PDBsum entry 1nex

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Ligase, cell cycle PDB id
Protein chains
129 a.a. *
444 a.a. *
Waters ×72
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Ligase, cell cycle
Title: Crystal structure of scskp1-sccdc4-cpd peptide complex
Structure: Centromere DNA-binding protein complex cbf3 subunit d. Chain: a, c. Fragment: residues 36-63 deleted. Synonym: scskp1, suppressor of kinetochore protein 1. Engineered: yes. Cdc4 protein. Chain: b, d. Fragment: residues 601-604 and 609-624 deleted.
Source: Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Baker's yeast. Organism_taxid: 4932. Gene: cbf3d or skp1 or ydr328c or d9798.14. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562.
Biol. unit: Trimer (from PQS)
2.70Å     R-factor:   0.239     R-free:   0.273
Authors: S.Orlicky,X.Tang,A.Willems,M.Tyers,F.Sicheri
Key ref:
S.Orlicky et al. (2003). Structural basis for phosphodependent substrate selection and orientation by the SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase. Cell, 112, 243-256. PubMed id: 12553912 DOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00034-5
12-Dec-02     Release date:   18-Feb-03    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P52286  (SKP1_YEAST) -  Suppressor of kinetochore protein 1
194 a.a.
129 a.a.
Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P07834  (CDC4_YEAST) -  Cell division control protein 4
779 a.a.
444 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 2 residue positions (black crosses)

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Biological process     ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process   1 term 


DOI no: 10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00034-5 Cell 112:243-256 (2003)
PubMed id: 12553912  
Structural basis for phosphodependent substrate selection and orientation by the SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase.
S.Orlicky, X.Tang, A.Willems, M.Tyers, F.Sicheri.
Cell cycle progression depends on precise elimination of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors by the ubiquitin system. Elimination of the CDK inhibitor Sic1 by the SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase at the onset of S phase requires phosphorylation of Sic1 on at least six of its nine Cdc4-phosphodegron (CPD) sites. A 2.7 A X-ray crystal structure of a Skp1-Cdc4 complex bound to a high-affinity CPD phosphopeptide from human cyclin E reveals a core CPD motif, Leu-Leu-pThr-Pro, bound to an eight-bladed WD40 propeller domain in Cdc4. The low affinity of each CPD motif in Sic1 reflects structural discordance with one or more elements of the Cdc4 binding site. Reengineering of Cdc4 to reduce selection against Sic1 sequences allows ubiquitination of lower phosphorylated forms of Sic1. These features account for the observed phosphorylation threshold in Sic1 recognition and suggest an equilibrium binding mode between a single receptor site in Cdc4 and multiple low-affinity CPD sites in Sic1.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 3.
Figure 3. Substrate Orientation within the Skp1-Cdc4-CPD Complex(A) Comparison of the ScSkp1-ScCdc4-CPD complex and the hSkp1-hSkp2 complex. Complexes were superimposed through a least squares optimization of Skp1 β strands 1 to 3 and α helices 1 to 6 (RMSD Cα = 0.74Å). Skp1 and F box secondary structure elements that deviate significantly in size and position between the two structures are labeled.(B) Model of the ubiquitin-E2-SCF^Cdc4-CPD complex. The arrow indicates the 59 Å distance separating the phosphate group of the CPD and the active site cysteine of the E2.
Figure 4.
Figure 4. The CPD Binding Pocket of the WD40 Domain(A) Surface representation of the CPD binding pocket, indicating invariant and highly conserved residues. Basic (blue), hydrophobic (green), and small polar residues (orange) are shown. The bound CPD is in ball and stick representation with carbon (white), nitrogen (blue), oxygen (red), and phosphorous (yellow) atoms shown.(B) Surface representation of CPD binding region indicating electrostatic potential. Blue and red indicate regions of positive and negative potential, respectively, over the range 10 to −10 k[B]T.(C) Stereo ribbons representation of side chains and molecular interactions in the CPD binding pocket. Highly conserved and invariant side chains of Cdc4 and the CPD are displayed in ball and stick representation. Sites of mutation that give rise to severe and intermediate loss of function (see Figure 5) are colored red and blue, respectively; nonessential residues are colored green.(D) Schematic of CPD binding pocket interactions with the CPD peptide.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Cell Press: Cell (2003, 112, 243-256) copyright 2003.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

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PDB codes: 3e0c 3fm0 3i2n 3ow8
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PDB code: 3odt
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PDB codes: 3dpl 3dqv
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PDB codes: 2ovp 2ovq 2ovr
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Different electrostatic potentials define ETGE and DLG motifs as hinge and latch in oxidative stress response.
