PDBsum entry 1lpa

Go to PDB code: 
protein ligands metals Protein-protein interface(s) links
Hydrolase(carboxylic esterase) PDB id
Protein chains
85 a.a. *
449 a.a. *
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Hydrolase(carboxylic esterase)
Title: Interfacial activation of the lipase-procolipase complex by mixed micelles revealed by x-ray crystallography
Structure: Colipase. Chain: a. Engineered: yes. Lipase. Chain: b. Engineered: yes
Source: Sus scrofa. Pig. Organism_taxid: 9823. Organ: pancreas. Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Organ: pancreas
Biol. unit: Dimer (from PQS)
3.04Å     R-factor:   0.186    
Authors: H.Van Tilbeurgh,M.-P.Egloff,C.Cambillau
Key ref: H.van Tilbeurgh et al. (1993). Interfacial activation of the lipase-procolipase complex by mixed micelles revealed by X-ray crystallography. Nature, 362, 814-820. PubMed id: 8479519
19-Aug-94     Release date:   01-Nov-94    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P02703  (COL_PIG) -  Colipase
112 a.a.
85 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P16233  (LIPP_HUMAN) -  Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase
465 a.a.
449 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 2 residue positions (black crosses)

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: Chain B: E.C.  - Triacylglycerol lipase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: Triacylglycerol + H2O = diacylglycerol + a carboxylate
+ H(2)O
= diacylglycerol
+ carboxylate
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     extracellular region   2 terms 
  Biological process     small molecule metabolic process   9 terms 
  Biochemical function     catalytic activity     5 terms  


Nature 362:814-820 (1993)
PubMed id: 8479519  
Interfacial activation of the lipase-procolipase complex by mixed micelles revealed by X-ray crystallography.
H.van Tilbeurgh, M.P.Egloff, C.Martinez, N.Rugani, R.Verger, C.Cambillau.
The three-dimensional structure of the lipase-procolipase complex, co-crystallized with mixed micelles of phosphatidylcholine and bile salt, has been determined at 3 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. The lid, a surface helix covering the catalytic triad of lipase, adopts a totally different conformation which allows phospholipid to bind to the enzyme's active site. The open lid is an essential component of the active site and interacts with procolipase. Together they form the lipid-water interface binding site. This reorganization of the lid structure provokes a second drastic conformational change in an active site loop, which in its turn creates the oxyanion hole (induced fit).

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21351321 S.Longhi, V.Belle, A.Fournel, B.Guigliarelli, and F.Carrière (2011).
Probing structural transitions in both structured and disordered proteins using site-directed spin-labeling EPR spectroscopy.
  J Pept Sci, 17, 315-328.  
20300652 D.E.Almonacid, E.R.Yera, J.B.Mitchell, and P.C.Babbitt (2010).
Quantitative comparison of catalytic mechanisms and overall reactions in convergently evolved enzymes: implications for classification of enzyme function.
  PLoS Comput Biol, 6, e1000700.  
20193096 I.A.Brownlee, D.J.Forster, M.D.Wilcox, P.W.Dettmar, C.J.Seal, and J.P.Pearson (2010).
Physiological parameters governing the action of pancreatic lipase.
  Nutr Res Rev, 23, 146-154.  
20812327 S.Rehm, P.Trodler, and J.Pleiss (2010).
Solvent-induced lid opening in lipases: a molecular dynamics study.
  Protein Sci, 19, 2122-2130.  
19824014 A.Berton, C.Sebban-Kreuzer, S.Rouvellac, C.Lopez, and I.Crenon (2009).
Individual and combined action of pancreatic lipase and pancreatic lipase-related proteins 1 and 2 on native versus homogenized milk fat globules.
  Mol Nutr Food Res, 53, 1592-1602.  
19346257 A.Bourbon-Freie, R.E.Dub, X.Xiao, and M.E.Lowe (2009).
Trp-107 and trp-253 account for the increased steady state fluorescence that accompanies the conformational change in human pancreatic triglyceride lipase induced by tetrahydrolipstatin and bile salt.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 14157-14164.  
19732867 N.Grillet, M.Schwander, M.S.Hildebrand, A.Sczaniecka, A.Kolatkar, J.Velasco, J.A.Webster, K.Kahrizi, H.Najmabadi, W.J.Kimberling, D.Stephan, M.Bahlo, T.Wiltshire, L.M.Tarantino, P.Kuhn, R.J.Smith, and U.Müller (2009).
Mutations in LOXHD1, an evolutionarily conserved stereociliary protein, disrupt hair cell function in mice and cause progressive hearing loss in humans.
  Am J Hum Genet, 85, 328-337.  
19476626 P.Trodler, R.D.Schmid, and J.Pleiss (2009).
Modeling of solvent-dependent conformational transitions in Burkholderia cepacia lipase.
  BMC Struct Biol, 9, 38.  
19527641 S.Santini, J.M.Crowet, A.Thomas, M.Paquot, M.Vandenbol, P.Thonart, J.P.Wathelet, C.Blecker, G.Lognay, R.Brasseur, L.Lins, and B.Charloteaux (2009).
Study of Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase in the presence of tributyrylglycerol and water.
  Biophys J, 96, 4814-4825.  
19306528 X.Rousset, B.Vaisman, M.Amar, A.A.Sethi, and A.T.Remaley (2009).
Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase--from biochemistry to role in cardiovascular disease.
  Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes, 16, 163-171.  
18506778 B.Kerfelec, M.Allouche, D.Colin, M.H.Van Eyck, R.Brasseur, and A.Thomas (2008).
Computational study of colipase interaction with lipid droplets and bile salt micelles.
  Proteins, 73, 828-838.  
18437283 Pascale, A.M.Cusano, F.Autore, E.Parrilli, G.di Prisco, G.Marino, and M.L.Tutino (2008).
The cold-active Lip1 lipase from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 is a member of a new bacterial lipolytic enzyme family.
  Extremophiles, 12, 311-323.  
17961181 A.Berton, C.Sebban-Kreuzer, and I.Crenon (2007).
Role of the structural domains in the functional properties of pancreatic lipase-related protein 2.
  FEBS J, 274, 6011-6023.  
17205399 D.C.Whitcomb, and M.E.Lowe (2007).
Human pancreatic digestive enzymes.
  Dig Dis Sci, 52, 1.  
16431912 A.B.Freie, F.Ferrato, F.Carrière, and M.E.Lowe (2006).
Val-407 and Ile-408 in the beta5'-loop of pancreatic lipase mediate lipase-colipase interactions in the presence of bile salt micelles.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 7793-7800.  
16679289 A.Lass, R.Zimmermann, G.Haemmerle, M.Riederer, G.Schoiswohl, M.Schweiger, P.Kienesberger, J.G.Strauss, G.Gorkiewicz, and R.Zechner (2006).
Adipose triglyceride lipase-mediated lipolysis of cellular fat stores is activated by CGI-58 and defective in Chanarin-Dorfman Syndrome.
  Cell Metab, 3, 309-319.  
16551354 G.Schneider, G.Neuberger, M.Wildpaner, S.Tian, I.Berezovsky, and F.Eisenhaber (2006).
Application of a sensitive collection heuristic for very large protein families: evolutionary relationship between adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and classic mammalian lipases.
  BMC Bioinformatics, 7, 164.  
17076907 H.A.Wahab, N.B.Ahmad Khairudin, M.R.Samian, and N.Najimudin (2006).
Sequence analysis and structure prediction of type II Pseudomonas sp. USM 4-55 PHA synthase and an insight into its catalytic mechanism.
  BMC Struct Biol, 6, 23.  
16842350 R.B.Salah, H.Mosbah, A.Fendri, A.Gargouri, Y.Gargouri, and H.Mejdoub (2006).
Biochemical and molecular characterization of a lipase produced by Rhizopus oryzae.
  FEMS Microbiol Lett, 260, 241-248.  
16179352 A.Thomas, M.Allouche, F.Basyn, R.Brasseur, and B.Kerfelec (2005).
Role of the lid hydrophobicity pattern in pancreatic lipase activity.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 40074-40083.  
15977280 D.Das, S.Roy, R.N.Mitra, A.Dasgupta, and P.K.Das (2005).
Head-group size or hydrophilicity of surfactants: the major regulator of lipase activity in cationic water-in-oil microemulsions.
  Chemistry, 11, 4881-4889.  
15723037 E.A.Ortlund, Y.Lee, I.H.Solomon, J.M.Hager, R.Safi, Y.Choi, Z.Guan, A.Tripathy, C.R.Raetz, D.P.McDonnell, D.D.Moore, and M.R.Redinbo (2005).
Modulation of human nuclear receptor LRH-1 activity by phospholipids and SHP.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 12, 357-363.
PDB code: 1yuc
16283542 G.Lin, W.C.Liao, and Z.H.Ku (2005).
Quantitative structure-activity relationships for the pre-steady state of Pseudomonas species lipase inhibitions by p-nirophenyl-N-substituted carbamates.
  Protein J, 24, 201-207.  
15890938 J.P.Kamil, B.K.Tischer, S.Trapp, V.K.Nair, N.Osterrieder, and H.J.Kung (2005).
vLIP, a viral lipase homologue, is a virulence factor of Marek's disease virus.
  J Virol, 79, 6984-6996.  
15554150 C.C.Akoh, G.C.Lee, and J.F.Shaw (2004).
Protein engineering and applications of Candida rugosa lipase isoforms.
  Lipids, 39, 513-526.  
15159570 I.Janda, Y.Devedjiev, D.Cooper, M.Chruszcz, U.Derewenda, A.Gabrys, W.Minor, A.Joachimiak, and Z.S.Derewenda (2004).
Harvesting the high-hanging fruit: the structure of the YdeN gene product from Bacillus subtilis at 1.8 angstroms resolution.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 60, 1101-1107.
PDB code: 1uxo
15502342 J.M.Mancheño, S.Jayne, B.Kerfelec, C.Chapus, I.Crenon, and J.A.Hermoso (2004).
Crystallization of a proteolyzed form of the horse pancreatic lipase-related protein 2: structural basis for the specific detergent requirement.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 60, 2107-2109.
PDB code: 1w52
12844490 A.Gruez, V.Roig-Zamboni, C.Valencia, V.Campanacci, and C.Cambillau (2003).
The crystal structure of the Escherichia coli YfdW gene product reveals a new fold of two interlaced rings identifying a wide family of CoA transferases.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 34582-34586.
