PDBsum entry 1jlm

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protein metals links
Cell adhesion protein PDB id
Protein chain
187 a.a. *
Waters ×105
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Cell adhesion protein
Title: I-domain from integrin cr3, mn2+ bound
Structure: Integrin. Chain: a. Fragment: i-domain. Synonym: integrin alpha-m. Engineered: yes
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562.
2.00Å     R-factor:   0.219    
Authors: J.-O.Lee,R.Liddington
Key ref:
J.O.Lee et al. (1995). Two conformations of the integrin A-domain (I-domain): a pathway for activation? Structure, 3, 1333-1340. PubMed id: 8747460 DOI: 10.1016/S0969-2126(01)00271-4
09-Apr-96     Release date:   11-Jan-97    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P11215  (ITAM_HUMAN) -  Integrin alpha-M
1152 a.a.
187 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain


DOI no: 10.1016/S0969-2126(01)00271-4 Structure 3:1333-1340 (1995)
PubMed id: 8747460  
Two conformations of the integrin A-domain (I-domain): a pathway for activation?
J.O.Lee, L.A.Bankston, M.A.Arnaout, R.C.Liddington.
BACKGROUND: Integrins are plasma membrane proteins that mediate adhesion to other cells and to components of the extracellular matrix. Most integrins are constitutively inactive in resting cells, but are rapidly and reversibly activated in response to agonists, leading to highly regulated cell adhesion. This activation is associated with conformational changes in their extracellular portions, but the nature of the structural changes that lead to a change in adhesiveness is not understood. The interactions of several integrins with their extracellular ligands are mediated by an A-type domain (generally called the I-domain in integrins). Binding of the I-domain to protein ligands is dependent on divalent cations. We have described previously the structure of the I-domain from complement receptor 3 with bound Mg2+, in which the glutamate side chain from a second I-domain completes the octahedral coordination sphere of the metal, acting as a ligand mimetic. RESULTS: We now describe a new crystal form of the I-domain with bound Mn2+, in which water completes the metal coordination sphere and there is no equivalent of the glutamate ligand. Comparison of the two crystal forms reveals a change in metal coordination which is linked to a large (10 A) shift of the C-terminal helix and the burial of two phenylalanine residues into the hydrophobic core of the Mn2+ form. These structural changes, analogous to those seen in the signal-transducing G-proteins, alter the electrophilicity of the metal, reducing its ability to bind ligand-associated acidic residues, and dramatically alter the surface of the protein implicated in binding ligand. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations provide the first atomic resolution view of conformational changes in an integrin domain, and suggest how these changes are linked to a change in integrin adhesiveness. We propose that the Mg2+ form represents the conformation of the domain in the active state and the Mn2+ form the conformation in the inactive state of the integrin.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 4.
Figure 4. . Schematic diagram of the Mn^2+ I-domain (grey). Major conformational differences are shown in red (Mg^2+) and blue (Mn^2+). β strands are labelled A–F and helices 1–7. Figure 4. . Schematic diagram of the Mn^2+ I-domain (grey). Major conformational differences are shown in red (Mg^2+) and blue (Mn^2+). β strands are labelled A–F and helices 1–7.
Figure 5.
Figure 5. . Comparison of structural changes in (a) the MIDAS motif and (b) the p21^ras–GTP complex. Movements of the metal-coordinating residues are indicated (see text). Figure 5. . Comparison of structural changes in (a) the MIDAS motif and (b) the p21^ras–GTP complex. Movements of the metal-coordinating residues are indicated (see text).
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from Cell Press: Structure (1995, 3, 1333-1340) copyright 1995.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
20875079 S.E.Jenkinson, S.A.Whawell, B.M.Swales, E.M.Corps, P.J.Kilshaw, and P.M.Farthing (2011).
The αE(CD103)β7 integrin interacts with oral and skin keratinocytes in an E-cadherin-independent manner*.
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20224646 E.Gout, G.Schoehn, D.Fenel, H.Lortat-Jacob, and P.Fender (2010).
The adenovirus type 3 dodecahedron's RGD loop comprises an HSPG binding site that influences integrin binding.
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19693543 M.Barczyk, S.Carracedo, and D.Gullberg (2010).
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20585457 S.Fu, X.Tong, C.Cai, Y.Zhao, Y.Wu, Y.Li, J.Xu, X.C.Zhang, L.Xu, W.Chen, and Z.Rao (2010).
The structure of tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) extracellular domain and implications for its receptor function for recognizing anthrax toxin.
  PLoS One, 5, e11203.
