PDBsum entry 1ncg

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Cell adhesion protein PDB id
Protein chain
99 a.a. *
Waters ×202
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Cell adhesion protein
Title: Structural basis of cell-cell adhesion by cadherins
Structure: N-cadherin. Chain: a. Engineered: yes. Mutation: yes
Source: Mus musculus. House mouse. Organism_taxid: 10090. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562.
Biol. unit: Dimer (from PQS)
2.10Å     R-factor:   0.217     R-free:   0.201
Authors: L.Shapiro,A.M.Fannon,P.D.Kwong,A.Thompson,M.S.Lehmann, G.Grubel,J.-F.Legrand,J.Als-Nielsen,D.R.Colman, W.A.Hendrickson
Key ref: L.Shapiro et al. (1995). Structural basis of cell-cell adhesion by cadherins. Nature, 374, 327-337. PubMed id: 7885471
23-Mar-95     Release date:   10-Jul-95    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P15116  (CADH2_MOUSE) -  Cadherin-2
906 a.a.
99 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 1 residue position (black cross)

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     membrane   2 terms 
  Biological process     cell adhesion   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     calcium ion binding     1 term  


Nature 374:327-337 (1995)
PubMed id: 7885471  
Structural basis of cell-cell adhesion by cadherins.
L.Shapiro, A.M.Fannon, P.D.Kwong, A.Thompson, M.S.Lehmann, G.Grübel, J.F.Legrand, J.Als-Nielsen, D.R.Colman, W.A.Hendrickson.
Crystal structures of the amino-terminal domain of N-cadherin provide a picture at the atomic level of a specific adhesive contact between cells. A repeated set of dimer interfaces is common to the structure in three lattices. These interactions combine to form a linear zipper of molecules that mirrors the linear structure of the intracellular filaments with which cadherins associate. This cell-adhesion zipper may provide a mechanism to marshal individual molecular adhesive interactions into strong bonds between cells.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
23292143 E.S.Rangarajan, and T.Izard (2013).
Dimer asymmetry defines α-catenin interactions.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 20, 188-193.
PDB code: 4igg
21255999 G.S.Brigidi, and S.X.Bamji (2011).
Cadherin-catenin adhesion complexes at the synapse.
  Curr Opin Neurobiol, 21, 208-214.  
21269602 J.Brasch, O.J.Harrison, G.Ahlsen, S.M.Carnally, R.M.Henderson, B.Honig, and L.Shapiro (2011).
Structure and binding mechanism of vascular endothelial cadherin: a divergent classical cadherin.
  J Mol Biol, 408, 57-73.
PDB code: 3ppe
20949625 L.D.Nagaprashantha, R.Vatsyayan, P.C.Lelsani, S.Awasthi, and S.S.Singhal (2011).
The sensors and regulators of cell-matrix surveillance in anoikis resistance of tumors.
  Int J Cancer, 128, 743-752.  
21422232 S.Hong, R.B.Troyanovsky, and S.M.Troyanovsky (2011).
Cadherin exits the junction by switching its adhesive bond.
  J Cell Biol, 192, 1073-1083.  
21250828 B.Bartelt-Kirbach, K.Langer-Fischer, and N.Golenhofen (2010).
Different regulation of N-cadherin and cadherin-11 in rat hippocampus.
  Cell Commun Adhes, 17, 75-82.  
20190755 C.Ciatto, F.Bahna, N.Zampieri, H.C.VanSteenhouse, P.S.Katsamba, G.Ahlsen, O.J.Harrison, J.Brasch, X.Jin, S.Posy, J.Vendome, B.Ranscht, T.M.Jessell, B.Honig, and L.Shapiro (2010).
T-cadherin structures reveal a novel adhesive binding mechanism.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 17, 339-347.
PDB codes: 3k5r 3k5s 3k6d 3k6f 3k6i
19919954 C.Ozaki, S.Obata, H.Yamanaka, S.Tominaga, and S.T.Suzuki (2010).
The extracellular domains of E- and N-cadherin determine the scattered punctate localization in epithelial cells and the cytoplasmic domains modulate the localization.
  J Biochem, 147, 415-425.  
20671997 D.Garrod (2010).
Desmosomes in vivo.
  Dermatol Res Pract, 2010, 212439.  
20672011 G.R.Owen, and D.L.Stokes (2010).
Exploring the Nature of Desmosomal Cadherin Associations in 3D.
  Dermatol Res Pract, 2010, 930401.  
20498078 H.M.Elledge, P.Kazmierczak, P.Clark, J.S.Joseph, A.Kolatkar, P.Kuhn, and U.Müller (2010).
Structure of the N terminus of cadherin 23 reveals a new adhesion mechanism for a subset of cadherin superfamily members.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 10708-10712.
PDB code: 3mvs
20978359 J.Yamagami, A.S.Payne, S.Kacir, K.Ishii, D.L.Siegel, and J.R.Stanley (2010).
Homologous regions of autoantibody heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (H-CDR3) in patients with pemphigus cause pathogenicity.
  J Clin Invest, 120, 4111-4117.  
  20182611 K.J.Green, S.Getsios, S.Troyanovsky, and L.M.Godsel (2010).
Intercellular junction assembly, dynamics, and homeostasis.
  Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol, 2, a000125.  
21038359 L.A.Chtcheglova, L.Wildling, J.Waschke, D.Drenckhahn, and P.Hinterdorfer (2010).
AFM functional imaging on vascular endothelial cells.
  J Mol Recognit, 23, 589-596.  
19688273 L.Hong, H.Sun, X.Lv, D.Yang, J.Zhang, and Y.Shi (2010).
Expression of periostin in the serum of NSCLC and its function on proliferation and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) in vitro.
  Mol Biol Rep, 37, 2285-2293.  
20138888 M.A.Craig, M.W.McBride, G.Smith, S.J.George, and A.Baker (2010).
Dysregulation of cadherins in the intercalated disc of the spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rat.
  J Mol Cell Cardiol, 48, 1121-1128.  
20467217 M.Amagai (2010).
Autoimmune and infectious skin diseases that target desmogleins.
  Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci, 86, 524-537.  
20849527 M.Fernández-Monreal, T.Oung, H.H.Hanson, R.O'Leary, W.G.Janssen, G.Dolios, R.Wang, and G.R.Phillips (2010).
Gamma-protocadherins are enriched and transported in specialized vesicles associated with the secretory pathway in neurons.
  Eur J Neurosci, 32, 921-931.  
21049033 N.T.Georgopoulos, L.A.Kirkwood, D.C.Walker, and J.Southgate (2010).
Differential regulation of growth-promoting signalling pathways by E-cadherin.
  PLoS One, 5, e13621.  
20190754 O.J.Harrison, F.Bahna, P.S.Katsamba, X.Jin, J.Brasch, J.Vendome, G.Ahlsen, K.J.Carroll, S.R.Price, B.Honig, and L.Shapiro (2010).
Two-step adhesive binding by classical cadherins.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 17, 348-357.
PDB codes: 3lnd 3lne 3lnf 3lng 3lnh 3lni
20010843 Q.Zhou, M.Kapoor, M.Guo, R.Belani, X.Xu, W.B.Kiosses, M.Hanan, C.Park, E.Armour, M.H.Do, L.A.Nangle, P.Schimmel, and X.L.Yang (2010).
Orthogonal use of a human tRNA synthetase active site to achieve multifunctionality.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 17, 57-61.  
20056855 S.R.Grossman, I.Shylakhter, E.K.Karlsson, E.H.Byrne, S.Morales, G.Frieden, E.Hostetter, E.Angelino, M.Garber, O.Zuk, E.S.Lander, S.F.Schaffner, and P.C.Sabeti (2010).
A composite of multiple signals distinguishes causal variants in regions of positive selection.
  Science, 327, 883-886.  
19855082 C.Banh, C.Fugère, and L.Brossay (2009).
Immunoregulatory functions of KLRG1 cadherin interactions are dependent on forward and reverse signaling.
  Blood, 114, 5299-5306.  
19048595 C.Qi, Y.T.Zhu, L.Hu, and Y.J.Zhu (2009).
Identification of Fat4 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene in breast cancers.
  Int J Cancer, 124, 793-798.  
19302578 C.Rollenhagen, T.Wöllert, G.M.Langford, and P.Sundstrom (2009).
Stimulation of cell motility and expression of late markers of differentiation in human oral keratinocytes by Candida albicans.
