PDBsum entry 1kzg

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protein Protein-protein interface(s) links
Signaling protein PDB id
Protein chains
337 a.a. *
188 a.a. *
177 a.a. *
Waters ×115
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Signaling protein
Title: Dbscdc42(y889f)
Structure: Guanine nucleotide exchange factor dbs. Chain: a, c. Fragment: dh/ph fragment (residues 623-967). Synonym: dbl's big sister, dbs. Engineered: yes. Mutation: yes. Cdc42 homolog. Chain: b, d. Fragment: residues 1-188.
Source: Mus musculus. House mouse. Organism_taxid: 10090. Gene: dbs. Expressed in: escherichia coli bl21(de3). Expression_system_taxid: 469008. Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606.
Biol. unit: Dimer (from PQS)
2.60Å     R-factor:   0.217     R-free:   0.259
Authors: K.L.Rossman,D.K.Worthylake,J.T.Snyder,D.P.Siderovski, S.L.Campbell,J.Sondek
Key ref:
K.L.Rossman et al. (2002). A crystallographic view of interactions between Dbs and Cdc42: PH domain-assisted guanine nucleotide exchange. EMBO J, 21, 1315-1326. PubMed id: 11889037 DOI: 10.1093/emboj/21.6.1315
06-Feb-02     Release date:   20-Mar-02    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
Q64096  (MCF2L_MOUSE) -  Guanine nucleotide exchange factor DBS
1149 a.a.
337 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P60953  (CDC42_HUMAN) -  Cell division control protein 42 homolog
191 a.a.
188 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P60953  (CDC42_HUMAN) -  Cell division control protein 42 homolog
191 a.a.
177 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 7 residue positions (black crosses)

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     intracellular   24 terms 
  Biological process     intracellular signal transduction   72 terms 
  Biochemical function     nucleotide binding     12 terms  


DOI no: 10.1093/emboj/21.6.1315 EMBO J 21:1315-1326 (2002)
PubMed id: 11889037  
A crystallographic view of interactions between Dbs and Cdc42: PH domain-assisted guanine nucleotide exchange.
K.L.Rossman, D.K.Worthylake, J.T.Snyder, D.P.Siderovski, S.L.Campbell, J.Sondek.
Dbl-related oncoproteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) specific for Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) and invariably possess tandem Dbl (DH) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. While it is known that the DH domain is the principal catalytic subunit, recent biochemical data indicate that for some Dbl-family proteins, such as Dbs and Trio, PH domains may cooperate with their associated DH domains in promoting guanine nucleotide exchange of Rho GTPases. In order to gain an understanding of the involvement of these PH domains in guanine nucleotide exchange, we have determined the crystal structure of a DH/PH fragment from Dbs in complex with Cdc42. The complex features the PH domain in a unique conformation distinct from the PH domains in the related structures of Sos1 and Tiam1.Rac1. Consequently, the Dbs PH domain participates with the DH domain in binding Cdc42, primarily through a set of interactions involving switch 2 of the GTPase. Comparative sequence analysis suggests that a subset of Dbl-family proteins will utilize their PH domains similarly to Dbs.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 4.
Figure 4 Interactions between the PH domain of Dbs and Cdc42. Stereo view of the PH domain (blue) participating with 6 of the DH domain (yellow) to bind switch 2 (red) and 3b (green) of Cdc42. Dashed lines indicate hydrogen bonds (<3.3Å).
Figure 8.
Figure 8 The structure of Dbs Cdc42 suggests a model for membrane engagement.
  The above figures are reprinted from an Open Access publication published by Macmillan Publishers Ltd: EMBO J (2002, 21, 1315-1326) copyright 2002.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
20039879 A.Arbeloa, J.Garnett, J.Lillington, R.R.Bulgin, C.N.Berger, S.M.Lea, S.Matthews, and G.Frankel (2010).
EspM2 is a RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor.
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20842712 C.Kintscher, S.Wuertenberger, R.Eylenstein, T.Uhlendorf, and Y.Groemping (2010).
Autoinhibition of GEF activity in Intersectin 1 is mediated by the short SH3-DH domain linker.
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20018869 G.M.Gasmi-Seabrook, C.B.Marshall, M.Cheung, B.Kim, F.Wang, Y.J.Jang, T.W.Mak, V.Stambolic, and M.Ikura (2010).