PDB code: 3n2n
20152157 T.Izoré, C.Contreras-Martel, L.El Mortaji, C.Manzano, R.Terrasse, T.Vernet, A.M.Di Guilmi, and A.Dessen (2010).
Structural basis of host cell recognition by the pilus adhesin from Streptococcus pneumoniae.
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PDB code: 2ww8
19704023 J.P.Xiong, B.Mahalingham, J.L.Alonso, L.A.Borrelli, X.Rui, S.Anand, B.T.Hyman, T.Rysiok, D.Müller-Pompalla, S.L.Goodman, and M.A.Arnaout (2009).
Crystal structure of the complete integrin alphaVbeta3 ectodomain plus an alpha/beta transmembrane fragment.
  J Cell Biol, 186, 589-600.
PDB code: 3ije
19879752 M.H.Faridi, D.Maiguel, C.J.Barth, D.Stoub, R.Day, S.Schürer, and V.Gupta (2009).
Identification of novel agonists of the integrin CD11b/CD18.
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18936178 M.Y.Go, E.M.Chow, and J.Mogridge (2009).
The cytoplasmic domain of anthrax toxin receptor 1 affects binding of the protective antigen.
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19258452 S.Li, H.Wang, B.Peng, M.Zhang, D.Zhang, S.Hou, Y.Guo, and J.Ding (2009).
Efalizumab binding to the LFA-1 alphaL I domain blocks ICAM-1 binding via steric hindrance.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 4349-4354.
PDB codes: 3eo9 3eoa 3eob
19157853 W.E.Thomas (2009).
Mechanochemistry of receptor-ligand bonds.
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18465789 J.P.Cao, J.K.Yu, C.Li, Y.Sun, H.H.Yuan, H.J.Wang, and D.S.Gao (2008).
Integrin beta1 is involved in the signaling of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.
  J Comp Neurol, 509, 203-210.  
18708587 K.Yuki, N.S.Astrof, C.Bracken, R.Yoo, W.Silkworth, S.G.Soriano, and M.Shimaoka (2008).
The volatile anesthetic isoflurane perturbs conformational activation of integrin LFA-1 by binding to the allosteric regulatory cavity.
  FASEB J, 22, 4109-4116.  
17906117 S.R.Barthel, M.W.Johansson, D.M.McNamee, and D.F.Mosher (2008).
Roles of integrin activation in eosinophil function and the eosinophilic inflammation of asthma.
  J Leukoc Biol, 83, 1.  
18536010 Y.Liu, D.Pan, S.L.Bellis, and Y.Song (2008).
Effect of altered glycosylation on the structure of the I-like domain of beta1 integrin: a molecular dynamics study.
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18317931 Y.Zhang, H.N.Hayenga, M.R.Sarantos, S.I.Simon, and S.Neelamegham (2008).
Differential regulation of neutrophil CD18 integrin function by di- and tri-valent cations: manganese vs. gadolinium.
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17201681 B.H.Luo, C.V.Carman, and T.A.Springer (2007).
Structural basis of integrin regulation and signaling.
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17827392 E.Vachon, R.Martin, V.Kwok, V.Cherepanov, C.W.Chow, C.M.Doerschuk, J.Plumb, S.Grinstein, and G.P.Downey (2007).
CD44-mediated phagocytosis induces inside-out activation of complement receptor-3 in murine macrophages.
  Blood, 110, 4492-4502.  
17488472 J.M.Rhodes, and M.Simons (2007).
The extracellular matrix and blood vessel formation: not just a scaffold.
  J Cell Mol Med, 11, 176-205.  
17942298 J.Takagi (2007).
Structural basis for ligand recognition by integrins.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 19, 557-564.  
17928215 M.A.Arnaout, S.L.Goodman, and J.P.Xiong (2007).
Structure and mechanics of integrin-based cell adhesion.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 19, 495-507.  
17468108 M.Cheng, S.Y.Foo, M.L.Shi, R.H.Tang, L.S.Kong, S.K.Law, and S.M.Tan (2007).
Mutation of a conserved asparagine in the I-like domain promotes constitutively active integrins alphaLbeta2 and alphaIIbbeta3.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 18225-18232.  
17881354 M.Fresquet, T.A.Jowitt, J.Ylöstalo, P.Coffey, R.S.Meadows, L.Ala-Kokko, D.J.Thornton, and M.D.Briggs (2007).
Structural and functional characterization of recombinant matrilin-3 A-domain and implications for human genetic bone diseases.
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16725254 M.Z.Gilcrease (2007).
Integrin signaling in epithelial cells.