  Cell Microbiol, 11, 946-966.  
19302290 D.Osumi, M.Takahashi, E.Miyoshi, S.Yokoe, S.H.Lee, K.Noda, S.Nakamori, J.Gu, Y.Ikeda, Y.Kuroki, K.Sengoku, M.Ishikawa, and N.Taniguchi (2009).
Core fucosylation of E-cadherin enhances cell-cell adhesion in human colon carcinoma WiDr cells.
  Cancer Sci, 100, 888-895.  
19718715 D.Yeh, C.Chen, M.Z.Sun, S.Shao, L.Hao, Y.Song, L.Gong, J.Hu, and Q.Wang (2009).
Caveolin-1 is an important factor for the metastasis and proliferation of human small cell lung cancer NCI-H446 cell.
  Anat Rec (Hoboken), 292, 1584-1592.  
19836330 E.H.Lee, J.Hsin, M.Sotomayor, G.Comellas, and K.Schulten (2009).
Discovery through the computational microscope.
  Structure, 17, 1295-1306.  
19162191 G.S.Marrs, C.S.Theisen, and J.L.Brusés (2009).
N-cadherin modulates voltage activated calcium influx via RhoA, p120-catenin, and myosin-actin interaction.
  Mol Cell Neurosci, 40, 390-400.  
19717600 K.A.Syed, S.Beyhan, N.Correa, J.Queen, J.Liu, F.Peng, K.J.Satchell, F.Yildiz, and K.E.Klose (2009).
The Vibrio cholerae flagellar regulatory hierarchy controls expression of virulence factors.
  J Bacteriol, 191, 6555-6570.  
  20066110 L.Shapiro, and W.I.Weis (2009).
Structure and biochemistry of cadherins and catenins.
  Cold Spring Harbor Perspect Biol, 1, a003053.  
19726220 M.A.Westhoff, and S.Fulda (2009).
Adhesion-mediated apoptosis resistance in cancer.
  Drug Resist Updat, 12, 127-136.  
19199298 M.Trivedi, R.A.Davis, Y.Shabaik, A.Roy, G.Verkhivker, J.S.Laurence, C.R.Middaugh, and T.J.Siahaan (2009).
The role of covalent dimerization on the physical and chemical stability of the EC1 domain of human E-cadherin.
  J Pharm Sci, 98, 3562-3574.  
18848899 P.Hulpiau, and F.van Roy (2009).
Molecular evolution of the cadherin superfamily.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 41, 349-369.  
19553217 P.Katsamba, K.Carroll, G.Ahlsen, F.Bahna, J.Vendome, S.Posy, M.Rajebhosale, S.Price, T.M.Jessell, A.Ben-Shaul, L.Shapiro, and B.H.Honig (2009).
Linking molecular affinity and cellular specificity in cadherin-mediated adhesion.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 11594-11599.  
19654330 S.Nakamura, K.Kuroki, I.Ohki, K.Sasaki, M.Kajikawa, T.Maruyama, M.Ito, Y.Kameda, M.Ikura, K.Yamamoto, N.Matsumoto, and K.Maenaka (2009).
Molecular basis for E-cadherin recognition by killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1).
  J Biol Chem, 284, 27327-27335.  
19164289 W.M.Heupel, T.Müller, A.Efthymiadis, E.Schmidt, D.Drenckhahn, and J.Waschke (2009).
Peptides Targeting the Desmoglein 3 Adhesive Interface Prevent Autoantibody-induced Acantholysis in Pemphigus.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 8589-8595.  
19114658 Y.Zhang, S.Sivasankar, W.J.Nelson, and S.Chu (2009).
Resolving cadherin interactions and binding cooperativity at the single-molecule level.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 109-114.  
18460582 A.M.Sokac, and E.Wieschaus (2008).
Zygotically controlled F-actin establishes cortical compartments to stabilize furrows during Drosophila cellularization.
  J Cell Sci, 121, 1815-1824.  
18620062 C.B.Lira, K.Chu, Y.C.Lee, M.C.Hu, and S.H.Lin (2008).
Expression of the extracellular domain of OB-cadherin as an Fc fusion protein using bicistronic retroviral expression vector.
  Protein Expr Purif, 61, 220-226.  
18795316 D.Studer, B.M.Humbel, and M.Chiquet (2008).
Electron microscopy of high pressure frozen samples: bridging the gap between cellular ultrastructure and atomic resolution.
  Histochem Cell Biol, 130, 877-889.  
18064706 I.H.Bekirov, V.Nagy, A.Svoronos, G.W.Huntley, and D.L.Benson (2008).
Cadherin-8 and N-cadherin differentially regulate pre- and postsynaptic development of the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway.
  Hippocampus, 18, 349-363.  
18408767 J.S.Yu, S.Koujak, S.Nagase, C.M.Li, T.Su, X.Wang, M.Keniry, L.Memeo, A.Rojtman, M.Mansukhani, H.Hibshoosh, B.Tycko, and R.Parsons (2008).
PCDH8, the human homolog of PAPC, is a candidate tumor suppressor of breast cancer.
  Oncogene, 27, 4657-4665.  
18386043 J.Waschke (2008).
The desmosome and pemphigus.
  Histochem Cell Biol, 130, 21-54.  
18495933 K.J.Rosenberg, J.L.Ross, H.E.Feinstein, S.C.Feinstein, and J.Israelachvili (2008).
Complementary dimerization of microtubule-associated tau protein: Implications for microtubule bundling and tau-mediated pathogenesis.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 7445-7450.  
  19262148 L.A.Taneyhill (2008).
To adhere or not to adhere: the role of Cadherins in neural crest development.
  Cell Adh Migr, 2, 223-230.  
18379416 L.Da Silva, S.Parry, L.Reid, P.Keith, N.Waddell, M.Kossai, C.Clarke, S.R.Lakhani, and P.T.Simpson (2008).
Aberrant expression of E-cadherin in lobular carcinomas of the breast.
  Am J Surg Pathol, 32, 773-783.  
18421501 M.Auer, A.J.Koster, U.Ziese, C.Bajaj, N.Volkmann, d.a. .N.Wang, and A.J.Hudspeth (2008).
Three-dimensional architecture of hair-bundle linkages revealed by electron-microscopic tomography.
  J Assoc Res Otolaryngol, 9, 215-224.  
18633485 M.P.Stemmler (2008).
Cadherins in development and cancer.
  Mol Biosyst, 4, 835-850.  
18326636 M.Sotomayor, and K.Schulten (2008).
The allosteric role of the Ca2+ switch in adhesion and elasticity of C-cadherin.
  Biophys J, 94, 4621-4633.  
18707582 N.A.Gloushankova (2008).
Changes in regulation of cell-cell adhesion during tumor transformation.
  Biochemistry (Mosc), 73, 742-750.  
18521104 P.Xia, S.Wang, Z.Guo, and X.Yao (2008).
Emperipolesis, entosis and beyond: dance with fate.
  Cell Res, 18, 705-707.  
18552401 Q.Shi, Y.H.Chien, and D.Leckband (2008).
Biophysical properties of cadherin bonds do not predict cell sorting.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 28454-28463.  
18550521 S.A.Dames, E.Bang, D.Haüssinger, T.Ahrens, J.Engel, and S.Grzesiek (2008).
Insights into the Low Adhesive Capacity of Human T-cadherin from the NMR Structure of Its N-terminal Extracellular Domain.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 23485-23495.
PDB code: 2v37
18343874 S.Bibert, H.Ayari, D.Riveline, E.Concord, B.Hermant, T.Vernet, and D.Gulino-Debrac (2008).
Establishment of cell-cell junctions depends on the oligomeric states of VE-cadherin.
  J Biochem, 143, 821-832.  
18395225 S.Posy, L.Shapiro, and B.Honig (2008).
Sequence and structural determinants of strand swapping in cadherin domains: do all cadherins bind through the same adhesive interface?
  J Mol Biol, 378, 954-968.  
17979146 V.Syed, P.Mak, C.Du, and K.C.Balaji (2008).
Beta-catenin mediates alteration in cell proliferation, motility and invasion of prostate cancer cells by differential expression of E-cadherin and protein kinase D1.
  J Cell Biochem, 104, 82-95.  
