PDBsum entry 1gp1

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Oxidoreductase(h2o2(a)) PDB id
Protein chains
185 a.a. *
Waters ×185
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Oxidoreductase(h2o2(a))
Title: The refined structure of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxi 0.2-nm resolution
Structure: Glutathione peroxidase. Chain: a, b. Engineered: yes
Source: Bos taurus. Bovine. Organism_taxid: 9913. Tissue: erythrocyte
Biol. unit: Tetramer (from PQS)
2.00Å     R-factor:   0.171    
Authors: O.Epp,R.Ladenstein
Key ref: O.Epp et al. (1983). The refined structure of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase at 0.2-nm resolution. Eur J Biochem, 133, 51-69. PubMed id: 6852035
11-Jun-85     Release date:   08-Nov-85    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P00435  (GPX1_BOVIN) -  Glutathione peroxidase 1
205 a.a.
185 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 1 residue position (black cross)

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Glutathione peroxidase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: 2 glutathione + H2O2 = glutathione disulfide + 2 H2O
2 × glutathione
+ H(2)O(2)
= glutathione disulfide
+ 2 × H(2)O
      Cofactor: Se(2+)
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     cytoplasm   1 term 
  Biological process     oxidation-reduction process   5 terms 
  Biochemical function     oxidoreductase activity     3 terms  


Eur J Biochem 133:51-69 (1983)
PubMed id: 6852035  
The refined structure of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase at 0.2-nm resolution.
O.Epp, R.Ladenstein, A.Wendel.
No abstract given.


Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

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Synthesis and antioxidant activity of Peptide-based ebselen analogues.
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Structural insights into the catalytic mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi GPXI (glutathione peroxidase-like enzyme I).
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PDB code: 3e0u
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19847843 B.K.Sarma, and G.Mugesh (2009).
Theoretical Investigation on the Effect of Different Nitrogen Donors on Intramolecular SeN Interactions.
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18757362 J.Lu, and A.Holmgren (2009).
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Crystal structure and catalysis of the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1.
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PDB codes: 3ean 3eao
19265561 S.H.Kim, G.B.Cai, Y.A.Bae, E.G.Lee, Y.S.Lee, and Y.Kong (2009).
Two novel phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase genes of Paragonimus westermani induced by oxidative stress.
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Modular evolution of glutathione peroxidase genes in association with different biochemical properties of their encoded proteins in invertebrate animals.
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Engineered selenium-containing glutaredoxin displays strong glutathione peroxidase activity rivaling natural enzyme.
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18327317 B.K.Sarma, and G.Mugesh (2008).
Thiol cofactors for selenoenzymes and their synthetic mimics.
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18932179 B.K.Sarma, and G.Mugesh (2008).
Antioxidant activity of the anti-inflammatory compound ebselen: a reversible cyclization pathway via selenenic and seleninic acid intermediates.
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18548475 G.Casi, G.Roelfes, and D.Hilvert (2008).
Selenoglutaredoxin as a glutathione peroxidase mimic.
  Chembiochem, 9, 1623-1631.  
18498224 H.Castro, and A.M.Tomás (2008).
Peroxidases of trypanosomatids.
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18684708 J.Melchers, M.Diechtierow, K.Fehér, I.Sinning, I.Tews, R.L.Krauth-Siegel, and C.Muhle-Goll (2008).
Structural Basis for a Distinct Catalytic Mechanism in Trypanosoma brucei Tryparedoxin Peroxidase.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 30401-30411.
PDB codes: 2rm5 2rm6 3dwv
18373941 K.Zheng, P.G.Board, X.Fei, Y.Sun, S.Lv, G.Yan, J.Liu, J.Shen, and G.Luo (2008).
A novel selenium-containing glutathione transferase zeta1-1, the activity of which surpasses the level of some native glutathione peroxidases.
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18479208 L.Flohé, and F.Ursini (2008).
Peroxidase: a term of many meanings.
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18951416 M.Muttenthaler, and P.F.Alewood (2008).
Selenopeptide chemistry.
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18522537 M.S.Alphey, J.König, and A.H.Fairlamb (2008).
Structural and mechanistic insights into type II trypanosomatid tryparedoxin-dependent peroxidases.
  Biochem J, 414, 375-381.
PDB code: 2vup
18500926 S.C.Tosatto, V.Bosello, F.Fogolari, P.Mauri, A.Roveri, S.Toppo, L.Flohé, F.Ursini, and M.Maiorino (2008).
The catalytic site of glutathione peroxidases.
