PDBsum entry 1gof

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Oxidoreductase(oxygen(a)) PDB id
Protein chain
639 a.a. *
ACY ×2
Waters ×316
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Oxidoreductase(oxygen(a))
Title: Novel thioether bond revealed by a 1.7 angstroms crystal str galactose oxidase
Structure: Galactose oxidase. Chain: a. Engineered: yes
Source: Hypomyces rosellus. Organism_taxid: 5132
1.70Å     R-factor:   0.177    
Authors: N.Ito,S.E.V.Phillips,P.F.Knowles
Key ref: N.Ito et al. (1991). Novel thioether bond revealed by a 1.7 A crystal structure of galactose oxidase. Nature, 350, 87-90. PubMed id: 2002850 DOI: 10.1038/350087a0
30-Sep-93     Release date:   31-Jan-94    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chain
P0CS93  (GAOA_GIBZA) -  Galactose oxidase
680 a.a.
639 a.a.
Key:    Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Enzyme reactions 
   Enzyme class: E.C.  - Galactose oxidase.
[IntEnz]   [ExPASy]   [KEGG]   [BRENDA]
      Reaction: D-galactose + O2 = D-galacto-hexodialdose + H2O2
+ O(2)
= D-galacto-hexodialdose
+ H(2)O(2)
      Cofactor: Copper
Molecule diagrams generated from .mol files obtained from the KEGG ftp site
 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     extracellular region   1 term 
  Biological process     cell adhesion   2 terms 
  Biochemical function     oxidoreductase activity     3 terms  


DOI no: 10.1038/350087a0 Nature 350:87-90 (1991)
PubMed id: 2002850  
Novel thioether bond revealed by a 1.7 A crystal structure of galactose oxidase.
N.Ito, S.E.Phillips, C.Stevens, Z.B.Ogel, M.J.McPherson, J.N.Keen, K.D.Yadav, P.F.Knowles.
Galactose oxidase is an extracellular enzyme secreted by the fungus Dactylium dendroides. It is monomeric, with a relative molecular mass of 68,000, catalyses the stereospecific oxidation of a broad range of primary alcohol substrates and possesses a unique mononuclear copper site essential for catalysing a two-electron transfer reaction during the oxidation of primary alcohols to corresponding aldehydes. Recent evidence arguing against a Cu(III)-Cu(I) couple implies the existence of a second redox-active site proposed to involve pyrroloquinoline quinone or a tyrosine radical. We now report the crystal structure of galactose oxidase at 1.7 A resolution. This reveals a unique structural feature at the copper site with a novel thioether bond linking Cys 228 and Tyr 272 in a stacking interaction with Trp 290. We propose that these molecular components stabilize the protein free-radical species essential for catalysis and thus provide a 'built-in' secondary cofactor. This feature may represent a new mechanism for mediating electron transfer in metalloenzymes in the absence of exogenous cofactors.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21283844 A.Mijovilovich, S.Hamman, F.Thomas, Groot, and B.M.Weckhuysen (2011).
Protonation of the oxygen axial ligand in galactose oxidase model compounds as seen with high resolution X-ray emission experiments and FEFF simulations.
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21055949 H.J.Kang, and E.N.Baker (2011).
Intramolecular isopeptide bonds: protein crosslinks built for stress?
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20195658 M.H.Stipanuk, C.R.Simmons, P.Andrew Karplus, and J.E.Dominy (2011).
Thiol dioxygenases: unique families of cupin proteins.
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20936199 V.L.Davidson (2011).
Generation of protein-derived redox cofactors by posttranslational modification.
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21077113 F.Aparecido Cordeiro, C.Bertechini Faria, and I.Parra Barbosa-Tessmann (2010).
Identification of new galactose oxidase genes in Fusarium spp.
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20820605 H.Arora, C.Philouze, O.Jarjayes, and F.Thomas (2010).
Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of a bipyridine bis-phenol conjugate: generation and properties of coordinated radical species.
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20372697 J.A.Worrall, and E.Vijgenboom (2010).