18682221 V.Z.Miloushev, F.Bahna, C.Ciatto, G.Ahlsen, B.Honig, L.Shapiro, and A.G.Palmer (2008).
Dynamic properties of a type II cadherin adhesive domain: implications for the mechanism of strand-swapping of classical cadherins.
  Structure, 16, 1195-1205.  
17999960 Y.H.Chien, N.Jiang, F.Li, F.Zhang, C.Zhu, and D.Leckband (2008).
Two stage cadherin kinetics require multiple extracellular domains but not the cytoplasmic region.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 1848-1856.  
18502989 Y.T.Zhu, Y.Hayashida, A.Kheirkhah, H.He, S.Y.Chen, and S.C.Tseng (2008).
Characterization and comparison of intercellular adherent junctions expressed by human corneal endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro.
  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 49, 3879-3886.  
17922650 A.A.Terentiev, and N.T.Moldogazieva (2007).
Cell adhesion proteins and alpha-fetoprotein. Similar structural motifs as prerequisites for common functions.
  Biochemistry (Mosc), 72, 920-935.  
18064004 A.Al-Amoudi, D.C.Díez, M.J.Betts, and A.S.Frangakis (2007).
The molecular architecture of cadherins in native epidermal desmosomes.
  Nature, 450, 832-837.  
17785185 C.Schrick, A.Fischer, D.P.Srivastava, N.C.Tronson, P.Penzes, and J.Radulovic (2007).
N-cadherin regulates cytoskeletally associated IQGAP1/ERK signaling and memory formation.
  Neuron, 55, 786-798.  
19305742 D.Kiryushko, E.Bock, and V.Berezin (2007).
Pharmacology of cell adhesion molecules of the nervous system.
  Curr Neuropharmacol, 5, 253-267.  
17945476 D.L.Stokes (2007).
Desmosomes from a structural perspective.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 19, 565-571.  
17850815 E.Parisini, J.M.Higgins, J.H.Liu, M.B.Brenner, and J.H.Wang (2007).
The crystal structure of human E-cadherin domains 1 and 2, and comparison with other cadherins in the context of adhesion mechanism.
  J Mol Biol, 373, 401-411.
PDB code: 2o72
17564818 G.Agiostratidou, J.Hulit, G.R.Phillips, and R.B.Hazan (2007).
Differential cadherin expression: potential markers for epithelial to mesenchymal transformation during tumor progression.
  J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 12, 127-133.  
17414625 H.Li, D.K.Price, and W.D.Figg (2007).
ADH1, an N-cadherin inhibitor, evaluated in preclinical models of angiogenesis and androgen-independent prostate cancer.
  Anticancer Drugs, 18, 563-568.  
17347145 H.Tsuiji, L.Xu, K.Schwartz, and B.M.Gumbiner (2007).
Cadherin conformations associated with dimerization and adhesion.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 12871-12882.  
18001487 J.Paredes, A.L.Correia, A.S.Ribeiro, A.Albergaria, F.Milanezi, and F.C.Schmitt (2007).
P-cadherin expression in breast cancer: a review.
  Breast Cancer Res, 9, 214.  
17706913 K.N.Alagramam, N.D.Miller, N.D.Adappa, D.R.Pitts, J.C.Heaphy, H.Yuan, and R.J.Smith (2007).
Promoter, alternative splice forms, and genomic structure of protocadherin 15.
  Genomics, 90, 482-492.  
17481398 L.Saglietti, C.Dequidt, K.Kamieniarz, M.C.Rousset, P.Valnegri, O.Thoumine, F.Beretta, L.Fagni, D.Choquet, C.Sala, M.Sheng, and M.Passafaro (2007).
Extracellular interactions between GluR2 and N-cadherin in spine regulation.
  Neuron, 54, 461-477.  
17600523 L.Shapiro, J.Love, and D.R.Colman (2007).
Adhesion molecules in the nervous system: structural insights into function and diversity.
  Annu Rev Neurosci, 30, 451-474.  
  17877791 M.Emily, and O.Francois (2007).
A statistical approach to estimating the strength of cell-cell interactions under the differential adhesion hypothesis.
  Theor Biol Med Model, 4, 37.  
17766378 M.Mörtl, P.Sonderegger, K.Diederichs, and W.Welte (2007).
The crystal structure of the ligand-binding module of human TAG-1 suggests a new mode of homophilic interaction.
  Protein Sci, 16, 2174-2183.
PDB code: 2om5
17133224 M.Takeichi (2007).
The cadherin superfamily in neuronal connections and interactions.
  Nat Rev Neurosci, 8, 11-20.  
17761538 R.B.Troyanovsky, O.Laur, and S.M.Troyanovsky (2007).
Stable and unstable cadherin dimers: mechanisms of formation and roles in cell adhesion.
  Mol Biol Cell, 18, 4343-4352.  
17060446 R.Siu, C.Fladd, and D.Rotin (2007).
N-cadherin is an in vivo substrate for protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTPsigma) and participates in PTPsigma-mediated inhibition of axon growth.
  Mol Cell Biol, 27, 208-219.  
17539752 S.Pokutta, and W.I.Weis (2007).
Structure and mechanism of cadherins and catenins in cell-cell contacts.
  Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 23, 237-261.  
17889655 W.M.Wojtowicz, W.Wu, I.Andre, B.Qian, D.Baker, and S.L.Zipursky (2007).
A vast repertoire of Dscam binding specificities arises from modular interactions of variable Ig domains.
  Cell, 130, 1134-1145.  
17023539 A.K.Prakasam, V.Maruthamuthu, and D.E.Leckband (2006).
Similarities between heterophilic and homophilic cadherin adhesion.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 15434-15439.  
16440298 A.M.Elste, and D.L.Benson (2006).
Structural basis for developmentally regulated changes in cadherin function at synapses.
  J Comp Neurol, 495, 324-335.  
16287100 A.Prasad, H.Zhao, J.M.Rutherford, N.Housley, C.Nichols, and S.Pedigo (2006).
Effect of linker segments on the stability of epithelial cadherin Domain 2.
  Proteins, 62, 111-121.  
16834557 D.Leckband, and A.Prakasam (2006).
Mechanism and dynamics of cadherin adhesion.
  Annu Rev Biomed Eng, 8, 259-287.  
16980367 F.Cailliez, and R.Lavery (2006).
Dynamics and stability of E-cadherin dimers.
  Biophys J, 91, 3964-3971.  
16916795 H.Morishita, M.Umitsu, Y.Murata, N.Shibata, K.Udaka, Y.Higuchi, H.Akutsu, T.Yamaguchi, T.Yagi, and T.Ikegami (2006).
Structure of the cadherin-related neuronal receptor/protocadherin-alpha first extracellular cadherin domain reveals diversity across cadherin families.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 33650-33663.  
  16651616 H.P.Kiener, D.M.Lee, S.K.Agarwal, and M.B.Brenner (2006).
Cadherin-11 induces rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes to form lining layers in vitro.
  Am J Pathol, 168, 1486-1499.  
16407075 J.C.Stroud, Y.Wu, D.L.Bates, A.Han, K.Nowick, S.Paabo, H.Tong, and L.Chen (2006).
Structure of the forkhead domain of FOXP2 bound to DNA.
  Structure, 14, 159-166.
PDB code: 2a07
16247458 J.Ying, H.Li, T.J.Seng, C.Langford, G.Srivastava, S.W.Tsao, T.Putti, P.Murray, A.T.Chan, and Q.Tao (2006).
Functional epigenetics identifies a protocadherin PCDH10 as a candidate tumor suppressor for nasopharyngeal, esophageal and multiple other carcinomas with frequent methylation.
  Oncogene, 25, 1070-1080.  
16326909 M.V.Bayas, A.Leung, E.Evans, and D.Leckband (2006).
Lifetime measurements reveal kinetic differences between homophilic cadherin bonds.
  Biophys J, 90, 1385-1395.  
16760429 R.B.Troyanovsky, E.P.Sokolov, and S.M.Troyanovsky (2006).
Endocytosis of cadherin from intracellular junctions is the driving force for cadherin adhesive dimer disassembly.
  Mol Biol Cell, 17, 3484-3493.  
16564015 S.D.Patel, C.Ciatto, C.P.Chen, F.Bahna, M.Rajebhosale, N.Arkus, I.Schieren, T.M.Jessell, B.Honig, S.R.Price, and L.Shapiro (2006).