PDB codes: 1pt5 1pt7 1pt8
12855707 A.Lookene, L.Zhang, V.Tougu, and G.Olivecrona (2003).
1,1'-bis(anilino)-4-,4'-bis(naphtalene)-8,8'-disulfonate acts as an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase and competes for binding with apolipoprotein CII.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 37183-37194.  
12931010 D.Marsh (2003).
Lipid-binding proteins: structure of the phospholipid ligands.
  Protein Sci, 12, 2109-2117.  
14580194 P.Ramos, T.Coste, E.Piémont, J.M.Lessinger, J.A.Bousquet, C.Chapus, B.Kerfelec, G.Férard, and Y.Mély (2003).
Time-resolved fluorescence allows selective monitoring of Trp30 environmental changes in the seven-Trp-containing human pancreatic lipase.
  Biochemistry, 42, 12488-12496.  
12444965 E.A.Snellman, E.R.Sullivan, and R.R.Colwell (2002).
Purification and properties of the extracellular lipase, LipA, of Acinetobacter sp. RAG-1.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 5771-5779.  
12216836 H.Chahinian, L.Nini, E.Boitard, J.P.Dubès, L.C.Comeau, and L.Sarda (2002).
Distinction between esterases and lipases: a kinetic study with vinyl esters and TAG.
  Lipids, 37, 653-662.  
12022871 M.Alam, D.E.Vance, and R.Lehner (2002).
Structure-function analysis of human triacylglycerol hydrolase by site-directed mutagenesis: identification of the catalytic triad and a glycosylation site.
  Biochemistry, 41, 6679-6687.  
12081491 S.Jayne, B.Kerfelec, E.Foglizzo, S.Granon, J.Hermoso, C.Chapus, and I.Crenon (2002).
Activation of horse PLRP2 by bile salts does not require colipase.
  Biochemistry, 41, 8422-8428.  
11964257 S.Noinville, M.Revault, M.H.Baron, A.Tiss, S.Yapoudjian, M.Ivanova, and R.Verger (2002).
Conformational changes and orientation of Humicola lanuginosa lipase on a solid hydrophobic surface: an in situ interface Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection study.
  Biophys J, 82, 2709-2719.  
11895431 S.Yapoudjian, M.G.Ivanova, A.M.Brzozowski, S.A.Patkar, J.Vind, A.Svendsen, and R.Verger (2002).
Binding of Thermomyces (Humicola) lanuginosa lipase to the mixed micelles of cis-parinaric acid/NaTDC.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 1613-1621.
PDB code: 1gt6
12230584 Y.Kobayashi, T.Nakajima, and I.Inoue (2002).
Molecular modeling of the dimeric structure of human lipoprotein lipase and functional studies of the carboxyl-terminal domain.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 4701-4710.  
11353407 A.Hickel, C.J.Radke, and H.W.Blanch (2001).
Role of organic solvents on Pa-hydroxynitrile lyase interfacial activity and stability.
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 74, 18-28.  
11720974 G.H.Peters, and R.P.Bywater (2001).
Influence of a lipid interface on protein dynamics in a fungal lipase.
  Biophys J, 81, 3052-3065.  
11258933 H.González-Navarro, M.C.Bañó, and C.Abad (2001).
The closed/open model for lipase activation. Addressing intermediate active forms of fungal enzymes by trapping of conformers in water-restricted environments.
  Biochemistry, 40, 3174-3183.  
11386077 J.Ricard (2001).
Binding energy and the information content of some elementary biological processes.
  C R Acad Sci III, 324, 297-304.  
  11266620 K.Zhu, A.Jutila, E.K.Tuominen, and P.K.Kinnunen (2001).
Effects of i-propanol on the structural dynamics of Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase revealed by tryptophan fluorescence.
  Protein Sci, 10, 339-351.  
11084600 N.A.Turner, E.C.Needs, J.A.Khan, and E.N.Vulfson (2001).
Analysis of conformational states of Candida rugosa lipase in solution: implications for mechanism of interfacial activation and separation of open and closed forms.
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 72, 108-118.  
11388447 T.Maruyama, M.Nakajima, S.Ichikawa, Y.Sano, H.Nabetani, S.Furusaki, and M.Seki (2001).
Small-angle X-ray scattering analysis of stearic acid modified lipase.
  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 65, 1003-1006.  
10692347 A.Jutila, K.Zhu, S.A.Patkar, J.Vind, A.Svendsen, and P.K.Kinnunen (2000).
Detergent-induced conformational changes of Humicola lanuginosa lipase studied by fluorescence spectroscopy.
  Biophys J, 78, 1634-1642.  
10660587 D.Pignol, L.Ayvazian, B.Kerfelec, P.Timmins, I.Crenon, J.Hermoso, J.C.Fontecilla-Camps, and C.Chapus (2000).
Critical role of micelles in pancreatic lipase activation revealed by small angle neutron scattering.
  J Biol Chem, 275, 4220-4224.  
10944388 V.Z.Pletnev, T.S.Zamolodchikova, W.A.Pangborn, and W.L.Duax (2000).
Crystal structure of bovine duodenase, a serine protease, with dual trypsin and chymotrypsin-like specificities.
  Proteins, 41, 8.
PDB code: 1euf
11099802 Y.Cajal, A.Svendsen, J.De Bolós, S.A.Patkar, and M.A.Alsina (2000).
Effect of the lipid interface on the catalytic activity and spectroscopic properties of a fungal lipase.