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18498225 S.Toppo, S.Vanin, V.Bosello, and S.C.Tosatto (2008).
Evolutionary and structural insights into the multifaceted glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) superfamily.
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18577359 T.Zhang, E.Chabory, A.Britan, E.Grignard, O.Pitiot, F.Saez, R.Cadet, J.Henry-Berger, P.Vernet, and J.R.Drevet (2008).
GPX5, the selenium-independent glutathione peroxidase-encoding single copy gene is differentially expressed in mouse epididymis.
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18767166 W.J.Zhang, Y.X.He, Z.Yang, J.Yu, Y.Chen, and C.Z.Zhou (2008).
Crystal structure of glutathione-dependent phospholipid peroxidase Hyr1 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
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PDB code: 3cmi
17878981 D.Kuzma, M.Parvez, and T.G.Back (2007).
Formation of a spirodiazaselenurane and its corresponding azaselenonium derivatives from the oxidation of 2,2'-selenobis(benzamide). Structure, properties and glutathione peroxidase activity.
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17437091 G.Ballihaut, S.Mounicou, and R.Lobinski (2007).
Multitechnique mass-spectrometric approach for the detection of bovine glutathione peroxidase selenoprotein: focus on the selenopeptide.
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17724019 G.Casi, and D.Hilvert (2007).
Reinvestigation of a selenopeptide with purportedly high glutathione peroxidase activity.
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17922848 J.König, and A.H.Fairlamb (2007).
A comparative study of type I and type II tryparedoxin peroxidases in Leishmania major.
  FEBS J, 274, 5643-5658.  
17242409 J.Melchers, N.Dirdjaja, T.Ruppert, and R.L.Krauth-Siegel (2007).
Glutathionylation of trypanosomal thiol redox proteins.
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Selenium in chemistry and biochemistry in comparison to sulfur.
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17720812 L.H.Ma, C.L.Takanishi, and M.J.Wood (2007).
Molecular mechanism of oxidative stress perception by the Orp1 protein.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 31429-31436.  
17937614 N.E.Savaskan, C.Ufer, H.Kühn, and A.Borchert (2007).
Molecular biology of glutathione peroxidase 4: from genomic structure to developmental expression and neural function.
  Biol Chem, 388, 1007-1017.  
17419737 S.Herbette, P.Roeckel-Drevet, and J.R.Drevet (2007).
Seleno-independent glutathione peroxidases. More than simple antioxidant scavengers.
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16465344 H.Xu, J.Gao, Y.Wang, Z.Wang, M.Smet, W.Dehaen, and X.Zhang (2006).
Hyperbranched polyselenides as glutathione peroxidase mimics.
  Chem Commun (Camb), (), 796-798.  
  17012767 L.Zhao, B.Olubajo, and E.W.Taylor (2006).
Functional studies of an HIV-1 encoded glutathione peroxidase.
  Biofactors, 27, 93.  
16639747 R.Singh, M.A.White, K.V.Ramana, J.M.Petrash, S.J.Watowich, A.Bhatnagar, and S.K.Srivastava (2006).
Structure of a glutathione conjugate bound to the active site of aldose reductase.
  Proteins, 64, 101-110.
PDB code: 2f2k
16764674 S.Atanasova, N.von Ahsen, C.Schlumbohm, E.Wieland, M.Oellerich, and V.Armstrong (2006).
Marmoset glutathione peroxidases: cDNA sequences, molecular evolution, and gene expression.
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16491491 Z.Y.Dong, X.Huang, S.Z.Mao, K.Liang, J.Q.Liu, G.M.Luo, and J.C.Shen (2006).
Cyclodextrin-derived mimic of glutathione peroxidase exhibiting enzymatic specificity and high catalytic efficiency.
  Chemistry, 12, 3575-3579.  
  16754991 Z.Yang, and C.Z.Zhou (2006).
Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of glutathione peroxidase Gpx3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
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15649895 H.J.Yu, J.Q.Liu, A.Bock, J.Li, G.M.Luo, and J.C.Shen (2005).
Engineering glutathione transferase to a novel glutathione peroxidase mimic with high catalytic efficiency. Incorporation of selenocysteine into a glutathione-binding scaffold using an auxotrophic expression system.
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16081649 J.Li, Z.Xia, and J.Ding (2005).
Thioredoxin-like domain of human kappa class glutathione transferase reveals sequence homology and structure similarity to the theta class enzyme.
  Protein Sci, 14, 2361-2369.
PDB code: 1yzx
15976866 P.P.Phadnis, and G.Mugesh (2005).
Internally stabilized selenocysteine derivatives: syntheses, 77Se NMR and biomimetic studies.
