PDBsum entry 1lxa

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protein links
Acyltransferase PDB id
Protein chain
262 a.a. *
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Acyltransferase
Title: Udp n-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase
Structure: Udp n-acetylglucosamine o-acyltransferase. Chain: a. Synonym: lpxa. Engineered: yes. Mutation: yes
Source: Escherichia coli. Organism_taxid: 83333. Strain: k12. Gene: lpxa. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562.
Biol. unit: Trimer (from PQS)
2.60Å     R-factor:   0.184    
Authors: S.L.Roderick
Key ref: C.R.Raetz and S.L.Roderick (1995). A left-handed parallel beta helix in the structure of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase. Science, 270, 997. PubMed id: 7481807 DOI: 10.1126/science.270.5238.997
07-Oct-95     Release date:   07-Dec-95    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P0A722  (LPXA_ECOLI) -  Acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]--UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase
262 a.a.
262 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]--UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D- glucosamine = [acyl-carrier-protein] + UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)- N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine
+ UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D- glucosamine
= [acyl-carrier-protein]
+ UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)- N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     cytoplasm   1 term 
  Biological process     lipid metabolic process   3 terms 
  Biochemical function     transferase activity     4 terms  


    Added reference    
DOI no: 10.1126/science.270.5238.997 Science 270:997 (1995)
PubMed id: 7481807  
A left-handed parallel beta helix in the structure of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase.
C.R.Raetz, S.L.Roderick.
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 3-O-acyltransferase (LpxA) catalyzes the transfer of (R)-3-hydroxymyristic acid from its acyl carrier protein thioester to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. LpxA is the first enzyme in the lipid A biosynthetic pathway and is a target for the design of antibiotics. The x-ray crystal structure of LpxA has been determined to 2.6 angstrom resolution and reveals a domain motif composed of parallel beta strands, termed a left-handed parallel beta helix (L beta H). This unusual fold displays repeated violations of the protein folding constraint requiring right-handed crossover connections between strands of parallel beta sheets and may be present in other enzymes that share amino acid sequence homology to the repeated hexapeptide motif of LpxA.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
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Crystal structure and acyl chain selectivity of Escherichia coli LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis.
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PDB code: 3eh0
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Structural and kinetic characterizations of the polysialic acid O-acetyltransferase OatWY from Neisseria meningitidis.
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PDB codes: 2wlc 2wld 2wle 2wlf 2wlg
19191736 J.B.Thoden, P.D.Cook, C.Schäffer, P.Messner, and H.M.Holden (2009).
Structural and functional studies of QdtC: an N-acetyltransferase required for the biosynthesis of dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucose.
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PDB codes: 3fs8 3fsb 3fsc
19604481 J.H.Choi, B.C.May, C.Govaerts, and F.E.Cohen (2009).
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Application of the PM6 method to modeling proteins.
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19456129 L.I.Robins, A.H.Williams, and C.R.Raetz (2009).
Structural basis for the sugar nucleotide and acyl-chain selectivity of Leptospira interrogans LpxA.
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PDB codes: 3hsq 3i3a 3i3x
19448740 M.Demendi, and C.Creuzenet (2009).
Cj1123c (PglD), a multifaceted acetyltransferase from Campylobacter jejuni.
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19304665 R.S.Boshuizen, V.Schulz, M.Morbin, G.Mazzoleni, R.H.Meloen, and J.P.Langedijk (2009).
Heterologous stacking of prion protein peptides reveals structural details of fibrils and facilitates complete inhibition of fibril growth.
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Steady-state kinetics and mechanism of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis.
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18667421 N.B.Olivier, and B.Imperiali (2008).
Crystal structure and catalytic mechanism of PglD from Campylobacter jejuni.
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PDB codes: 3bss 3bsw 3bsy
18408022 N.Jimenez, R.Canals, M.T.Saló, S.Vilches, S.Merino, and J.M.Tomás (2008).
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Roles of histidines 154 and 189 and aspartate 139 in the active site of serine acetyltransferase from Haemophilus influenzae.