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PDB code: 2dyh
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The prolyl isomerase PIN1: a pivotal new twist in phosphorylation signalling and disease.
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Structural analysis of Bub3 interactions in the mitotic spindle checkpoint.
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PDB codes: 2i3s 2i3t
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Protein-protein interactions regulate Ubl conjugation.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 17, 665-673.  
17515920 R.S.Maser, B.Choudhury, P.J.Campbell, B.Feng, K.K.Wong, A.Protopopov, J.O'Neil, A.Gutierrez, E.Ivanova, I.Perna, E.Lin, V.Mani, S.Jiang, K.McNamara, S.Zaghlul, S.Edkins, C.Stevens, C.Brennan, E.S.Martin, R.Wiedemeyer, O.Kabbarah, C.Nogueira, G.Histen, J.Aster, M.Mansour, V.Duke, L.Foroni, A.K.Fielding, A.H.Goldstone, J.M.Rowe, Y.A.Wang, A.T.Look, M.R.Stratton, L.Chin, P.A.Futreal, and R.A.DePinho (2007).
Chromosomally unstable mouse tumours have genomic alterations similar to diverse human cancers.
  Nature, 447, 966-971.  
17960736 R.Weerasekera, Y.M.She, K.A.Markham, Y.Bai, N.Opalka, S.Orlicky, F.Sicheri, T.Kislinger, and G.Schmitt-Ulms (2007).
Interactome and interface protocol (2IP): a novel strategy for high sensitivity topology mapping of protein complexes.
  Proteomics, 7, 3835-3852.  
17517885 S.Escusa, D.Laporte, A.Massoni, H.Boucherie, A.Dautant, and B.Daignan-Fornier (2007).
Skp1-Cullin-F-box-dependent degradation of Aah1p requires its interaction with the F-box protein Saf1p.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 20097-20103.  
18047746 T.Cardozo, and M.Pagano (2007).
Wrenches in the works: drug discovery targeting the SCF ubiquitin ligase and APC/C complexes.
  BMC Biochem, 8, S9.  
17389369 T.Mizushima, Y.Yoshida, T.Kumanomidou, Y.Hasegawa, A.Suzuki, T.Yamane, and K.Tanaka (2007).
Structural basis for the selection of glycosylated substrates by SCF(Fbs1) ubiquitin ligase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104, 5777-5781.
PDB codes: 2e31 2e32 2e33
17574027 X.Tang, S.Orlicky, Z.Lin, A.Willems, D.Neculai, D.Ceccarelli, F.Mercurio, B.H.Shilton, F.Sicheri, and M.Tyers (2007).
Suprafacial orientation of the SCFCdc4 dimer accommodates multiple geometries for substrate ubiquitination.
  Cell, 129, 1165-1176.
PDB codes: 2p63 2p64
17215248 Y.Yoshida, A.Murakami, K.Iwai, and K.Tanaka (2007).
A neural-specific F-box protein Fbs1 functions as a chaperone suppressing glycoprotein aggregation.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 7137-7144.  
17937919 Z.Han, X.Xing, M.Hu, Y.Zhang, P.Liu, and J.Chai (2007).
Structural basis of EZH2 recognition by EED.
  Structure, 15, 1306-1315.
PDB code: 2qxv
16732283 A.A.Yunus, and C.D.Lima (2006).
Lysine activation and functional analysis of E2-mediated conjugation in the SUMO pathway.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 13, 491-499.
PDB codes: 2grn 2gro 2grp 2grq 2grr
16678437 A.K.Gardino, S.J.Smerdon, and M.B.Yaffe (2006).
Structural determinants of 14-3-3 binding specificities and regulation of subcellular localization of 14-3-3-ligand complexes: a comparison of the X-ray crystal structures of all human 14-3-3 isoforms.
  Semin Cancer Biol, 16, 173-182.  
16407068 B.A.Appleton, P.Wu, and C.Wiesmann (2006).
The crystal structure of murine coronin-1: a regulator of actin cytoskeletal dynamics in lymphocytes.
  Structure, 14, 87-96.