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20836876 O.Spadiut, L.Olsson, and H.Brumer (2010).
A comparative summary of expression systems for the recombinant production of galactose oxidase.
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20939100 S.Kalkhof, S.Haehn, M.Paulsson, N.Smyth, J.Meiler, and A.Sinz (2010).
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Engineering enzyme specificity using computational design of a defined-sequence library.
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19156277 F.Michel, S.Hamman, C.Philouze, C.P.Del Valle, E.Saint-Aman, and F.Thomas (2009).
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19290629 K.J.Humphreys, L.M.Mirica, Y.Wang, and J.P.Klinman (2009).
Galactose oxidase as a model for reactivity at a copper superoxide center.
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19107892 S.K.Alamsetti, S.Mannam, P.Mutupandi, and G.Sekar (2009).
Galactose oxidase model: biomimetic enantiomer-differentiating oxidation of alcohols by a chiral copper complex.
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19771344 Y.Shimazaki, M.Takani, and O.Yamauchi (2009).
Metal complexes of amino acids and amino acid side chain groups. Structures and properties.
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18478142 A.John, M.M.Shaikh, and P.Ghosh (2008).
Structural and functional mimic of galactose oxidase by a copper complex of a sterically demanding [N2O2] ligand.
  Dalton Trans, (), 2815-2824.  
18057969 D.Rokhsana, D.M.Dooley, and R.K.Szilagyi (2008).
Systematic development of computational models for the catalytic site in galactose oxidase: impact of outer-sphere residues on the geometric and electronic structures.
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18063573 E.Severi, A.Müller, J.R.Potts, A.Leech, D.Williamson, K.S.Wilson, and G.H.Thomas (2008).
Sialic acid mutarotation is catalyzed by the Escherichia coli beta-propeller protein YjhT.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 4841-4849.
PDB code: 2uvk
18330849 F.Escalettes, and N.J.Turner (2008).
Directed evolution of galactose oxidase: generation of enantioselective secondary alcohol oxidases.
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18308719 J.E.Dominy, J.Hwang, S.Guo, L.L.Hirschberger, S.Zhang, and M.H.Stipanuk (2008).
Synthesis of amino acid cofactor in cysteine dioxygenase is regulated by substrate and represents a novel post-translational regulation of activity.
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18384150 K.S.Aragão, M.Satre, A.Imberty, and A.Varrot (2008).
Structure determination of Discoidin II from Dictyostelium discoideum and carbohydrate binding properties of the lectin domain.
  Proteins, 73, 43-52.
PDB codes: 2vm9 2vmc 2vmd 2vme
18800132 L.Que, and W.B.Tolman (2008).
Biologically inspired oxidation catalysis.
  Nature, 455, 333-340.  
18771294 M.S.Rogers, R.Hurtado-Guerrero, S.J.Firbank, M.A.Halcrow, D.M.Dooley, S.E.Phillips, P.F.Knowles, and M.J.McPherson (2008).
Cross-link formation of the cysteine 228-tyrosine 272 catalytic cofactor of galactose oxidase does not require dioxygen.
  Biochemistry, 47, 10428-10439.
PDB codes: 2vz1 2vz3
18985252 M.Stylianou, C.Drouza, Z.Viskadourakis, J.Giapintzakis, and A.D.Keramidas (2008).
Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and aqueous solution characterization of p-hydroquinone and phenol iminodiacetate copper(II) complexes.
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17680689 T.J.Stevens, and M.Paoli (2008).
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18512952 Y.K.Lee, M.M.Whittaker, and J.W.Whittaker (2008).
The electronic structure of the Cys-Tyr(*) free radical in galactose oxidase determined by EPR spectroscopy.
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17786587 G.N.Phillips, B.G.Fox, J.L.Markley, B.F.Volkman, E.Bae, E.Bitto, C.A.Bingman, R.O.Frederick, J.G.McCoy, B.L.Lytle, B.S.Pierce, J.Song, and S.N.Twigger (2007).
Structures of proteins of biomedical interest from the Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics.