  Cancer Lett, 247, 1.  
17702677 T.Vorup-Jensen, T.T.Waldron, N.Astrof, M.Shimaoka, and T.A.Springer (2007).
The connection between metal ion affinity and ligand affinity in integrin I domains.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1774, 1148-1155.  
17170130 V.Gupta, A.Gylling, J.L.Alonso, T.Sugimori, P.Ianakiev, J.P.Xiong, and M.A.Arnaout (2007).
The beta-tail domain (betaTD) regulates physiologic ligand binding to integrin CD11b/CD18.
  Blood, 109, 3513-3520.  
17234210 V.Krishnan, Y.Xu, K.Macon, J.E.Volanakis, and S.V.Narayana (2007).
The crystal structure of C2a, the catalytic fragment of classical pathway C3 and C5 convertase of human complement.
  J Mol Biol, 367, 224-233.
PDB codes: 2odp 2odq
16859511 A.J.Galliher, and W.P.Schiemann (2006).
Beta3 integrin and Src facilitate transforming growth factor-beta mediated induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells.
  Breast Cancer Res, 8, R42.  
16904883 B.H.Luo, and T.A.Springer (2006).
Integrin structures and conformational signaling.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 18, 579-586.  
17060501 E.Puklin-Faucher, M.Gao, K.Schulten, and V.Vogel (2006).
How the headpiece hinge angle is opened: New insights into the dynamics of integrin activation.
  J Cell Biol, 175, 349-360.  
17026721 K.Zerria, E.Jerbi, S.Hammami, A.Maaroufi, S.Boubaker, J.P.Xiong, M.A.Arnaout, and D.M.Fathallah (2006).
Recombinant integrin CD11b A-domain blocks polymorphonuclear cells recruitment and protects against skeletal muscle inflammatory injury in the rat.
  Immunology, 119, 431-440.  
16888085 L.Huang, M.Shimaoka, I.J.Rondon, I.Roy, Q.Chang, M.Po, D.T.Dransfield, R.C.Ladner, A.S.Edge, A.Salas, C.R.Wood, T.A.Springer, and E.H.Cohen (2006).
Identification and characterization of a human monoclonal antagonistic antibody AL-57 that preferentially binds the high-affinity form of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
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16473908 M.Gao, and K.Schulten (2006).
Onset of anthrax toxin pore formation.
  Biophys J, 90, 3267-3279.  
17154539 N.S.Astrof, A.Salas, M.Shimaoka, J.Chen, and T.A.Springer (2006).
Importance of force linkage in mechanochemistry of adhesion receptors.
  Biochemistry, 45, 15020-15028.  
16239428 V.P.Yakubenko, S.P.Yadav, and T.P.Ugarova (2006).
Integrin alphaDbeta2, an adhesion receptor up-regulated on macrophage foam cells, exhibits multiligand-binding properties.
  Blood, 107, 1643-1650.  
16043429 J.K.Kim, Y.Xu, X.Xu, D.R.Keene, S.Gurusiddappa, X.Liang, K.K.Wary, and M.Höök (2005).
A novel binding site in collagen type III for integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 32512-32520.  
16212500 M.A.Arnaout, B.Mahalingam, and J.P.Xiong (2005).
Integrin structure, allostery, and bidirectional signaling.
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15965491 T.Kinashi (2005).
Intracellular signalling controlling integrin activation in lymphocytes.
  Nat Rev Immunol, 5, 546-559.  
15016353 A.A.Bhattacharya, M.L.Lupher, D.E.Staunton, and R.C.Liddington (2004).
Crystal structure of the A domain from complement factor B reveals an integrin-like open conformation.
  Structure, 12, 371-378.
PDB code: 1q0p
15363805 A.P.Mould, and M.J.Humphries (2004).
Regulation of integrin function through conformational complexity: not simply a knee-jerk reaction?
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 16, 544-551.  
15243628 E.Santelli, L.A.Bankston, S.H.Leppla, and R.C.Liddington (2004).
Crystal structure of a complex between anthrax toxin and its host cell receptor.
  Nature, 430, 905-908.
PDB code: 1t6b
15456774 E.Tng, S.M.Tan, S.Ranganathan, M.Cheng, and S.K.Law (2004).
The integrin alpha L beta 2 hybrid domain serves as a link for the propagation of activation signal from its stalk regions to the I-like domain.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 54334-54339.  
15322948 J.J.Sutherland, L.A.O'Brien, D.Lillicrap, and D.F.Weaver (2004).
Molecular modeling of the von Willebrand factor A2 Domain and the effects of associated type 2A von Willebrand disease mutations.