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17698807 A.H.Williams, and C.R.Raetz (2007).
Structural basis for the acyl chain selectivity and mechanism of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase.
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PDB codes: 2qia 2qiv
17362200 C.R.Raetz, C.M.Reynolds, M.S.Trent, and R.E.Bishop (2007).
Lipid A modification systems in gram-negative bacteria.
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MolProbity: all-atom contacts and structure validation for proteins and nucleic acids.
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17360522 L.Buetow, T.K.Smith, A.Dawson, S.Fyffe, and W.N.Hunter (2007).
Structure and reactivity of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis.
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PDB codes: 2iu8 2iu9 2iua
17473010 L.R.Olsen, M.W.Vetting, and S.L.Roderick (2007).
Structure of the E. coli bifunctional GlmU acetyltransferase active site with substrates and products.
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PDB codes: 2oi5 2oi6 2oi7
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PDB code: 2aq9
16388575 M.W.Vetting, S.S.Hegde, J.E.Fajardo, A.Fiser, S.L.Roderick, H.E.Takiff, and J.S.Blanchard (2006).
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Finding the region of pseudo-periodic tandem repeats in biological sequences.
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16102001 C.Q.Wenzel, C.Daniels, R.A.Keates, D.Brewer, and J.S.Lam (2005).
Evidence that WbpD is an N-acetyltransferase belonging to the hexapeptide acyltransferase superfamily and an important protein for O-antigen biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.
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15665127 M.Stork, A.Giese, H.A.Kretzschmar, and P.Tavan (2005).
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Structures for amyloid fibrils.
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Crystal structure of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.
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PDB codes: 1yp2 1yp3 1yp4
15044493 C.R.Sweet, A.H.Williams, M.J.Karbarz, C.Werts, S.R.Kalb, R.J.Cotter, and C.R.Raetz (2004).
Enzymatic synthesis of lipid A molecules with four amide-linked acyl chains. LpxA acyltransferases selective for an analog of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine in which an amine replaces the 3"-hydroxyl group.
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15500694 G.Parisi, and J.Echave (2004).
The structurally constrained protein evolution model accounts for sequence patterns of the LbetaH superfamily.
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15604675 G.Parisi, M.Perales, M.S.Fornasari, A.Colaneri, N.González-Schain, D.Gómez-Casati, S.Zimmermann, A.Brennicke, A.Araya, J.G.Ferry, J.Echave, and E.Zabaleta (2004).
Gamma carbonic anhydrases in plant mitochondria.
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14765110 H.Nummelin, M.C.Merckel, J.C.Leo, H.Lankinen, M.Skurnik, and A.Goldman (2004).
The Yersinia adhesin YadA collagen-binding domain structure is a novel left-handed parallel beta-roll.
  EMBO J, 23, 701-711.
PDB code: 1p9h
15333931 J.Gorman, and L.Shapiro (2004).
Structure of serine acetyltransferase from Haemophilus influenzae Rd.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 60, 1600-1605.
PDB code: 1s80
15044492 N.L.Que-Gewirth, A.A.Ribeiro, S.R.Kalb, R.J.Cotter, D.M.Bulach, B.Adler, I.S.Girons, C.Werts, and C.R.Raetz (2004).
A methylated phosphate group and four amide-linked acyl chains in leptospira interrogans lipid A. The membrane anchor of an unusual lipopolysaccharide that activates TLR2.
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15291806 S.P.Graether, and B.D.Sykes (2004).
Cold survival in freeze-intolerant insects: the structure and function of beta-helical antifreeze proteins.
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15390264 W.Qiu, R.Shi, M.L.Lu, M.Zhou, P.H.Roy, J.Lapointe, and S.X.Lin (2004).
Crystal structure of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase B2 encoded by the multiresistance transposon Tn2424.
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14579368 B.I.Lee, and S.W.Suh (2003).
Crystal structure of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase from Helicobacter pylori.
  Proteins, 53, 772-774.