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17385891 M.S.Rogers, E.M.Tyler, N.Akyumani, C.R.Kurtis, R.K.Spooner, S.E.Deacon, S.Tamber, S.J.Firbank, K.Mahmoud, P.F.Knowles, S.E.Phillips, M.J.McPherson, and D.M.Dooley (2007).
The stacking tryptophan of galactose oxidase: a second-coordination sphere residue that has profound effects on tyrosyl radical behavior and enzyme catalysis.
  Biochemistry, 46, 4606-4618.
PDB codes: 2eib 2eic 2eid 2eie
17881826 N.Pletneva, V.Pletnev, T.Tikhonova, A.A.Pakhomov, V.Popov, V.I.Martynov, A.Wlodawer, Z.Dauter, and S.Pletnev (2007).
Refined crystal structures of red and green fluorescent proteins from the button polyp Zoanthus.
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PDB codes: 2icr 2ojk 2pxs 2pxw
17297517 O.Rotthaus, O.Jarjayes, F.Thomas, C.Philouze, E.Saint-Aman, and J.L.Pierre (2007).
Up to four phenoxyl radicals coordinated to two metal ions in copper and zinc complexes?
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17049906 S.Prag, A.De Arcangelis, E.Georges-Labouesse, and J.C.Adams (2007).
Regulation of post-translational modifications of muskelin by protein kinase C.
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17135237 S.Ye, X.Wu, L.Wei, D.Tang, P.Sun, M.Bartlam, and Z.Rao (2007).
An insight into the mechanism of human cysteine dioxygenase. Key roles of the thioether-bonded tyrosine-cysteine cofactor.
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PDB code: 2ic1
16820482 A.Vanden Wymelenberg, G.Sabat, M.Mozuch, P.J.Kersten, D.Cullen, and R.A.Blanchette (2006).
Structure, organization, and transcriptional regulation of a family of copper radical oxidase genes in the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
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16611640 C.R.Simmons, Q.Liu, Q.Huang, Q.Hao, T.P.Begley, P.A.Karplus, and M.H.Stipanuk (2006).
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PDB codes: 2b5h 2gh2
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The interaction of a carbohydrate-binding module from a Clostridium perfringens N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase with its carbohydrate receptor.
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PDB codes: 2j1a 2j1e 2j1f 2j7m
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Characterization of a binary tandem domain F-type lectin from striped bass (Morone saxatilis).
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17024269 F.Michel, S.Hamman, F.Thomas, C.Philouze, I.Gautier-Luneau, and J.L.Pierre (2006).
Galactose Oxidase models: 19F NMR as a powerful tool to study the solution chemistry of tripodal ligands in the presence of copper(II).
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16936929 I.A.Koval, P.Gamez, C.Belle, K.Selmeczi, and J.Reedijk (2006).
Synthetic models of the active site of catechol oxidase: mechanistic studies.
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16492780 J.G.McCoy, L.J.Bailey, E.Bitto, C.A.Bingman, D.J.Aceti, B.G.Fox, and G.N.Phillips (2006).
Structure and mechanism of mouse cysteine dioxygenase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 3084-3089.
PDB code: 2atf
16923877 L.C.Fortier, A.Bransi, and S.Moineau (2006).
Genome sequence and global gene expression of Q54, a new phage species linking the 936 and c2 phage species of Lactococcus lactis.
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16770835 M.A.Hossain, F.Thomas, S.Hamman, E.Saint-Aman, D.Boturyn, P.Dumy, and J.L.Pierre (2006).
Cyclodecapeptides to mimic the radical site of tyrosyl-containing proteins.
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16810650 O.Rotthaus, F.Thomas, O.Jarjayes, C.Philouze, E.Saint-Aman, and J.L.Pierre (2006).
Valence tautomerism in octahedral and square-planar phenoxyl-nickel(II) complexes: are imino nitrogen atoms good friends?
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16218875 A.Berkessel, M.Dousset, S.Bulat, and K.Glaubitz (2005).
Combinatorial approaches to functional models for galactose oxidase.