Real-time NMR study of guanine nucleotide exchange and activation of RhoA by PDZ-RhoGEF.
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20622875 J.Xiao, C.A.Worby, S.Mattoo, B.Sankaran, and J.E.Dixon (2010).
Structural basis of Fic-mediated adenylylation.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 17, 1004-1010.
PDB codes: 3n3u 3n3v 4itr
20585582 K.F.Ahmad, and W.A.Lim (2010).
The minimal autoinhibited unit of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor intersectin.
  PLoS One, 5, e11291.
PDB code: 3jv3
19880753 M.Aittaleb, C.A.Boguth, and J.J.Tesmer (2010).
Structure and function of heterotrimeric G protein-regulated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors.
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19759561 S.Demehri, T.O'Hare, C.A.Eide, C.A.Smith, J.W.Tyner, B.J.Druker, and M.W.Deininger (2010).
The function of the pleckstrin homology domain in BCR-ABL-mediated leukemogenesis.
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20345913 S.Reddy-Alla, B.Schmitt, J.Birkenfeld, V.Eulenburg, S.Dutertre, C.Böhringer, M.Götz, H.Betz, and T.Papadopoulos (2010).
PH-domain-driven targeting of collybistin but not Cdc42 activation is required for synaptic gephyrin clustering.
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19035840 C.G.Cummings, N.T.Ross, W.P.Katt, and A.D.Hamilton (2009).
Synthesis and biological evaluation of a 5-6-5 imidazole-phenyl-thiazole based alpha-helix mimetic.
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19335195 C.Thomas, I.Fricke, M.Weyand, and A.Berken (2009).
3D structure of a binary ROP-PRONE complex: the final intermediate for a complete set of molecular snapshots of the RopGEF reaction.
  Biol Chem, 390, 427-435.
PDB code: 2wbl
19605563 D.L.Ford-Speelman, J.A.Roche, A.L.Bowman, and R.J.Bloch (2009).
The rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor domain of obscurin activates rhoA signaling in skeletal muscle.
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19666464 F.Campa, H.Y.Yoon, V.L.Ha, Z.Szentpetery, T.Balla, and P.A.Randazzo (2009).
A PH domain in the Arf GTPase-activating protein (GAP) ARAP1 binds phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and regulates Arf GAP activity independently of recruitment to the plasma membranes.
  J Biol Chem, 284, 28069-28083.  
19560536 M.Aittaleb, G.Gao, C.R.Evelyn, R.R.Neubig, and J.J.Tesmer (2009).
A conserved hydrophobic surface of the LARG pleckstrin homology domain is critical for RhoA activation in cells.
  Cell Signal, 21, 1569-1578.  
19670212 T.Cierpicki, J.Bielnicki, M.Zheng, J.Gruszczyk, M.Kasterka, M.Petoukhov, A.Zhang, E.J.Fernandez, D.I.Svergun, U.Derewenda, J.H.Bushweller, and Z.S.Derewenda (2009).
The solution structure and dynamics of the DH-PH module of PDZRhoGEF in isolation and in complex with nucleotide-free RhoA.
  Protein Sci, 18, 2067-2079.  
19620963 Z.Huang, S.E.Sutton, A.J.Wallenfang, R.C.Orchard, X.Wu, Y.Feng, J.Chai, and N.M.Alto (2009).
Structural insights into host GTPase isoform selection by a family of bacterial GEF mimics.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 16, 853-860.
PDB code: 3gcg
18378681 C.Mionnet, S.Bogliolo, and R.A.Arkowitz (2008).
Oligomerization regulates the localization of Cdc24, the Cdc42 activator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 17515-17530.  
18410521 H.Nakanishi, and Y.Takai (2008).
Frabin and other related Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors couple the actin cytoskeleton with the plasma membrane.
  J Cell Mol Med, 12, 1169-1176.  
18589439 J.E.Chrencik, A.Brooun, H.Zhang, I.I.Mathews, G.L.Hura, S.A.Foster, J.J.Perry, M.Streiff, P.Ramage, H.Widmer, G.M.Bokoch, J.A.Tainer, G.Weckbecker, and P.Kuhn (2008).
Structural basis of guanine nucleotide exchange mediated by the T-cell essential Vav1.
  J Mol Biol, 380, 828-843.