  J Mol Model, 10, 259-270.  
15070893 K.Ajroud, T.Sugimori, W.H.Goldmann, D.M.Fathallah, J.P.Xiong, and M.A.Arnaout (2004).
Binding Affinity of Metal Ions to the CD11b A-domain Is Regulated by Integrin Activation and Ligands.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 25483-25488.  
15576022 M.Gao, and K.Schulten (2004).
Integrin activation in vivo and in silico.
  Structure, 12, 2096-2098.  
15576028 M.Jin, I.Andricioaei, and T.A.Springer (2004).
Conversion between three conformational states of integrin I domains with a C-terminal pull spring studied with molecular dynamics.
  Structure, 12, 2137-2147.  
15078934 T.Jackson, S.Clark, S.Berryman, A.Burman, S.Cambier, D.Mu, S.Nishimura, and A.M.King (2004).
Integrin alphavbeta8 functions as a receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus: role of the beta-chain cytodomain in integrin-mediated infection.
  J Virol, 78, 4533-4540.  
15378069 T.Xiao, J.Takagi, B.S.Coller, J.H.Wang, and T.A.Springer (2004).
Structural basis for allostery in integrins and binding to fibrinogen-mimetic therapeutics.
  Nature, 432, 59-67.
PDB codes: 1txv 1ty3 1ty5 1ty6 1ty7 1tye
14978279 W.Yang, M.Shimaoka, A.Salas, J.Takagi, and T.A.Springer (2004).
Intersubunit signal transmission in integrins by a receptor-like interaction with a pull spring.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 2906-2911.  
14660600 Y.Nymalm, J.S.Puranen, T.K.Nyholm, J.Käpylä, H.Kidron, O.T.Pentikäinen, T.T.Airenne, J.Heino, J.P.Slotte, M.S.Johnson, and T.A.Salminen (2004).
Jararhagin-derived RKKH peptides induce structural changes in alpha1I domain of human integrin alpha1beta1.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 7962-7970.
PDB codes: 1pt6 1qcy
12615914 A.P.Mould, S.J.Barton, J.A.Askari, P.A.McEwan, P.A.Buckley, S.E.Craig, and M.J.Humphries (2003).
Conformational changes in the integrin beta A domain provide a mechanism for signal transduction via hybrid domain movement.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 17028-17035.  
14532288 A.P.Mould, S.J.Barton, J.A.Askari, S.E.Craig, and M.J.Humphries (2003).
Role of ADMIDAS cation-binding site in ligand recognition by integrin alpha 5 beta 1.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 51622-51629.  
12600996 B.H.Luo, T.A.Springer, and J.Takagi (2003).
High affinity ligand binding by integrins does not involve head separation.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 17185-17189.  
14519389 C.V.Carman, and T.A.Springer (2003).
Integrin avidity regulation: are changes in affinity and conformation underemphasized?
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 15, 547-556.  
12871301 J.P.Xiong, T.Stehle, S.L.Goodman, and M.A.Arnaout (2003).
Integrins, cations and ligands: making the connection.
  J Thromb Haemost, 1, 1642-1654.  
12526797 M.Shimaoka, T.Xiao, J.H.Liu, Y.Yang, Y.Dong, C.D.Jun, A.McCormack, R.Zhang, A.Joachimiak, J.Takagi, J.H.Wang, and T.A.Springer (2003).
Structures of the alpha L I domain and its complex with ICAM-1 reveal a shape-shifting pathway for integrin regulation.
  Cell, 112, 99.
PDB codes: 1mjn 1mq8 1mq9 1mqa
12554829 T.Vorup-Jensen, C.Ostermeier, M.Shimaoka, U.Hommel, and T.A.Springer (2003).
Structure and allosteric regulation of the alpha X beta 2 integrin I domain.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 1873-1878.
PDB code: 1n3y
11856343 A.Aquilina, M.Korda, J.M.Bergelson, M.J.Humphries, R.W.Farndale, and D.Tuckwell (2002).
A novel gain-of-function mutation of the integrin alpha2 VWFA domain.
  Eur J Biochem, 269, 1136-1144.  
11796735 A.Cierniewska-Cieslak, C.S.Cierniewski, K.Blecka, M.Papierak, L.Michalec, L.Zhang, T.A.Haas, and E.F.Plow (2002).
Identification and characterization of two cation binding sites in the integrin beta 3 subunit.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 11126-11134.  