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15578222 B.Leuthner, C.Aichinger, E.Oehmen, E.Koopmann, O.Müller, P.Müller, R.Kahmann, M.Bölker, and P.H.Schreier (2005).
A H2O2-producing glyoxal oxidase is required for filamentous growth and pathogenicity in Ustilago maydis.
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15580644 F.Michel, S.Torelli, F.Thomas, C.Duboc, C.Philouze, C.Belle, S.Hamman, E.Saint-Aman, and J.L.Pierre (2005).
An unprecedented bridging phenoxyl radical in dicopper(II) complexes: evidence for an s=3/2 spin state.
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15581887 I.I.Serysheva, S.L.Hamilton, W.Chiu, and S.J.Ludtke (2005).
Structure of Ca2+ release channel at 14 A resolution.
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15672184 I.J.Hewitt, J.K.Tang, N.T.Madhu, B.Pilawa, C.E.Anson, S.Brooker, and A.K.Powell (2005).
Iron(III) activation hits a [4 + 4] macrocycle.
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15741346 J.Song, R.C.Tyler, R.L.Wrobel, R.O.Frederick, F.C.Vojtek, W.B.Jeon, M.S.Lee, and J.L.Markley (2005).
Solution structure of At3g04780.1-des15, an Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog of the C-terminal domain of human thioredoxin-like protein.
  Protein Sci, 14, 1059-1063.
PDB code: 1xoy
15696544 M.D.Swain, and D.E.Benson (2005).
Geometric preferences of crosslinked protein-derived cofactors reveal a high propensity for near-sequence pairs.
  Proteins, 59, 64-71.  
15678420 M.Groll, M.Bochtler, H.Brandstetter, T.Clausen, and R.Huber (2005).
Molecular machines for protein degradation.
  Chembiochem, 6, 222-256.  
16218874 P.Chaudhuri, K.Wieghardt, T.Weyhermüller, T.K.Paine, S.Mukherjee, and C.Mukherjee (2005).
Biomimetic metal-radical reactivity: aerial oxidation of alcohols, amines, aminophenols and catechols catalyzed by transition metal complexes.
  Biol Chem, 386, 1023-1033.  
15840564 R.A.Ghiladi, G.M.Knudsen, K.F.Medzihradszky, and P.R.Ortiz de Montellano (2005).
The Met-Tyr-Trp cross-link in Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase (KatG): autocatalytic formation and effect on enzyme catalysis and spectroscopic properties.
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15917234 R.Schnell, T.Sandalova, U.Hellman, Y.Lindqvist, and G.Schneider (2005).
Siroheme- and [Fe4-S4]-dependent NirA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a sulfite reductase with a covalent Cys-Tyr bond in the active site.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 27319-27328.
PDB codes: 1zj8 1zj9
15854824 S.Shleev, J.Tkac, A.Christenson, T.Ruzgas, A.I.Yaropolov, J.W.Whittaker, and L.Gorton (2005).
Direct electron transfer between copper-containing proteins and electrodes.
  Biosens Bioelectron, 20, 2517-2554.  
16030250 T.Harashima, and J.Heitman (2005).
Galpha subunit Gpa2 recruits kelch repeat subunits that inhibit receptor-G protein coupling during cAMP-induced dimorphic transitions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
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15465324 G.R.Vasta, H.Ahmed, and E.W.Odom (2004).
Structural and functional diversity of lectin repertoires in invertebrates, protochordates and ectothermic vertebrates.
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15317589 H.Danielsson Thorell, N.H.Beyer, N.H.Heegaard, M.Ohman, and T.Nilsson (2004).
Comparison of native and recombinant chlorite dismutase from Ideonella dechloratans.
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15299013 R.M.Vanacore, S.Shanmugasundararaj, D.B.Friedman, O.Bondar, B.G.Hudson, and M.Sundaramoorthy (2004).
The alpha1.alpha2 network of collagen IV. Reinforced stabilization of the noncollagenous domain-1 by noncovalent forces and the absence of Met-Lys cross-links.