PDB code: 3bji
18511940 J.Rapley, V.L.Tybulewicz, and K.Rittinger (2008).
Crucial structural role for the PH and C1 domains of the Vav1 exchange factor.
  EMBO Rep, 9, 655-661.
PDB code: 2vrw
18056264 M.A.Kwofie, and J.Skowronski (2008).
Specific Recognition of Rac2 and Cdc42 by DOCK2 and DOCK9 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 3088-3096.  
18537266 M.E.Yohe, K.Rossman, and J.Sondek (2008).
Role of the C-terminal SH3 domain and N-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation in regulation of Tim and related Dbl-family proteins.
  Biochemistry, 47, 6827-6839.  
18675341 R.Luo, L.M.Miller Jenkins, P.A.Randazzo, and J.Gruschus (2008).
Dynamic interaction between Arf GAP and PH domains of ASAP1 in the regulation of GAP activity.
  Cell Signal, 20, 1968-1977.  
18541910 T.K.Smith, H.A.Hager, R.Francis, D.M.Kilkenny, C.W.Lo, and D.M.Bader (2008).
Bves directly interacts with GEFT, and controls cell shape and movement through regulation of Rac1/Cdc42 activity.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 8298-8303.  
18505730 Y.Ugolev, Y.Berdichevsky, C.Weinbaum, and E.Pick (2008).
Dissociation of Rac1(GDP).RhoGDI complexes by the cooperative action of anionic liposomes containing phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor, and GTP.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 22257-22271.  
17847065 A.Bottani, A.Orrico, L.Galli, O.Karam, C.A.Haenggeli, S.Ferey, and B.Conrad (2007).
Unilateral focal polymicrogyria in a patient with classical Aarskog-Scott syndrome due to a novel missense mutation in an evolutionary conserved RhoGEF domain of the faciogenital dysplasia gene FGD1.
  Am J Med Genet A, 143, 2334-2338.  
17601877 A.G.Howe, G.D.Fairn, K.MacDonald, V.A.Bankaitis, and C.R.McMaster (2007).
Regulation of phosphoinositide levels by the phospholipid transfer protein Sec14p controls Cdc42p/p21-activated kinase-mediated cell cycle progression at cytokinesis.
  Eukaryot Cell, 6, 1814-1823.  
17984318 C.Frantz, A.Karydis, P.Nalbant, K.M.Hahn, and D.L.Barber (2007).
Positive feedback between Cdc42 activity and H+ efflux by the Na-H exchanger NHE1 for polarity of migrating cells.
  J Cell Biol, 179, 403-410.  
17218277 C.Thomas, I.Fricke, A.Scrima, A.Berken, and A.Wittinghofer (2007).
Structural evidence for a common intermediate in small G protein-GEF reactions.
  Mol Cell, 25, 141-149.
PDB codes: 2ntx 2nty
17581628 G.Zhu, J.Chen, J.Liu, J.S.Brunzelle, B.Huang, N.Wakeham, S.Terzyan, X.Li, Z.Rao, G.Li, and X.C.Zhang (2007).
Structure of the APPL1 BAR-PH domain and characterization of its interaction with Rab5.
  EMBO J, 26, 3484-3493.
PDB codes: 2q12 2q13
17540168 J.L.Bos, H.Rehmann, and A.Wittinghofer (2007).
GEFs and GAPs: critical elements in the control of small G proteins.
  Cell, 129, 865-877.  
17264933 J.M.Davis, L.K.Tsou, and A.D.Hamilton (2007).
Synthetic non-peptide mimetics of alpha-helices.
  Chem Soc Rev, 36, 326-334.  
17214551 K.Gotthardt, and M.R.Ahmadian (2007).
Asef is a Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor.
  Biol Chem, 388, 67-71.  
17190834 K.Murayama, M.Shirouzu, Y.Kawasaki, M.Kato-Murayama, K.Hanawa-Suetsugu, A.Sakamoto, Y.Katsura, A.Suenaga, M.Toyama, T.Terada, M.Taiji, T.Akiyama, and S.Yokoyama (2007).
Crystal structure of the rac activator, Asef, reveals its autoinhibitory mechanism.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 4238-4242.
PDB code: 2dx1
17803212 K.Wiehe, B.Pierce, W.W.Tong, H.Hwang, J.Mintseris, and Z.Weng (2007).
The performance of ZDOCK and ZRANK in rounds 6-11 of CAPRI.