  Biochimie, 82, 1053-1061.  
10631003 Y.Cajal, A.Svendsen, V.Girona, S.A.Patkar, and M.A.Alsina (2000).
Interfacial control of lid opening in Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase.
  Biochemistry, 39, 413-423.  
11080636 Y.Devedjiev, Z.Dauter, S.R.Kuznetsov, T.L.Jones, and Z.S.Derewenda (2000).
Crystal structure of the human acyl protein thioesterase I from a single X-ray data set to 1.5 A.
  Structure, 8, 1137-1146.
PDB code: 1fj2
10747780 Y.Jia, T.J.Kappock, T.Frick, A.J.Sinskey, and J.Stubbe (2000).
Lipases provide a new mechanistic model for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthases: characterization of the functional residues in Chromatium vinosum PHB synthase.
  Biochemistry, 39, 3927-3936.  
10469604 A.Bateman, and R.Sandford (1999).
The PLAT domain: a new piece in the PKD1 puzzle.
  Curr Biol, 9, R588-R590.  
10358049 A.Roussel, S.Canaan, M.P.Egloff, M.Rivière, L.Dupuis, R.Verger, and C.Cambillau (1999).
Crystal structure of human gastric lipase and model of lysosomal acid lipase, two lipolytic enzymes of medical interest.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 16995-17002.
PDB code: 1hlg
10635551 E.Alvarez-Macarie, V.Augier-Magro, and J.Baratti (1999).
Characterization of a thermostable esterase activity from the moderate thermophile Bacillus licheniformis.
  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 63, 1865-1870.  
10570245 H.van Tilbeurgh, S.Bezzine, C.Cambillau, R.Verger, and F.Carrière (1999).
Colipase: structure and interaction with pancreatic lipase.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1441, 173-184.  
10640192 J.F.Cavalier, S.Ransac, R.Verger, and G.Buono (1999).
Inhibition of human gastric and pancreatic lipases by chiral alkylphosphonates. A kinetic study with 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycerol monolayer.
  Chem Phys Lipids, 100, 3.  
10220318 J.J.Prompers, A.Groenewegen, C.W.Hilbers, and H.A.Pepermans (1999).
Backbone dynamics of Fusarium solani pisi cutinase probed by nuclear magnetic resonance: the lack of interfacial activation revisited.
  Biochemistry, 38, 5315-5327.  
10320324 J.J.Prompers, B.van Noorloos, M.L.Mannesse, A.Groenewegen, M.R.Egmond, H.M.Verheij, C.W.Hilbers, and H.A.Pepermans (1999).
NMR studies of Fusarium solani pisi cutinase in complex with phosphonate inhibitors.
  Biochemistry, 38, 5982-5994.  
9890877 J.W.Simons, M.D.van Kampen, I.Ubarretxena-Belandia, R.C.Cox, C.M.Alves dos Santos, M.R.Egmond, and H.M.Verheij (1999).
Identification of a calcium binding site in Staphylococcus hyicus lipase: generation of calcium-independent variants.
  Biochemistry, 38, 2.  
10320365 J.W.Simons, R.C.Cox, M.R.Egmond, and H.M.Verheij (1999).
Rational design of alpha-keto triglyceride analogues as inhibitors for Staphylococcus hyicus lipase.
  Biochemistry, 38, 6346-6351.  
10547694 K.E.Jaeger, B.W.Dijkstra, and M.T.Reetz (1999).
Bacterial biocatalysts: molecular biology, three-dimensional structures, and biotechnological applications of lipases.
  Annu Rev Microbiol, 53, 315-351.  
10220337 S.Bezzine, F.Ferrato, M.G.Ivanova, V.Lopez, R.Verger, and F.Carrière (1999).
Human pancreatic lipase: colipase dependence and interfacial binding of lid domain mutants.
  Biochemistry, 38, 5499-5510.  
10570247 S.Canaan, A.Roussel, R.Verger, and C.Cambillau (1999).
Gastric lipase: crystal structure and activity.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1441, 197-204.  
10570246 S.Longhi, and C.Cambillau (1999).
Structure-activity of cutinase, a small lipolytic enzyme.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1441, 185-196.  
9915834 Y.Bourne, P.Taylor, P.E.Bougis, and P.Marchot (1999).
Crystal structure of mouse acetylcholinesterase. A peripheral site-occluding loop in a tetrameric assembly.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 2963-2970.
PDB code: 1maa
9590625 A.Ibrik, H.Chahinian, N.Rugani, L.Sarda, and L.C.Comeau (1998).
Biochemical and structural characterization of triacylglycerol lipase from Penicillium cyclopium.
  Lipids, 33, 377-384.  
10193526 A.Jonas (1998).
Regulation of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity.
  Prog Lipid Res, 37, 209-234.  
9822688 A.Roussel, Y.Yang, F.Ferrato, R.Verger, C.Cambillau, and M.Lowe (1998).
Structure and activity of rat pancreatic lipase-related protein 2.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 32121-32128.
PDB code: 1bu8
9720254 D.Pignol, J.Hermoso, B.Kerfelec, I.Crenon, C.Chapus, and J.C.Fontecilla-Camps (1998).
The lipase/colipase complex is activated by a micelle: neutron crystallographic evidence.