  Org Biomol Chem, 3, 2476-2481.  
14713336 A.P.Fernandes, and A.Holmgren (2004).
Glutaredoxins: glutathione-dependent redox enzymes with functions far beyond a simple thioredoxin backup system.
  Antioxid Redox Signal, 6, 63-74.  
15252019 K.Barnewitz, C.Guo, M.Sevvana, Q.Ma, G.M.Sheldrick, H.D.Söling, and D.M.Ferrari (2004).
Mapping of a substrate binding site in the protein disulfide isomerase-related chaperone wind based on protein function and crystal structure.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 39829-39837.  
12893830 E.Bürkert, C.Arnold, T.Hammarberg, O.Rådmark, D.Steinhilber, and O.Werz (2003).
The C2-like beta-barrel domain mediates the Ca2+-dependent resistance of 5-lipoxygenase activity against inhibition by glutathione peroxidase-1.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 42846-42853.  
12466271 H.Hillebrand, A.Schmidt, and R.L.Krauth-Siegel (2003).
A second class of peroxidases linked to the trypanothione metabolism.
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12751787 P.Mauri, L.Benazzi, L.Flohé, M.Maiorino, P.G.Pietta, S.Pilawa, A.Roveri, and F.Ursini (2003).
Versatility of selenium catalysis in PHGPx unraveled by LC/ESI-MS/MS.
  Biol Chem, 384, 575-588.  
12751782 S.R.Wilkinson, and J.M.Kelly (2003).
The role of glutathione peroxidases in trypanosomatids.
  Biol Chem, 384, 517-525.  
12675737 T.Takeda, K.Miyao, M.Tamoi, H.Kanaboshi, H.Miyasaka, and S.Shigeoka (2003).
Molecular characterization of glutathione peroxidase-like protein in halotolerant Chlamydomonas sp. W80.
  Physiol Plant, 117, 467-475.  
11823460 B.G.Jung, K.O.Lee, S.S.Lee, Y.H.Chi, H.H.Jang, S.S.Kang, K.Lee, D.Lim, S.C.Yoon, D.J.Yun, Y.Inoue, M.J.Cho, and S.Y.Lee (2002).
A Chinese cabbage cDNA with high sequence identity to phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases encodes a novel isoform of thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 12572-12578.  
11897787 D.W.Jeong, M.H.Yoo, T.S.Kim, J.H.Kim, and I.Y.Kim (2002).
Protection of mice from allergen-induced asthma by selenite: prevention of eosinophil infiltration by inhibition of NF-kappa B activation.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 17871-17876.  
12185074 G.Takebe, J.Yarimizu, Y.Saito, T.Hayashi, H.Nakamura, J.Yodoi, S.Nagasawa, and K.Takahashi (2002).
A comparative study on the hydroperoxide and thiol specificity of the glutathione peroxidase family and selenoprotein P.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 41254-41258.  
12106812 H.Kühn, and A.Borchert (2002).
Regulation of enzymatic lipid peroxidation: the interplay of peroxidizing and peroxide reducing enzymes.
  Free Radic Biol Med, 33, 154-172.  
11933237 X.Ren, Y.Xue, J.Liu, K.Zhang, J.Zheng, G.Luo, C.Guo, Y.Mu, and J.Shen (2002).
A novel cyclodextrin-derived tellurium compound with glutathione peroxidase activity.
  Chembiochem, 3, 356-363.  
  11568459 A.Roveri, F.Ursini, L.Flohé, and M.Maiorino (2001).
PHGPx and spermatogenesis.
  Biofactors, 14, 213-222.  
11347894 B.Hofmann, H.Budde, K.Bruns, S.A.Guerrero, H.M.Kalisz, U.Menge, M.Montemartini, E.Nogoceke, P.Steinert, J.B.Wissing, L.Flohé, and H.J.Hecht (2001).
Structures of tryparedoxins revealing interaction with trypanothione.
  Biol Chem, 382, 459-471.
PDB codes: 1ewx 1ezk 1fg4 1i5g
  11568448 C.Kretz-Remy, and A.P.Arrigo (2001).
Selenium: a key element that controls NF-kappa B activation and I kappa B alpha half life.
  Biofactors, 14, 117-125.  
11435111 E.Liepinsh, M.Baryshev, A.Sharipo, M.Ingelman-Sundberg, G.Otting, and S.Mkrtchian (2001).
Thioredoxin fold as homodimerization module in the putative chaperone ERp29: NMR structures of the domains and experimental model of the 51 kDa dimer.