11893752 A.P.Mould, J.A.Askari, S.Barton, A.D.Kline, P.A.McEwan, S.E.Craig, and M.J.Humphries (2002).
Integrin activation involves a conformational change in the alpha 1 helix of the beta subunit A-domain.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 19800-19805.  
12368274 A.Salas, M.Shimaoka, S.Chen, C.V.Carman, and T.Springer (2002).
Transition from rolling to firm adhesion is regulated by the conformation of the I domain of the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 50255-50262.  
11944041 C.K.Miranti, and J.S.Brugge (2002).
Sensing the environment: a historical perspective on integrin signal transduction.
  Nat Cell Biol, 4, E83-E90.  
11876085 D.E.Gullberg, and E.Lundgren-Akerlund (2002).
Collagen-binding I domain integrins--what do they do?
  Prog Histochem Cytochem, 37, 3.  
12112684 G.B.Legge, G.M.Morris, M.F.Sanner, Y.Takada, A.J.Olson, and F.Grynszpan (2002).
Model of the alphaLbeta2 integrin I-domain/ICAM-1 DI interface suggests that subtle changes in loop orientation determine ligand specificity.
  Proteins, 48, 151-160.
PDB code: 1ij4
  12102729 J.E.Garbarino, and I.R.Gibbons (2002).
Expression and genomic analysis of midasin, a novel and highly conserved AAA protein distantly related to dynein.
  BMC Genomics, 3, 18.  
12015130 J.L.Alonso, M.Essafi, J.P.Xiong, T.Stehle, and M.A.Arnaout (2002).
Does the integrin alphaA domain act as a ligand for its betaA domain?
  Curr Biol, 12, R340-R342.  
12234369 J.Takagi, and T.A.Springer (2002).
Integrin activation and structural rearrangement.
  Immunol Rev, 186, 141-163.  
11781316 K.Welzenbach, U.Hommel, and G.Weitz-Schmidt (2002).
Small molecule inhibitors induce conformational changes in the I domain and the I-like domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Molecular insights into integrin inhibition.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 10590-10598.  
12163068 L.S.Mizoue, and W.J.Chazin (2002).
Engineering and design of ligand-induced conformational change in proteins.
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12234368 M.A.Arnaout (2002).
Integrin structure: new twists and turns in dynamic cell adhesion.
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11988479 M.Shimaoka, J.Takagi, and T.A.Springer (2002).
Conformational regulation of integrin structure and function.
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11792712 Q.Ma, M.Shimaoka, C.Lu, H.Jing, C.V.Carman, and T.A.Springer (2002).
Activation-induced conformational changes in the I domain region of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1.
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11751331 T.J.You, D.S.Maxwell, T.P.Kogan, Q.Chen, J.Li, J.Kassir, G.W.Holland, and R.A.Dixon (2002).
A 3D structure model of integrin alpha 4 beta 1 complex: I. Construction of a homology model of beta 1 and ligand binding analysis.
  Biophys J, 82, 447-457.  
  11773368 T.Jackson, A.P.Mould, D.Sheppard, and A.M.King (2002).
Integrin alphavbeta1 is a receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus.
  J Virol, 76, 935-941.  
11880366 V.A.Ustinov, and E.F.Plow (2002).
Delineation of the key amino acids involved in neutrophil inhibitory factor binding to the I-domain supports a mosaic model for the capacity of integrin alphaMbeta 2 to recognize multiple ligands.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 18769-18776.  
12377763 V.P.Yakubenko, V.K.Lishko, S.C.Lam, and T.P.Ugarova (2002).
A molecular basis for integrin alphaMbeta 2 ligand binding promiscuity.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 48635-48642.  
11369784 C.B.Forsyth, D.A.Solovjov, T.P.Ugarova, and E.F.Plow (2001).
Integrin alpha(M)beta(2)-mediated cell migration to fibrinogen and its recognition peptides.
  J Exp Med, 193, 1123-1133.  
11226249 C.Lu, M.Shimaoka, M.Ferzly, C.Oxvig, J.Takagi, and T.A.Springer (2001).
An isolated, surface-expressed I domain of the integrin alphaLbeta2 is sufficient for strong adhesive function when locked in the open conformation with a disulfide bond.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 2387-2392.  
11226250 C.Lu, M.Shimaoka, Q.Zang, J.Takagi, and T.A.Springer (2001).
Locking in alternate conformations of the integrin alphaLbeta2 I domain with disulfide bonds reveals functional relationships among integrin domains.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 2393-2398.  