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PDB codes: 1t60 1t61
15239055 S.E.Deacon, K.Mahmoud, R.K.Spooner, S.J.Firbank, P.F.Knowles, S.E.Phillips, and M.J.McPherson (2004).
Enhanced fructose oxidase activity in a galactose oxidase variant.
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PDB code: 2jkx
15583386 X.Li, D.Zhang, M.Hannink, and L.J.Beamer (2004).
Crystallization and initial crystallographic analysis of the Kelch domain from human Keap1.
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15475350 X.Li, D.Zhang, M.Hannink, and L.J.Beamer (2004).
Crystal structure of the Kelch domain of human Keap1.
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PDB code: 1u6d
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Crystal structure of the human neuropilin-1 b1 domain.
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PDB code: 1kex
12672814 M.M.Whittaker, and J.W.Whittaker (2003).
Cu(I)-dependent biogenesis of the galactose oxidase redox cofactor.
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12732625 M.Wimmerova, E.Mitchell, J.F.Sanchez, C.Gautier, and A.Imberty (2003).
Crystal structure of fungal lectin: six-bladed beta-propeller fold and novel fucose recognition mode for Aleuria aurantia lectin.
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PDB code: 1ofz
12429700 A.M.Hudson, and L.Cooley (2002).
Understanding the function of actin-binding proteins through genetic analysis of Drosophila oogenesis.
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12429703 C.M.Hull, and J.Heitman (2002).
Genetics of Cryptococcus neoformans.
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12437101 H.Brandstetter, J.S.Kim, M.Groll, P.Göttig, and R.Huber (2002).
Structural basis for the processive protein degradation by tricorn protease.
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12091873 M.A.Bianchet, E.W.Odom, G.R.Vasta, and L.M.Amzel (2002).
A novel fucose recognition fold involved in innate immunity.
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PDB code: 1k12
12134140 M.Kim, T.Okajima, S.Kishishita, M.Yoshimura, A.Kawamori, K.Tanizawa, and H.Yamaguchi (2002).
X-ray snapshots of quinone cofactor biogenesis in bacterial copper amine oxidase.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 591-596.
PDB codes: 1ivu 1ivv 1ivw 1ivx
11854274 U.Coskun, G.Grüber, M.H.Koch, J.Godovac-Zimmermann, T.Lemker, and V.Müller (2002).
Cross-talk in the A1-ATPase from Methanosarcina mazei Go1 due to nucleotide binding.
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11937049 Z.Jawad, and M.Paoli (2002).
Novel sequences propel familiar folds.
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12404359 E.I.Solomon, P.Chen, M.Metz, S.K.Lee, and A.E.Palmer (2001).
Oxygen Binding, Activation, and Reduction to Water by Copper Proteins.
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11719810 H.Brandstetter, J.S.Kim, M.Groll, and R.Huber (2001).
Crystal structure of the tricorn protease reveals a protein disassembly line.
  Nature, 414, 466-470.
PDB code: 1k32
11752422 J.P.Klinman (2001).
How many ways to craft a cofactor?
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11698675 L.Xie, and W.A.van der Donk (2001).
Homemade cofactors: self-processing in galactose oxidase.
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11180321 M.A.Halcrow (2001).
Chemically Modified Amino Acids in Copper Proteins That Bind or Activate Dioxygen The author acknowledges the Royal Society (London) for a University Research Fellowship.
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The solution structure of PapGII from uropathogenic Escherichia coli and its recognition of glycolipid receptors.
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11761329 S.Fukuzumi, and S.Itoh (2001).
Catalytic control of redox reactivities of coenzyme analogs by metal ions.
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11698678 S.J.Firbank, M.S.Rogers, C.M.Wilmot, D.M.Dooley, M.A.Halcrow, P.F.Knowles, M.J.McPherson, and S.E.Phillips (2001).
Crystal structure of the precursor of galactose oxidase: an unusual self-processing enzyme.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 12932-12937.