  Proteins, 69, 719-725.  
17337446 M.E.Yohe, K.L.Rossman, O.S.Gardner, A.E.Karnoub, J.T.Snyder, S.Gershburg, L.M.Graves, C.J.Der, and J.Sondek (2007).
Auto-inhibition of the Dbl family protein Tim by an N-terminal helical motif.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 13813-13823.  
17391702 M.K.Chhatriwala, L.Betts, D.K.Worthylake, and J.Sondek (2007).
The DH and PH domains of Trio coordinately engage Rho GTPases for their efficient activation.
  J Mol Biol, 368, 1307-1320.
PDB code: 2nz8
17606614 R.J.Rojas, M.E.Yohe, S.Gershburg, T.Kawano, T.Kozasa, and J.Sondek (2007).
Galphaq directly activates p63RhoGEF and Trio via a conserved extension of the Dbl homology-associated pleckstrin homology domain.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 29201-29210.  
17392278 U.E.Rennefahrt, S.W.Deacon, S.A.Parker, K.Devarajan, A.Beeser, J.Chernoff, S.Knapp, B.E.Turk, and J.R.Peterson (2007).
Specificity profiling of Pak kinases allows identification of novel phosphorylation sites.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 15667-15678.  
16845888 A.G.Howe, and C.R.McMaster (2006).
Regulation of phosphatidylcholine homeostasis by Sec14.
  Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 84, 29-38.  
16954208 A.Oleksy, Ć..OpaliƄski, U.Derewenda, Z.S.Derewenda, and J.Otlewski (2006).
The molecular basis of RhoA specificity in the guanine nucleotide exchange factor PDZ-RhoGEF.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 32891-32897.  
16408091 H.E.Pelish, J.R.Peterson, S.B.Salvarezza, E.Rodriguez-Boulan, J.L.Chen, M.Stamnes, E.Macia, Y.Feng, M.D.Shair, and T.Kirchhausen (2006).
Secramine inhibits Cdc42-dependent functions in cells and Cdc42 activation in vitro.
  Nat Chem Biol, 2, 39-46.  
16632257 J.R.Peterson, A.M.Lebensohn, H.E.Pelish, and M.W.Kirschner (2006).
Biochemical suppression of small-molecule inhibitors: a strategy to identify inhibitor targets and signaling pathway components.
  Chem Biol, 13, 443-452.  
17051233 K.E.Ile, G.Schaaf, and V.A.Bankaitis (2006).
Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins and cellular nanoreactors for lipid signaling.
  Nat Chem Biol, 2, 576-583.  
16702216 T.Jank, U.Pack, T.Giesemann, G.Schmidt, and K.Aktories (2006).
Exchange of a single amino acid switches the substrate properties of RhoA and RhoD toward glucosylating and transglutaminating toxins.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 19527-19535.  
16613852 Z.Liu, E.V.Kostenko, G.M.Mahon, O.O.Olabisi, and I.P.Whitehead (2006).
Transformation by the Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Dbs requires ROCK I-mediated phosphorylation of myosin light chain.
  J Biol Chem, 281, 16043-16051.  
15758069 J.Yamauchi, J.R.Chan, Y.Miyamoto, G.Tsujimoto, and E.M.Shooter (2005).
The neurotrophin-3 receptor TrkC directly phosphorylates and activates the nucleotide exchange factor Dbs to enhance Schwann cell migration.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 5198-5203.  
15688002 K.L.Rossman, C.J.Der, and J.Sondek (2005).
GEF means go: turning on RHO GTPases with guanine nucleotide-exchange factors.
  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 6, 167-180.  
15817389 K.L.Rossman, and J.Sondek (2005).
Larger than Dbl: new structural insights into RhoA activation.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 30, 163-165.  
15775967 O.Llorca, E.Arias-Palomo, J.L.Zugaza, and X.R.Bustelo (2005).
Global conformational rearrangements during the activation of the GDP/GTP exchange factor Vav3.
  EMBO J, 24, 1330-1340.  
15897194 R.E.Joseph, and F.A.Norris (2005).
Substrate specificity and recognition is conferred by the pleckstrin homology domain of the Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factor P-Rex2.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 27508-27512.  