Type II cadherin ectodomain structures: implications for classical cadherin specificity.
  Cell, 124, 1255-1268.
PDB codes: 1zvn 1zxk 2a4c 2a4e 2a62
16439973 Y.Shimomura, F.Sakamoto, N.Kariya, K.Matsunaga, and M.Ito (2006).
Mutations in the desmoglein 4 gene are associated with monilethrix-like congenital hypotrichosis.
  J Invest Dermatol, 126, 1281-1285.  
16030252 A.M.Shewan, M.Maddugoda, A.Kraemer, S.J.Stehbens, S.Verma, E.M.Kovacs, and A.S.Yap (2005).
Myosin 2 is a key Rho kinase target necessary for the local concentration of E-cadherin at cell-cell contacts.
  Mol Biol Cell, 16, 4531-4542.  
15854040 A.Shimizu, A.Ishiko, T.Ota, H.Saito, H.Oka, K.Tsunoda, M.Amagai, and T.Nishikawa (2005).
In vivo ultrastructural localization of the desmoglein 3 adhesive interface to the desmosome mid-line.
  J Invest Dermatol, 124, 984-989.  
16224208 A.Triana, C.Sen, D.Wolfe, and R.Hazan (2005).
Cadherins and catenins in clival chordomas: correlation of expression with tumor aggressiveness.
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16025097 B.M.Gumbiner (2005).
Regulation of cadherin-mediated adhesion in morphogenesis.
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16354833 B.Zuber, I.Nikonenko, P.Klauser, D.Muller, and J.Dubochet (2005).
The mammalian central nervous synaptic cleft contains a high density of periodically organized complexes.
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15937105 C.P.Chen, S.Posy, A.Ben-Shaul, L.Shapiro, and B.H.Honig (2005).
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16556042 C.Salon, S.Lantuejoul, B.Eymin, S.Gazzeri, C.Brambilla, and E.Brambilla (2005).
The E-cadherin-beta-catenin complex and its implication in lung cancer progression and prognosis.
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15715668 G.Williams, B.J.Eickholt, P.Maison, R.Prinjha, F.S.Walsh, and P.Doherty (2005).
A complementary peptide approach applied to the design of novel semaphorin/neuropilin antagonists.
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16199889 H.Andersen, J.Mejlvang, S.Mahmood, I.Gromova, P.Gromov, E.Lukanidin, M.Kriajevska, J.K.Mellon, and E.Tulchinsky (2005).
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15743489 H.P.Kiener, and M.B.Brenner (2005).
Building the synovium: cadherin-11 mediates fibroblast-like synoviocyte cell-to-cell adhesion.
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15790695 K.S.Nair, R.Naidoo, and R.Chetty (2005).
Expression of cell adhesion molecules in oesophageal carcinoma and its prognostic value.
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15817439 K.Summers, and B.Crespi (2005).
Cadherins in maternal-foetal interactions: red queen with a green beard?
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16143457 L.Cao, X.Yan, C.W.Borysenko, H.C.Blair, C.Wu, and L.Yu (2005).
CHDL: a cadherin-like domain in Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria.
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15917256 M.C.Moh, C.Zhang, C.Luo, L.H.Lee, and S.Shen (2005).
Structural and functional analyses of a novel ig-like cell adhesion molecule, hepaCAM, in the human breast carcinoma MCF7 cells.
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15705066 R.T.Bryan, S.A.Hussain, N.D.James, J.A.Jankowski, and D.M.Wallace (2005).
Molecular pathways in bladder cancer: part 2.
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15766544 V.Lucić, T.Yang, G.Schweikert, F.Förster, and W.Baumeister (2005).
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16045455 V.V.Kiselyov, V.Soroka, V.Berezin, and E.Bock (2005).
Structural biology of NCAM homophilic binding and activation of FGFR.
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15363804 A.S.Payne, Y.Hanakawa, M.Amagai, and J.R.Stanley (2004).
Desmosomes and disease: pemphigus and bullous impetigo.
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15130472 A.W.Koch, A.Farooq, W.Shan, L.Zeng, D.R.Colman, and M.M.Zhou (2004).
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PDB code: 1op4
15061195 B.M.Hall, and L.F.Gibson (2004).
Regulation of lymphoid and myeloid leukemic cell survival: role of stromal cell adhesion molecules.
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Proteolytic E-cadherin activation followed by solution NMR and X-ray crystallography.
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PDB code: 1q1p
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Regulators of neurite outgrowth: role of cell adhesion molecules.
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Theoretical morphology of developmental asymmetries.
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15546992 E.Perret, A.Leung, H.Feracci, and E.Evans (2004).
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15702378 F.Lacaz-Vieira, and M.M.Marques (2004).
Lanthanum effect on the dynamics of tight junction opening and closing.
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15309553 G.Tanriover, U.A.Kayisli, R.Demir, E.Pestereli, S.Karaveli, and N.Demir (2004).
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Dual roles of E-cadherin in prostate cancer invasion.
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15112230 J.M.Gooding, K.L.Yap, and M.Ikura (2004).
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The brain angiotensin system and extracellular matrix molecules in neural plasticity, learning, and memory.
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Cadherin switch in tumor progression.
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Identification of gammaA-like protocadherin expressed during chick development.
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14573948 A.González (2003).
Optimizing data collection for structure determination.
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The role of hydrogen bonding via interfacial water molecules in antigen-antibody complexation. The HyHEL-10-HEL interaction.
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PDB codes: 1j1o 1j1p 1j1x
12770907 B.Zhu, S.Chappuis-Flament, E.Wong, I.E.Jensen, B.M.Gumbiner, and D.Leckband (2003).
Functional analysis of the structural basis of homophilic cadherin adhesion.
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12647996 C.Oliveira, R.Seruca, and C.Caldas (2003).
Genetic screening for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer.
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12787753 J.H.Wang, and M.J.Eck (2003).
Assembling atomic resolution views of the immunological synapse.
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Crystal structure of the GpIbalpha-thrombin complex essential for platelet aggregation.
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PDB code: 1p8v
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Ligand activation of the androgen receptor downregulates E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion and promotes apoptosis of prostatic cancer cells.
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14570569 M.J.Wheelock, and K.R.Johnson (2003).
Cadherins as modulators of cellular phenotype.
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12672106 M.Nitz, K.J.Franz, R.L.Maglathlin, and B.Imperiali (2003).
A powerful combinatorial screen to identify high-affinity terbium(III)-binding peptides.
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Is the cadherin/catenin complex a functional unit of cell-cell actin-based adherens junctions in the rat testis?
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Role of tissue stroma in cancer cell invasion.
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Cell-cell signaling during synapse formation in the CNS.
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Adhesive and lateral E-cadherin dimers are mediated by the same interface.
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The role of beta-catenin signaling in the malignant potential of cystitis glandularis.
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Structural aspects of adhesion to and invasion of host cells by the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.
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14526082 W.He, P.Cowin, and D.L.Stokes (2003).
Untangling desmosomal knots with electron tomography.
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PDB codes: 1q55 1q5a 1q5b 1q5c
12880431 Y.Hanakawa, T.Selwood, D.Woo, C.Lin, N.M.Schechter, and J.R.Stanley (2003).
Calcium-dependent conformation of desmoglein 1 is required for its cleavage by exfoliative toxin.
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Alterations in the spatiotemporal expression pattern and function of N-cadherin inhibit cellular condensation and chondrogenesis of limb mesenchymal cells in vitro.
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11790800 C.M.Niessen, and B.M.Gumbiner (2002).
Cadherin-mediated cell sorting not determined by binding or adhesion specificity.
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12057189 D.Leckband (2002).
The structure of the C-cadherin ectodomain resolved.
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12231347 D.R.Garrod, A.J.Merritt, and Z.Nie (2002).
Desmosomal cadherins.
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Fast dissociation kinetics between individual E-cadherin fragments revealed by flow chamber analysis.
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Dimeric versions of two short N-cadherin binding motifs (HAVDI and INPISG) function as N-cadherin agonists.
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Disulfide bond formation promotes the cis- and trans-dimerization of the E-cadherin-derived first repeat.
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Dynamic interplay between adhesive and lateral E-cadherin dimers.
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12367589 J.W.Wright, J.R.Reichert, C.J.Davis, and J.W.Harding (2002).