PDB code: 1j2z
14651342 I.Lerouge, C.Verreth, J.Michiels, R.W.Carlson, A.Datta, M.Y.Gao, and J.Vanderleyden (2003).
Three genes encoding for putative methyl- and acetyltransferases map adjacent to the wzm and wzt genes and are essential for O-antigen biosynthesis in Rhizobium etli CE3.
  Mol Plant Microbe Interact, 16, 1085-1093.  
11976505 B.I.Lee, J.Y.Lee, J.Moon, B.W.Han, and S.W.Suh (2002).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase from Helicobacter pylori.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 58, 864-866.  
12057956 C.K.Raymond, E.H.Sims, A.Kas, D.H.Spencer, T.V.Kutyavin, R.G.Ivey, Y.Zhou, R.Kaul, J.B.Clendenning, and M.V.Olson (2002).
Genetic variation at the O-antigen biosynthetic locus in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  J Bacteriol, 184, 3614-3622.  
12045108 C.R.Raetz, and C.Whitfield (2002).
Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 71, 635-700.  
11891310 H.Wille, M.D.Michelitsch, V.Guenebaut, S.Supattapone, A.Serban, F.E.Cohen, D.A.Agard, and S.B.Prusiner (2002).
Structural studies of the scrapie prion protein by electron crystallography.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 3563-3568.  
11914504 M.A.McDonough, C.Ryttersgaard, M.E.Bjørnvad, L.Lo Leggio, M.Schülein, S.O.Schrøder Glad, and S.Larsen (2002).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a thermostable pectate lyase from Thermotoga maritima.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 58, 709-711.  
11910040 T.W.Beaman, K.W.Vogel, D.G.Drueckhammer, J.S.Blanchard, and S.L.Roderick (2002).
Acyl group specificity at the active site of tetrahydridipicolinate N-succinyltransferase.
  Protein Sci, 11, 974-979.
PDB codes: 1kgq 1kgt
11937062 X.G.Wang, L.R.Olsen, and S.L.Roderick (2002).
Structure of the lac operon galactoside acetyltransferase.
  Structure, 10, 581-588.
PDB codes: 1kqa 1krr 1kru 1krv
11703654 A.V.Kajava, N.Cheng, R.Cleaver, M.Kessel, M.N.Simon, E.Willery, F.Jacob-Dubuisson, C.Locht, and A.C.Steven (2001).
Beta-helix model for the filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin of Bordetella pertussis and related bacterial secretory proteins.
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11349019 C.M.Kahler, L.E.Martin, Y.L.Tzeng, Y.K.Miller, K.Sharkey, D.S.Stephens, and J.K.Davies (2001).
Polymorphisms in pilin glycosylation Locus of Neisseria meningitidis expressing class II pili.
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11266588 J.M.Thornton (2001).
The Hans Neurath Award lecture of The Protein Society: proteins-- a testament to physics, chemistry, and evolution.
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11717516 L.Lo Leggio, F.Dal Degan, P.Poulsen, S.O.Sørensen, K.Harlow, P.Harris, and S.Larsen (2001).
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of maltose O-acetyltransferase.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 57, 1915-1918.  
11329257 L.R.Olsen, and S.L.Roderick (2001).
Structure of the Escherichia coli GlmU pyrophosphorylase and acetyltransferase active sites.
  Biochemistry, 40, 1913-1921.
PDB code: 1hv9
11173485 L.R.Olsen, Y.Tian, and S.L.Roderick (2001).
Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray data for Escherichia coli GlmU: a bifunctional acetyltransferase/uridyltransferase.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 57, 296-297.  
11168407 M.Wirtz, O.Berkowitz, M.Droux, and R.Hell (2001).
The cysteine synthase complex from plants. Mitochondrial serine acetyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana carries a bifunctional domain for catalysis and protein-protein interaction.
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11591436 R.J.Heath, S.W.White, and C.O.Rock (2001).
Lipid biosynthesis as a target for antibacterial agents.
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11222281 S.P.Graether, and Z.Jia (2001).
Modeling Pseudomonas syringae ice-nucleation protein as a beta-helical protein.
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11050437 B.Kobe, and A.V.Kajava (2000).