15339665 A.Delprato, E.Merithew, and D.G.Lambright (2004).
Structure, exchange determinants, and family-wide rab specificity of the tandem helical bundle and Vps9 domains of Rabex-5.
  Cell, 118, 607-617.
PDB code: 1txu
14999155 A.E.Karnoub, M.Symons, S.L.Campbell, and C.J.Der (2004).
Molecular basis for Rho GTPase signaling specificity.
  Breast Cancer Res Treat, 84, 61-71.  
15107860 A.Godi, A.Di Campli, A.Konstantakopoulos, G.Di Tullio, D.R.Alessi, G.S.Kular, T.Daniele, P.Marra, J.M.Lucocq, and M.A.De Matteis (2004).
FAPPs control Golgi-to-cell-surface membrane traffic by binding to ARF and PtdIns(4)P.
  Nat Cell Biol, 6, 393-404.  
15039571 A.Oleksy, H.Barton, Y.Devedjiev, M.Purdy, U.Derewenda, J.Otlewski, and Z.S.Derewenda (2004).
Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the complex of the human GTPase RhoA with the DH/PH tandem of PDZ-RhoGEF.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 60, 740-742.  
15271978 A.Roy, and T.P.Levine (2004).
Multiple pools of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate detected using the pleckstrin homology domain of Osh2p.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 44683-44689.  
14597635 B.Debreceni, Y.Gao, F.Guo, K.Zhu, B.Jia, and Y.Zheng (2004).
Mechanisms of guanine nucleotide exchange and Rac-mediated signaling revealed by a dominant negative trio mutant.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 3777-3786.  
15169787 D.Auguin, P.Barthe, C.Royer, M.H.Stern, M.Noguchi, S.T.Arold, and C.Roumestand (2004).
Structural basis for the co-activation of protein kinase B by T-cell leukemia-1 (TCL1) family proto-oncoproteins.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 35890-35902.  
15274927 D.K.Worthylake, K.L.Rossman, and J.Sondek (2004).
Crystal structure of the DH/PH fragment of Dbs without bound GTPase.
  Structure, 12, 1078-1086.
PDB code: 1rj2
15355962 K.Grohmanova, D.Schlaepfer, D.Hess, P.Gutierrez, M.Beck, and R.Kroschewski (2004).
Phosphorylation of IQGAP1 modulates its binding to Cdc42, revealing a new type of rho-GTPase regulator.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 48495-48504.  
15199069 K.R.Skowronek, F.Guo, Y.Zheng, and N.Nassar (2004).
The C-terminal basic tail of RhoG assists the guanine nucleotide exchange factor trio in binding to phospholipids.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 37895-37907.
PDB code: 1nty
14701795 L.Cheng, G.M.Mahon, E.V.Kostenko, and I.P.Whitehead (2004).
Pleckstrin homology domain-mediated activation of the rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Dbs by Rac1.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 12786-12793.  
15247908 M.Lu, J.M.Kinchen, K.L.Rossman, C.Grimsley, C.deBakker, E.Brugnera, A.C.Tosello-Trampont, L.B.Haney, D.Klingele, J.Sondek, M.O.Hengartner, and K.S.Ravichandran (2004).
PH domain of ELMO functions in trans to regulate Rac activation via Dock180.
  Nat Struct Mol Biol, 11, 756-762.  
15247287 N.Meller, M.Irani-Tehrani, B.I.Ratnikov, B.M.Paschal, and M.A.Schwartz (2004).
The novel Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, zizimin1, dimerizes via the Cdc42-binding CZH2 domain.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 37470-37476.  
15073184 P.A.Solski, R.S.Wilder, K.L.Rossman, J.Sondek, A.D.Cox, S.L.Campbell, and C.J.Der (2004).
Requirement for C-terminal sequences in regulation of Ect2 guanine nucleotide exchange specificity and transformation.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 25226-25233.  
15306850 Q.Feng, D.Baird, and R.A.Cerione (2004).
Novel regulatory mechanisms for the Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factor Cool-2/alpha-Pix.
  EMBO J, 23, 3492-3504.  
15577926 R.Dvorsky, and M.R.Ahmadian (2004).
Always look on the bright site of Rho: structural implications for a conserved intermolecular interface.
  EMBO Rep, 5, 1130-1136.  