PDB code: 1k3i
10736169 B.Schwartz, J.E.Dove, and J.P.Klinman (2000).
Kinetic analysis of oxygen utilization during cofactor biogenesis in a copper-containing amine oxidase from yeast.
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10891502 C.A.Gomez, L.M.Ptaszek, A.Villa, F.Bozzi, C.Sobacchi, E.G.Brooks, L.D.Notarangelo, E.Spanopoulou, Z.Q.Pan, P.Vezzoni, P.Cortes, and S.Santagata (2000).
Mutations in conserved regions of the predicted RAG2 kelch repeats block initiation of V(D)J recombination and result in primary immunodeficiencies.
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10847687 D.C.Nelson, J.Lasswell, L.E.Rogg, M.A.Cohen, and B.Bartel (2000).
FKF1, a clock-controlled gene that regulates the transition to flowering in Arabidopsis.
  Cell, 101, 331-340.  
10655467 E.J.Neer, and T.F.Smith (2000).
A groovy new structure.
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10642183 M.J.Colaneri, J.Vitali, and J.Peisach (2000).
Electron spin-echo envelope modulation study of multicrystalline Cu(2+)-insulin: effects of Cd(2+) on the nuclear quadrupole interaction of the Cu(2+)-coordinated imidazole remote nitrogen.
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10903941 N.M.Okeley, and W.A.van der Donk (2000).
Novel cofactors via post-translational modifications of enzyme active sites.
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11080642 T.Kajander, P.C.Kahn, S.H.Passila, D.C.Cohen, L.Lehtiö, W.Adolfsen, J.Warwicker, U.Schell, and A.Goldman (2000).
Buried charged surface in proteins.
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PDB code: 1f9c
10742191 V.Mahadevan, R.K.Gebbink, and T.D.Stack (2000).
Biomimetic modeling of copper oxidase reactivity.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 4, 228-234.  
10556574 A.Durmus, C.Eicken, F.Spener, and B.Krebs (1999).
Cloning and comparative protein modeling of two purple acid phosphatase isozymes from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas).
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10612596 B.E.Turner, and B.P.Branchaud (1999).
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10607672 C.Eicken, B.Krebs, and J.C.Sacchettini (1999).
Catechol oxidase - structure and activity.
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10556561 D.A.Svistunenko, A.Rob, A.Ball, J.Torres, M.C.Symons, M.T.Wilson, and C.E.Cooper (1999).
The electron paramagnetic resonance characterisation of a copper-containing extracellular peroxidase from Thermomonospora fusca BD25.
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10226046 H.C.Liang, M.Dahan, and K.D.Karlin (1999).
Dioxygen-activating bio-inorganic model complexes.
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10228146 H.G.Beisel, S.Kawabata, S.Iwanaga, R.Huber, and W.Bode (1999).
Tachylectin-2: crystal structure of a specific GlcNAc/GalNAc-binding lectin involved in the innate immunity host defense of the Japanese horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus.
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PDB code: 1tl2
10194323 J.L.Johnson, D.C.Norcross, P.Arosio, R.B.Frankel, and G.D.Watt (1999).
Redox reactivity of animal apoferritins and apoheteropolymers assembled from recombinant heavy and light human chain ferritins.
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10601271 X.Huang, M.P.Cuajungco, C.S.Atwood, M.A.Hartshorn, J.D.Tyndall, G.R.Hanson, K.C.Stokes, M.Leopold, G.Multhaup, L.E.Goldstein, R.C.Scarpa, A.J.Saunders, J.Lim, R.D.Moir, C.Glabe, E.F.Bowden, C.L.Masters, D.P.Fairlie, R.E.Tanzi, and A.I.Bush (1999).
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Experimental support for a beta-propeller domain in integrin alpha-subunits and a calcium binding site on its lower surface.
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PDB code: 1a8x
9694833 D.P.Molloy, A.E.Milner, I.K.Yakub, G.Chinnadurai, P.H.Gallimore, and R.J.Grand (1998).
Structural determinants present in the C-terminal binding protein binding site of adenovirus early region 1A proteins.