PDB codes: 2aq5 2b4e
16507366 B.Padmanabhan, K.I.Tong, T.Ohta, Y.Nakamura, M.Scharlock, M.Ohtsuji, M.I.Kang, A.Kobayashi, S.Yokoyama, and M.Yamamoto (2006).
Structural basis for defects of Keap1 activity provoked by its point mutations in lung cancer.
  Mol Cell, 21, 689-700.
PDB codes: 1x2j 1x2r
16829979 B.T.Seet, I.Dikic, M.M.Zhou, and T.Pawson (2006).
Reading protein modifications with interaction domains.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 7, 473-483.  
16492666 D.Ju, and Y.Xie (2006).
Identification of the preferential ubiquitination site and ubiquitin-dependent degradation signal of Rpn4.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 10657-10662.  
16705181 D.Tempé, M.Casas, S.Karaz, M.F.Blanchet-Tournier, and J.P.Concordet (2006).
Multisite protein kinase A and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta phosphorylation leads to Gli3 ubiquitination by SCFbetaTrCP.
  Mol Cell Biol, 26, 4316-4326.  
18369404 E.Mazzucotelli, S.Belloni, D.Marone, A.De Leonardis, D.Guerra, N.Di Fonzo, L.Cattivelli, and A.Mastrangelo (2006).
The e3 ubiquitin ligase gene family in plants: regulation by degradation.
  Curr Genomics, 7, 509-522.  
16638745 E.Oh, and D.C.Thurmond (2006).
The stimulus-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Munc18c facilitates vesicle exocytosis.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 17624-17634.  
16223725 E.S.Yeh, B.O.Lew, and A.R.Means (2006).
The loss of PIN1 deregulates cyclin E and sensitizes mouse embryo fibroblasts to genomic instability.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 241-251.  
16818231 F.van Drogen, O.Sangfelt, A.Malyukova, L.Matskova, E.Yeh, A.R.Means, and S.I.Reed (2006).
Ubiquitylation of cyclin E requires the sequential function of SCF complexes containing distinct hCdc4 isoforms.
  Mol Cell, 23, 37-48.  
16829960 J.F.Couture, E.Collazo, and R.C.Trievel (2006).
Molecular recognition of histone H3 by the WD40 protein WDR5.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 13, 698-703.
PDB codes: 2h13 2h14
16682214 K.Horie-Inoue, and S.Inoue (2006).
Epigenetic and proteolytic inactivation of 14-3-3sigma in breast and prostate cancers.
  Semin Cancer Biol, 16, 235-239.  
17081101 K.I.Tong, A.Kobayashi, F.Katsuoka, and M.Yamamoto (2006).
Two-site substrate recognition model for the Keap1-Nrf2 system: a hinge and latch mechanism.
  Biol Chem, 387, 1311-1320.  
16581765 K.I.Tong, Y.Katoh, H.Kusunoki, K.Itoh, T.Tanaka, and M.Yamamoto (2006).
Keap1 recruits Neh2 through binding to ETGE and DLG motifs: characterization of the two-site molecular recognition model.
  Mol Cell Biol, 26, 2887-2900.  
17114057 M.D.Petroski, G.Kleiger, and R.J.Deshaies (2006).
Evaluation of a diffusion-driven mechanism for substrate ubiquitination by the SCF-Cdc34 ubiquitin ligase complex.
  Mol Cell, 24, 523-534.  
17084700 P.Lenz, and P.S.Swain (2006).
An entropic mechanism to generate highly cooperative and specific binding from protein phosphorylations.
  Curr Biol, 16, 2150-2155.  
17046835 S.C.Lo, and M.Hannink (2006).
PGAM5, a Bcl-XL-interacting protein, is a novel substrate for the redox-regulated Keap1-dependent ubiquitin ligase complex.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 37893-37903.  
16888629 S.C.Lo, X.Li, M.T.Henzl, L.J.Beamer, and M.Hannink (2006).
Structure of the Keap1:Nrf2 interface provides mechanistic insight into Nrf2 signaling.
  EMBO J, 25, 3605-3617.
PDB code: 2flu
16771627 Z.Liu, and R.A.Butow (2006).
Mitochondrial retrograde signaling.
  Annu Rev Genet, 40, 159-185.  
