PDBsum entry 1gnh

Go to PDB code: 
protein metals Protein-protein interface(s) links
Acute-phase protein PDB id
Protein chain
(+ 4 more) 206 a.a. *
_CA ×16
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Acute-phase protein
Title: Human c-reactive protein
Structure: C-reactive protein. Chain: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j. Synonym: human crp hcrp
Source: Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606
Biol. unit: Pentamer (from PQS)
3.00Å     R-factor:   0.239     R-free:   0.273
Authors: A.K.Shrive,G.M.T.Cheetham,D.Holden,D.A.Myles,W.G.Turnell, J.E.Volanakis,M.B.Pepys,A.C.Bloomer,T.J.Greenhough
Key ref: A.K.Shrive et al. (1996). Three dimensional structure of human C-reactive protein. Nat Struct Biol, 3, 346-354. PubMed id: 8599761
01-Mar-96     Release date:   27-Jan-97    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P02741  (CRP_HUMAN) -  C-reactive protein
224 a.a.
206 a.a.
Key:    PfamA domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     extracellular region   5 terms 
  Biological process     cellular response to calcium ion   15 terms 
  Biochemical function     protein binding     9 terms  


Nat Struct Biol 3:346-354 (1996)
PubMed id: 8599761  
Three dimensional structure of human C-reactive protein.
A.K.Shrive, G.M.Cheetham, D.Holden, D.A.Myles, W.G.Turnell, J.E.Volanakis, M.B.Pepys, A.C.Bloomer, T.J.Greenhough.
The structure of the classical acute phase reactant human C-reactive protein provides evidence that phosphocholine binding is mediated through calcium and a hydrophobic pocket centred on Phe 66. The residue Glu 81 is suitably positioned to interact with the choline group. A cleft on the pentameric face opposite to that containing the calcium site may have an important functional role. The structure provides insights into the molecular mechanisms by which this highly conserved plasma protein, for which no polymorphism or deficiency state is known, may exert its biological role.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21440634 H.Dortay, S.M.Schmöckel, J.Fettke, and B.Mueller-Roeber (2011).
Expression of human c-reactive protein in different systems and its purification from Leishmania tarentolae.
  Protein Expr Purif, 78, 55-60.  
19903811 A.I.Okemefuna, L.Stach, S.Rana, A.J.Buetas, J.Gor, and S.J.Perkins (2010).
C-reactive protein exists in an NaCl concentration-dependent pentamer-decamer equilibrium in physiological buffer.
  J Biol Chem, 285, 1041-1052.  
19850925 A.I.Okemefuna, R.Nan, A.Miller, J.Gor, and S.J.Perkins (2010).
Complement factor H binds at two independent sites to C-reactive protein in acute phase concentrations.
  J Biol Chem, 285, 1053-1065.  
19968561 B.Bottazzi, A.Doni, C.Garlanda, and A.Mantovani (2010).
An integrated view of humoral innate immunity: pentraxins as a paradigm.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 28, 157-183.  
20364851 M.R.Mackiewicz, H.L.Hodges, and S.M.Reed (2010).
C-reactive protein induced rearrangement of phosphatidylcholine on nanoparticle mimics of lipoprotein particles.
  J Phys Chem B, 114, 5556-5562.  
20842713 O.Pible, C.Vidaud, S.Plantevin, J.L.Pellequer, and E.Quéméneur (2010).
Predicting the disruption by UO2(2+) of a protein-ligand interaction.
  Protein Sci, 19, 2219-2230.  
19627123 M.Yamada, P.Mao, J.Fu, and J.Han (2009).
Rapid quantification of disease-marker proteins using continuous-flow immunoseparation in a nanosieve fluidic device.
  Anal Chem, 81, 7067-7074.  
19545552 S.K.Singh, M.V.Suresh, D.J.Hammond, A.E.Rusiñol, L.A.Potempa, and A.Agrawal (2009).
Binding of the monomeric form of C-reactive protein to enzymatically-modified low-density lipoprotein: effects of phosphoethanolamine.
