.P.Egloff (1998).
The structure and mechanism of protein phosphatases: insights into catalysis and regulation.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 27, 133-164.  
9551546 D.Barford, and B.G.Neel (1998).
Revealing mechanisms for SH2 domain mediated regulation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2.
  Structure, 6, 249-254.  
  9632768 J.F.Timms, K.Carlberg, H.Gu, H.Chen, S.Kamatkar, M.J.Nadler, L.R.Rohrschneider, and B.G.Neel (1998).
Identification of major binding proteins and substrates for the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in macrophages.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 3838-3850.  
9818190 J.M.Denu, and J.E.Dixon (1998).
Protein tyrosine phosphatases: mechanisms of catalysis and regulation.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 2, 633-641.  
  9566916 K.R.LaMontagne, A.J.Flint, B.R.Franza, A.M.Pandergast, and N.K.Tonks (1998).
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B antagonizes signalling by oncoprotein tyrosine kinase p210 bcr-abl in vivo.
  Mol Cell Biol, 18, 2965-2975.  
9862122 L.Shi, M.Potts, and P.J.Kennelly (1998).
The serine, threonine, and/or tyrosine-specific protein kinases and protein phosphatases of prokaryotic organisms: a family portrait.
  FEMS Microbiol Rev, 22, 229-253.  
9757831 M.J.Wishart, and J.E.Dixon (1998).
Gathering STYX: phosphatase-like form predicts functions for unique protein-interaction domains.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 23, 301-306.  
9491886 P.Hof, S.Pluskey, S.Dhe-Paganon, M.J.Eck, and S.E.Shoelson (1998).
Crystal structure of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2.
  Cell, 92, 441-450.
PDB code: 2shp
9817026 T.R.Burke, and Z.Y.Zhang (1998).
Protein-tyrosine phosphatases: structure, mechanism, and inhibitor discovery.
  Biopolymers, 47, 225-241.  
  9514261 Y.Cao, R.A.Musah, S.K.Wilcox, D.B.Goodin, and D.E.McRee (1998).
Protein conformer selection by ligand binding observed with crystallography.
  Protein Sci, 7, 72-78.
PDB code: 1ccj
9050838 A.J.Flint, T.Tiganis, D.Barford, and N.K.Tonks (1997).
Development of "substrate-trapping" mutants to identify physiological substrates of protein tyrosine phosphatases.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 1680-1685.  
9069265 B.G.Neel, and N.K.Tonks (1997).
Protein tyrosine phosphatases in signal transduction.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 9, 193-204.  
  9079918 B.McCartney, L.D.Howell, P.J.Kennelly, and M.Potts (1997).
Protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.
  J Bacteriol, 179, 2314-2318.  
9147129 G.Ramponi, and M.Stefani (1997).
Structural, catalytic, and functional properties of low M(r), phosphotyrosine protein phosphatases. Evidence of a long evolutionary history.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 29, 279-292.  
9183007 K.L.Lim, D.S.Lai, M.B.Kalousek, Y.Wang, and C.J.Pallen (1997).
Kinetic analysis of two closely related receptor-like protein-tyrosine-phosphatases, PTP alpha and PTP epsilon.
  Eur J Biochem, 245, 693-700.  
9265651 S.Spencer, D.Dowbenko, J.Cheng, W.Li, J.Brush, S.Utzig, V.Simanis, and L.A.Lasky (1997).
PSTPIP: a tyrosine phosphorylated cleavage furrow-associated protein that is a substrate for a PEST tyrosine phosphatase.
  J Cell Biol, 138, 845-860.  
9391040 Y.A.Puius, Y.Zhao, M.Sullivan, D.S.Lawrence, S.C.Almo, and Z.Y.Zhang (1997).
Identification of a second aryl phosphate-binding site in protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B: a paradigm for inhibitor design.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 13420-13425.
PDB codes: 1aax 1pty
  8887669 A.J.Garton, A.J.Flint, and N.K.Tonks (1996).
Identification of p130(cas) as a substrate for the cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 6408-6418.  
  8976573 D.T.Haynie, and C.P.Ponting (1996).
The N-terminal domains of tensin and auxilin are phosphatase homologues.
  Protein Sci, 5, 2643-2646.  
8987394 E.B.Fauman, and M.A.Saper (1996).
Structure and function of the protein tyrosine phosphatases.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 21, 413-417.  
  8845750 E.S.Muise, A.Vrielink, M.A.Ennis, N.H.Lemieux, and M.L.Tremblay (1996).
Thermosensitive mutants of the MPTP and hPTP1B protein tyrosine phosphatases: isolation and structural analysis.
  Protein Sci, 5, 604-613.  
8637902 J.M.Denu, D.L.Lohse, J.Vijayalakshmi, M.A.Saper, and J.E.Dixon (1996).
Visualization of intermediate and transition-state structures in protein-tyrosine phosphatase catalysis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 2493-2498.  
8898189 J.M.Denu, J.A.Stuckey, M.A.Saper, and J.E.Dixon (1996).
Form and function in protein dephosphorylation.
  Cell, 87, 361-364.  
  8670803 J.den Hertog, and T.Hunter (1996).
Tight association of GRB2 with receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha is mediated by the SH2 and C-terminal SH3 domains.
  EMBO J, 15, 3016-3027.  
  8628311 M.Gamper, P.K.Howard, T.Hunter, and R.A.Firtel (1996).
Multiple roles of the novel protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP3 during Dictyostelium growth and development.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 2431-2444.  
  8622647 T.Jelinek, P.Dent, T.W.Sturgill, and M.J.Weber (1996).
Ras-induced activation of Raf-1 is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 1027-1034.  
8846213 D.Barford, Z.Jia, and N.K.Tonks (1995).
Protein tyrosine phosphatases take off.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 1043-1053.  
8749359 D.Barford (1995).
Protein phosphatases.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 728-734.  
  8528087 H.L.Schubert, E.B.Fauman, J.A.Stuckey, J.E.Dixon, and M.A.Saper (1995).
A ligand-induced conformational change in the Yersinia protein tyrosine phosphatase.
  Protein Sci, 4, 1904-1913.
PDB code: 1yts
8578591 Z.Songyang, and L.C.Cantley (1995).
Recognition and specificity in protein tyrosine kinase-mediated signalling.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 20, 470-475.  
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