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9693734 M.Karpefors, P.Adelroth, A.Aagaard, H.Sigurdson, M.Svensson Ek, and P.Brzezinski (1998).
Electron-proton interactions in terminal oxidases.
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Kinetic isotope effects as probes of the mechanism of galactose oxidase.
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Point mutations in the WD40 domain of Eed block its interaction with Ezh2.
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9566959 T.A.Kim, J.Lim, S.Ota, S.Raja, R.Rogers, B.Rivnay, H.Avraham, and S.Avraham (1998).
NRP/B, a novel nuclear matrix protein, associates with p110(RB) and is involved in neuronal differentiation.
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9846879 T.Klabunde, C.Eicken, J.C.Sacchettini, and B.Krebs (1998).
Crystal structure of a plant catechol oxidase containing a dicopper center.
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PDB codes: 1bt1 1bt2 1bt3 1bug
  9696811 T.Wolff, R.E.O'Neill, and P.Palese (1998).
NS1-Binding protein (NS1-BP): a novel human protein that interacts with the influenza A virus nonstructural NS1 protein is relocalized in the nuclei of infected cells.
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N-terminal arm exchange is observed in the 2.15 A crystal structure of oxidized nitrite reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
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PDB code: 1nir
9166791 J.M.Matthews, L.D.Ward, A.Hammacher, R.S.Norton, and R.J.Simpson (1997).
Roles of histidine 31 and tryptophan 34 in the structure, self-association, and folding of murine interleukin-6.
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Evolutionary conservation and predicted structure of the Drosophila extra sex combs repressor protein.
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Current limitations to protein threading approaches.
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Crystal structure of methyl-coenzyme M reductase: the key enzyme of biological methane formation.
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PDB code: 1mro
8889170 C.Ma, and B.A.Barry (1996).
Electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of tyrosine radical, M+, in site-directed mutants of photosystem II(t).
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How G proteins work: a continuing story.
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How coenzyme B12 radicals are generated: the crystal structure of methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase at 2 A resolution.
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PDB code: 1req
8679595 M.E.Anderson, and P.A.Lindahl (1996).
Spectroscopic states of the CO oxidation/CO2 reduction active site of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and mechanistic implications.
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Thiols as mechanistic probes for catalysis by the free radical enzyme galactose oxidase.
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A ligand field model for MCD spectra of biological cupric complexes.
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The structure of the G protein heterotrimer Gi alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2.
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PDB codes: 1gg2 1gp2
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Three-dimensional structure of the acrosomal filament of Limulus sperm by 400 kV electron cryomicroscopy.
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8591028 M.R.Parsons, M.A.Convery, C.M.Wilmot, K.D.Yadav, V.Blakeley, A.S.Corner, S.E.Phillips, M.J.McPherson, and P.F.Knowles (1995).
Crystal structure of a quinoenzyme: copper amine oxidase of Escherichia coli at 2 A resolution.
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PDB code: 1oac
8536678 R.J.Williams (1995).
Energised (entatic) states of groups and of secondary structures in proteins and metalloproteins.
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7876189 S.L.Edwards, V.L.Davidson, Y.L.Hyun, and P.T.Wingfield (1995).
Spectroscopic evidence for a common electron transfer pathway for two tryptophan tryptophylquinone enzymes.
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The role of redox-active amino acids in the photosynthetic water-oxidizing complex.
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New folds for all-beta proteins.
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8268003 J.Harder (1993).
Ribonucleotide reductases and their occurrence in microorganisms: a link to the RNA/DNA transition.
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Ligand interactions with galactose oxidase: mechanistic insights.
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8346264 P.J.Kersten, and D.Cullen (1993).
Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding glyoxal oxidase, a H2O2-producing enzyme from the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
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Reactive species and their accumulation on radical-damaged proteins.
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Cloning, sequencing, expression, and regulation of the structural gene for the copper/topa quinone-containing methylamine oxidase from Arthrobacter strain P1, a gram-positive facultative methylotroph.
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Metal-binding sites in proteins.
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