Neural plasticity and the brain renin-angiotensin system.
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Protein recognition by cell surface receptors: physiological receptors versus virus interactions.
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12210736 M.Bagchi, M.Katar, J.Lewis, and H.Maisel (2002).
Associated proteins of lens adherens junction.
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11796229 M.D.Mason, G.Davies, and W.G.Jiang (2002).
Cell adhesion molecules and adhesion abnormalities in prostate cancer.
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12110211 M.G.Rossmann, Y.He, and R.J.Kuhn (2002).
Picornavirus-receptor interactions.
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11970959 M.Lambert, D.Choquet, and R.M.Mège (2002).
Dynamics of ligand-induced, Rac1-dependent anchoring of cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton.
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11916976 M.Ozawa (2002).
Lateral dimerization of the E-cadherin extracellular domain is necessary but not sufficient for adhesive activity.
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In the first extracellular domain of E-cadherin, heterophilic interactions, but not the conserved His-Ala-Val motif, are required for adhesion.
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Screening the human protocadherin 8 (PCDH8) gene in schizophrenia.
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12234928 R.Nawroth, G.Poell, A.Ranft, S.Kloep, U.Samulowitz, G.Fachinger, M.Golding, D.T.Shima, U.Deutsch, and D.Vestweber (2002).
VE-PTP and VE-cadherin ectodomains interact to facilitate regulation of phosphorylation and cell contacts.
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11821414 S.Bibert, M.Jaquinod, E.Concord, C.Ebel, E.Hewat, C.Vanbelle, P.Legrand, M.Weidenhaupt, T.Vernet, and D.Gulino-Debrac (2002).
Synergy between extracellular modules of vascular endothelial cadherin promotes homotypic hexameric interactions.
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11900554 S.Gorlatov, and L.Medved (2002).
Interaction of fibrin(ogen) with the endothelial cell receptor VE-cadherin: mapping of the receptor-binding site in the NH2-terminal portions of the fibrin beta chains.
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11909859 T.Ahrens, O.Pertz, D.Haussinger, C.Fauser, T.Schulthess, and J.Engel (2002).
Analysis of heterophilic and homophilic interactions of cadherins using the c-Jun/c-Fos dimerization domains.
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C-cadherin ectodomain structure and implications for cell adhesion mechanisms.
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PDB code: 1l3w
11953402 W.C.Prozialeck, M.J.Fay, P.C.Lamar, C.A.Pearson, I.Sigar, and K.H.Ramsey (2002).
Chlamydia trachomatis disrupts N-cadherin-dependent cell-cell junctions and sequesters beta-catenin in human cervical epithelial cells.
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12526809 W.D.Schubert, C.Urbanke, T.Ziehm, V.Beier, M.P.Machner, E.Domann, J.Wehland, T.Chakraborty, and D.W.Heinz (2002).
Structure of internalin, a major invasion protein of Listeria monocytogenes, in complex with its human receptor E-cadherin.
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PDB codes: 1o6s 1o6t 1o6v
12125071 W.Shan, M.Yoshida, X.R.Wu, G.W.Huntley, and D.R.Colman (2002).
Neural (N-) cadherin, a synaptic adhesion molecule, is induced in hippocampal mossy fiber axonal sprouts by seizure.
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The sequence determinants of cadherin molecules.
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Abnormalities of the E-cadherin/catenin adhesion complex in classical papillary thyroid carcinoma and in its diffuse sclerosing variant.
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E-cadherin regulates cell growth by modulating proliferation-dependent beta-catenin transcriptional activity.
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11710914 C.D.Andl, and J.R.Stanley (2001).
Central role of the plakoglobin-binding domain for desmoglein 3 incorporation into desmosomes.
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X-ray structure of junctional adhesion molecule: structural basis for homophilic adhesion via a novel dimerization motif.
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PDB code: 1f97
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Identification of an N-cadherin motif that can interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor and is required for axonal growth.
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The transition of cadherin expression in osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal cells: consistent expression of cadherin-11 in osteoblast lineage.
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Crystal structure of the M-fragment of alpha-catenin: implications for modulation of cell adhesion.
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PDB code: 1h6g
11458036 K.Tryggvason, and J.Wartiovaara (2001).
Molecular basis of glomerular permselectivity.
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Soluble N-cadherin stimulates fibroblast growth factor receptor dependent neurite outgrowth and N-cadherin and the fibroblast growth factor receptor co-cluster in cells.
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11259604 M.Balzar, I.H.Briaire-de Bruijn, H.A.Rees-Bakker, F.A.Prins, W.Helfrich, Leij, G.Riethmüller, S.Alberti, S.O.Warnaar, G.J.Fleuren, and S.V.Litvinov (2001).
Epidermal growth factor-like repeats mediate lateral and reciprocal interactions of Ep-CAM molecules in homophilic adhesions.
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Manipulation of selective cell adhesion and growth by surface charges of electrically polarized hydroxyapatite.
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Single molecule imaging of green fluorescent proteins in living cells: E-cadherin forms oligomers on the free cell surface.
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Multiple cadherin extracellular repeats mediate homophilic binding and adhesion.
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11259289 S.Sivasankar, B.Gumbiner, and D.Leckband (2001).
Direct measurements of multiple adhesive alignments and unbinding trajectories between cadherin extracellular domains.
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11231355 T.Inoue, E.Yaoita, H.Kurihara, F.Shimizu, T.Sakai, T.Kobayashi, K.Ohshiro, H.Kawachi, H.Okada, H.Suzuki, I.Kihara, and T.Yamamoto (2001).
FAT is a component of glomerular slit diaphragms.
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E-cadherin gene mutations frequently occur in synovial sarcoma as a determinant of histological features.
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11526210 Y.Liu, C.M.Ogata, and W.A.Hendrickson (2001).
Multiwavelength anomalous diffraction analysis at the M absorption edges of uranium.
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Epithelial mesenchymal transition by c-Fos estrogen receptor activation involves nuclear translocation of beta-catenin and upregulation of beta-catenin/lymphoid enhancer binding factor-1 transcriptional activity.
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10741417 B.Cox, A.K.Hadjantonakis, J.E.Collins, and A.I.Magee (2000).
Cloning and expression throughout mouse development of mfat1, a homologue of the Drosophila tumour suppressor gene fat.
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11087873 B.Kachar, M.Parakkal, M.Kurc, Y.Zhao, and P.G.Gillespie (2000).
High-resolution structure of hair-cell tip links.
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Cadherins in the central nervous system.
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10978894 D.Leckband, and S.Sivasankar (2000).
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10685062 D.Vestweber (2000).
Molecular mechanisms that control endothelial cell contacts.
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10660557 E.Williams, G.Williams, B.J.Gour, O.W.Blaschuk, and P.Doherty (2000).
A novel family of cyclic peptide antagonists suggests that N-cadherin specificity is determined by amino acids that flank the HAV motif.
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11036563 H.H.Chen, and G.W.Brodland (2000).
Cell-level finite element studies of viscous cells in planar aggregates.
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HYR, an extracellular module involved in cellular adhesion and related to the immunoglobulin-like fold.
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10959047 I.R.Beavon (2000).
The E-cadherin-catenin complex in tumour metastasis: structure, function and regulation.
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N-Cadherin extracellular repeat 4 mediates epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased motility.
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10830169 J.Freigang, K.Proba, L.Leder, K.Diederichs, P.Sonderegger, and W.Welte (2000).
The crystal structure of the ligand binding module of axonin-1/TAG-1 suggests a zipper mechanism for neural cell adhesion.
  Cell, 101, 425-433.
PDB code: 1cs6
10790430 K.S.Taraszka, J.M.Higgins, K.Tan, D.A.Mandelbrot, J.H.Wang, and M.B.Brenner (2000).
Molecular basis for leukocyte integrin alpha(E)beta(7) adhesion to epithelial (E)-cadherin.
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10974003 K.Tachibana, H.Nakanishi, K.Mandai, K.Ozaki, W.Ikeda, Y.Yamamoto, A.Nagafuchi, S.Tsukita, and Y.Takai (2000).
Two cell adhesion molecules, nectin and cadherin, interact through their cytoplasmic domain-associated proteins.
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10679341 L.Shapiro, and T.Harris (2000).
Finding function through structural genomics.