11546839 J.P.Xiong, T.Stehle, B.Diefenbach, R.Zhang, R.Dunker, D.L.Scott, A.Joachimiak, S.L.Goodman, and M.A.Arnaout (2001).
Crystal structure of the extracellular segment of integrin alpha Vbeta3.
  Science, 294, 339-345.
PDB code: 1jv2
11353828 M.Shimaoka, C.Lu, R.T.Palframan, U.H.von Andrian, A.McCormack, J.Takagi, and T.A.Springer (2001).
Reversibly locking a protein fold in an active conformation with a disulfide bond: integrin alphaL I domains with high affinity and antagonist activity in vivo.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 6009-6014.  
  11771726 R.H.Hyland, W.A.Douglass, S.M.Tan, and S.K.Law (2001).
Chimeras of the integrin beta subunit mid-region reveal regions required for heterodimer formation and for activation.
  Cell Commun Adhes, 8, 61-69.  
11468358 R.R.Hantgan, M.Rocco, C.Nagaswami, and J.W.Weisel (2001).
Binding of a fibrinogen mimetic stabilizes integrin alphaIIbbeta3's open conformation.
  Protein Sci, 10, 1614-1626.  
11724962 Y.Xu, M.Ma, G.C.Ippolito, H.W.Schroeder, M.C.Carroll, and J.E.Volanakis (2001).
Complement activation in factor D-deficient mice.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 14577-14582.  
10702295 B.Yan, D.D.Hu, S.K.Knowles, and J.W.Smith (2000).
Probing chemical and conformational differences in the resting and active conformers of platelet integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3).
  J Biol Chem, 275, 7249-7260.  
10899906 D.I.Simon, Z.Chen, H.Xu, C.Q.Li, J.Dong, L.V.McIntire, C.M.Ballantyne, L.Zhang, M.I.Furman, M.C.Berndt, and J.A.López (2000).
Platelet glycoprotein ibalpha is a counterreceptor for the leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18).
  J Exp Med, 192, 193-204.  
10998238 G.Bitan, L.Scheibler, D.F.Mierke, M.Rosenblatt, and M.Chorev (2000).
Ligand-integrin alpha v beta 3 interaction determined by photoaffinity cross-linking: a challenge to the prevailing model.
  Biochemistry, 39, 11014-11023.  
10637221 H.Jing, Y.Xu, M.Carson, D.Moore, K.J.Macon, J.E.Volanakis, and S.V.Narayana (2000).
New structural motifs on the chymotrypsin fold and their potential roles in complement factor B.
  EMBO J, 19, 164-173.
PDB code: 1dle
10873865 J.Bella, and H.M.Berman (2000).
Integrin-collagen complex: a metal-glutamate handshake.
  Structure, 8, R121-R126.  
10805782 J.R.Huth, E.T.Olejniczak, R.Mendoza, H.Liang, E.A.Harris, M.L.Lupher, A.E.Wilson, S.W.Fesik, and D.E.Staunton (2000).
NMR and mutagenesis evidence for an I domain allosteric site that regulates lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ligand binding.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 5231-5236.  
10637653 M.J.Humphries (2000).
Integrin cell adhesion receptors and the concept of agonism.
  Trends Pharmacol Sci, 21, 29-32.  
10051621 C.Oxvig, C.Lu, and T.A.Springer (1999).
Conformational changes in tertiary structure near the ligand binding site of an integrin I domain.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 2215-2220.  
10556796 E.Blouin, L.Halbwachs-Mecarelli, and P.Rieu (1999).
Redox regulation of beta2-integrin CD11b/CD18 activation.
  Eur J Immunol, 29, 3419-3431.  
10371466 H.LeVine (1999).
Structural features of heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled receptors and their modulatory proteins.
  Mol Neurobiol, 19, 111-149.  
10508153 K.Wengelnik, R.Spaccapelo, S.Naitza, K.J.Robson, C.J.Janse, F.Bistoni, A.P.Waters, and A.Crisanti (1999).
The A-domain and the thrombospondin-related motif of Plasmodium falciparum TRAP are implicated in the invasion process of mosquito salivary glands.
  EMBO J, 18, 5195-5204.  
10531352 O.Pentikäinen, A.M.Hoffrén, J.Ivaska, J.Käpylä, T.Nyrönen, J.Heino, and M.S.Johnson (1999).
"RKKH" peptides from the snake venom metalloproteinase of Bothrops jararaca bind near the metal ion-dependent adhesion site of the human integrin alpha(2) I-domain.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 31493-31505.