16061177 A.A.Ogunjimi, D.J.Briant, N.Pece-Barbara, C.Le Roy, G.M.Di Guglielmo, P.Kavsak, R.K.Rasmussen, B.T.Seet, F.Sicheri, and J.L.Wrana (2005).
Regulation of Smurf2 ubiquitin ligase activity by anchoring the E2 to the HECT domain.
  Mol Cell, 19, 297-308.
PDB code: 1zvd
15814839 A.Atir-Lande, T.Gildor, and D.Kornitzer (2005).
Role for the SCFCDC4 ubiquitin ligase in Candida albicans morphogenesis.
  Mol Biol Cell, 16, 2772-2785.  
15576564 B.A.Joughin, B.Tidor, and M.B.Yaffe (2005).
A computational method for the analysis and prediction of protein:phosphopeptide-binding sites.
  Protein Sci, 14, 131-139.  
15694336 D.T.Huang, A.Paydar, M.Zhuang, M.B.Waddell, J.M.Holton, and B.A.Schulman (2005).
Structural basis for recruitment of Ubc12 by an E2 binding domain in NEDD8's E1.
  Mol Cell, 17, 341-350.
PDB code: 1y8x
15980415 D.Ungermannova, Y.Gao, and X.Liu (2005).
Ubiquitination of p27Kip1 requires physical interaction with cyclin E and probable phosphate recognition by SKP2.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 30301-30309.  
16365295 E.Ozkan, H.Yu, and J.Deisenhofer (2005).
Mechanistic insight into the allosteric activation of a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme by RING-type ubiquitin ligases.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 18890-18895.
PDB codes: 2esk 2eso 2esp 2esq
15967112 F.P.Silva, R.Hamamoto, Y.Nakamura, and Y.Furukawa (2005).
WDRPUH, a novel WD-repeat-containing protein, is highly expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma and involved in cell proliferation.
  Neoplasia, 7, 348-355.  
15867923 G.Wulf, G.Finn, F.Suizu, and K.P.Lu (2005).
Phosphorylation-specific prolyl isomerization: is there an underlying theme?
  Nat Cell Biol, 7, 435-441.  
15838514 H.C.Hwang, and B.E.Clurman (2005).
Cyclin E in normal and neoplastic cell cycles.
  Oncogene, 24, 2776-2786.  
16228290 J.C.Shieh, A.White, Y.C.Cheng, and J.Rosamond (2005).
Identification and functional characterization of Candida albicans CDC4.
  J Biomed Sci, 12, 913-924.  
15883825 L.E.Brunson, C.Dixon, A.LeFebvre, L.Sun, and N.Mathias (2005).
Identification of residues in the WD-40 repeat motif of the F-box protein Met30p required for interaction with its substrate Met4p.
  Mol Genet Genomics, 273, 361-370.  
15822184 M.A.Correia, S.Sadeghi, and E.Mundo-Paredes (2005).
Cytochrome P450 ubiquitination: branding for the proteolytic slaughter?
  Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 45, 439-464.  
15994560 M.A.Pufall, G.M.Lee, M.L.Nelson, H.S.Kang, A.Velyvis, L.E.Kay, L.P.McIntosh, and B.J.Graves (2005).
Variable control of Ets-1 DNA binding by multiple phosphates in an unstructured region.
  Science, 309, 142-145.  
15688063 M.D.Petroski, and R.J.Deshaies (2005).
Function and regulation of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 6, 9.  
15965468 M.Dentice, A.Bandyopadhyay, B.Gereben, I.Callebaut, M.A.Christoffolete, B.W.Kim, S.Nissim, J.P.Mornon, A.M.Zavacki, A.Zeöld, L.P.Capelo, C.Curcio-Morelli, R.Ribeiro, J.W.Harney, C.J.Tabin, and A.C.Bianco (2005).
The Hedgehog-inducible ubiquitin ligase subunit WSB-1 modulates thyroid hormone activation and PTHrP secretion in the developing growth plate.
  Nat Cell Biol, 7, 698-705.  
16341092 M.Wang, and C.M.Pickart (2005).
Different HECT domain ubiquitin ligases employ distinct mechanisms of polyubiquitin chain synthesis.
  EMBO J, 24, 4324-4333.  
15611062 M.Welcker, and B.E.Clurman (2005).
The SV40 large T antigen contains a decoy phosphodegron that mediates its interactions with Fbw7/hCdc4.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 7654-7658.  