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PDB codes: 1g7d 1g7e
11330888 G.Mugesh, and W.W.du Mont (2001).
Structure-activity correlation between natural glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and mimics: a biomimetic concept for the design and synthesis of more efficient GPx mimics.
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11728801 J.Nordberg, and E.S.Arnér (2001).
Reactive oxygen species, antioxidants, and the mammalian thioredoxin system.
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11015213 J.A.Hornby, J.K.Luo, J.M.Stevens, L.A.Wallace, W.Kaplan, R.N.Armstrong, and H.W.Dirr (2000).
Equilibrium folding of dimeric class mu glutathione transferases involves a stable monomeric intermediate.
  Biochemistry, 39, 12336-12344.  
11076017 J.Köhrl, R.Brigelius-Flohé, A.Böck, R.Gärtner, O.Meyer, and L.Flohé (2000).
Selenium in biology: facts and medical perspectives.
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11015195 K.V.Ramana, B.L.Dixit, S.Srivastava, G.K.Balendiran, S.K.Srivastava, and A.Bhatnagar (2000).
Selective recognition of glutathiolated aldehydes by aldose reductase.
  Biochemistry, 39, 12172-12180.  
10841544 L.Zhao, A.G.Cox, J.A.Ruzicka, A.A.Bhat, W.Zhang, and E.W.Taylor (2000).
Molecular modeling and in vitro activity of an HIV-1-encoded glutathione peroxidase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 6356-6361.  
10931175 P.Klatt, and S.Lamas (2000).
Regulation of protein function by S-glutathiolation in response to oxidative and nitrosative stress.
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10569629 L.Flohé, H.J.Hecht, and P.Steinert (1999).
Glutathione and trypanothione in parasitic hydroperoxide metabolism.
  Free Radic Biol Med, 27, 966-984.  
10491099 M.Montemartini, H.M.Kalisz, H.J.Hecht, P.Steinert, and L.Flohé (1999).
Activation of active-site cysteine residues in the peroxiredoxin-type tryparedoxin peroxidase of Crithidia fasciculata.
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10610059 M.Sreekala, T.R.Santosh, and K.Lalitha (1999).
Oxidative stress during selenium deficiency in seedlings of Trigonella foenum-graecum and mitigation by mimosine. Part I. Hydroperoxide metabolism.
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Crystal structure of a multifunctional 2-Cys peroxiredoxin heme-binding protein 23 kDa/proliferation-associated gene product.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 12333-12338.
PDB code: 1qq2
10610060 T.R.Santosh, M.Sreekala, and K.Lalitha (1999).
Oxidative stress during selenium deficiency in seedlings of Trigonella foenum-graecum and mitigation by mimosine Part II. Glutathione metabolism.
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10343164 V.N.Gladyshev, and D.L.Hatfield (1999).
Selenocysteine-containing proteins in mammals.
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10535520 W.Zhang, C.S.Ramanathan, R.G.Nadimpalli, A.A.Bhat, A.G.Cox, and E.W.Taylor (1999).
Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase modules encoded by RNA viruses.
  Biol Trace Elem Res, 70, 97.  
  9828014 E.Schröder, and C.P.Ponting (1998).
Evidence that peroxiredoxins are novel members of the thioredoxin fold superfamily.
  Protein Sci, 7, 2465-2468.  
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Crystal structure of a novel human peroxidase enzyme at 2.0 A resolution.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 400-406.
PDB code: 1prx
9845479 M.Sreekala, and K.Lalitha (1998).
Selenium-mediated differential response of beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase of germinating Trigonella foenum-graecum.
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Roles for the two cysteine residues of AhpC in catalysis of peroxide reduction by alkyl hydroperoxide reductase from Salmonella typhimurium.
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The folding catalyst protein disulfide isomerase is constructed of active and inactive thioredoxin modules.
  Curr Biol, 7, 239-245.  
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Myocrisin-mediated oxidative stress.
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The oxidation of selenocysteine is involved in the inactivation of glutathione peroxidase by nitric oxide donor.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 19152-19157.  
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Requirement for the two AhpF cystine disulfide centers in catalysis of peroxide reduction by alkyl hydroperoxide reductase.
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Mutants that show increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide reveal an important role for the pentose phosphate pathway in protection of yeast against oxidative stress.
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Flavin-dependent alkyl hydroperoxide reductase from Salmonella typhimurium. 2. Cystine disulfides involved in catalysis of peroxide reduction.
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Multiple alleles encoding a virus-like particle protein in the ichneumonid endoparasitoid Venturia canescens.