PDB code: 1c9g
10387073 P.J.Gotwals, G.Chi-Rosso, S.T.Ryan, I.Sizing, M.Zafari, C.Benjamin, J.Singh, S.Y.Venyaminov, R.B.Pepinsky, and V.Koteliansky (1999).
Divalent cations stabilize the alpha 1 beta 1 integrin I domain.
  Biochemistry, 38, 8280-8288.  
  10397755 Q.Chen, Y.Zhang, D.M.Johnson, and P.F.Goetinck (1999).
Assembly of a novel cartilage matrix protein filamentous network: molecular basis of differential requirement of von Willebrand factor A domains.
  Mol Biol Cell, 10, 2149-2162.  
10545168 R.R.Hantgan, C.Paumi, M.Rocco, and J.W.Weisel (1999).
Effects of ligand-mimetic peptides Arg-Gly-Asp-X (X = Phe, Trp, Ser) on alphaIIbbeta3 integrin conformation and oligomerization.
  Biochemistry, 38, 14461-14474.  
10542255 S.K.Dickeson, N.L.Mathis, M.Rahman, J.M.Bergelson, and S.A.Santoro (1999).
Determinants of ligand binding specificity of the alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) integrins.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 32182-32191.  
10393790 T.A.Salminen, Y.Nymalm, J.Kankare, J.Käpylä, J.Heino, and M.S.Johnson (1999).
Production, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the human integrin alpha1 I domain.
  Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, 55, 1365-1367.  
9699516 A.Kern, and E.E.Marcantonio (1998).
Role of the I-domain in collagen binding specificity and activation of the integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1.
  J Cell Physiol, 176, 634-641.  
9765268 A.McDowall, B.Leitinger, P.Stanley, P.A.Bates, A.M.Randi, and N.Hogg (1998).
The I domain of integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 is involved in a conformational change leading to high affinity binding to ligand intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1).
  J Biol Chem, 273, 27396-27403.  
9614126 C.Lu, C.Oxvig, and T.A.Springer (1998).
The structure of the beta-propeller domain and C-terminal region of the integrin alphaM subunit. Dependence on beta subunit association and prediction of domains.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 15138-15147.  
9705356 D.W.Griggs, C.M.Schmidt, and C.P.Carron (1998).
Characteristics of cation binding to the I domains of LFA-1 and MAC-1. The LFA-1 I domain contains a Ca2+-binding site.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 22113-22119.  
9687375 E.T.Baldwin, R.W.Sarver, G.L.Bryant, K.A.Curry, M.B.Fairbanks, B.C.Finzel, R.L.Garlick, R.L.Heinrikson, N.C.Horton, L.L.Kelley, A.M.Mildner, J.B.Moon, J.E.Mott, V.T.Mutchler, C.S.Tomich, K.D.Watenpaugh, and V.H.Wiley (1998).
Cation binding to the integrin CD11b I domain and activation model assessment.
  Structure, 6, 923-935.
PDB codes: 1bho 1bhq 1idn
9478133 G.Bazzoni, and M.E.Hemler (1998).
Are changes in integrin affinity and conformation overemphasized?
  Trends Biochem Sci, 23, 30-34.  
9525896 H.Ni, A.Li, N.Simonsen, and J.A.Wilkins (1998).
Integrin activation by dithiothreitol or Mn2+ induces a ligand-occupied conformation and exposure of a novel NH2-terminal regulatory site on the beta1 integrin chain.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 7981-7987.  
9553097 J.Emsley, M.Cruz, R.Handin, and R.Liddington (1998).
Crystal structure of the von Willebrand Factor A1 domain and implications for the binding of platelet glycoprotein Ib.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 10396-10401.
PDB code: 1auq
9700512 J.Wang, and T.A.Springer (1998).
Structural specializations of immunoglobulin superfamily members for adhesion to integrins and viruses.
  Immunol Rev, 163, 197-215.  
9695813 M.J.Humphries, and P.Newham (1998).
The structure of cell-adhesion molecules.
  Trends Cell Biol, 8, 78-83.  
9452454 P.Stanley, and N.Hogg (1998).
The I domain of integrin LFA-1 interacts with ICAM-1 domain 1 at residue Glu-34 but not Gln-73.
  J Biol Chem, 273, 3358-3362.  
9852148 R.Li, P.Rieu, D.L.Griffith, D.Scott, and M.A.Arnaout (1998).
Two functional states of the CD11b A-domain: correlations with key features of two Mn2+-complexed crystal structures.
  J Cell Biol, 143, 1523-1534.  
9687372 R.Liddington, and L.Bankston (1998).
The integrin I domain: crystals, metals and related artefacts.