16207353 P.J.Stogios, G.S.Downs, J.J.Jauhal, S.K.Nandra, and G.G.Privé (2005).
Sequence and structural analysis of BTB domain proteins.
  Genome Biol, 6, R82.  
15660125 R.Barbey, P.Baudouin-Cornu, T.A.Lee, A.Rouillon, P.Zarzov, M.Tyers, and D.Thomas (2005).
Inducible dissociation of SCF(Met30) ubiquitin ligase mediates a rapid transcriptional response to cadmium.
  EMBO J, 24, 521-532.  
15660127 R.Honda, E.D.Lowe, E.Dubinina, V.Skamnaki, A.Cook, N.R.Brown, and L.N.Johnson (2005).
The structure of cyclin E1/CDK2: implications for CDK2 activation and CDK2-independent roles.
  EMBO J, 24, 452-463.
PDB code: 1w98
16210249 S.Rottmann, Y.Wang, M.Nasoff, Q.L.Deveraux, and K.C.Quon (2005).
A TRAIL receptor-dependent synthetic lethal relationship between MYC activation and GSK3beta/FBW7 loss of function.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 15195-15200.  
15701793 T.Gildor, R.Shemer, A.Atir-Lande, and D.Kornitzer (2005).
Coevolution of cyclin Pcl5 and its substrate Gcn4.
  Eukaryot Cell, 4, 310-318.  
15917222 T.Shirogane, J.Jin, X.L.Ang, and J.W.Harper (2005).
SCFbeta-TRCP controls clock-dependent transcription via casein kinase 1-dependent degradation of the mammalian period-1 (Per1) protein.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 26863-26872.  
15838520 X.L.Ang, and J.Wade Harper (2005).
SCF-mediated protein degradation and cell cycle control.
  Oncogene, 24, 2860-2870.  
14981508 A.E.Miele, P.J.Watson, P.R.Evans, L.M.Traub, and D.J.Owen (2004).
Two distinct interaction motifs in amphiphysin bind two independent sites on the clathrin terminal domain beta-propeller.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 11, 242-248.
PDB code: 1utc
15152089 A.Y.Madrona, and D.K.Wilson (2004).
The structure of Ski8p, a protein regulating mRNA degradation: Implications for WD protein structure.
  Protein Sci, 13, 1557-1565.
PDB code: 1sq9
15308626 C.Kanei-Ishii, T.Nomura, J.Tanikawa, E.Ichikawa-Iwata, and S.Ishii (2004).
Differential sensitivity of v-Myb and c-Myb to Wnt-1-induced protein degradation.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 44582-44589.  
15469984 D.V.Hansen, A.V.Loktev, K.H.Ban, and P.K.Jackson (2004).
Plk1 regulates activation of the anaphase promoting complex by phosphorylating and triggering SCFbetaTrCP-dependent destruction of the APC Inhibitor Emi1.
  Mol Biol Cell, 15, 5623-5634.  
14999283 H.Rajagopalan, P.V.Jallepalli, C.Rago, V.E.Velculescu, K.W.Kinzler, B.Vogelstein, and C.Lengauer (2004).
Inactivation of hCDC4 can cause chromosomal instability.
  Nature, 428, 77-81.  
14970237 H.Yamano, K.Kominami, C.Harrison, K.Kitamura, S.Katayama, S.Dhut, T.Hunt, and T.Toda (2004).
Requirement of the SCFPop1/Pop2 Ubiquitin Ligase for Degradation of the Fission Yeast S Phase Cyclin Cig2.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 18974-18980.  
15145941 J.M.Hsu, Y.C.Lee, C.T.Yu, and C.Y.Huang (2004).
Fbx7 functions in the SCF complex regulating Cdk1-cyclin B-phosphorylated hepatoma up-regulated protein (HURP) proteolysis by a proline-rich region.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 32592-32602.  
14990566 J.Nie, S.S.Li, and C.J.McGlade (2004).
A novel PTB-PDZ domain interaction mediates isoform-specific ubiquitylation of mammalian Numb.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 20807-20815.  
15377232 J.Smalle, and R.D.Vierstra (2004).
The ubiquitin 26S proteasome proteolytic pathway.
  Annu Rev Plant Biol, 55, 555-590.  
