PDBsum entry 1hjs

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protein ligands links
Hydrolase PDB id
Protein chains
332 a.a. *
NAG ×4
SO4 ×11
PEG ×13
Waters ×643
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Hydrolase
Title: Structure of two fungal beta-1,4-galactanases: searching for the basis for temperature and ph optimum.
Structure: Beta-1,4-galactanase. Chain: a, b, c, d. Engineered: yes. Other_details: 2-n-acetyl-beta-d-glucose(residue 601) linked to asn 111 in the four molecules
Source: Thielavia heterothallica. Myceliophthora thermophila. Organism_taxid: 78579. Expressed in: aspergillus oryzae. Expression_system_taxid: 5062. Other_details: myceliophthora thermophila is the anamorph name whilst thielavia heterothallic is the teleomorph name
1.87Å     R-factor:   0.194     R-free:   0.208
Authors: J.Le Nours,C.Ryttersgaard,L.Lo Leggio,P.R.Ostergaard, T.V.Borchert,L.L.H.Christensen,S.Larsen
Key ref:
J.Le Nours et al. (2003). Structure of two fungal beta-1,4-galactanases: searching for the basis for temperature and pH optimum. Protein Sci, 12, 1195-1204. PubMed id: 12761390 DOI: 10.1110/ps.0300103
27-Feb-03     Release date:   02-Jun-03    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P83692  (GANA_THIHE) -  Arabinogalactan endo-beta-1,4-galactanase
332 a.a.
332 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Arabinogalactan endo-beta-1,4-galactanase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: Endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-galactosidic linkages in arabinogalactans.
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     extraorganismal space   1 term 
  Biological process     metabolic process   3 terms 
  Biochemical function     hydrolase activity     6 terms  


DOI no: 10.1110/ps.0300103 Protein Sci 12:1195-1204 (2003)
PubMed id: 12761390  
Structure of two fungal beta-1,4-galactanases: searching for the basis for temperature and pH optimum.
J.Le Nours, C.Ryttersgaard, L.Lo Leggio, P.R.Østergaard, T.V.Borchert, L.L.Christensen, S.Larsen.
beta-1,4-Galactanases hydrolyze the galactan side chains that are part of the complex carbohydrate structure of the pectin. They are assigned to family 53 of the glycoside hydrolases and display significant variations in their pH and temperature optimum and stability. Two fungal beta-1,4-galactanases from Myceliophthora thermophila and Humicola insolens have been cloned and heterologously expressed, and the crystal structures of the gene products were determined. The structures are compared to the previously only known family 53 structure of the galactanase from Aspergillus aculeatus (AAGAL) showing approximately 56% identity. The M. thermophila and H. insolens galactanases are thermophilic enzymes and are most active at neutral to basic pH, whereas AAGAL is mesophilic and most active at acidic pH. The structure of the M. thermophila galactanase (MTGAL) was determined from crystals obtained with HEPES and TRIS buffers to 1.88 A and 2.14 A resolution, respectively. The structure of the H. insolens galactanase (HIGAL) was determined to 2.55 A resolution. The thermostability of MTGAL and HIGAL correlates with increase in the protein rigidity and electrostatic interactions, stabilization of the alpha-helices, and a tighter packing. An inspection of the active sites in the three enzymes identifies several amino acid substitutions that could explain the variation in pH optimum. Examination of the activity as a function of pH for the D182N mutant of AAGAL and the A90S/ H91D mutant of MTGAL showed that the difference in pH optimum between AAGAL and MTGAL is at least partially associated with differences in the nature of residues at positions 182, 90, and/or 91.
  Selected figure(s)  
Figure 1.
Figure 1. Illustration of the overall fold of HIGAL. Made with Swiss PDB-Viewer (Guex and Peitsch 1997).
Figure 4.
Figure 4. Comparison of -helix stabilization in MTGAL, HIGAL, and AAGAL. Stabilized/destabilized helices were classified from the observation of favorable or unfavorable interactions between the -helix dipole, the three first N-terminal residues, and the three last C-terminal residues as in Teixeira et al. (2001). Positively charged residues (Lys, Arg, His) were considered favorable at the C-terminus and unfavorable at the N-terminus. For negatively charged residues (Asp, Glu), the opposite was true. Helices where favorable interactions outnumbered unfavorable interactions were considered stabilized. Where unfavorable interactions outnumbered the favorable ones, the helix was considered destabilized. Only barrel helices were considered.
  The above figures are reprinted by permission from the Protein Society: Protein Sci (2003, 12, 1195-1204) copyright 2003.  
  Figures were selected by an automated process.  

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
20686915 P.Shi, T.Yuan, J.Zhao, H.Huang, H.Luo, K.Meng, Y.Wang, and B.Yao (2011).
Genetic and biochemical characterization of a protease-resistant mesophilic β-mannanase from Streptomyces sp. S27.
  J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 38, 451-458.  
18523684 D.M.Soanes, I.Alam, M.Cornell, H.M.Wong, C.Hedeler, N.W.Paton, M.Rattray, S.J.Hubbard, S.G.Oliver, and N.J.Talbot (2008).
Comparative genome analysis of filamentous fungi reveals gene family expansions associated with fungal pathogenesis.
  PLoS ONE, 3, e2300.  
17189477 B.M.Tynan-Connolly, and J.E.Nielsen (2007).
Redesigning protein pKa values.
  Protein Sci, 16, 239-249.  
16495677 H.Yang, H.Ichinose, M.Yoshida, M.Nakajima, H.Kobayashi, and S.Kaneko (2006).
Characterization of a thermostable endo-beta-1,4-D-galactanase from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima.
  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 70, 538-541.  
16151143 S.W.Hinz, M.I.Pastink, L.A.van den Broek, J.P.Vincken, and A.G.Voragen (2005).
Bifidobacterium longum endogalactanase liberates galactotriose from type I galactans.
  Appl Environ Microbiol, 71, 5501-5510.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time.