  Chem Phys Lipids, 93, 123-129.  
9512023 F.Haeffner, T.Norin, and K.Hult (1998).
Molecular modeling of the enantioselectivity in lipase-catalyzed transesterification reactions.
  Biophys J, 74, 1251-1262.  
10099322 H.Gonzalez-Navarro, and L.Braco (1998).
Lipase-enhanced activity in flavour ester reactions by trapping enzyme conformers in the presence of interfaces
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 59, 122-127.  
9548741 J.C.Chen, L.J.Miercke, J.Krucinski, J.R.Starr, G.Saenz, X.Wang, C.A.Spilburg, L.G.Lange, J.L.Ellsworth, and R.M.Stroud (1998).
Structure of bovine pancreatic cholesterol esterase at 1.6 A: novel structural features involved in lipase activation.
  Biochemistry, 37, 5107-5117.
PDB code: 2bce
9663378 L.Aravind, and E.V.Koonin (1998).
A colipase fold in the carboxy-terminal domain of the Wnt antagonists--the Dickkopfs.
  Curr Biol, 8, R477-R478.  
9837944 L.Ayvazian, I.Crenon, J.Hermoso, D.Pignol, C.Chapus, and B.Kerfelec (1998).
Ion pairing between lipase and colipase plays a critical role in catalysis.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 33604-33609.  
9521667 M.D.van Kampen, N.Dekker, M.R.Egmond, and H.M.Verheij (1998).
Substrate specificity of Staphylococcus hyicus lipase and Staphylococcus aureus lipase as studied by in vivo chimeragenesis.
  Biochemistry, 37, 3459-3466.  
9622488 M.Dahim, and H.Brockman (1998).
How colipase-fatty acid interactions mediate adsorption of pancreatic lipase to interfaces.
  Biochemistry, 37, 8369-8377.  
9720250 M.Holmquist (1998).
Insights into the molecular basis for fatty acyl specificities of lipases from Geotrichum candidum and Candida rugosa.
  Chem Phys Lipids, 93, 57-66.  
9765239 N.J.Hime, P.J.Barter, and K.A.Rye (1998).
The influence of apolipoproteins on the hepatic lipase-mediated hydrolysis of high density lipoprotein phospholipid and triacylglycerol.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 27191-27198.  
9578545 O.G.Berg, Y.Cajal, G.L.Butterfoss, R.L.Grey, M.A.Alsina, B.Z.Yu, and M.K.Jain (1998).
Interfacial activation of triglyceride lipase from Thermomyces (Humicola) lanuginosa: kinetic parameters and a basis for control of the lid.
  Biochemistry, 37, 6615-6627.  
9600896 R.C.Wade, R.R.Gabdoulline, S.K.Lüdemann, and V.Lounnas (1998).
Electrostatic steering and ionic tethering in enzyme-ligand binding: insights from simulations.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 5942-5949.  
9829992 S.Adimoolam, L.Jin, E.Grabbe, J.J.Shieh, and A.Jonas (1998).
Structural and functional properties of two mutants of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (T123I and N228K).
  J Biol Chem, 273, 32561-32567.  
9720253 S.Bezzine, A.Roussel, Caro, L.Gastinel, Caro, F.Carrière, S.Leydier, R.Verger, and C.Cambillau (1998).
An inactive pancreatic lipase-related protein is activated into a triglyceride-lipase by mutagenesis based on the 3-D structure.
  Chem Phys Lipids, 93, 103-114.  
9718307 S.Bezzine, F.Carrière, J.De Caro, R.Verger, and A.De Caro (1998).
Human pancreatic lipase: an exposed hydrophobic loop from the C-terminal domain may contribute to interfacial binding.
  Biochemistry, 37, 11846-11855.  
14538148 V.M.Balcão, and F.X.Malcata (1998).
Lipase catalyzed modification of milkfat.
  Biotechnol Adv, 16, 309-341.  
10099412 V.M.Balcao, and F.X.Malcata (1998).
On the performance of a hollow-fiber bioreactor for acidolysis catalyzed by immobilized lipase
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 60, 114-123.  
9562561 Y.Wei, L.Swenson, C.Castro, U.Derewenda, W.Minor, H.Arai, J.Aoki, K.Inoue, L.Servin-Gonzalez, and Z.S.Derewenda (1998).
Structure of a microbial homologue of mammalian platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolases: Streptomyces exfoliatus lipase at 1.9 A resolution.
  Structure, 6, 511-519.
PDB code: 1jfr
9699620 Z.S.Derewenda, and T.W.Martin (1998).
Structure of the gangrene alpha-toxin: the beauty in the beast.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 659-662.  
8995362 A.Lookene, N.B.Groot, J.J.Kastelein, G.Olivecrona, and T.Bruin (1997).
Mutation of tryptophan residues in lipoprotein lipase. Effects on stability, immunoreactivity, and catalytic properties.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 766-772.  
8993339 F.Carrière, K.Thirstrup, S.Hjorth, F.Ferrato, P.F.Nielsen, C.Withers-Martinez, C.Cambillau, E.Boel, L.Thim, and R.Verger (1997).
Pancreatic lipase structure-function relationships by domain exchange.
  Biochemistry, 36, 239-248.