15337770 K.G.Kumar, J.J.Krolewski, and S.Y.Fuchs (2004).
Phosphorylation and specific ubiquitin acceptor sites are required for ubiquitination and degradation of the IFNAR1 subunit of type I interferon receptor.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 46614-46620.  
15182669 K.H.Moberg, A.Mukherjee, A.Veraksa, S.Artavanis-Tsakonas, and I.K.Hariharan (2004).
The Drosophila F box protein archipelago regulates dMyc protein levels in vivo.
  Curr Biol, 14, 965-974.  
14681553 K.Kumar, M.Brady, and R.Shapiro (2004).
Selective abolition of pancreatic RNase binding to its inhibitor protein.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 53-58.  
14660673 L.E.Brunson, C.Dixon, L.Kozubowski, and N.Mathias (2004).
The amino-terminal portion of the F-box protein Met30p mediates its nuclear import and assimilation into an SCF complex.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 6674-6682.  
15071497 L.Pintard, A.Willems, and M.Peter (2004).
Cullin-based ubiquitin ligases: Cul3-BTB complexes join the family.
  EMBO J, 23, 1681-1687.  
15504724 L.Wang, X.Mao, D.Ju, and Y.Xie (2004).
Rpn4 is a physiological substrate of the Ubr2 ubiquitin ligase.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 55218-55223.  
15139812 M.B.Yaffe, and S.J.Smerdon (2004).
The use of in vitro peptide-library screens in the analysis of phosphoserine/threonine-binding domain structure and function.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 33, 225-244.  
15498494 M.Welcker, A.Orian, J.E.Grim, J.A.Grim, R.N.Eisenman, and B.E.Clurman (2004).
A nucleolar isoform of the Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase regulates c-Myc and cell size.
  Curr Biol, 14, 1852-1857.  
15150404 M.Welcker, A.Orian, J.Jin, J.E.Grim, J.A.Grim, J.W.Harper, R.N.Eisenman, and B.E.Clurman (2004).
The Fbw7 tumor suppressor regulates glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylation-dependent c-Myc protein degradation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 9085-9090.  
15456873 N.Spielewoy, K.Flick, T.I.Kalashnikova, J.R.Walker, and C.Wittenberg (2004).
Regulation and recognition of SCFGrr1 targets in the glucose and amino acid signaling pathways.
  Mol Cell Biol, 24, 8994-9005.  
15280393 Q.Yan, T.Kamura, Y.Cai, J.Jin, M.Ivan, A.Mushegian, R.C.Conaway, and J.W.Conaway (2004).
Identification of Elongin C and Skp1 sequences that determine Cullin selection.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 43019-43026.  
15306688 S.Jäger, H.T.Schwartz, H.R.Horvitz, and B.Conradt (2004).
The Caenorhabditis elegans F-box protein SEL-10 promotes female development and may target FEM-1 and FEM-3 for degradation by the proteasome.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 12549-12554.  
15537541 S.J.Goldenberg, T.C.Cascio, S.D.Shumway, K.C.Garbutt, J.Liu, Y.Xiong, and N.Zheng (2004).
Structure of the Cand1-Cul1-Roc1 complex reveals regulatory mechanisms for the assembly of the multisubunit cullin-dependent ubiquitin ligases.
  Cell, 119, 517-528.
PDB code: 1u6g
15103325 S.K.Dove, R.C.Piper, R.K.McEwen, J.W.Yu, M.C.King, D.C.Hughes, J.Thuring, A.B.Holmes, F.T.Cooke, R.H.Michell, P.J.Parker, and M.A.Lemmon (2004).
Svp1p defines a family of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate effectors.
  EMBO J, 23, 1922-1933.  
15340381 T.Cardozo, and M.Pagano (2004).
The SCF ubiquitin ligase: insights into a molecular machine.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 5, 739-751.  
14990996 T.Mizushima, T.Hirao, Y.Yoshida, S.J.Lee, T.Chiba, K.Iwai, Y.Yamaguchi, K.Kato, T.Tsukihara, and K.Tanaka (2004).
Structural basis of sugar-recognizing ubiquitin ligase.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 11, 365-370.
PDB codes: 1umh 1umi
15364936 X.Ye, G.Nalepa, M.Welcker, B.M.Kessler, E.Spooner, J.Qin, S.J.Elledge, B.E.Clurman, and J.W.Harper (2004).
Recognition of phosphodegron motifs in human cyclin E by the SCF(Fbw7) ubiquitin ligase.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 50110-50119.  