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10792570 M.Bernards, and B.P.Korge (2000).
Desmosome assembly and keratin network formation after Ca2+/serum induction and UVB radiation in Hailey-Hailey keratinocytes.
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10753817 M.C.Deller, and E.Yvonne Jones (2000).
Cell surface receptors.
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10617658 M.Miyahara, H.Nakanishi, K.Takahashi, K.Satoh-Horikawa, K.Tachibana, and Y.Takai (2000).
Interaction of nectin with afadin is necessary for its clustering at cell-cell contact sites but not for its cis dimerization or trans interaction.
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E-cadherin expression in melanoma cells restores keratinocyte-mediated growth control and down-regulates expression of invasion-related adhesion receptors.
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10903954 T.J.Boggon, and L.Shapiro (2000).
Screening for phasing atoms in protein crystallography.
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10660044 V.Vasioukhin, C.Bauer, M.Yin, and E.Fuchs (2000).
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10759550 W.Baumgartner, P.Hinterdorfer, W.Ness, A.Raab, D.Vestweber, H.Schindler, and D.Drenckhahn (2000).
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Functional cis-heterodimers of N- and R-cadherins.
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10508652 A.Kusumi, K.Suzuki, and K.Koyasako (1999).
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10490103 A.N.Plotnikov, J.Schlessinger, S.R.Hubbard, and M.Mohammadi (1999).
Structural basis for FGF receptor dimerization and activation.
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PDB code: 1cvs
10234805 A.R.Haas, and R.S.Tuan (1999).
Chondrogenic differentiation of murine C3H10T1/2 multipotential mesenchymal cells: II. Stimulation by bone morphogenetic protein-2 requires modulation of N-cadherin expression and function.
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9988734 B.A.Fox, V.C.Yee, L.C.Pedersen, I.Le Trong, P.D.Bishop, R.E.Stenkamp, and D.C.Teller (1999).
Identification of the calcium binding site and a novel ytterbium site in blood coagulation factor XIII by x-ray crystallography.
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PDB codes: 1bl2 1ggu 1ggy 1qrk
10584868 C.Huiping, J.R.Sigurgeirsdottir, J.G.Jonasson, G.Eiriksdottir, J.T.Johannsdottir, V.Egilsson, and S.Ingvarsson (1999).
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10508647 E.Provost, and D.L.Rimm (1999).
Controversies at the cytoplasmic face of the cadherin-based adhesion complex.
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10097129 G.A.Snyder, A.G.Brooks, and P.D.Sun (1999).
Crystal structure of the HLA-Cw3 allotype-specific killer cell inhibitory receptor KIR2DL2.
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PDB codes: 2dl2 2dli
10089396 G.Evans, and K.S.Wilson (1999).
A MAD experiment performed at the white line of the iridium LIII absorption edge in lysozyme.
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10064578 H.K.Song, S.H.Sohn, and S.W.Suh (1999).
Crystal structure of deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase from bacteriophage T4, a component of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate-synthesizing complex.
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PDB codes: 1b49 1b5d 1b5e
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Regulation of E-cadherin: does hypoxia initiate the metastatic cascade?
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10380930 J.H.Wang, A.Smolyar, K.Tan, J.H.Liu, M.Kim, Z.Y.Sun, G.Wagner, and E.L.Reinherz (1999).
Structure of a heterophilic adhesion complex between the human CD2 and CD58 (LFA-3) counterreceptors.
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PDB code: 1qa9
10098927 K.Kawamura, and Y.M.Sugino (1999).
Cell adhesion in the process of asexual reproduction of tunicates.
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10491578 K.Obst-Pernberg, and C.Redies (1999).
Cadherins and synaptic specificity.
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10333730 K.Vleminckx, and R.Kemler (1999).
Cadherins and tissue formation: integrating adhesion and signaling.
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10433255 L.Shapiro, and D.R.Colman (1999).
The diversity of cadherins and implications for a synaptic adhesive code in the CNS.
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10406800 M.Lecuit, S.Dramsi, C.Gottardi, M.Fedor-Chaiken, B.Gumbiner, and P.Cossart (1999).
A single amino acid in E-cadherin responsible for host specificity towards the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.
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10508659 M.S.Steinberg, and P.M.McNutt (1999).
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10545506 M.T.Nieman, R.S.Prudoff, K.R.Johnson, and M.J.Wheelock (1999).
N-cadherin promotes motility in human breast cancer cells regardless of their E-cadherin expression.
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A new crystal structure, Ca2+ dependence and mutational analysis reveal molecular details of E-cadherin homoassociation.
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PDB code: 1ff5
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Alpha E beta 7.
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10380929 Q.Wu, and T.Maniatis (1999).
A striking organization of a large family of human neural cadherin-like cell adhesion genes.
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A heptad motif of leucine residues found in membrane proteins can drive self-assembly of artificial transmembrane segments.
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Mechanism of cell-cell adhesion complex assembly.
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Direct molecular force measurements of multiple adhesive interactions between cadherin ectodomains.
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Regulation of cadherin function by Rho and Rac: modulation by junction maturation and cellular context.
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Small GTPases and regulation of cadherin dependent cell-cell adhesion.
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Functional domains of alpha-catenin required for the strong state of cadherin-based cell adhesion.
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Coupling assembly of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex to efficient endoplasmic reticulum exit and basal-lateral membrane targeting of E-cadherin in polarized MDCK cells.
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IQGAP1 and calmodulin modulate E-cadherin function.
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Crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of sialoadhesin in complex with 3' sialyllactose at 1.85 A resolution.
  Mol Cell, 1, 719-728.
PDB codes: 1qfo 1qfp
9502784 A.Pelet, O.Geneste, P.Edery, A.Pasini, S.Chappuis, T.Atti, A.Munnich, G.Lenoir, S.Lyonnet, and M.Billaud (1998).
Various mechanisms cause RET-mediated signaling defects in Hirschsprung's disease.
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Experimental study of the interaction range and association rate of surface-attached cadherin 11.
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The morphogenetic role of cadherin cell adhesion molecules in human cancer: a thematic review.
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Expression of rat target of the antiproliferative antibody (TAPA) in the developing brain.
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Cytomechanics of cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion.
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Mechanisms of epithelial cell-cell adhesion and cell compaction revealed by high-resolution tracking of E-cadherin-green fluorescent protein.
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MAD phasing grows up.
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Desmosomal adhesion inhibits invasive behavior.
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9792693 D.Gulino, E.Delachanal, E.Concord, Y.Genoux, B.Morand, M.O.Valiron, E.Sulpice, R.Scaife, M.Alemany, and T.Vernet (1998).
Alteration of endothelial cell monolayer integrity triggers resynthesis of vascular endothelium cadherin.
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9655493 D.J.Hagler, and Y.Goda (1998).
Synaptic adhesion: the building blocks of memory?
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9813018 E.Josefsson, D.O'Connell, T.J.Foster, I.Durussel, and J.A.Cox (1998).
The binding of calcium to the B-repeat segment of SdrD, a cell surface protein of Staphylococcus aureus.
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Direct and regulated interaction of integrin alphaEbeta7 with E-cadherin.
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Structural specializations of immunoglobulin superfamily members for adhesion to integrins and viruses.
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Structure-function analysis of cell adhesion by neural (N-) cadherin.
  Neuron, 20, 1153-1163.
PDB code: 1ncj
9811622 L.Shapiro, and D.R.Colman (1998).
Structural biology of cadherins in the nervous system.
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9655504 L.Tang, C.P.Hung, and E.M.Schuman (1998).
A role for the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules in hippocampal long-term potentiation.
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9840800 M.A.El-Bahrawy, and M.Pignatelli (1998).
E-cadherin and catenins: molecules with versatile roles in normal and neoplastic epithelial cell biology.
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9566975 M.H.Wong, B.Rubinfeld, and J.I.Gordon (1998).
Effects of forced expression of an NH2-terminal truncated beta-Catenin on mouse intestinal epithelial homeostasis.
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9695813 M.J.Humphries, and P.Newham (1998).
The structure of cell-adhesion molecules.
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9744888 M.Ozawa, and R.Kemler (1998).
The membrane-proximal region of the E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain prevents dimerization and negatively regulates adhesion activity.
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Adhesive but not lateral E-cadherin complexes require calcium and catenins for their formation.