PDB code: 1gpl
9032074 J.D.Schrag, Y.Li, M.Cygler, D.Lang, T.Burgdorf, H.J.Hecht, R.Schmid, D.Schomburg, T.J.Rydel, J.D.Oliver, L.C.Strickland, C.M.Dunaway, S.B.Larson, J.Day, and A.McPherson (1997).
The open conformation of a Pseudomonas lipase.
  Structure, 5, 187-202.
PDB codes: 2lip 3lip
9312012 J.Hermoso, D.Pignol, S.Penel, M.Roth, C.Chapus, and J.C.Fontecilla-Camps (1997).
Neutron crystallographic evidence of lipase-colipase complex activation by a micelle.
  EMBO J, 16, 5531-5536.  
  9385640 J.J.Prompers, A.Groenewegen, R.C.Van Schaik, H.A.Pepermans, and C.W.Hilbers (1997).
1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments of Fusarium solani pisi cutinase and preliminary features of the structure in solution.
  Protein Sci, 6, 2375-2384.  
9032073 K.K.Kim, H.K.Song, D.H.Shin, K.Y.Hwang, and S.W.Suh (1997).
The crystal structure of a triacylglycerol lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia reveals a highly open conformation in the absence of a bound inhibitor.
  Structure, 5, 173-185.
PDB code: 1oil
9240923 M.E.Lowe (1997).
Structure and function of pancreatic lipase and colipase.
  Annu Rev Nutr, 17, 141-158.  
9131991 S.Labourdenne, O.Brass, M.Ivanova, A.Cagna, and R.Verger (1997).
Effects of colipase and bile salts on the catalytic activity of human pancreatic lipase. A study using the oil drop tensiometer.
  Biochemistry, 36, 3423-3429.  
  9041628 S.Longhi, M.Mannesse, H.M.Verheij, G.H.De Haas, M.Egmond, E.Knoops-Mouthuy, and C.Cambillau (1997).
Crystal structure of cutinase covalently inhibited by a triglyceride analogue.
  Protein Sci, 6, 275-286.
PDB code: 1oxm
9331420 X.Wang, C.S.Wang, J.Tang, F.Dyda, and X.C.Zhang (1997).
The crystal structure of bovine bile salt activated lipase: insights into the bile salt activation mechanism.
  Structure, 5, 1209-1218.
PDB codes: 1akn 1aql
  9373920 Y.Ikushima (1997).
Supercritical fluids: an interesting medium for chemical and biochemical processes.
  Adv Colloid Interface Sci, 71, 259-280.  
8555209 A.Nicolas, M.Egmond, C.T.Verrips, Vlieg, S.Longhi, C.Cambillau, and C.Martinez (1996).
Contribution of cutinase serine 42 side chain to the stabilization of the oxyanion transition state.
  Biochemistry, 35, 398-410.
PDB codes: 1ffa 1ffb 1ffc 1ffd 1ffe
8939760 C.Withers-Martinez, F.Carrière, R.Verger, D.Bourgeois, and C.Cambillau (1996).
A pancreatic lipase with a phospholipase A1 activity: crystal structure of a chimeric pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 from guinea pig.
  Structure, 4, 1363-1374.
PDB code: 1gpl
8968611 G.D.Schmit, M.M.Momsen, W.G.Owen, S.Naylor, A.Tomlinson, G.Wu, R.E.Stark, and H.L.Brockman (1996).
The affinities of procolipase and colipase for interfaces are regulated by lipids.
  Biophys J, 71, 3421-3429.  
8663362 J.Hermoso, D.Pignol, B.Kerfelec, I.Crenon, C.Chapus, and J.C.Fontecilla-Camps (1996).
Lipase activation by nonionic detergents. The crystal structure of the porcine lipase-colipase-tetraethylene glycol monooctyl ether complex.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 18007-18016.
PDB code: 1eth
8824281 J.Kobayashi, D.Applebaum-Bowden, K.A.Dugi, D.R.Brown, V.S.Kashyap, C.Parrott, C.Duarte, N.Maeda, and S.Santamarina-Fojo (1996).
Analysis of protein structure-function in vivo. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of lipase lid mutants in hepatic lipase-deficient mice.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 26296-26301.  
9022707 J.W.Simons, H.Adams, R.C.Cox, N.Dekker, F.Götz, A.J.Slotboom, and H.M.Verheij (1996).
The lipase from Staphylococcus aureus. Expression in Escherichia coli, large-scale purification and comparison of substrate specificity to Staphylococcus hyicus lipase.
  Eur J Biochem, 242, 760-769.  
8743049 K.Gulomova, E.Ziomek, J.D.Schrag, K.Davranov, and M.Cygler (1996).
Purification and characterization of a Penicillium sp. lipase which discriminates against diglycerides.
  Lipids, 31, 379-384.  
8647097 M.M.Hoffmann, and W.Stoffel (1996).
Construction and functional characterization of recombinant fusion proteins of human lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein CII.
  Eur J Biochem, 237, 545-552.  
  8832779 R.Verger, M.Aoubalå, F.Carrière, S.Ransac, L.Dupuis, J.De Caro, F.Ferrato, I.Douchet, R.Laugier, and A.De Caro (1996).
Regulation of lumen fat digestion: enzymic aspects.
  Proc Nutr Soc, 55, 5.  
8843465 V.Murthy, P.Julien, and C.Gagne (1996).
Molecular pathobiology of the human lipoprotein lipase gene.