14707120 Y.Li, S.Gazdoiu, Z.Q.Pan, and S.Y.Fuchs (2004).
Stability of homologue of Slimb F-box protein is regulated by availability of its substrate.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 11074-11080.  
14532005 A.E.Elia, P.Rellos, L.F.Haire, J.W.Chao, F.J.Ivins, K.Hoepker, D.Mohammad, L.C.Cantley, S.J.Smerdon, and M.B.Yaffe (2003).
The molecular basis for phosphodependent substrate targeting and regulation of Plks by the Polo-box domain.
  Cell, 115, 83-95.
PDB code: 1umw
12904574 C.Y.Eom, and I.R.Lehman (2003).
Replication-initiator protein (UL9) of the herpes simplex virus 1 binds NFB42 and is degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 9803-9807.  
14674748 G.Coadou, J.Gharbi-Benarous, S.Megy, G.Bertho, N.Evrard-Todeschi, E.Segeral, R.Benarous, and J.P.Girault (2003).
NMR studies of the phosphorylation motif of the HIV-1 protein Vpu bound to the F-box protein beta-TrCP.
  Biochemistry, 42, 14741-14751.  
12820959 G.Wu, G.Xu, B.A.Schulman, P.D.Jeffrey, J.W.Harper, and N.P.Pavletich (2003).
Structure of a beta-TrCP1-Skp1-beta-catenin complex: destruction motif binding and lysine specificity of the SCF(beta-TrCP1) ubiquitin ligase.
  Mol Cell, 11, 1445-1456.
PDB code: 1p22
14681206 J.Jin, T.Shirogane, L.Xu, G.Nalepa, J.Qin, S.J.Elledge, and J.W.Harper (2003).
SCFbeta-TRCP links Chk1 signaling to degradation of the Cdc25A protein phosphatase.
  Genes Dev, 17, 3062-3074.  
14592974 K.Y.Cheng, E.D.Lowe, J.Sinclair, E.A.Nigg, and L.N.Johnson (2003).
The crystal structure of the human polo-like kinase-1 polo box domain and its phospho-peptide complex.
  EMBO J, 22, 5757-5768.
PDB codes: 1q4k 1q4o
12820958 M.D.Petroski, and R.J.Deshaies (2003).
Context of multiubiquitin chain attachment influences the rate of Sic1 degradation.
  Mol Cell, 11, 1435-1444.  
12553901 P.K.Jackson (2003).
Ubiquitinating a phosphorylated Cdk inhibitor on the blades of the Cdc4 beta-propeller.
  Cell, 112, 142-144.  
14521832 P.Klein, T.Pawson, and M.Tyers (2003).
Mathematical modeling suggests cooperative interactions between a disordered polyvalent ligand and a single receptor site.
  Curr Biol, 13, 1669-1678.  
12941694 Q.He, P.Cheng, Y.Yang, Q.He, H.Yu, and Y.Liu (2003).
FWD1-mediated degradation of FREQUENCY in Neurospora establishes a conserved mechanism for circadian clock regulation.
  EMBO J, 22, 4421-4430.  
14625536 S.I.Reed (2003).
Ratchets and clocks: the cell cycle, ubiquitylation and protein turnover.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 4, 855-864.  
14621980 S.Ono (2003).
Regulation of actin filament dynamics by actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin and actin-interacting protein 1: new blades for twisted filaments.
  Biochemistry, 42, 13363-13370.  
14561773 T.A.Edwards, B.D.Wilkinson, R.P.Wharton, and A.K.Aggarwal (2003).
Model of the brain tumor-Pumilio translation repressor complex.
  Genes Dev, 17, 2508-2513.
PDB code: 1q7f
12702867 T.Pawson, and P.Nash (2003).
Assembly of cell regulatory systems through protein interaction domains.
  Science, 300, 445-452.  
14523018 W.Tang, O.A.Pavlish, V.S.Spiegelman, A.A.Parkhitko, and S.Y.Fuchs (2003).
Interaction of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 with SCFHOS/beta-TrCP E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates extent of NF-kappaB activation.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 48942-48949.  
14563921 Y.Su, S.Ishikawa, M.Kojima, and B.Liu (2003).
Eradication of pathogenic beta-catenin by Skp1/Cullin/F box ubiquitination machinery.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 12729-12734.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.