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7788290 J.L.Martin (1995).
Thioredoxin--a fold for all reasons.
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7873592 J.S.Baldwin, L.Lee, T.K.Leung, A.Muruganandam, and B.Mutus (1995).
Identification of the site of non-enzymatic glycation of glutathione peroxidase: rationalization of the glycation-related catalytic alterations on the basis of three-dimensional protein structure.
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Heterologous expression and enzymatic properties of a selenium-independent glutathione peroxidase from the parasitic nematode Brugia pahangi.
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  8962674 M.Maiorino, K.D.Aumann, R.Brigelius-Flohé, D.Doria, J.van den Heuvel, J.McCarthy, A.Roveri, F.Ursini, and L.Flohé (1995).
Probing the presumed catalytic triad of selenium-containing peroxidases by mutational analysis of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx).
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Significance of structural changes in proteins: expected errors in refined protein structures.
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Isolation and identification of a glutathione peroxidase homolog gene, gpxA, present in Neisseria meningitidis but absent in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
  Infect Immun, 63, 1603-1607.  
  7703850 E.V.Koonin, A.R.Mushegian, R.L.Tatusov, S.F.Altschul, S.H.Bryant, P.Bork, and A.Valencia (1994).
Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma contains a glutathione transferase domain--study of a diverse, ancient protein superfamily using motif search and structural modeling.
  Protein Sci, 3, 2045-2054.  
8143720 H.Dirr, P.Reinemer, and R.Huber (1994).
X-ray crystal structures of cytosolic glutathione S-transferases. Implications for protein architecture, substrate recognition and catalytic function.
  Eur J Biochem, 220, 645-661.  
  7509588 M.Reches, C.Zhao, and H.Engelberg-Kulka (1994).
A bioassay based on recombinant DNA technology for determining selenium concentration.
  Appl Environ Microbiol, 60, 45-50.  
8458589 H.Sies (1993).
Ebselen, a selenoorganic compound as glutathione peroxidase mimic.
  Free Radic Biol Med, 14, 313-323.  
8425532 T.Stehle, A.Claiborne, and G.E.Schulz (1993).
NADH binding site and catalysis of NADH peroxidase.
  Eur J Biochem, 211, 221-226.
PDB code: 2npx
1587359 A.V.Kajava (1992).
Left-handed topology of super-secondary structure formed by aligned alpha-helix and beta-hairpin.
  FEBS Lett, 302, 8.  
2017435 A.P.Korn, and R.M.Burnett (1991).
Distribution and complementarity of hydropathy in multisubunit proteins.
  Proteins, 9, 37-55.  
  2065650 P.Reinemer, H.W.Dirr, R.Ladenstein, J.Schäffer, O.Gallay, and R.Huber (1991).
The three-dimensional structure of class pi glutathione S-transferase in complex with glutathione sulfonate at 2.3 A resolution.
  EMBO J, 10, 1997-2005.
PDB code: 1gsr
2256708 L.G.Oberg, B.Glas, S.E.Swanson, C.Rappe, and K.G.Paul (1990).
Peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of chlorophenols to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.
  Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 19, 930-938.  
2166604 M.Nilges, G.M.Clore, and A.M.Gronenborn (1990).
1H-NMR stereospecific assignments by conformational data-base searches.
  Biopolymers, 29, 813-822.  
  2184035 W.A.Hendrickson, J.R.Horton, and D.M.LeMaster (1990).
Selenomethionyl proteins produced for analysis by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD): a vehicle for direct determination of three-dimensional structure.
  EMBO J, 9, 1665-1672.  
2912729 P.A.Karplus, E.F.Pai, and G.E.Schulz (1989).
A crystallographic study of the glutathione binding site of glutathione reductase at 0.3-nm resolution.
  Eur J Biochem, 178, 693-703.  
2838821 A.P.Reddy, B.L.Hsu, P.S.Reddy, N.Q.Li, K.Thyagaraju, C.C.Reddy, M.F.Tam, and C.P.Tu (1988).
Expression of glutathione peroxidase I gene in selenium-deficient rats.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 16, 5557-5568.  
  3015592 I.Chambers, J.Frampton, P.Goldfarb, N.Affara, W.McBain, and P.R.Harrison (1986).
The structure of the mouse glutathione peroxidase gene: the selenocysteine in the active site is encoded by the 'termination' codon, TGA.
  EMBO J, 5, 1221-1227.  
6413205 A.Grossmann, and A.Wendel (1983).
Non-reactivity of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase with enzymatically hydroperoxidized phospholipids.
  Eur J Biochem, 135, 549-552.  
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