  Pharmacol Ther, 70, 101-135.  
7576531 A.N.Wood, R.Fernandez-Lafuente, and D.A.Cowan (1995).
Purification and partial characterization of a novel thermophilic carboxylesterase with high mesophilic specific activity.
  Enzyme Microb Technol, 17, 816-825.  
  7556053 B.van den Berg, M.Tessari, Haas, H.M.Verheij, R.Boelens, and R.Kaptein (1995).
Solution structure of porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2.
  EMBO J, 14, 4123-4131.
PDB codes: 1pir 1pis
7664098 B.van den Berg, M.Tessari, R.Boelens, R.Dijkman, Haas, R.Kaptein, and H.M.Verheij (1995).
NMR structures of phospholipase A2 reveal conformational changes during interfacial activation.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 402-406.  
7766689 C.G.Brouillette, and G.M.Anantharamaiah (1995).
Structural models of human apolipoprotein A-I.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1256, 103-129.  
7788294 D.Ghosh, Z.Wawrzak, V.Z.Pletnev, N.Li, R.Kaiser, W.Pangborn, H.Jörnvall, M.Erman, and W.L.Duax (1995).
Structure of uncomplexed and linoleate-bound Candida cylindracea cholesterol esterase.
  Structure, 3, 279-288.
PDB code: 1cle
7664097 G.H.Peters, S.Toxvaerd, N.B.Larsen, T.Bjørnholm, K.Schaumburg, and K.Kjaer (1995).
Structure and dynamics of lipid monolayers: implications for enzyme catalysed lipolysis.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 395-401.  
7628484 G.Zandonella, L.Haalck, F.Spener, K.Faber, F.Paltauf, and A.Hermetter (1995).
Inversion of lipase stereospecificity for fluorogenic alkyldiacyl glycerols. Effect of substrate solubilization.
  Eur J Biochem, 231, 50-55.  
7724558 I.Mingarro, C.Abad, and L.Braco (1995).
Interfacial activation-based molecular bioimprinting of lipolytic enzymes.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 3308-3312.  
7867624 J.N.Breg, L.Sarda, P.J.Cozzone, N.Rugani, R.Boelens, and R.Kaptein (1995).
Solution structure of porcine pancreatic procolipase as determined from 1H homonuclear two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR.
  Eur J Biochem, 227, 663-672.
PDB codes: 1pcn 1pco
7592706 K.A.Dugi, H.L.Dichek, and S.Santamarina-Fojo (1995).
Human hepatic and lipoprotein lipase: the loop covering the catalytic site mediates lipase substrate specificity.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 25396-25401.  
7607235 K.M.Loomes (1995).
Structural organisation of human bile-salt-activated lipase probed by limited proteolysis and expression of a recombinant truncated variant.
  Eur J Biochem, 230, 607-613.  
7851384 K.Thirstrup, F.Carrière, S.A.Hjorth, P.B.Rasmussen, P.F.Nielsen, C.Ladefoged, L.Thim, and E.Boel (1995).
Cloning and expression in insect cells of two pancreatic lipases and a procolipase from Myocastor coypus.
  Eur J Biochem, 227, 186-193.  
7592717 L.W.Tjoelker, C.Eberhardt, J.Unger, H.L.Trong, G.A.Zimmerman, T.M.McIntyre, D.M.Stafforini, S.M.Prescott, and P.W.Gray (1995).
Plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase is a secreted phospholipase A2 with a catalytic triad.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 25481-25487.  
7533157 M.Aoubala, la Fournière, I.Douchet, A.Abousalham, C.Daniel, M.Hirn, Y.Gargouri, R.Verger, and A.De Caro (1995).
Human pancreatic lipase. Importance of the hinge region between the two domains, as revealed by monoclonal antibodies.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 3932-3937.  
7737187 M.C.Bertolini, J.D.Schrag, M.Cygler, E.Ziomek, D.Y.Thomas, and T.Vernet (1995).
Expression and characterization of Geotrichum candidum lipase I gene. Comparison of specificity profile with lipase II.
  Eur J Biochem, 228, 863-869.  
7786901 M.J.Pete, and J.H.Exton (1995).
Phospholipid interactions affect substrate hydrolysis by bovine brain phospholipase A1.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1256, 367-373.  
7851405 P.Stadler, A.Kovac, L.Haalck, F.Spener, and F.Paltauf (1995).
Stereoselectivity of microbial lipases. The substitution at position sn-2 of triacylglycerol analogs influences the stereoselectivity of different microbial lipases.
  Eur J Biochem, 227, 335-343.  
7596283 R.G.Kok, J.J.van Thor, I.M.Nugteren-Roodzant, M.B.Brouwer, M.R.Egmond, C.B.Nudel, B.Vosman, and K.J.Hellingwerf (1995).
Characterization of the extracellular lipase, LipA, of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD413 and sequence analysis of the cloned structural gene.
  Mol Microbiol, 15, 803-818.  
7785848 R.Verger, F.Ferrato, F.Carrière, C.Cudrey, N.Rugani, Y.Gargouri, A.Hjorth, H.Wöldike, E.Boel, and L.Thim (1995).
Relationships between structures and kinetic properties of pancreatic lipases.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 750, 190-194.  
7647098 Y.Gargouri, A.Bensalah, I.Douchet, and R.Verger (1995).
Kinetic behaviour of pancreatic lipase in five species using emulsions and monomolecular films of synthetic glycerides.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1257, 223-229.  