15331592 R.Kristelly, G.Gao, and J.J.Tesmer (2004).
Structural determinants of RhoA binding and nucleotide exchange in leukemia-associated Rho guanine-nucleotide exchange factor.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 47352-47362.
PDB codes: 1txd 1x86
15302837 S.Barale, D.McCusker, and R.A.Arkowitz (2004).
The exchange factor Cdc24 is required for cell fusion during yeast mating.
  Eukaryot Cell, 3, 1049-1061.  
15128949 Y.Gao, J.B.Dickerson, F.Guo, J.Zheng, and Y.Zheng (2004).
Rational design and characterization of a Rac GTPase-specific small molecule inhibitor.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 7618-7623.  
12637530 E.J.Fuentes, A.E.Karnoub, M.A.Booden, C.J.Der, and S.L.Campbell (2003).
Critical role of the pleckstrin homology domain in Dbs signaling and growth regulation.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 21188-21196.  
12885767 G.E.Cozier, D.Bouyoucef, and P.J.Cullen (2003).
Engineering the phosphoinositide-binding profile of a class I pleckstrin homology domain.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 39489-39496.  
12637522 K.L.Rossman, L.Cheng, G.M.Mahon, R.J.Rojas, J.T.Snyder, I.P.Whitehead, and J.Sondek (2003).
Multifunctional roles for the PH domain of Dbs in regulating Rho GTPase activation.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 18393-18400.  
12471028 K.Robbe, A.Otto-Bruc, P.Chardin, and B.Antonny (2003).
Dissociation of GDP dissociation inhibitor and membrane translocation are required for efficient activation of Rac by the Dbl homology-pleckstrin homology region of Tiam.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 4756-4762.  
12832783 K.Skowronek, M.Ghumman, Y.Zheng, and N.Nassar (2003).
Crystallization and initial crystal characterization of the N-terminal DH/PH domain of Trio.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 59, 1273-1275.  
12525493 M.A.Baumeister, L.Martinu, K.L.Rossman, J.Sondek, M.A.Lemmon, and M.M.Chou (2003).
Loss of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding by the C-terminal Tiam-1 pleckstrin homology domain prevents in vivo Rac1 activation without affecting membrane targeting.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 11457-11464.  
12719429 M.C.Schlumberger, A.Friebel, G.Buchwald, K.Scheffzek, A.Wittinghofer, and W.D.Hardt (2003).
Amino acids of the bacterial toxin SopE involved in G nucleotide exchange on Cdc42.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 27149-27159.  
14501138 R.Kristelly, B.T.Earnest, L.Krishnamoorthy, and J.J.Tesmer (2003).
Preliminary structure analysis of the DH/PH domains of leukemia-associated RhoGEF.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 59, 1859-1862.  
12972602 T.J.Kubiseski, J.Culotti, and T.Pawson (2003).
Functional analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-73B PH domain demonstrates a role in activation of the Rac GTPase in vitro and axon guidance in vivo.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 6823-6835.  
12093730 G.Buchwald, A.Friebel, J.E.Galán, W.D.Hardt, A.Wittinghofer, and K.Scheffzek (2002).
Structural basis for the reversible activation of a Rho protein by the bacterial toxin SopE.
  EMBO J, 21, 3286-3295.
PDB code: 1gzs
12006984 J.T.Snyder, D.K.Worthylake, K.L.Rossman, L.Betts, W.M.Pruitt, D.P.Siderovski, C.J.Der, and J.Sondek (2002).
Structural basis for the selective activation of Rho GTPases by Dbl exchange factors.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 468-475.
PDB codes: 1ki1 1lb1
12401782 K.L.Rossman, D.K.Worthylake, J.T.Snyder, L.Cheng, I.P.Whitehead, and J.Sondek (2002).
Functional analysis of cdc42 residues required for Guanine nucleotide exchange.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 50893-50898.  
12215546 L.Cheng, K.L.Rossman, G.M.Mahon, D.K.Worthylake, M.Korus, J.Sondek, and I.P.Whitehead (2002).
RhoGEF specificity mutants implicate RhoA as a target for Dbs transforming activity.
  Mol Cell Biol, 22, 6895-6905.  
12177050 T.R.Palmby, K.Abe, and C.J.Der (2002).
Critical role of the pleckstrin homology and cysteine-rich domains in Vav signaling and transforming activity.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 39350-39359.  
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