  Clin Chim Acta, 406, 151-155.  
19425005 Y.N.Peng, Y.L.Ho, C.Y.Wu, and M.Y.Liu (2009).
Investigation of C-reactive protein binding to phosphatidyl choline by CZE and ESI-mass analysis.
  Electrophoresis, 30, 1564-1571.  
19075776 A.Agrawal, M.V.Suresh, S.K.Singh, and D.A.Ferguson (2008).
The protective function of human C-reactive protein in mouse models of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection.
  Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets, 8, 231-237.  
18066708 A.Bini, S.Centi, S.Tombelli, M.Minunni, and M.Mascini (2008).
Development of an optical RNA-based aptasensor for C-reactive protein.
  Anal Bioanal Chem, 390, 1077-1086.  
19011614 J.Lu, L.L.Marnell, K.D.Marjon, C.Mold, T.W.Du Clos, and P.D.Sun (2008).
Structural recognition and functional activation of FcgammaR by innate pentraxins.
  Nature, 456, 989-992.
PDB code: 3d5o
18412163 K.Tron, D.E.Manolov, C.Röcker, M.Kächele, J.Torzewski, and G.U.Nienhaus (2008).
C-reactive protein specifically binds to Fcgamma receptor type I on a macrophage-like cell line.
  Eur J Immunol, 38, 1414-1422.  
18764931 M.M.Turu, M.Slevin, S.Matou, D.West, C.Rodríguez, A.Luque, M.Grau-Olivares, L.Badimon, J.Martinez-Gonzalez, and J.Krupinski (2008).
C-reactive protein exerts angiogenic effects on vascular endothelial cells and modulates associated signalling pathways and gene expression.
  BMC Cell Biol, 9, 47.  
18195032 R.Casey, J.Newcombe, J.McFadden, and K.B.Bodman-Smith (2008).
The acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein binds to phosphorylcholine-expressing Neisseria meningitidis and increases uptake by human phagocytes.
  Infect Immun, 76, 1298-1304.  
18786923 S.Hakobyan, C.L.Harris, C.W.van den Berg, M.C.Fernandez-Alonso, Jorge, Cordoba, G.Rivas, P.Mangione, M.B.Pepys, and B.P.Morgan (2008).
Complement Factor H Binds to Denatured Rather than to Native Pentameric C-reactive Protein.
  J Biol Chem, 283, 30451-30460.  
  18322245 S.K.Singh, M.V.Suresh, D.C.Prayther, J.P.Moorman, A.E.Rusiñol, and A.Agrawal (2008).
C-reactive protein-bound enzymatically modified low-density lipoprotein does not transform macrophages into foam cells.
  J Immunol, 180, 4316-4322.  
18486609 S.K.Singh, M.V.Suresh, D.C.Prayther, J.P.Moorman, A.E.Rusiñol, and A.Agrawal (2008).
Phosphoethanolamine-complexed C-reactive protein: a pharmacological-like macromolecule that binds to native low-density lipoprotein in human serum.
  Clin Chim Acta, 394, 94-98.  
17163961 K.E.Taylor, and C.W.van den Berg (2007).
Structural and functional comparison of native pentameric, denatured monomeric and biotinylated C-reactive protein.
  Immunology, 120, 404-411.  
17553797 V.M.Leppänen, H.Tossavainen, P.Permi, L.Lehtiö, G.Rönnholm, A.Goldman, I.Kilpelaïnen, and T.Pihlajamaa (2007).
Crystal structure of the N-terminal NC4 domain of collagen IX, a zinc binding member of the laminin-neurexin-sex hormone binding globulin (LNS) domain family.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 23219-23230.
PDB code: 2uur
16984505 D.Thalmaier, J.Dambacher, J.Seiderer, A.Konrad, V.Schachinger, S.Pfennig, J.M.Otte, A.Crispin, B.Göke, T.Ochsenkühn, P.Lohse, and S.Brand (2006).
The +1059G/C polymorphism in the C-reactive protein (CRP) gene is associated with involvement of the terminal ileum and decreased serum CRP levels in patients with Crohn's disease.
  Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 24, 1105-1115.  
16582918 K.Chen, F.Li, J.Li, H.Cai, S.Strom, A.Bisello, D.E.Kelley, M.Friedman-Einat, G.A.Skibinski, M.A.McCrory, A.J.Szalai, and A.Z.Zhao (2006).
Induction of leptin resistance through direct interaction of C-reactive protein with leptin.
  Nat Med, 12, 425-432.  
16897175 R.T.Lee, and Y.C.Lee (2006).
Carbohydrate ligands of human C-reactive protein: binding of neoglycoproteins containing galactose-6-phosphate and galactose-terminated disaccharide.
  Glycoconj J, 23, 317-327.  
16510273 S.Lin, C.K.Lee, Y.M.Wang, L.S.Huang, Y.H.Lin, S.Y.Lee, B.C.Sheu, and S.M.Hsu (2006).
Measurement of dimensions of pentagonal doughnut-shaped C-reactive protein using an atomic force microscope and a dual polarisation interferometric biosensor.
  Biosens Bioelectron, 22, 323-327.  
15771574 C.Garlanda, B.Bottazzi, A.Bastone, and A.Mantovani (2005).
Pentraxins at the crossroads between innate immunity, inflammation, matrix deposition, and female fertility.
  Annu Rev Immunol, 23, 337-366.  
15474978 R.M.Heuertz, G.P.Schneider, L.A.Potempa, and R.O.Webster (2005).
Native and modified C-reactive protein bind different receptors on human neutrophils.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 37, 320-335.  
15207504 C.Gaboriaud, N.M.Thielens, L.A.Gregory, V.Rossi, J.C.Fontecilla-Camps, and G.J.Arlaud (2004).
Structure and activation of the C1 complex of complement: unraveling the puzzle.
  Trends Immunol, 25, 368-373.  
15660574 E.Lacson, and N.W.Levin (2004).
C-reactive protein and end-stage renal disease.
  Semin Dial, 17, 438-448.  
15456743 M.V.Suresh, S.K.Singh, and A.Agrawal (2004).
Interaction of calcium-bound C-reactive protein with fibronectin is controlled by pH: in vivo implications.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 52552-52557.  
15364058 U.Kishore, C.Gaboriaud, P.Waters, A.K.Shrive, T.J.Greenhough, K.B.Reid, R.B.Sim, and G.J.Arlaud (2004).
C1q and tumor necrosis factor superfamily: modularity and versatility.
  Trends Immunol, 25, 551-561.  
12960167 C.Gaboriaud, J.Juanhuix, A.Gruez, M.Lacroix, C.Darnault, D.Pignol, D.Verger, J.C.Fontecilla-Camps, and G.J.Arlaud (2003).
The crystal structure of the globular head of complement protein C1q provides a basis for its versatile recognition properties.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 46974-46982.
PDB code: 1pk6
12652322 D.P.Chimento, A.K.Mohanty, R.J.Kadner, and M.C.Wiener (2003).
Substrate-induced transmembrane signaling in the cobalamin transporter BtuB.
  Nat Struct Biol, 10, 394-401.
PDB codes: 1nqe 1nqf 1nqg 1nqh
12895424 D.Xu, C.Hopf, R.Reddy, R.W.Cho, L.Guo, A.Lanahan, R.S.Petralia, R.J.Wenthold, R.J.O'Brien, and P.Worley (2003).
Narp and NP1 form heterocomplexes that function in developmental and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity.
  Neuron, 39, 513-528.  
12663792 L.Balakireva, G.Schoehn, E.Thouvenin, and J.Chroboczek (2003).
Binding of adenovirus capsid to dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine provides a novel pathway for virus entry.
  J Virol, 77, 4858-4866.  
12383205 K.B.Bodman-Smith, A.J.Melendez, I.Campbell, P.T.Harrison, J.M.Allen, and J.G.Raynes (2002).
C-reactive protein-mediated phagocytosis and phospholipase D signalling through the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin G (FcgammaRI).
  Immunology, 107, 252-260.  