7664087 Z.S.Derewenda (1995).
A twist in the tale of lipolytic enzymes.
  Nat Struct Biol, 2, 347-349.  
  8142898 A.Kreusch, A.Neubüser, E.Schiltz, J.Weckesser, and G.E.Schulz (1994).
Structure of the membrane channel porin from Rhodopseudomonas blastica at 2.0 A resolution.
  Protein Sci, 3, 58-63.  
8020477 A.Lookene, N.Skottova, and G.Olivecrona (1994).
Interactions of lipoprotein lipase with the active-site inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin (Orlistat).
  Eur J Biochem, 222, 395-403.  
7634094 B.Rubin (1994).
Grease pit chemistry exposed.
  Nat Struct Biol, 1, 568-572.  
8001575 D.R.Gjellesvik, J.B.Lorens, and R.Male (1994).
Pancreatic carboxylester lipase from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). cDNA sequence and computer-assisted modelling of tertiary structure.
  Eur J Biochem, 226, 603-612.  
7764807 I.Gill, and E.Vulfson (1994).
Enzymic catalysis in heterogeneous eutectic mixtures of substrates.
  Trends Biotechnol, 12, 118-122.  
7511810 J.Cherfils, T.Bizebard, M.Knossow, and J.Janin (1994).
Rigid-body docking with mutant constraints of influenza hemagglutinin with antibody HC19.
  Proteins, 18, 8.  
18618454 J.F.Martins, Sampaio, Carvalho, and S.Barreiros (1994).
Lipase catalyzed esterification of glycidol in nonaqueous solvents: Solvent effects on enzymatic activity.
  Biotechnol Bioeng, 44, 119-124.  
8087556 J.Uppenberg, M.T.Hansen, S.Patkar, and T.A.Jones (1994).
The sequence, crystal structure determination and refinement of two crystal forms of lipase B from Candida antarctica.
  Structure, 2, 293-308.
PDB codes: 1tca 1tcb 1tcc
7946464 K.E.Jaeger, S.Ransac, B.W.Dijkstra, C.Colson, M.van Heuvel, and O.Misset (1994).
Bacterial lipases.
  FEMS Microbiol Rev, 15, 29-63.  
8306978 M.C.Bertolini, L.Laramée, D.Y.Thomas, M.Cygler, J.D.Schrag, and T.Vernet (1994).
Polymorphism in the lipase genes of Geotrichum candidum strains.
  Eur J Biochem, 219, 119-125.  
7815893 M.Holmquist, M.Martinelle, I.G.Clausen, S.Patkar, A.Svendsen, and K.Hult (1994).
Trp89 in the lid of Humicola lanuginosa lipase is important for efficient hydrolysis of tributyrin.
  Lipids, 29, 599-603.  
  7833809 M.Norin, F.Haeffner, A.Achour, T.Norin, and K.Hult (1994).
Computer modeling of substrate binding to lipases from Rhizomucor miehei, Humicola lanuginosa, and Candida rugosa.
  Protein Sci, 3, 1493-1503.  
  8142901 P.Grochulski, Y.Li, J.D.Schrag, and M.Cygler (1994).
Two conformational states of Candida rugosa lipase.
  Protein Sci, 3, 82-91.
PDB code: 1trh
  8003956 P.H.Axelsen, M.Harel, I.Silman, and J.L.Sussman (1994).
Structure and dynamics of the active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase: synergistic use of molecular dynamics simulation and X-ray crystallography.
  Protein Sci, 3, 188-197.  
7765546 R.J.Kazlauskas (1994).
Elucidating structure-mechanism relationships in lipases: prospects for predicting and engineering catalytic properties.
  Trends Biotechnol, 12, 464-472.  
7819594 S.Santamarina-Fojo, and H.B.Brewer (1994).
Lipoprotein lipase: structure, function and mechanism of action.
  Int J Clin Lab Res, 24, 143-147.  
7664082 T.C.Umland, S.Swaminathan, G.Singh, V.Warty, W.Furey, J.Pletcher, and M.Sax (1994).
Structure of a human Clara cell phospholipid-binding protein-ligand complex at 1.9 A resolution.
  Nat Struct Biol, 1, 538-545.  
7656005 U.Derewenda, L.Swenson, R.Green, Y.Wei, G.G.Dodson, S.Yamaguchi, M.J.Haas, and Z.S.Derewenda (1994).
An unusual buried polar cluster in a family of fungal lipases.
  Nat Struct Biol, 1, 36-47.
PDB code: 1tia
8108858 D.Langin, and C.Holm (1993).
Sequence similarities between hormone-sensitive lipase and five prokaryotic enzymes.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 18, 466-467.  
8119594 J.G.Oakeshott, E.A.van Papenrecht, T.M.Boyce, M.J.Healy, and R.J.Russell (1993).
Evolutionary genetics of Drosophila esterases.
  Genetica, 90, 239-268.  
8136025 M.Holmquist, M.Martinelle, P.Berglund, I.G.Clausen, S.Patkar, A.Svendsen, and K.Hult (1993).
Lipases from Rhizomucor miehei and Humicola lanuginosa: modification of the lid covering the active site alters enantioselectivity.
  J Protein Chem, 12, 749-757.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.