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9823003 N.J.Hickok, A.R.Haas, and R.S.Tuan (1998).
Regulation of chondrocyte differentiation and maturation.
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9655502 N.Kohmura, K.Senzaki, S.Hamada, N.Kai, R.Yasuda, M.Watanabe, H.Ishii, M.Yasuda, M.Mishina, and T.Yagi (1998).
Diversity revealed by a novel family of cadherins expressed in neurons at a synaptic complex.
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9628487 P.B.Rupert, G.W.Daughdrill, B.Bowerman, and B.W.Matthews (1998).
A new DNA-binding motif in the Skn-1 binding domain-DNA complex.
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PDB code: 1skn
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Direct involvement of N-cadherin-mediated signaling in muscle differentiation.
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9512415 R.S.Bradley, A.Espeseth, and C.Kintner (1998).
NF-protocadherin, a novel member of the cadherin superfamily, is required for Xenopus ectodermal differentiation.
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9891781 S.Dramsi, and P.Cossart (1998).
Intracellular pathogens and the actin cytoskeleton.
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9576909 S.J.Davis, E.A.Davies, M.G.Tucknott, E.Y.Jones, and P.A.van der Merwe (1998).
The role of charged residues mediating low affinity protein-protein recognition at the cell surface by CD2.
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9657141 T.Uemura (1998).
The cadherin superfamily at the synapse: more members, more missions.
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9649932 W.G.Jiang, R.P.Bryce, and D.F.Horrobin (1998).
Essential fatty acids: molecular and cellular basis of their anti-cancer action and clinical implications.
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Crystal structure of hemolin: a horseshoe shape with implications for homophilic adhesion.
  Science, 281, 991-995.
PDB code: 1bih
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Cytoplasmic regulation of the movement of E-cadherin on the free cell surface as studied by optical tweezers and single particle tracking: corralling and tethering by the membrane skeleton.
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The importance of the E-cadherin-catenin complex in the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homoeostasis: more than intercellular glue?
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Molecular and functional analysis of cadherin-based adherens junctions.
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Lateral clustering of the adhesive ectodomain: a fundamental determinant of cadherin function.
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LI-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion does not require cytoplasmic interactions.
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9369149 B.W.Bisgrove, D.W.Raible, V.Walter, J.S.Eisen, and D.J.Grunwald (1997).
Expression of c-ret in the zebrafish embryo: potential roles in motoneuronal development.
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9348292 C.Brancolini, D.Lazarevic, J.Rodriguez, and C.Schneider (1997).
Dismantling cell-cell contacts during apoptosis is coupled to a caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage of beta-catenin.
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9242926 C.Chothia, and E.Y.Jones (1997).
The molecular structure of cell adhesion molecules.
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9261067 C.D.Lima, K.L.D'Amico, I.Naday, G.Rosenbaum, E.M.Westbrook, and W.A.Hendrickson (1997).
MAD analysis of FHIT, a putative human tumor suppressor from the HIT protein family.
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PDB codes: 1fit 2fit 3fit
9164452 C.E.Schutt, C.Kreatsoulas, R.Page, and U.Lindberg (1997).
Plugging into actin's architectonic socket.
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Regulation and significance of apoptosis in the stem cells of the gastrointestinal epithelium.
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Cloning and expression analysis of cadherin-10 in the CNS of the chicken embryo.
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Implications of atomic-resolution structures for cell adhesion.
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Alpha-catenin can form asymmetric homodimeric complexes and/or heterodimeric complexes with beta-catenin.
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9180893 F.R.Haselton, and R.L.Heimark (1997).
Role of cadherins 5 and 13 in the aortic endothelial barrier.
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Neural cell adhesion molecule L1: signaling pathways and growth cone motility.
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The cell adhesion molecule DdCAD-1 in Dictyostelium is targeted to the cell surface by a nonclassical transport pathway involving contractile vacuoles.
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Animal membrane receptors and adhesive molecules.
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Residues on both faces of the first immunoglobulin fold contribute to homophilic binding sites of PECAM-1/CD31.
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Protein kinase C activation upregulates intercellular adhesion of alpha-catenin-negative human colon cancer cell variants via induction of desmosomes.
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9442892 K.Ireton, and P.Cossart (1997).
Host-pathogen interactions during entry and actin-based movement of Listeria monocytogenes.
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9349237 K.K.Krishnadath, H.W.Tilanus, M.van Blankenstein, W.C.Hop, E.D.Kremers, W.N.Dinjens, and F.T.Bosman (1997).
Reduced expression of the cadherin-catenin complex in oesophageal adenocarcinoma correlates with poor prognosis.
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Restricted expression of cadherin-8 in segmental and functional subdivisions of the embryonic mouse brain.
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9294808 K.L.Lutz, and T.J.Siahaan (1997).
Molecular structure of the apical junction complex and its contribution to the paracellular barrier.
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Synchrotron radiation applications to macromolecular crystallography.
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The interactions of APC, E-cadherin and beta-catenin in tumour development and progression.
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Low affinity interaction of human or rat T cell adhesion molecule CD2 with its ligand aligns adhering membranes to achieve high physiological affinity.
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E-cadherin/catenin/cytoskeleton complex: a regulator of cancer invasion.
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Direct Ca2+-dependent heterophilic interaction between desmosomal cadherins, desmoglein and desmocollin, contributes to cell-cell adhesion.
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Neural development: how cadherins zipper up neural circuits.
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Projection structure of a gap junction membrane channel at 7 A resolution.
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Simultaneous loss of E-cadherin and catenins in invasive lobular breast cancer and lobular carcinoma in situ.
  J Pathol, 183, 404-411.  
9247265 Y.Iwai, T.Usui, S.Hirano, R.Steward, M.Takeichi, and T.Uemura (1997).
Axon patterning requires DN-cadherin, a novel neuronal adhesion receptor, in the Drosophila embryonic CNS.
  Neuron, 19, 77-89.  
9153187 Y.Xu, D.F.Guo, M.Davidson, T.Inagami, and G.Carpenter (1997).
Interaction of the adaptor protein Shc and the adhesion molecule cadherin.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 13463-13466.  
  16696098 A.J.Freemont, and J.A.Hoyland (1996).
Cell adhesion molecules.
  Clin Mol Pathol, 49, M321-M330.  
8636239 A.P.DeBernardo, and S.Chang (1996).
Heterophilic interactions of DM-GRASP: GRASP-NgCAM interactions involved in neurite extension.
  J Cell Biol, 133, 657-666.  
  8670853 A.Tomschy, C.Fauser, R.Landwehr, and J.Engel (1996).
Homophilic adhesion of E-cadherin occurs by a co-operative two-step interaction of N-terminal domains.
  EMBO J, 15, 3507-3514.  
8707837 B.Angres, A.Barth, and W.J.Nelson (1996).
Mechanism for transition from initial to stable cell-cell adhesion: kinetic analysis of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion using a quantitative adhesion assay.
  J Cell Biol, 134, 549-557.  
8608588 B.M.Gumbiner (1996).
Cell adhesion: the molecular basis of tissue architecture and morphogenesis.
  Cell, 84, 345-357.  
8991100 C.L.Adams, W.J.Nelson, and S.J.Smith (1996).
Quantitative analysis of cadherin-catenin-actin reorganization during development of cell-cell adhesion.
  J Cell Biol, 135, 1899-1911.  
8939650 D.Garrod, M.Chidgey, and A.North (1996).
Desmosomes: differentiation, development, dynamics and disease.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 8, 670-678.  
8729452 D.H.Fremont, W.A.Rees, and H.Kozono (1996).
Biophysical studies of T-cell receptors and their ligands.
  Curr Opin Immunol, 8, 93.  
  8670884 D.L.Hung, S.D.Knight, R.M.Woods, J.S.Pinkner, and S.J.Hultgren (1996).
Molecular basis of two subfamilies of immunoglobulin-like chaperones.
  EMBO J, 15, 3792-3805.  
8663243 E.F.Wong, S.K.Brar, H.Sesaki, C.Yang, and C.H.Siu (1996).
Molecular cloning and characterization of DdCAD-1, a Ca2+-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule, in Dictyostelium discoideum.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 16399-16408.  
8548457 E.Hohenester, P.Maurer, C.Hohenadl, R.Timpl, J.N.Jansonius, and J.Engel (1996).
Structure of a novel extracellular Ca(2+)-binding module in BM-40.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 67-73.