11985720 L.Serino, and M.Virji (2002).
Genetic and functional analysis of the phosphorylcholine moiety of commensal Neisseria lipopolysaccharide.
  Mol Microbiol, 43, 437-448.  
11684681 R.T.Lee, I.Takagahara, and Y.C.Lee (2002).
Mapping the binding areas of human C-reactive protein for phosphorylcholine and polycationic compounds. Relationship between the two types of binding sites.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 225-232.  
12198121 T.Khreiss, L.József, S.Hossain, J.S.Chan, L.A.Potempa, and J.G.Filep (2002).
Loss of pentameric symmetry of C-reactive protein is associated with delayed apoptosis of human neutrophils.
  J Biol Chem, 277, 40775-40781.  
10632893 E.Lysenko, J.C.Richards, A.D.Cox, A.Stewart, A.Martin, M.Kapoor, and J.N.Weiser (2000).
The position of phosphorylcholine on the lipopolysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae affects binding and sensitivity to C-reactive protein-mediated killing.
  Mol Microbiol, 35, 234-245.  
10353470 A.J.Szalai, A.Agrawal, T.J.Greenhough, and J.E.Volanakis (1999).
C-reactive protein: structural biology and host defense function.
  Clin Chem Lab Med, 37, 265-270.  
10491075 D.Iwaki, T.Osaki, Y.Mizunoe, S.N.Wai, S.Iwanaga, and S.Kawabata (1999).
Functional and structural diversities of C-reactive proteins present in horseshoe crab hemolymph plasma.
  Eur J Biochem, 264, 314-326.  
10368284 D.Thompson, M.B.Pepys, and S.P.Wood (1999).
The physiological structure of human C-reactive protein and its complex with phosphocholine.
  Structure, 7, 169-177.
PDB code: 1b09
10446179 H.C.Krutzsch, B.J.Choe, J.M.Sipes, N.Guo, and D.D.Roberts (1999).
Identification of an alpha(3)beta(1) integrin recognition sequence in thrombospondin-1.
  J Biol Chem, 274, 24080-24086.  
10449379 J.A.Glomset (1999).
Protein-lipid interactions on the surfaces of cell membranes.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 9, 425-427.  
9876145 S.F.Sui, Y.T.Sun, and L.Z.Mi (1999).
Calcium-dependent binding of rabbit C-reactive protein to supported lipid monolayers containing exposed phosphorylcholine group.
  Biophys J, 76, 333-341.  
10426430 S.Kawabata, and S.Iwanaga (1999).
Role of lectins in the innate immunity of horseshoe crab.
  Dev Comp Immunol, 23, 391-400.  
9877434 I.Paul, C.Mandal, and C.Mandal (1998).
Effect of environmental pollutants on the C-reactive protein of a freshwater major carp, Catla catla.
  Dev Comp Immunol, 22, 519-532.  
9924810 J.J.Kresl, L.A.Potempa, and B.E.Anderson (1998).
Conversion of native oligomeric to a modified monomeric form of human C-reactive protein.
  Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 30, 1415-1426.  
9212359 A.J.Szalai, A.Agrawal, T.J.Greenhough, and J.E.Volanakis (1997).
C-reactive protein: structural biology, gene expression, and host defense function.
  Immunol Res, 16, 127-136.  
9057819 H.J.Gabius (1997).
Animal lectins.
  Eur J Biochem, 243, 543-576.  
9199807 L.Z.Mi, H.W.Wang, and S.F.Sui (1997).
Interaction of rabbit C-reactive protein with phospholipid monolayers studied by microfluorescence film balance with an externally applied electric field.
  Biophys J, 73, 446-451.  
9388206 T.Saito, M.Hatada, S.Iwanaga, and S.Kawabata (1997).
A newly identified horseshoe crab lectin with binding specificity to O-antigen of bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
  J Biol Chem, 272, 30703-30708.  
8962033 T.L.Blundell, and N.Srinivasan (1996).
Symmetry, stability, and dynamics of multidomain and multicomponent protein systems.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 14243-14248.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB code is shown on the right.