When protein folding is simplified to protein coiling: the continuum of solenoid protein structures.
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Plasticity and steric strain in a parallel beta-helix: rational mutations in the P22 tailspike protein.
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PDB codes: 1qq1 1qrb 1qrc
10960115 D.A.Daines, and R.P.Silver (2000).
Evidence for multimerization of neu proteins involved in polysialic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli K1 using improved LexA-based vectors.
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11123920 D.E.Kamen, Y.Griko, and R.W.Woody (2000).
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10805739 E.Gomez, and G.D.Pavitt (2000).
Identification of domains and residues within the epsilon subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2Bepsilon) required for guanine nucleotide exchange reveals a novel activation function promoted by eIF2B complex formation.
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Beta-helix core packing within the triple-stranded oligomerization domain of the P22 tailspike.
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Prokaryotic carbonic anhydrases.
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Alzheimer's amyloid fibrils: structure and assembly.
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10771435 M.Sugantino, and S.L.Roderick (2000).
Expression, purification and crystallization of enterococcus faecium streptogramin A acetyltransferase.
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Do parallel beta-helix proteins have a unique fourier transform infrared spectrum?
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Crystal structure of the bifunctional N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate uridyltransferase from Escherichia coli: a paradigm for the related pyrophosphorylase superfamily.
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PDB codes: 1fwy 1fxj
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Fibril formation by amyloid-beta proteins may involve beta-helical protofibrils.
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Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray data of Escherichia coli galactoside acetyltransferase.
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Structure and distribution of pentapeptide repeats in bacteria.
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Biosynthesis of fatty acids and related metabolites.
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Probing the role of cysteine residues in glucosamine-1-phosphate acetyltransferase activity of the bifunctional GlmU protein from Escherichia coli: site-directed mutagenesis and characterization of the mutant enzymes.
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Expression cloning of a Pseudomonas gene encoding a hydroxydecanoyl-acyl carrier protein-dependent UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase.
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Amyloid fibrils may be assembled from beta-helical protofibrils.
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Acylation of Escherichia coli hemolysin: a unique protein lipidation mechanism underlying toxin function.
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A reversibly unfolding fragment of P22 tailspike protein with native structure: the isolated beta-helix domain.
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Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents that target endotoxin.
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The conformational change and active site structure of tetrahydrodipicolinate N-succinyltransferase.
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PDB codes: 2tdt 3tdt
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Structure of the hexapeptide xenobiotic acetyltransferase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
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PDB codes: 1xat 2xat
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Protein folds in the all-beta and all-alpha classes.
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O-Acetyltransferases for chloramphenicol and other natural products.
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Three-dimensional domain duplication, swapping and stealing.
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Interaction of Salmonella phage P22 with its O-antigen receptor studied by X-ray crystallography.
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Three-dimensional structure of tetrahydrodipicolinate N-succinyltransferase.
  Biochemistry, 36, 489-494.
PDB code: 1tdt
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Leucines on a roll.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 977-980.  
  8665839 C.Kisker, H.Schindelin, B.E.Alber, J.G.Ferry, and D.C.Rees (1996).
A left-hand beta-helix revealed by the crystal structure of a carbonic anhydrase from the archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila.
  EMBO J, 15, 2323-2330.
PDB code: 1thj
8880935 D.A.Binder, J.S.Blanchard, and S.L.Roderick (1996).
Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of tetrahydrodipicolinate-N-succinyltransferase.
  Proteins, 26, 115-117.  
  8868492 S.M.Dunn, P.C.Moody, J.A.Downie, and W.V.Shaw (1996).
Crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of NodL, a rhizobial O-acetyl-transferase involved in the host-specific nodulation of legume roots.
  Protein Sci, 5, 538-541.  
8855221 S.Steinbacher, U.Baxa, S.Miller, A.Weintraub, R.Seckler, and R.Huber (1996).
Crystal structure of phage P22 tailspike protein complexed with Salmonella sp. O-antigen receptors.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 10584-10588.
PDB codes: 1tyu 1tyv 1tyw 1tyx
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.