PDB code: 1sra
8939654 E.Y.Jones (1996).
Three-dimensional structure of cell adhesion molecules.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 8, 602-608.  
8717525 G.A.Bentley, and R.A.Mariuzza (1996).
The structure of the T cell antigen receptor.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 14, 563-590.  
8806074 H.Aberle, H.Schwartz, and R.Kemler (1996).
Cadherin-catenin complex: protein interactions and their implications for cadherin function.
  J Cell Biochem, 61, 514-523.  
8913682 H.S.Pappa, A.E.Stewart, and N.Q.McDonald (1996).
Incorporating anomalous scattering centres into macromolecules.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 6, 611-616.  
8981325 J.Engel (1996).
Domain organizations of modular extracellular matrix proteins and their evolution.
  Matrix Biol, 15, 295-299.  
8601315 J.Mengaud, H.Ohayon, P.Gounon, Mege R-M, and P.Cossart (1996).
E-cadherin is the receptor for internalin, a surface protein required for entry of L. monocytogenes into epithelial cells.
  Cell, 84, 923-932.  
8806071 J.P.Thiery (1996).
The saga of adhesion molecules.
  J Cell Biochem, 61, 489-492.  
8943306 L.M.Pai, C.Kirkpatrick, J.Blanton, H.Oda, M.Takeichi, and M.Peifer (1996).
Drosophila alpha-catenin and E-cadherin bind to distinct regions of Drosophila Armadillo.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 32411-32420.  
8618006 M.A.Chidgey, J.P.Clarke, and D.R.Garrod (1996).
Expression of full-length desmosomol glycoproteins (desmocollins) is not sufficient to confer strong adhesion on transfected L929 cells.
  J Invest Dermatol, 106, 689-695.  
8663237 M.Fuchs, T.Müller, M.M.Lerch, and A.Ullrich (1996).
Association of human protein-tyrosine phosphatase kappa with members of the armadillo family.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 16712-16719.  
8824259 M.Kan, F.Wang, B.To, J.L.Gabriel, and W.L.McKeehan (1996).
Divalent cations and heparin/heparan sulfate cooperate to control assembly and activity of the fibroblast growth factor receptor complex.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 26143-26148.  
8806075 M.Mareel, G.Berx, F.Van Roy, and M.Bracke (1996).
Cadherin/catenin complex: a target for antiinvasive therapy?
  J Cell Biochem, 61, 524-530.  
8728651 M.Yeager, and B.J.Nicholson (1996).
Structure of gap junction intercellular channels.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 6, 183-192.  
8968112 N.E.Chayen, T.J.Boggon, A.Cassetta, A.Deacon, T.Gleichmann, J.Habash, S.J.Harrop, J.R.Helliwell, Y.P.Nieh, M.R.Peterson, J.Raftery, E.H.Snell, A.Hädener, A.C.Niemann, D.P.Siddons, V.Stojanoff, A.W.Thompson, T.Ursby, and M.Wulff (1996).
Trends and challenges in experimental macromolecular crystallography.
  Q Rev Biophys, 29, 227-278.  
8939663 O.Huber, C.Bierkamp, and R.Kemler (1996).
Cadherins and catenins in development.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 8, 685-691.  
8870072 P.Bork, A.K.Downing, B.Kieffer, and I.D.Campbell (1996).
Structure and distribution of modules in extracellular proteins.
  Q Rev Biophys, 29, 119-167.  
8791403 P.Cowin, and B.Burke (1996).
Cytoskeleton-membrane interactions.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 8, 56-65.  
8939653 P.Maurer, E.Hohenester, and J.Engel (1996).
Extracellular calcium-binding proteins.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 8, 609-617.  
8673923 S.W.Lee (1996).
H-cadherin, a novel cadherin with growth inhibitory functions and diminished expression in human breast cancer.
  Nat Med, 2, 776-782.  
8994967 T.S.Peat, E.G.Frank, J.P.McDonald, A.S.Levine, R.Woodgate, and W.A.Hendrickson (1996).
The UmuD' protein filament and its potential role in damage induced mutagenesis.
  Structure, 4, 1401-1412.
PDB code: 1ay9
  8786236 W.A.Hendrickson (1996).
Production of crystallizable fragments of membrane proteins.
  J Bioenerg Biomembr, 28, 35-40.  
8665230 W.G.Jiang (1996).
E-cadherin and its associated protein catenins, cancer invasion and metastasis.
  Br J Surg, 83, 437-446.  
8896604 W.M.Brieher, A.S.Yap, and B.M.Gumbiner (1996).
Lateral dimerization is required for the homophilic binding activity of C-cadherin.
  J Cell Biol, 135, 487-496.  
7543545 A.P.Kowalczyk, J.E.Anderson, J.E.Borgwardt, T.Hashimoto, J.R.Stanley, and K.J.Green (1995).
Pemphigus sera recognize conformationally sensitive epitopes in the amino-terminal region of desmoglein-1.
  J Invest Dermatol, 105, 147-152.  
9383469 Fougerolles, and T.A.Springer (1995).
Ideas crystallized on immunoglobulin superfamily-integrin interactions.
  Chem Biol, 2, 639-643.  
8749360 D.I.Stuart, and E.Y.Jones (1995).
Recognition at the cell surface: recent structural insights.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 735-743.  
  8557030 G.Berx, A.M.Cleton-Jansen, F.Nollet, Leeuw, M.van de Vijver, C.Cornelisse, and F.van Roy (1995).
E-cadherin is a tumour/invasion suppressor gene mutated in human lobular breast cancers.
  EMBO J, 14, 6107-6115.  
7579649 J.L.Popot, and M.Saraste (1995).
Engineering membrane proteins.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 6, 394-402.  
7593172 J.P.Doyle, J.G.Stempak, P.Cowin, D.R.Colman, and D.D'Urso (1995).
Protein zero, a nervous system adhesion molecule, triggers epithelial reversion in host carcinoma cells.
  J Cell Biol, 131, 465-482.  
  8535235 K.Huang, W.Lu, S.Anderson, M.Laskowski, and M.N.James (1995).
Water molecules participate in proteinase-inhibitor interactions: crystal structures of Leu18, Ala18, and Gly18 variants of turkey ovomucoid inhibitor third domain complexed with Streptomyces griseus proteinase B.
  Protein Sci, 4, 1985-1997.
PDB codes: 1sgp 1sgq 1sgr
7624321 L.Shapiro, P.D.Kwong, A.M.Fannon, D.R.Colman, and W.A.Hendrickson (1995).
Considerations on the folding topology and evolutionary origin of cadherin domains.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 6793-6797.  
7592821 M.H.Chen, Z.M.Shen, S.Bobin, P.C.Kahn, and P.N.Lipke (1995).
Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-agglutinin. Evidence for a yeast cell wall protein with multiple immunoglobulin-like domains with atypical disulfides.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 26168-26177.  
7553873 M.W.Klymkowsky, and B.Parr (1995).
The body language of cells: the intimate connection between cell adhesion and behavior.
  Cell, 83, 5-8.  
  7796798 N.Q.McDonald, N.Panayotatos, and W.A.Hendrickson (1995).
Crystal structure of dimeric human ciliary neurotrophic factor determined by MAD phasing.
  EMBO J, 14, 2689-2699.
PDB code: 1cnt
  8535254 P.N.Lipke, M.H.Chen, Nobel, J.Kurjan, and P.C.Kahn (1995).
Homology modeling of an immunoglobulin-like domain in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adhesion protein alpha-agglutinin.
  Protein Sci, 4, 2168-2178.  
  8519658 S.J.Vermeulen, E.A.Bruyneel, F.M.van Roy, M.M.Mareel, and M.E.Bracke (1995).
Activation of the E-cadherin/catenin complex in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells by all-trans-retinoic acid.
  Br J Cancer, 72, 1447-1453.  
8821096 S.Jothy, S.B.Munro, L.LeDuy, D.McClure, and O.W.Blaschuk (1995).
Adhesion or anti-adhesion in cancer: what matters more?
  Cancer Metastasis Rev, 14, 363-376.  
8664545 T.C.Simon, and J.I.Gordon (1995).
Intestinal epithelial cell differentiation: new insights from mice, flies and nematodes.
  Curr Opin Genet Dev, 5, 577-586.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.