  Structure, 6, 937-938.  
9698375 S.K.Dickeson, M.Bhattacharyya-Pakrasi, N.L.Mathis, P.H.Schlesinger, and S.A.Santoro (1998).
Ligand binding results in divalent cation displacement from the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin I domain: evidence from terbium luminescence spectroscopy.
  Biochemistry, 37, 11280-11288.  
9242926 C.Chothia, and E.Y.Jones (1997).
The molecular structure of cell adhesion molecules.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 66, 823-862.  
9151947 C.G.Gahmberg, M.Tolvanen, and P.Kotovuori (1997).
Leukocyte adhesion--structure and function of human leukocyte beta2-integrins and their cellular ligands.
  Eur J Biochem, 245, 215-232.  
9442878 D.J.Leahy (1997).
Implications of atomic-resolution structures for cell adhesion.
  Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 13, 363-393.  
9184140 D.S.Tuckwell, Y.Xu, P.Newham, M.J.Humphries, and J.E.Volanakis (1997).
Surface loops adjacent to the cation-binding site of the complement factor B von Willebrand factor type A module determine C3b binding specificity.
  Biochemistry, 36, 6605-6613.  
9331419 E.G.Huizinga, R.Martijn van der Plas, J.Kroon, J.J.Sixma, and P.Gros (1997).
Crystal structure of the A3 domain of human von Willebrand factor: implications for collagen binding.
  Structure, 5, 1147-1156.
PDB code: 1atz
9182673 H.Kashiwagi, M.A.Schwartz, M.Eigenthaler, K.A.Davis, M.H.Ginsberg, and S.J.Shattil (1997).
Affinity modulation of platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 by beta3-endonexin, a selective binding partner of the beta3 integrin cytoplasmic tail.
  J Cell Biol, 137, 1433-1443.  
9153268 J.C.Loftus, and R.C.Liddington (1997).
Cell adhesion in vascular biology. New insights into integrin-ligand interaction.
  J Clin Invest, 99, 2302-2306.  
9353312 J.Emsley, S.L.King, J.M.Bergelson, and R.C.Liddington (1997).
Crystal structure of the I domain from integrin alpha2beta1.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 28512-28517.
PDB code: 1aox
9041516 K.J.Robson, S.Naitza, G.Barker, R.E.Sinden, and A.Crisanti (1997).
Cloning and expression of the thrombospondin related adhesive protein gene of Plasmodium berghei.
  Mol Biochem Parasitol, 84, 1.  
9271587 R.Knorr, and M.L.Dustin (1997).
The lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 I domain is a transient binding module for intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-3 in hydrodynamic flow.
  J Exp Med, 186, 719-730.  
9353313 S.L.King, T.Kamata, J.A.Cunningham, J.Emsley, R.C.Liddington, Y.Takada, and J.M.Bergelson (1997).
Echovirus 1 interaction with the human very late antigen-2 (integrin alpha2beta1) I domain. Identification of two independent virus contact sites distinct from the metal ion-dependent adhesion site.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 28518-28522.  
  9343190 T.Jackson, A.Sharma, R.A.Ghazaleh, W.E.Blakemore, F.M.Ellard, D.L.Simmons, J.W.Newman, D.I.Stuart, and A.M.King (1997).
Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-specific binding by foot-and-mouth disease viruses to the purified integrin alpha(v)beta3 in vitro.
  J Virol, 71, 8357-8361.  
9150458 T.Sugimori, D.L.Griffith, and M.A.Arnaout (1997).
Emerging paradigms of integrin ligand binding and activation.
  Kidney Int, 51, 1454-1462.  
8805579 A.Qu, and D.J.Leahy (1996).
The role of the divalent cation in the structure of the I domain from the CD11a/CD18 integrin.
  Structure, 4, 931-942.
PDB codes: 1zon 1zoo 1zop
  9164648 E.C.Tozer, P.E.Hughes, and J.C.Loftus (1996).
Ligand binding and affinity modulation of integrins.
  Biochem Cell Biol, 74, 785-798.  
8703003 E.C.Tozer, R.C.Liddington, M.J.Sutcliffe, A.H.Smeeton, and J.C.Loftus (1996).
Ligand binding to integrin alphaIIbbeta3 is dependent on a MIDAS-like domain in the beta3 subunit.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 21978-21984.  
8939654 E.Y.Jones (1996).
Three-dimensional structure of cell adhesion molecules.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 8, 602-608.  
8939662 M.J.Humphries (1996).
Integrin activation: the link between ligand binding and signal transduction.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 8, 632-640.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.